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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150482/effect-of-mammography-screening-on-mortality-by-histological-grade
#1
Laszlo Tabar, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, May Ms Ku, Wendy Yi-Ying Wu, Chen-Yang Hsu, Yu-Ying Chen, Kerri Beckmann, Robert A Smith, Stephen W Duffy
BACKGROUND: It has been asserted that mammography screening preferentially benefits those with less aggressive cancers, with lesser or no impact on more rapidly progressing and therefore more life-threatening tumours. METHODS: We utilized data from the Swedish Two-County Trial, which randomized 77,080 women aged 40-74 to invitation to screening and 55,985 for usual care. We tabulated cancers by histological grade and then compared mortality from cancers specific to histological grade between the invited and control group using Poisson regression, with specific interest in the effect on mortality from grade 3 cancers...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150481/identification-of-pleiotropic-cancer-susceptibility-variants-from-genome-wide-association-studies-reveals-functional-characteristics
#2
Yi-Hsuan Wu, Rebecca E Graff, Michael N Passarelli, Joshua D Hoffman, Elad Ziv, Thomas J Hoffmann, John S Witte
BACKGROUND: There exists compelling evidence that some genetic variants are associated with the risk of multiple cancer sites (i.e., pleiotropy). However, the biological mechanisms through which the pleiotropic variants operate are unclear. METHODS: We obtained all cancer risk associations from the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute GWAS Catalog, and correlated cancer risk variants were clustered into groups. Pleiotropic variant groups and genes were functionally annotated...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150480/effect-of-time-to-diagnostic-testing-for-breast-cervical-and-colorectal-cancer-screening-abnormalities-on-screening-efficacy-a-modeling-study
#3
Carolyn M Rutter, Jane J Kim, Reinier G S Meester, Brian L Sprague, Emily A Burger, Ann G Zauber, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Nicole G Campos, Chyke A Doubeni, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Stephen Sy, Oguz Alagoz, Natasha Stout, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Douglas A Corley, Anna Tosteson
BACKGROUND: Patients who receive an abnormal cancer screening result require follow-up for diagnostic testing, but the time to follow-up varies across patients and practices. METHODS: We used a simulation study to estimate the change in lifetime screening benefits when time to follow-up for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers was increased. Estimates were based on four independently developed microsimulation models that each simulated the life course of adults eligible for breast (women aged 50-74 years), cervical (women aged 21-65 years), or colorectal (adults aged 50-75 years) cancer screening...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141854/a-p53-deficiency-gene-signature-predicts-recurrence-risk-of-patients-with-early-stage-lung-adenocarcinoma
#4
Yanding Zhao, Frederick S Varn, Guoshuai Cai, Feifei Xiao, Christopher I Amos, Chao Cheng
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is associated with the highest mortality rate of all cancer types, and the most common histological subtype of lung cancer is adenocarcinoma. In order to apply more effective therapeutic treatment, molecular markers that are able to predict the recurrence risk of patients with adenocarcinoma are critically needed. Mutations in TP53 tumor suppressor gene have been found in approximately 50% of lung adenocarcinoma cases, but the presence of a TP53 mutation does not always associate with increased mortality...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141853/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-on-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-prognosis-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-randomized-trials
#5
Kerri Winters-Stone, Lisa J Wood, Sydnee Stoyles, Nathan Dieckmann
BACKGROUND: Using a secondary data analysis from randomized controlled trials comparing one year of resistance exercise (N=109) to a placebo control condition (N=106) in postmenopausal, post-treatment breast cancer survivors, we investigated the influence of resistance training and changes in body composition on markers associated with cancer progression. METHODS: Measures included serum levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP1-3, leptin, serum amyloid A (SAA), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and body composition (total, lean and fat mass in kg) by DXA at baseline, 6, and 12-months...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141852/collagen-alignment-as-a-predictor-of-recurrence-after-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#6
Matthew W Conklin, Ronald E Gangnon, Brian L Sprague, Lisa van Germert, John M Hampton, Kevin W Eliceiri, Jeremy S Bredfeldt, Yuming Liu, Nuntida Surachaicharn, Polly A Newcomb, Andreas Friedl, Patricia Keely, Amy Trentham-Dietz
BACKGROUND: Collagen fibers surrounding breast ducts may influence breast cancer progression. Syndecan-1 interacts with constituents in the extracellular matrix, including collagen fibers, and may contribute to cancer cell migration. Thus, the orientation of collagen fibers surrounding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions and stromal syndecan-1 expression may predict recurrence. METHODS: We evaluated collagen fiber alignment and syndecan-1 expression in 227 women diagnosed with DCIS in 1995-2006 followed through 2014 (median 14...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141851/a-review-of-physical-activity-and-circulating-mirna-expression-implications-in-cancer-risk-and-progression
#7
Suzanne Dufresne, Amélie Rebillard, Paola Muti, Christine M Friedenreich, Darren R Brenner
The role of circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) in carcinogenesis has garnered considerable scientific interest. MiRNAs may contribute actively to cancer development and progression, making them potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) have been shown to alter c-miRNAs expression but the subsequent impact on cancer risk and prognosis is unknown. To provide a better understanding of how PA reduces the risk of cancer incidence and improves patient outcomes, we conducted a review of the impact of PA on c-miRNAs expression, which includes a comprehensive synthesis of studies examining the impacts of acute and chronic exercise on expression of c-miRNAs...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141850/autoantibodies-against-hsf1-and-ccdc155-as-biomarkers-of-early-stage-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#8
Amy L Wilson, Laura R Moffitt, Nadine Duffield, Adam Rainczuk, Tom W Jobling, Magdalena Plebanski, Andrew N Stephens
BACKGROUND: Tumor-directed circulating autoantibodies (AAbs) are a well-established feature of many solid tumor types, and are often observed prior to clinical disease manifestation. As such, they may provide a good indicator of early disease development. We have conducted a pilot study to identify novel AAbs as markers of early stage HGSOCs. METHODS: A rare cohort of patients with early (FIGO stage Ia-c) HGSOCs for IgG, IgA and IgM-mediated AAb reactivity using high content protein arrays (containing 9184 individual proteins)...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141849/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-oligomenorrhea-and-risk-of-ovarian-cancer-histotypes-evidence-from-the-ovarian-cancer-association-consortium
#9
Holly R Harris, Ana Babic, Penelope M Webb, Christina M Nagle, Susan J Jordan, Harvey A Risch, Mary Anne Rossing, Jennifer A Doherty, Marc T Goodman, Francesmary Modugno, Roberta B Ness, Kirsten B Moysich, Susanne K Kjaer, Estrid Høgdall, Allan Jensen, Joellen M Schildkraut, Andrew Berchuck, Daniel W Cramer, Elisa V Bandera, Nicolas Wentzensen, Joanne Kotsopoulos, Steven A Narod, Catherine M Phelan, John R McLaughlin, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Anna H Wu, Kathryn L Terry
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one if its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely been examined by ovarian cancer histotypes which may explain the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer (n=13,719) or borderline ovarian disease (n=2,875) and 17,718 controls...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141848/myc-overexpression-at-the-protein-and-mrna-level-and-cancer-outcomes-among-men-treated-with-radical-prostatectomy-for-prostate-cancer
#10
Andreas Pettersson, Travis Gerke, Kathryn L Penney, Rosina T Lis, Edward C Stack, Nelma Pértega-Gomes, Giorgia Zadra, Svitlana Tyekucheva, Edward L Giovannucci, Lorelei A Mucci, Massimo Loda
BACKGROUND: The proto-oncogene MYC is implicated in prostate cancer progression. Whether MYC tumor expression at the protein or mRNA level is associated with poorer prognosis has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study including 634 men from the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in 1983-2004 and followed-up for a median of 13.7 years. MYC protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, and we used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of its association with lethal prostate cancer (distant metastases/prostate cancer death)...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133367/regulatory-t-cell-genes-drive-altered-immune-microenvironment-in-adult-solid-cancers-and-allow-for-immune-contextual-patient-subtyping
#11
Jurriaan Brouwer-Visser, Wei-Yi Cheng, Anna Bauer-Mehren, Daniela Maisel, Katharina Lechner, Emilia Andersson, Joel T Dudley, Francesca Milletti
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment is an important factor in cancer immunotherapy response. To further understand how a tumor affects the local immune system, we analyzed immune gene expression differences between matching normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: We analyzed public and new gene expression data from solid cancers and isolated immune cell populations. We also determined the correlation between CD8, FoxP3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and our gene signatures...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133366/lifestyle-and-reproductive-factors-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-by-p53-and-mapk-expression
#12
Holly R Harris, Megan S Rice, Amy L Shafrir, Elizabeth M Poole, Mamta Gupta, Jonathan L Hecht, Kathryn L Terry, Shelley S Tworoger
BACKGROUND: One model of ovarian cancer development model divides tumors into two types. Type I tumors are characterized by KRAS and BRAF mutations, which can activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Type II tumors are characterized by tubal precursor lesions with p53 mutations. We evaluated the association between lifestyle and reproductive factors and risk of ovarian cancer defined by p53 and MAPK expression. METHODS: Epithelial ovarian cancer cases (n=274) and controls (n=1907) were identified from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII prospective cohorts, and the population-based New England Case-Control study...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133365/pre-diagnostic-smoking-is-associated-with-binary-and-quantitative-measures-of-er-protein-and-esr1-mrna-expression-in-breast-tumors
#13
Eboneé N Butler, Jeannette T Bensen, Mengjie Chen, Kathleen Conway, David B Richardson, Xuezheng Sun, Joseph Geradts, Andrew F Olshan, Melissa A Troester
Introduction Smoking is a possible risk factor for breast cancer and has been linked to increased risk of estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) disease in some epidemiologic studies. It is unknown whether smoking has quantitative effects on ER expression. Methods We examined relationships between smoking and ER expression from tumors of 1,888 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from a population-based study in North Carolina. ER expression was characterized using binary (+/-) and continuous measures for ER protein, ESR1 mRNA, and a multigene luminal score (LS) that serves as a measure of estrogen signaling in breast tumors...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127080/a-naturalistic-randomized-pilot-trial-of-e-cigarettes-uptake-exposure-and-behavioral-effects
#14
Matthew Carpenter, Bryan W Heckman, Amy E Wahlquist, Theodore L Wagener, Maciej L Goniewicz, Kevin M Gray, Brett Froeliger, K Michael Cummings
Background Most studies of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) compare self-selected users vs. non-users. The few randomized studies to date generally support a positive impact on reducing smoking behavior, but these studies are focused on guided ENDS use. This study presents a randomized naturalistic trial of ENDS with prospective outcomes of uptake and behavioral changes in smoking. Methods Adult smokers with minimal ENDS history were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive product for 3 weeks (n=46), or not (n=22)...
November 10, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097445/diabetes-and-overall-survival-among-breast-cancer-patients-in-the-us-military-health-system
#15
Stephanie Shao, Abegail A Gill, Shelia H Zahm, Ismail Jatoi, Craig D Shriver, Katherine A McGlynn, Kangmin Zhu
BACKGROUND: While research suggests that type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) is associated with overall and breast cancer-specific decreased survival, most prior studies of breast cancer survival investigated the effect of pre-existing DM-2 without assessing the effect of DM-2 diagnosed at or after breast cancer diagnosis. This study examined the relationship between DM-2 diagnosed before and after breast cancer diagnosis and overall survival. METHODS: This study uses linked Department of Defense cancer registry and medical claims data from 9,398 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1998 and 2007...
November 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097444/razor-a-phase-ii-open-randomized-trial-of-screening-plus-goserelin-and-raloxifene-versus-screening-alone-in-pre-menopausal-women-at-increased-risk-of-breast-cancer
#16
Anthony Howell, Linda Ashcroft, Lesley Fallowfield, Diana M Eccles, Rosalind A Eeles, Ann Ward, Adam R Brentnall, Mitchell Dowsett, Jack M Cuzick, Rosemary Greenhalgh, Caroline Boggis, Jamie Motion, Jamie C Sergeant, Judith Adams, D Gareth R Evans
BACKGROUND: Ovarian suppression in premenopausal women is known to reduce breast cancer risk. This study aimed to assess uptake and compliance with ovarian suppression using the LHRH analogue, goserelin, with add-back raloxifene, as a potential regimen for breast cancer prevention. METHODS: Women at ≥30% lifetime risk breast cancer were approached and randomized to mammographic screening alone(C-Control) or screening in addition to monthly subcutaneous injections of 3...
November 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830874/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-vitamin-d-related-genes-may-modify-vitamin-d-breast-cancer-associations
#17
Katie M O'Brien, Dale P Sandler, H Karimi Kinyamu, Jack A Taylor, Clarice R Weinberg
BACKGROUND: We previously observed that high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (>38.0 ng/mL) was inversely associated with breast cancer. Here, we examined effect modification by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D-related genes. METHODS: The Sister Study enrolled 50,884 US women who had a sister with breast cancer, but who had never had breast cancer themselves. Using a case-cohort design, we compared 1,524 women who developed breast cancer within 5 years to 1,810 randomly selected participants...
October 25, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054978/breast-cancer-in-latinas-a-focus-on-intrinsic-subtypes-distribution
#18
Silvia J Serrano-Gómez, Laura Fejerman, Jovanny Zabaleta
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women worldwide. It is classified into intrinsic subtypes characterized by different molecular profiles and prognosis. The prevalence of the different intrinsic subtypes varies between population groups. Immunohistochemistry surrogates based on the expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have been widely used to study the distribution of intrinsic subtypes in Non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans, but data is limited for Hispanic/Latina women...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042415/long-term-effects-of-weight-loss-exercise-on-biomarkers-associated-with-angiogenesis
#19
Catherine Duggan, Jean de Dieu Tapsoba, Ching-Yun Wang, Karen E Foster-Schubert, Anne McTiernan
BACKGROUND: We tested the effect of weight-loss on circulating levels of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in postmenopausal overweight/obese women, 18 months after completing a year-long 4-arm randomized controlled trial of behavioral weight-loss and/or exercise vs. control (i.e., 30-months post-randomization). METHODS: 439 overweight/obese, postmenopausal women, 50-75 years, were randomized to: diet (goal: 10% weight-loss, N=118), exercise (225 min/week moderate-to-vigorous activity, N=117), diet+exercise (N=117), or control (N=87)...
October 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021217/impact-of-patient-provider-race-ethnicity-and-gender-concordance-on-cancer-screening-findings-from-medical-expenditure-panel-survey
#20
Jyoti Malhotra, David Rotter, Jennifer Tsui, Adana A M Llanos, Bijal A Balasubramanian, Kitaw Demissie
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minorities experience lower rates of cancer screening compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Previous studies evaluating the role of patient-provider race, ethnicity or gender concordance in cancer screening have been inconclusive. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), data from 2003-2010 was assessed for associations between patient-provider race, ethnicity and/or gender concordance and, screening (American Cancer Society guidelines) for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
October 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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