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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

Kristina M Jordahl, Timothy W Randolph, Xiaoling Song, Cassandra L Sather, Lesley F Tinker, Amanda I Phipps, Karl T Kelsey, Emily White, Parveen Bhatti
BACKGROUND: Differential DNA methylation as measured in blood is a promising marker of bladder cancer susceptibility. However, previous studies have exclusively used post-diagnostic blood samples, meaning that observed associations may be markers of disease rather than susceptibility. METHODS: Genome-wide methylation was measured in pre-diagnostic blood samples, using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Array, among 440 bladder cancer cases with the transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) subtype and 440 matched cancer-free controls from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohort...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Brian Z Ring, Rajmohan Murali, Robert A Soslow, David D L Bowtell, Sian Fereday, Anna DeFazio, Nadia Traficante, Catherine J Kennedy, Alison Brand, Raghwa Sharma, Paul Harnett, Goli Samimi
BACKGROUND: Chemo-resistance is a major challenge in ovarian cancer treatment, resulting in poor survival rates. Identifying markers of treatment response is imperative for improving outcome while minimizing unnecessary side effects. We have previously demonstrated that expression of transducin-like enhancer of split 3 (TLE3) is associated with favorable progression-free survival in taxane-treated ovarian cancer patients with non-serous histology. The purpose of this study was to perform an independent evaluation of the association of TLE3 expression with response to taxane-based chemotherapy in non-serous ovarian cancer, to validate its role as a potential therapeutic response marker for taxane-based chemotherapy...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jie Lin, Christine Kamamia, Derek Brown, Stephanie Shao, Katherine A McGlynn, Joel A Nations, Corey A Carter, Craig D Shriver, Kangmin Zhu
BACKGROUND: The U.S. military health system (MHS) provides universal health care access to its beneficiaries. However, whether the universal access has translated into improved patient outcome is unknown. This study compared survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in the MHS with that in the U.S. general population. METHODS: The MHS data were obtained from The Department of Defense's (DoD) Automated Central Tumor Registry (ACTUR) and the U.S. population data were drawn from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Lauren C Houghton, Julia S Sisti, Susan E Hankinson, Jing Xie, Xia Xu, Robert N Hoover, A Heather Eliassen, Regina G Ziegler
BACKGROUND: Estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women may be related to early life body fatness. METHODS: Premenopausal women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 years using a validated 9-level pictogram. Fifteen estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in luteal phase urines from 603 women aged 32-54 years. Geometric means of individual EM, metabolic pathway groups, and pathway ratios were examined by body fatness categories using linear mixed models...
March 6, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Xibiao Ye, Geng Zhang, Christiaan Righolt, James B Johnston, Versha Banerji, Spencer B Gibson, Salaheddin M Mahmud
BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between diabetes and increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but the effect of diabetic treatment drugs such as metformin on the risk is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a population-based nested case-control study involving 878 NHL cases and 4,364 controls diagnosed with diabetes. Use of metformin and other medications prior to diagnosis and medical condition histories were assessed using administrative databases...
March 6, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Emily J Wasserman, Samantha M Reilly, Reema Goel, Jonathan Foulds, John P Richie, Joshua E Muscat
BACKGROUND: Increased cigarette costs have inadvertently strengthened the appeal of discounted brands to price-sensitive smokers. While smokers perceive discounted brands as having poorer quality, little is known about their delivery of toxic tobacco smoke constituents compared to premium-branded tobacco products. METHODS: We investigated the differences between discount and premium brand smokers using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 Special Smoker Sample...
March 6, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Todd R Sponholtz, Julie R Palmer, Lynn A Rosenberg, Elizabeth E Hatch, Adams-Campbell Lucile, Lauren A Wise
BACKGROUND: Although endometrial cancer risk differs among white and black women, few data on its associations with exogenous hormone use in the latter group are available. Studies have reported lower endometrial cancer risk among users of oral contraceptives (OC), but higher risk among users of estrogen-only female menopausal hormones (FMH). Evidence for the risk among estrogen plus progestin FMHs users is equivocal. METHODS: We followed 47,555 Black Women's Health Study participants with an intact uterus from 1995 through 2013...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Libby M Morimoto, David Zava, Katherine A McGlynn, Frank Z Stanczyk, Alice Y Kang, Xiaomei Ma, Joseph L Wiemels, Catherine Metayer
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) incidence has increased over the last 40 years in the United States. In contrast to TGCT among infants, it is hypothesized that TGCT in adolescents and young men is the result of sex steroid hormone imbalance during early fetal development. However, little is known about the neonatal period when abrupt hormonal changes occur, and direct supporting evidence is scarce due to the difficulties in obtaining pre-diagnostic specimens. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study examining hormone levels at birth among 91 infants (0-4 years) and 276 adolescents (15-19 years) diagnosed with TGCT, and 344 matched controls...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Emily Vogtmann, Xing Hua, Liang Zhou, Yunhu Wan, Shalabh Suman, Bin Zhu, Casey L Dagnall, Amy Hutchinson, Kristine Jones, Belynda D Hicks, Rashmi Sinha, Jianxin Shi, Christian C Abnet
BACKGROUND: Few studies have prospectively evaluated the association between oral microbiota and health outcomes. Precise estimates of the intrasubject microbial metric stability will allow better study planning. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the temporal variability of oral microbiota. METHODS: Forty individuals provided six oral samples using the OMNIgene ORAL kit and Scope mouthwash oral rinses approximately every two months over 10 months. DNA was extracted using the QIAsymphony and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the MiSeq...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Brian Thomas Joyce, Yinan Zheng, Zhou Zhang, Lei Liu, Masha Kocherginsky, Robert Murphy, Chad Achenbach, Jonah Musa, Firas Wehbe, Allan Just, Jincheng Shen, Pantel Vokonas, Joel Schwartz, Andrea Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) and methylation levels are epigenetic hallmarks of cancer, potentially linked via miRNA processing genes. Studies have found genetic alterations to miRNA processing genes in cancer cells and human population studies. Our objective was to prospectively examine changes in DNA methylation of miRNA processing genes and their associations with cancer risk. METHODS: We examined cohort data from the Department of Veterans' Affairs' Normative Aging Study...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Daniel Beachler, Ligia Pinto, Troy J Kemp, Alan G Nyitray, Allan Hildesheim, Raphael Viscidi, John Schussler, Aimee R Kreimer, Anna R Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that natural antibodies developed after HPV16 infection may protect some women but not men against subsequent HPV16 re-acquisition. Less is known whether antibodies developed following HPV16 infection are protective among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). METHODS: 475 MSM from the Human Papillomavirus in Men (HIM) study were tested for serum antibodies to HPV16 L1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and for anal and genital HPV16 DNA using PCR consensus primer system (PGMY 09/11)...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Courtney E Boen, David A Barrow, Jeannette T Bensen, Laura Farnan, Adrian Gerstel, Laura H Hendrix, Yang Claire Yang
BACKGROUND: Social stressors such as social relationship deficits have been increasingly linked to chronic disease outcomes, including cancer. However, critical gaps exist in our understanding of the nature and strength of such links, as well as the underlying biological mechanisms relating social relationships to cancer progression and survival. METHODS: Utilizing novel questionnaire and biomarker data from the UNC Health Registry/Cancer Survivorship Cohort (HR/CSC), the present study examines the associations between diverse measures of social support and mortality risk among individuals with cancer (N=1,004)...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Parisa Tehranifar, Carmen B Rodriguez, Ayana April-Sanders, Elise Desperito, Karen M Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is lower in many U.S ethnic minority and foreign-born population groups. Investigating whether migration and acculturation patterns in risk are reflected in disease biomarkers may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We compared the distribution of breast cancer risk factors across U.S.-born white, African American and Hispanic women, and foreign-born Hispanic women (n=477, ages 40-64 years, 287 born in Caribbean countries)...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Lang Wu, Wei Zheng, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Hong-Lan Li, Hui Cai, Xiao-Ou Shu
BACKGROUND: Associations between physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk are unclear. METHODS: In two prospective cohort studies: the Shanghai Women's Health Study and Shanghai Men's Health Study, physical activity and other information were collected at the baseline interview of 72,451 women and 60,037 men. Participants were followed up through annual linkage with cancer registry in combination with in-person interviews taking place every 2-4 years. RESULTS: We identified 225 female and 159 male cases during a median follow up of 16...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Neal L Benowitz, Natalie Nardone, Shonul Jain, Delia A Dempsey, Newton Addo, Gideon St Helen, Peyton Jacob
Background: Many adolescents are exposed to tobacco smoke, from either active smoking (CS) or secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Tobacco-specific biomarkers of exposure include cotinine (detects use in past 2-4 days) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL; detects use for a month or longer). NNAL is expected to detect more intermittent tobacco exposure. We compared NNAL and cotinine as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco in urban adolescents and determined the optimal NNAL cutoff point to distinguish CS from SHS exposure...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Nandita Khera, Randy Albelda, Theresa Hahn, Diana Y Salas-Coronado, Oreofe O Odejide, Robert Soiffer, Gregory A Abel
BACKGROUND: Financial hardship is a growing challenge for patients with blood cancer who undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and it is associated with poor patient-reported outcomes. In contrast, little is known about the potential impact of patient-reported financial hardship on post-HCT survival. METHODS: We sought to describe the association of financial hardship with survival after HCT in a prospectively assembled cohort of patients from three large transplant centers (n=325)...
February 13, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Soum D Lokeshwar, Asif Talukder, Travis J Yates, Martin J P Hennig, Michael Garcia-Roig, Sarrah S Lahorewala, Naureen N Mullani, Zachary Klaassen, Bruce R Kava, Murugesan Manoharan, Mark S Soloway, Vinata Lokeshwar
BACKGROUND: Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miR) promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) growth and metastasis and are potentially useful biomarkers for metastatic disease. However, a consensus clinically significant miRNA signature has not been identified. To identify a miRNA signature for predicting clinical outcome in RCC patients we used a four-pronged interconnected approach. METHODS: Differentially expressed miRs were identified and analyzed in 113 specimens (Normal kidney: 59; tumor: 54)...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jenna Lilyquist, Kathryn J Ruddy, Celine M Vachon, Fergus J Couch
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the United States with up to 30% of those diagnosed displaying a family history of breast cancer. To date, 18% of the familial risk of breast cancer can be explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This review summarizes the discovery of risk-associated SNPs using candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including discovery and replication in large collaborative efforts such as COGS and OncoArray. We discuss the evolution of GWAS studies, efforts to discover additional SNPs, and methods for identifying causal variants...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Ben Kinnersley, Richard S Houlston, Melissa L Bondy
Since the first reports in 2009, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying germline variants associated with glioma susceptibility. In this review we describe a chronological history of glioma GWAS, culminating in the most recent study comprising 12,496 cases and 18,190 controls. We additionally summarise associations at the 27 glioma risk SNPs that have been reported so far. Future efforts are likely to be principally focused on assessing association of germline risk SNPs with particular molecular subgroups of glioma, as well as investigating the functional basis of the risk loci in tumour formation...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Julia E McGuinness, William Ueng, Meghna S Trivedi, Hae Seung Yi, Raven David, Alejandro Vanegas, Jennifer Vargas, Rossy Sandoval, Rita Kukafka, Katherine D Crew
BACKGROUND: Potential harms of screening mammography include false positive results, such as recall breast imaging or biopsies. METHODS: We recruited women undergoing screening mammography at Columbia University Medical Center in New York, NY. They completed a questionnaire on breast cancer risk factors and permitted access to their medical records. Breast cancer risk status was determined using the Gail model and a family history screener. High-risk was defined as a 5-year invasive breast cancer risk of 1...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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