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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325738/follow-the-north-star-why-space-place-and-power-matter-for-geospatial-approaches-to-cancer-control-and-health-equity
#1
EDITORIAL
Nancy Krieger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325737/measures-matter-the-local-exposure-isolation-lex-is-metrics-and-relationships-between-local-level-segregation-and-breast-cancer-survival
#2
EDITORIAL
Amin Bemanian, Kirsten M M Beyer
Background: The Black-to-White disparity in breast cancer survival is increasing, and racial residential segregation is a potential driver for this trend. However, study findings have been mixed, and no study has comprehensively compared the effectiveness of different local-level segregation metrics in explaining cancer survival.Methods: We proposed a set of new local segregation metrics named local exposure and isolation (LEx/Is) and compared our new local isolation metric with two related metrics, the location quotient (LQ) and the index of concentration at extremes (ICE), across the 102 largest U...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325736/geospatial-approaches-to-cancer-control-and-population-sciences
#3
EDITORIAL
Mario Schootman, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Kevin A Henry, Electra D Paskett, Gary L Ellison, April Oh, Stephen H Taplin, Zaria Tatalovich, David A Berrigan
Cancer incidence and mortality display strong geographic patterns worldwide and in the United States (1, 2). The environment where individuals live, work, and play is increasingly being recognized as important across the cancer control continuum, including the risk of cancer development, detection, diagnosis, treatment, mortality, and survivorship (3-5). At the same time, emergent technological capacity in geographic information systems (GIS) and mapping, along with increasing sophistication in applied spatial methods, has resulted in a growing research community developing and applying geospatial approaches in health research (5)...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314823/body-size-indicators-and-risk-of-gallbladder-cancer-pooled-analysis-of-individual-level-data-from-19-prospective-cohort-studies
#4
Peter T Campbell, Christina C Newton, Cari M Kitahara, Alpa V Patel, Patricia Hartge, Jill Koshiol, Katherine A McGlynn, Hans-Olov Adami, Amy Berrington de González, Laura E Beane Freeman, Leslie Bernstein, Julie E Buring, Neal D Freedman, Yu-Tang Gao, Graham G Giles, Marc J Gunter, Mazda Jenab, Linda M Liao, Roger L Milne, Kim Robien, Dale P Sandler, Catherine Schairer, Howard D Sesso, Xiao-Ou Shu, Elisabete Weiderpass, Alicja Wolk, Yong-Bing Xiang, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Susan M Gapstur
Background: There are few established risk factors for gallbladder cancer beyond gallstones. Recent studies suggest a higher risk with high body mass index (BMI), an indicator of general heaviness, but evidence from other body size measures is lacking.Methods: Associations of adult BMI, young adult BMI, height, adult weight gain, waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with gallbladder cancer risk were evaluated. Individual-level data from 1,878,801 participants in 19 prospective cohort studies (14 studies had circumference measures) were harmonized and included in this analysis...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292923/aspirin-use-reduces-the-risk-of-aggressive-prostate-cancer-and-disease-recurrence-in-african-american-men
#5
Cheryl J Smith, Tiffany H Dorsey, Wei Tang, Symone V Jordan, Christopher A Loffredo, Stefan Ambs
BACKGROUND: Men of African descent experience a disproportionately high prostate cancer mortality. Intratumoral inflammation was found to be associated with aggressive prostate cancer. We and others have shown that prostate tumors in African-American (AA) patients harbor a distinct immune and inflammation signature when compared with European-American (EA) patients. These observations suggest that inflammation could be a driver of aggressive disease in men of African descent, leading to the hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory drug like aspirin could prevent disease progression...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292922/the-association-of-the-c-reactive-protein-inflammatory-biomarker-with-breast-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#6
Sandahl H Nelson, Theodore M Brasky, Ruth E Patterson, Gail A Laughlin, Donna Kritz-Silverstein, Beatrice J Edwards, Dorothy Lane, Thomas E Rohan, Gloria Y F Ho, JoAnn E Manson, Andrea Z LaCroix
PURPOSE: To examine associations of pre-diagnosis high-sensitivity C-reactive (hsCRP) with breast cancer incidence and post-diagnosis survival and to assess whether associations are modified by Body Mass Index (BMI). METHODS: A prospective analysis of the Women's Health Initiative was conducted among 17,841 cancer free postmenopausal women with baseline hsCRP measurements. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between hsCRP concentrations and: 1) breast cancer risk (n cases=1,114) and 2) all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292921/genetic-determinants-of-1-3-butadiene-metabolism-and-detoxification-in-three-populations-of-smokers-with-different-risks-of-lung-cancer
#7
Emily J Boldry, Yesha M Patel, Srikanth Kotapati, Amanda Esades, Sungshim L Park, Maarit Tiirikainen, Daniel O Stram, Loic LeMarchand, Natalia Tretyakova
Background: 1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important carcinogen in tobacco smoke that undergoes metabolic activation to DNA-reactive epoxides. These species can be detoxified via glutathione conjugation and excreted in urine as the corresponding N-acetylcysteine conjugates. We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms in BD-metabolizing genes may change the balance of BD bioactivation and detoxification in White, Japanese American, and African American smokers, potentially contributing to ethnic differences in lung cancer risk...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270500/exploring-the-linkage-between-activity-friendly-zoning-inactivity-and-cancer-incidence-in-the-united-states
#8
Lisa M Nicholson, Julien Leider, Jamie F Chriqui
Background: Physical activity (PA) protects against cancer and enhances cancer survivorship. Given high inactivity rates nationwide, population-level physical activity facilitators are needed. Several authoritative bodies have recognized that zoning and planning helps create activity-friendly environments. This study examined the association between activity-friendly zoning, inactivity, and cancer in 478 of the most populous U.S. counties.Methods: County geocodes linked county-level data: cancer incidence and smoking (State Cancer Profiles), inactivity (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 11 zoning measures (compiled by the study team), and covariates (from the American Community Survey and NAVTEQ)...
March 7, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264876/low-cotinine-glucuronidation-results-in-higher-serum-and-saliva-cotinine-in-african-american-compared-to-white-smokers
#9
Sharon E Murphy, Christopher J Sipe, Kwangsoo Choi, Leah M Raddatz, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Eric C Donny, Dorothy K Hatsukami
BACKGROUND: Tobacco exposure is often quantified by serum or saliva concentrations of the primary nicotine metabolite, cotinine. However, average cotinine concentrations are higher in African American (AA) compared to Whites with similar smoking levels. Cotinine is metabolized by UGT2B10 and CYP2A6, and low UGT2B10 activity is common in AA, due to the prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant. METHODS: UGT2B10-activity was phenotyped in 1446 smokers (34% AA) by measuring the percentage of cotinine excreted as a glucuronide...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264875/prediagnostic-calcium-intake-and-lung-cancer-survival-a-pooled-analysis-of-12-cohort-studies
#10
Danxia Yu, Yumie Takata, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, William Blot, Norie Sawada, Emily White, Neal Freedman, Kim Robien, Edward L Giovannucci, Xuehong Zhang, Yikyung Park, Yu-Tang Gao, Rowan T Chlebowski, Arnulf Langhammer, Gong Yang, Gianluca Severi, Jonas Manjer, Kay-Tee Khaw, Elisabete Weiderpass, Linda M Liao, Neil E Caporaso, Steinar Krokstad, Kristian Hveem, Rashmi Sinha, Regina G Ziegler, Shoichiro Tsugsane, Yong-Bing Xiang, Mattias Johannson, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Little is known about whether prediagnostic nutritional factors may affect survival. We examined the associations of prediagnostic calcium intake from foods and/or supplements with lung cancer survival. METHODS: The present analysis included 23,882 incident, primary lung cancer patients from 12 prospective cohort studies. Dietary calcium intake was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline in each cohort and standardized to caloric intake of 2000 kcal/d for women and 2500 kcal/d for men...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264874/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-cigarette-prices-and-smoking-cessation-in-older-smokers
#11
Victoria L Stevens, W Ryan Diver, Michal Stoklosa, W Dana Flanders, J Lee Westmaas, Ahmedin Jemal, Jeffrey M Drope, Susan M Gapstur, Eric J Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Cigarette price increases effectively prevent smoking initiation and reduce cigarette consumption among young smokers. However, the impact of cigarette prices on smoking cessation among older smokers is less clear, particularly for those aged 65 years and older, a group that is at highest risk of smoking-related disease and will almost double in the United States between 2012 and 2050. METHODS: Biennial questionnaires administered between 1997 and 2013 assessed smoking status for 9,446 Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort participants who were ≥50 years old and lived in Washington, DC and 48 states...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264873/genetically-predicted-telomere-length-is-not-associated-with-pancreatic-cancer-risk
#12
Samuel O Antwi, William R Bamlet, Brendan T Broderick, Kari G Chaffee, Ann L Oberg, Aminah Jatoi, Lisa A Boardman, Gloria M Petersen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have been inconsistent owing, in part, to variation in telomere length (TL) assessment across studies. To overcome this limitation and address concerns of potential reverse causation, we used carriage of telomere-related alleles to genetically predict TL and examined its association with PDAC. METHODS: A case-control study of 1,500 PDAC cases and 1,500 controls, frequency-matched on age and sex was performed...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258053/improved-performance-of-serum-alpha-fetoprotein-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-in-hcv-cirrhosis-with-normal-alanine-transaminase
#13
Ju Dong Yang, Jianliang Dai, Amit G Singal, Purva Gopal, Benyam Addissie, Mindie H Nguyen, Alex S Befeler, K Rajender Reddy, Myron Schwartz, Denise M Harnois, Hiroyuki Yamada, Gregory J Gores, Ziding Feng, Jorge A Marrero, Lewis R Roberts
BACKGROUND: The utility of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is controversial. We aimed to identify factors associated with elevated AFP and define the patients for whom AFP is effective for surveillance. METHODS: Data from the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network Phase 2 HCC biomarker study (233 early stage HCC and 412 cirrhotic patients) were analyzed. We analyzed 110 early stage HCC and 362 cirrhotic HCV patients for external validation...
March 3, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258052/kernel-density-estimation-as-a-measure-of-environmental-exposure-related-to-insulin-resistance-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#14
Marta M Jankowska, Loki Natarajan, Suneeta Godbole, Kristin Meseck, Dorothy D Sears, Ruth E Patterson, Jacqueline Kerr
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors may influence breast cancer, however most studies have measured environmental exposure in neighborhoods around home residences (static exposure). We hypothesize that tracking environmental exposures over time and space (dynamic exposure) is key to assessing total exposure. This study compares breast cancer survivors' exposure to walkable and recreation-promoting environments using dynamic Global Positioning System (GPS) and static home-based measures of exposure in relation to insulin resistance...
March 3, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254810/sun-exposure-and-protection-behaviors-among-long-term-melanoma-survivors-and-population-controls
#15
Rachel Isaksson Vogel, Lori G Strayer, Leah Engelman, Heather H Nelson, Anne H Blaes, Kristin E Anderson, DeAnn Lazovich
Introduction: Melanoma is considered a generally preventable cancer, with excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure being a strong causal factor. UVR exposure following a melanoma diagnosis can be modified to reduce risk of second primary melanomas. The goal of this study was to compare measures of UVR exposure and protection behaviors between long-term melanoma survivors and controls.Methods: Participants from a previously conducted case-control study were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Melanoma cases were 25 to 59 years old at diagnosis; controls were age and sex matched...
March 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235830/telomere-length-is-predictive-of-breast-cancer-risk-in-brca2-mutation-carriers
#16
Birna Thorvaldsdottir, Margret Aradottir, Olafur A Stefansson, Sigridur K Bodvarsdottir, Jorunn E Eyfjörd
BACKGROUND: Germline BRCA2 mutations increase risk of breast cancer and other malignancies. BRCA2 has been shown to play a role in telomere protection and maintenance. Telomere length (TL) has been studied as a modifying factor for various diseases, including breast cancer. Previous research on TL in BRCA mutation carriers has produced contradicting results. METHODS: We measured blood TL, using a high-throughput monochrome multiplex qPCR method, in a well-defined Icelandic cohort of female BRCA2 mutation carriers (n=169), sporadic breast cancer patients (n=561) and healthy controls (n=537)...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223434/spatial-analysis-of-regional-factors-and-lung-cancer-mortality-in-china-1973-2013
#17
Xiaoping Shen, Limin Wang, Li Zhu
BACKGROUND: China's lung cancer crude death rate has increased 6.9-fold from 1973 to 2014. During this time, the country experienced extremely rapid economic growth and social change. It is important to understand the effects of risk factors on Lung Cancer Mortality (LCM) for better allocation of limited resources of cancer prevention and control in China. METHODS: Using three nationwide mortality surveys from 1973 to 2005, Global Health Data Exchange data in 2013, three nationwide smoking surveys from 1984 to 2013, four population censuses from 1964 to 2000, and other datasets, we have compiled datasets and developed spatial random effect models to assess the association of various area level contributing factors on LCM...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223433/global-cancer-in-women-burden-and-trends
#18
Lindsey A Torre, Farhad Islami, Rebecca L Siegel, Elizabeth M Ward, Ahmedin Jemal
There are striking disparities in the global cancer burden in women, yet few publications highlight cancer occurrence in this population, particularly for cancers that are not sex-specific. This paper, the first in a series of two, summarizes the current burden, trends, risk factors, prevention, early detection, and survivorship of all cancers combined and seven sites (breast, cervix, uterine corpus, ovary, colorectum, lung, and liver) that account for about 60% of the cancer burden among women worldwide, using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223432/performance-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-urine-based-human-papillomavirus-assay-in-a-referral-population
#19
Jack M Cuzick, Louise Cadman, Amar Sabri Ahmad, Linda Ho, George Terry, Michelle Kleeman, Deirdre Lyons, Janet Austin, Mark H Stoler, Cecile Rose T Vibat, Janel Dockter, David Robbins, Paul R Billings, Mark G Erlander
Background HPV testing from clinician-collected cervical and self-collected cervico-vaginal samples is more sensitive for detecting CIN2+/CIN3+ than cytology-based screening, stimulating interest in HPV testing from urine. The objective was to determine the performance of the Trovagene HPV test for the detection of CIN2+ from urine and PreservCyt cervical samples. Methods Women referred for colposcopy at St Mary's Hospital London, following abnormal cytology, were recruited to this diagnostic accuracy study by convenience sampling (September 2011 and April 2013)...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223431/changes-in-the-glycosylation-of-kininogen-and-the-development-of-a-kininogen-based-algorithm-for-the-early-detection-of-hcc
#20
Mengjun Wang, Miloslav Sanda, Mary Ann Comunale, Harmin Herrera, Charles Swindell, Yuko Kono, Amit G Singal, Jorge A Marrero, Timothy Block, Radoslav Goldman, Anand Mehta
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has the greatest increase in mortality among all solids tumors in the United States related to low rates of early tumor detection. Development of non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of HCC may reduce HCC-related mortality. METHODS: We have developed an algorithm that combines routinely observed clinical values into a single equation that in a study of > 3,000 patients from 5 independent sites, improved detection of HCC as compared to the currently used biomarker, alpha-feto-protein (AFP), by 4-20%...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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