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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710077/tobacco-product-use-patterns-nicotine-and-tobacco-specific-nitrosamine-exposure-nhanes-1999-2012
#1
Kelvin Choi, Melanie Sabado, Sherine El-Toukhy, Emily Vogtmann, Neal D Freedman, Dorothy K Hatsukami
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined differences in product consumption patterns and nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) exposure between single versus dual and poly-tobacco users. We applied the Tobacco Product Use Patterns (T-PUPs) model to fill this gap in the literature. METHODS: Data from adults (aged >18 years) who used any tobacco products during the five days prior to participating in the 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710076/opportunities-and-challenges-for-environmental-exposure-assessment-in-population-based-studies
#2
Chirag J Patel, Jacqueline Kerr, Duncan C Thomas, Bhramar Mukherjee, Beate Ritz, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Marta M Jankowska, Juliette Madan, Margaret R Karagas, Kimberly A McAllister, Leah E Mechanic, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Ian A Blair, Susan L Teiltelbaum, Christopher I Amos
BACKGROUND: A growing number and increasing diversity of factors are available for epidemiological studies. These measures provide new avenues for discovery and prevention yet they also raise many challenges for adoption in epidemiological investigations. METHODS: We evaluate 1) designs to investigate diseases that consider heterogeneous and multi-dimensional indicators of exposure and behavior, 2) the implementation of numerous methods to capture indicators of exposure, and 3) the analytical methods required for discovery and validation...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710075/the-cost-effectiveness-of-visual-triage-of-human-papillomavirus-positive-women-in-three-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Nicole G Campos, Jose Jeronimo, Vivien Tsu, Philip E Castle, Mercy Mvundura, Jane J Kim
BACKGROUND: World Health guidelines support HPV testing alone (followed by treatment with cryotherapy) or in conjunction with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) triage testing. Our objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of VIA triage for HPV-positive women in low-resource settings. METHODS: We calibrated mathematical simulation models of HPV infection and cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from India, Nicaragua, and Uganda. Using cost and test performance data from the START-UP demonstration projects, we assumed screening took place either once or three times in a lifetime between ages 30 and 40 years...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698186/serum-insulin-glucose-indices-of-insulin-resistance-and-risk-of-lung-cancer
#4
Ilona Argirion, Stephanie J Weinstein, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Alison M Mondul
BACKGROUND: Although insulin may increase risk of some cancers, few studies have examined fasting serum insulin and lung cancer risk. METHODS: We examined serum insulin, glucose, and indices of insulin resistance (insulin:glucose molar ratio and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and lung cancer risk using a case-cohort study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Studyof Finnish men. 196 cases and 395 subcohort members were included...
July 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698185/age-at-menarche-and-late-adolescent-adiposity-associated-with-mammographic-density-on-processed-digital-mammograms-in-24-840-women
#5
Stacey E Alexeeff, Nnaemeka Odo, Jafi A Lipson, Ninah Achacoso, Joseph H Rothstein, Martin J Yaffe, Rhea Y Liang, Luana Acton, Valerie McGuire, Alice S Whitmore, Daniel L Rubin, Weiva Sieh, Laurel A Habel
BACKGROUND: High mammographic density is strongly associated with increased breast cancer risk. Some, but not all, risk factors for breast cancer are also associated with higher mammographic density. METHODS: The study cohort (N=24,840) was drawn from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health of Kaiser Permanente Northern California and included non-Hispanic white females aged 40-74 years with a full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were measured by a radiological technologist using Cumulus...
July 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698184/the-association-of-mammographic-density-and-molecular-breast-cancer-subtype
#6
Brandy L Edwards, Kristen A Atkins, George J Stukenborg, Wendy M Novicoff, Krista N Larson, Wendy F Cohn, Jennifer A Harvey, Anneke T Schroen
BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is associated with increased breast cancer (BC) risk, yet limited data exists on an association between MD and BC molecular subtypes. METHODS: Women 18 years and older with BC and available mammograms between 2003-2012 were enrolled in a larger study on MD. MD was classified by Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification and by volumetric breast percent density (Volpara SolutionsTM). Subtype was assigned by hormone receptor-status, tumor grade and mitotic score (MS)...
July 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642231/secondhand-smoke-exposure-among-community-dwelling-adult-cancer-survivors-in-the-united-states-1999-2012
#7
Oladimeji Akinboro, Odunayo Olorunfemi, Prasanta Basak, Elizabeth Phillips, Daniel Pomerantz, Bernard Bernhardt, Rasim Gucalp, Stephen Jesmajian, Jamie S Ostroff
Background: Little is known about the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among cancer survivors. We sought to determine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of SHSe among nonsmoking adult cancer survivors in the United States.Methods: Interview and serum cotinine data for nonsmoking adults, age 20 years and older, with a history of cancer (N = 686) were obtained from consecutive two-year cross-sectional cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2012. SHSe was defined as serum cotinine 0...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642230/a-review-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-the-context-of-smoking-a-focus-on-inflammation
#8
Peter G Shields, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, Jo L Freudenheim, Ewy A Mathe, Joseph McElroy, Min-Ae Song, Mark D Wewers
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing rapidly, but their effects on lung toxicity are largely unknown. Smoking is a well-established cause of lung cancer and respiratory disease, in part through inflammation. It is plausible that e-cig use might affect similar inflammatory pathways. E-cigs are used by some smokers as an aid for quitting or smoking reduction, and by never smokers (e.g., adolescents and young adults). The relative effects for impacting disease risk may differ for these groups...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637796/quantifying-the-genetic-correlation-between-multiple-cancer-types
#9
Sara Lindström, Hilary Finucane, Brendan Bulik-Sullivan, Fredrick R Schumacher, Christopher I Amos, Rayjean J Hung, Kristin Rand, Stephen B Gruber, David Conti, Jennifer B Permuth, Hui-Yi Lin, Ellen L Goode, Thomas A Sellers, Laufey T Amundadottir, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Alison Klein, Gloria Petersen, Harvey Risch, Brian Wolpin, Li Hsu, Jeroen R Huyghe, Jenny Chang Claude, Andrew Chan, Sonja Berndt, Rosalind A Eeles, Douglas Easton, Christopher A Haiman, David J Hunter, Benjamin Neale, Alkes Price, Peter Kraft
Many cancers share specific genetic risk factors including both rare high-penetrance mutations and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, little is known about the overall shared heritability across cancers. Quantifying the extent to which two distinct cancers share genetic origin will give insights to shared biological mechanisms underlying cancer and inform design for future genetic association studies. In this study, we estimated the pair-wise genetic correlation between six cancer types (breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, pancreatic and prostate) using cancer-specific GWAS summary statistics data based on 66,958 case and 70,665 control subjects of European ancestry...
June 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637795/genome-wide-association-studies-of-cancer-in-diverse-populations
#10
Sungshim L Park, Iona Cheng, Christopher A Haiman
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cancer have identified more than 700 risk loci, of which ~80% of were first discovered in European ancestry populations, ~15% in East Asians, 3% in multiethnic scans, and less than 1% in African and Latin American populations. These percentages closely mirror the distribution of samples included in the discovery phase of cancer GWAS to date (84% European, 11% East Asian, 4% African and 1% Latin American ancestry). GWAS in non-European populations have provided insight into ancestry-specific variation in cancer and have pointed to regions of susceptibility that are of particular importance in certain populations...
June 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634186/telomere-length-and-pancreatic-cancer-risk-letter
#11
LETTER
Raffaella Mormile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626070/potential-susceptibility-loci-identified-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-targeting-obesity-related-genes
#12
Xiang Shu, Mark P Purdue, Yuanqing Ye, Huakang Tu, Christopher G Wood, Nizar M Tannir, Zhaoming Wang, Demetrius Albanes, Susan M Gapstur, Victoria L Stevens, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen J Chanock, Xifeng Wu
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC have identified several susceptibility loci, additional variants might be missed due to the highly conservative selection. METHODS: We conducted a multiphase study utilizing three independent genome-wide scans at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDA RCC GWAS and MDA RCC OncoArray) and National Cancer Institute (NCI RCC GWAS), which consisted of a total of 3,530 cases and 5,714 controls, to investigate genetic variations in obesity-related genes and RCC risk...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626069/how-many-deaths-from-colorectal-cancer-can-be-prevented-by-2030-a-scenario-based-quantification-of-risk-factor-modification-screening-and-treatment-in-norway
#13
Katrine Damgaard Skyrud, Tor Age Myklebust, Freddie Bray, Morten Tandberg Eriksen, Thomas de Lange, Inger Kristin Larsen, Bjørn Møller
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality can be reduced through risk factor modification (adherence to lifestyle recommendations), screening, and improved treatment. This study estimated the potential of these three strategies to modify CRC mortality rates in Norway. METHODS: The potential reduction in CRC mortality due to risk factor modification was estimated using the software Prevent, assuming that 50% of the population in Norway-who do not adhere to the various recommendations concerning prevention of smoking, physical activity, body weight, and intake of alcohol, red/processed meat, and fiber-started to follow the recommendations...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626068/colorectal-cancer-screening-how-health-gains-and-cost-effectiveness-vary-by-ethnic-group-the-impact-on-health-inequalities-and-the-optimal-age-range-to-screen
#14
Melissa McLeod, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Matt Boyd, Jan Barendregt, Diana Sarfati, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
Background Screening programmes consistently underserve indigenous populations despite a higher overall burden of cancer. In this study we explore the likely health gains and cost-effectiveness of a national colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme for the indigenous Māori population of New Zealand (NZ). Methods A Markov model estimated: health benefits (QALYs), costs and cost-effectiveness of biennial immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (FOBTi) of 50-74 year olds, from 2011. Input parameters came from: literature reviews, the NZ Bowel Screening Programme Pilot, and NZ linked health datasets...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626067/the-impact-of-a-population-based-screening-program-on-income-and-immigration-related-disparities-in-colorectal-cancer-screening
#15
Tara Kiran, Richard H Glazier, Rahim Moineddin, Sumei Gu, Andrew S Wilton, Lawrence Paszat
A population-based program promoting the Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer screening was introduced in 2008 in Ontario, Canada, where opportunistic screening with colonoscopy had been increasing in frequency. We evaluated the impact of the program on income and immigration-related disparities in screening. We used linked administrative data to calculate colorectal cancer screening rates for eligible Ontarians in each year between 2001/02 (n=2,852,619) and 2013/14 (n=4,139,304). We quantified disparities using an "inequality ratio" of screening rates in the most disadvantaged group relative to the most advantaged group...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619831/stool-dna-test-of-methylated-syndecan-2-for-the-early-detection-of-colorectal-neoplasia
#16
Feng Niu, Jialing Wen, Xinhui Fu, Chujun Li, Rongsong Zhao, Shan Wu, Hao Yu, Xianglin Liu, Xia Zhao, Side Liu, Xinying Wang, Jianping Wang, Hongzhi Zou
BACKGROUND: While the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is steadily increasing, screening for CRC with conventional approaches is not routinely performed in China. Noninvasive screening methods are attractive options to resolve this issue. Syndecan-2 (SDC2) is frequently methylated in CRC. However, the value of a stool test of methylated SDC2 for the detection of CRC is unknown. METHODS: Methylation status of SDC2 was tested in cell lines and 398 colorectal tissue samples, and further evaluated with 497 stool samples, including 196 from CRC patients, 122 from adenoma patients, and 179 from normal individuals, using real-time methylation-specific PCR (qMSP)...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619830/differential-and-joint-effects-of-metformin-and-statins-on-overall-survival-of-elderly-patients-with-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-large-population-based-study
#17
Jian-Yu E, Shou-En Lu, Yong Lin, Judith M Graber, David Rotter, Lanjing Zhang, Gloria M Petersen, Kitaw Demissie, Grace Lu-Yao, Xiang-Lin Tan
Background: Published evidence indicates that individual use of metformin and statin is associated with reduced cancer mortality. However, their differential and joint effects on pancreatic cancer survival are inconclusive.Methods: We identified a large population-based cohort of 12,572 patients ages 65 years or older with primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) diagnosed between 2008 and 2011 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked database. Exposure to metformin and statins was ascertained from Medicare Prescription Drug Event files...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619829/germline-genetic-variants-and-lung-cancer-survival-in-african-americans
#18
Carissa C Jones, William S Bush, Dana C Crawford, Angela S Wenzlaff, Ann G Schwartz, John K Wiencke, Margaret R Wrensch, William J Blot, Stephen J Chanock, Eric L Grogan, Melinda C Aldrich
BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) have the highest lung cancer mortality in the U.S. Genome-wide association studies of germline variants influencing lung cancer survival have not yet been conducted in AAs. We examined five previously reported GWAS catalog variants and explored additional genome-wide associations among AA lung cancer cases. METHODS: Incident non-small cell lung cancer cases (N=286) in the Southern Community Cohort Study were genotyped on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619828/the-association-of-telomere-length-in-peripheral-blood-cells-with-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#19
Xia Zhang, Qian Zhao, Wei Zhu, Tao Liu, Shao-Hua Xie, Li-Xin Zhong, Yuan-Yuan Cai, Xiao-Na Li, Mei Liang, Wen Chen, Qian-Sheng Hu, Bo Zhang
The association between telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood cells and cancer risk remains inconclusive. We carried out a meta-analysis on prospective studies. The study-specific relative risk estimates were first transformed to a common comparable scale and then were pooled by a random-effects model. The dataset was composed of 13894 cases and 71672 controls from 28 studies in 25 articles. In the comparison of the longest versus shortest third of TL, we observed a marginally positive association between longer TL and higher risk of total cancers (OR=1...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615365/a-decade-of-gwas-results-in-lung-cancer
#20
Yohan Bossé, Christopher I Amos
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were successful to identify genetic factors robustly associated with lung cancer. This review aims to synthesize the literature in this field and accelerate the translation of GWAS discoveries into results that are closer to clinical applications. A chronological presentation of published GWAS on lung cancer susceptibility, survival and response to treatment is presented. The most important results are tabulated to provide a concise overview in one read. GWAS have reported 45 lung cancer susceptibility loci with varying strength of evidence and highlighted suspected causal genes at each locus...
June 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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