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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

Chi-Chen Hong, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Song Liu, Qiang Hu, Song Yao, Kathryn L Lunetta, Stephen A Haddad, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Jeannette T Bensen, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Elisa V Bandera, Lynn A Rosenberg, Christopher A Haiman, Kelvin P Lee, Sharon S Evans, Scott I Abrams, Elizabeth A Repasky, Andrew F Olshan, Julie R Palmer, Christine B Ambrosone
BACKGROUND: Constitutional immunity shaped by exposure to endemic infectious diseases and parasitic worms in Sub-Saharan Africa may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer among African American (AA) women. METHODS: A total of 13,235 gene variants in 433 genes across 45 immune pathways were analyzed in the AMBER consortium among 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Gene-based pathway analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product statistic for overall breast cancer risk, and risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Alison L Van Dyke, Margaret S Langhamer, Bin Zhu, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Demetrius Albanes, Gabriella Andreotti, Laura E Beane Freeman, Andrew T Chan, Neal D Freedman, Susan M Gapstur, Graham G Giles, Francine Grodstein, Linda M Liao, Juhua Luo, Roger L Milne, Kristine R Monroe, Marian L Neuhouser, Jenny N Poynter, Mark P Purdue, Kim Robien, Catherine Schairer, Rashmi Sinha, Stephanie J Weinstein, Xuehong Zhang, Jessica L Petrick, Katherine A McGlynn, Peter T Campbell, Jill Koshiol
BACKGROUND: Although some familial cancer syndromes include biliary tract cancers (BTCs) (cancers of the gallbladder, intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater), the few studies that have examined the relationships between family history of cancer (FHC) and BTCs have reported inconclusive findings. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of FHC with risk of BTC in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project (BiTCaPP). METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazards regressions models to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals for associations between FHC (any, 1st degree, in female relative, in male relative, relative with gastrointestinal cancer, and relative with hormonally-related cancer) and BTC risk by anatomic site within the biliary tract, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Michelle L Baglia, Mei-Tzu C Tang, Kathleen E Malone, Peggy Porter, Christopher I Li
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates of in situ breast carcinomas have increased due to widespread adoption of mammography. Very little is known about why some women with in situ breast cancer later develop second primary breast cancers. METHODS: In this population-based nested case-control study among in situ breast cancer survivors, including 539 cases with a second primary breast cancer and 994 matched controls, we evaluated the association between first degree family history of breast cancer and risk of developing a second primary breast cancer...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Terryl J Hartman, Marjorie L McCullough, James M Hodge, Mia M Gaudet, Ying Wang, Susan M Gapstur
Background: The glycemic potential and energy density (ED) of diet may influence endometrial cancer risk. Although glycemic load (GL) is considered a probable risk factor for endometrial cancer, no studies have evaluated the association of total dietary ED with risk.Methods: We evaluated associations of ED, GL, and glycemic index (GI) with postmenopausal endometrial cancer incidence. Analyses included 30,997 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of cancer or diabetes, who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999 and were followed for cancer incidence through June 2013...
December 28, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Shirin Moossavi, Mehdi Mohamadnejad, Akram Pourshams, Hossein Poustchi, Farhad Islami, Maryam Sharafkhah, Babak Mirminachi, Siavosh Nasseri-Moghaddam, Shahryar Semnani, Ramin Shakeri, Arash Etemadi, Shahin Merat, Masoud Khoshnia, Sanford M Dawsey, Paul D Pharaoh, Paul Brennan, Christian C Abnet, Paolo Boffetta, Farin Kamangar, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: We examined the association between opium consumption and pancreatic cancer incidence in a large-scale prospective cohort of the general population in Northeast of Iran. METHODS: A total of 50,045 adults were systematically followed-up (median of 7.4 years) and incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. Self-reported data on opium consumption was collected at baseline. Cumulative use (-year) was defined as number of nokhods (a local unit, approximately 0...
December 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Katherine W Reeves, Olivia I Okereke, Jing Qian, Rulla M Tamimi, A Heather Eliassen, Susan E Hankinson
BACKGROUND: Depression and antidepressant (AD) use are highly prevalent among U.S. women, and may affect breast cancer risk. However, prior studies are not in agreement regarding an increase in risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII among females age 25 and older. Over more than 10 years of follow-up in each cohort, 4,014 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions with updating of exposures and covariates throughout follow-up to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between clinical depression and AD use with invasive breast cancer risk...
December 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Corinne E Joshu, John R Barber, Josef Coresh, David J Couper, Thomas H Mosley, Mara Z Vitolins, Kenneth R Butler, Heather H Nelson, Anna E Prizment, Elizabeth Selvin, Janet A Tooze, Kala Visvanathan, Aaron R Folsom, Elizabeth A Platz
BACKGROUND: We describe the expansion of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study into a cancer cohort. In 1987-1989 ARIC recruited 15,792 participants 45-64 years old to be sex (55% female), race (27% Black), and geographically diverse. ARIC has exceptional data collected during 6 clinical visits and calls every 6 months; repeated biospecimens; and linkage to Medicare claims data. METHODS: We established a Cancer Coordinating Center to implement infrastructure activities, convened a Working Group for data use, leveraged ARIC staff and procedures, and developed protocols...
December 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Rhonda Arthur, Victoria Kirsh, Thomas E Rohan
BACKGROUND: Dietary energy density (DED) is strongly associated with cancer-associated metabolic disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome and may thus influence carcinogenesis. However, little is known about its association with cancer. Therefore, we investigated the association of DED with risk of breast, endometrial, ovarian and colorectal cancers in the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study which included an age-stratified subcohort of 3,120 of the 39,532 female participants who completed self-administered lifestyle and dietary questionnaires at baseline, and in whom 922, 188, 104 and 269 incident breast, endometrial, ovarian and colorectal cancer cases, respectively, were diagnosed...
December 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jason E Sandler, Huang Huang, Nan Zhao, Weiwei Wu, Fangfang Liu, Shuangge Ma, Robert Udelsman, Yawei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radiation exposure is a well-documented risk factor for thyroid cancer; diagnostic imaging represents an increasing source of exposure. Germline variations in DNA repair genes could increase risk of developing thyroid cancer following diagnostic radiation exposure. No studies have directly tested for interaction between germline mutations and radiation exposure. METHODS: Using data and DNA samples from a Connecticut population-based case-control study performed in 2010-2011, we genotyped 440 cases of incident thyroid cancer and 465 population-based controls for 296 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 52 DNA repair genes...
December 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Matthew G Varga, Tianyi Wang, Hui Cai, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Bu-Tian Ji, Michael Pawlita, Tim Waterboer, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Meira Epplein
BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is the leading risk factor for non-cardia gastric cancer, yet its influence on prognosis of gastric cancer is largely unknown. Thus, exploring the role of H. pylori in survival could lead to a greater understanding of the high mortality associated with gastric cancer. METHODS: Sero-positivity to 15 H. pylori antigens was assessed using a multiplex assay in two prospective cohorts, the Shanghai Men's Health Study and the Shanghai Women's Health Study...
December 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Antonio Barros Lopes, Marcela Metzdorf, Luiza Metzdorf, Marcos Paulo Ramalho, Caroline Kavalco, Arash Etemadi, Natalie R Pritchett, Gwen Murphy, Antonia M Calafat, Christian C Abnet, Sanford M Dawsey, Renato B Fagundes
BACKGROUND: Consumption of maté, an infusion of the herb Ilex paraguariensis (yerba maté), is associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the carcinogenic mechanism is unclear. Commercial brands of yerba maté contain high levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are acquired during the traditional drying process. The purpose of this study was to characterize exposure to PAHs in maté drinkers over a wide range of maté consumption...
December 20, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Shengfeng Wang, Yonglan Zheng, Temidayo O Ogundiran, Oladosu Ojengbede, Wei Zheng, Katherine L Nathanson, Barbara Nemesure, Stefan Ambs, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Dezheng Huo
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer mutation signaturesclosely resemble breast cancer, suggesting that both cancersmay have common predisposition mechanisms that may include commonly inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). METHODS: We examined 23 genetic variants known to be associated with pancreatic canceras breast cancerrisk factors in the RootGWAS(1,657 cases and 2,029 controls of African Diaspora) and GAME-ON/DRIVE GWAS (16,003 cases and 41,335 controlsof European ancestry)...
December 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Kathleen E Malone, Larissa A Korde, David R Doody, Li Hsu, Peggy L Porter
BACKGROUND: Studies of bisphosphonate use and breast cancer recurrence have produced conflicting results. Analyses of large adjuvant trials suggest that bisphosphonates reduce recurrence risk only in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We assessed the effect of non-cancer treatment related bisphosphonate use on breast cancer outcomes in a population-based prognostic cohort of women with early stage invasive breast cancer (n=1813; median follow-up 11.8 years). Using medical record, interview, and cancer registry data, information was assembled on risk factors, cancer treatment, medication use, and outcomes...
December 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Lauren R Teras, Susan M Gapstur, Maret L Maliniak, Eric J Jacobs, Ted Gansler, Angelika Michel, Michael Pawlita, Tim Waterboer, Peter T Campbell
BACKGROUND: The presence of circulating antibodies to the p53 tumor-suppressor protein is a potential early detection colorectal cancer biomarker. However, studies of prediagnostic measures of p53 seropositivity in relation to colorectal cancer risk are limited. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of serum p53 autoantibodies and risk of colorectal cancer within the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Among cohort participants who were cancer-free at the time of blood collection, 392 were subsequently diagnosed with colorectal cancer over 11 years of follow-up...
December 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Matthew J Murray, Hannah L Watson, Dawn M Ward, Shivani Bailey, Marta Ferraresso, James C Nicholson, Vincent J Gnanapragasam, Benjamin Thomas, Cinzia G Scarpini, Nicholas Coleman
BACKGROUND: Quantifying circulating-nucleic-acids is an important new approach to cancer diagnosis/monitoring. METHODS: We compared the suitability of serum versus plasma for measuring microRNAs using RT-qPCR and assessed how pre-analytical variables that can affect circulating-tumor-DNA (ctDNA) quantification in plasma also influence microRNA levels. RESULTS: Across 62 blood-derived specimens, plasma samples in EDTA, Streck-DNA-plasma and Streck-RNA-plasma tubes showed significantly higher Ct values for multiple housekeeping microRNAs, compared with serum samples...
December 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Somdat Mahabir, Walter C Willett, Christine M Friedenreich, Gabriel Y Lai, Carol J Boushey, Charles E Matthews, Rashmi Sinha, Graham A Colditz, Joseph A Rothwell, Jill Reedy, Alpa V Patel, Michael F Leitzmann, Gary E Fraser, Sharon Ross, Stephen D Hursting, Christian C Abnet, Lawrence H Kushi, Philip R Taylor, Ross Prentice
Very large international and ethnic differences in cancer rates exist, are minimally explained by genetic factors, and show the huge potential for cancer prevention. A substantial portion of the differences in cancer rates can be explained by modifiable factors and many important relationships have been documented between diet, physical activity, and obesity, and incidence of important cancers. Other related factors such as the microbiome and the metabolome are emerging as important intermediary components in cancer prevention...
December 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Nina Roswall, Mette Sørensen, Elvira Vaclavik Bräuner, Anne Tjønneland, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in the world. Involvement of organochlorines has been proposed in disease etiology. No study has investigated organochlorine exposure in relation to survival after a NHL diagnosis. METHODS: In a survivor cohort consisting of 232 NHL-cases from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, we examined the association between adipose tissue organochlorine concentrations (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides) and subsequent survival, using Cox Proportional Hazards Models...
December 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Rebecca E Graff, Thomas U Ahearn, Andreas Pettersson, Ericka M Ebot, Travis Gerke, Kathryn L Penney, Kathryn M Wilson, Sarah C Markt, Claire H Pernar, Amparo G Gonzalez-Feliciano, Mingyang Song, Rosina T Lis, Daniel R Schmidt, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Edward L Giovannucci, Massimo Loda, Lorelei A Mucci
BACKGROUND: The largest molecular subtype of primary prostate cancer is defined by the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion. Few studies, however, have investigated etiologic differences by TMPRSS2:ERG status. Because the fusion is hormone-regulated and a man's hormonal milieu varies by height and obesity status, we hypothesized that both may be differentially associated with risk of TMPRSS2:ERG-defined disease. METHODS: Our study included 49,372 men from the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
November 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Brenna E Blackburn, Patricia A Ganz, Kerry Rowe, John Snyder, Yuan Wan, Vikrant Deshmukh, Michael Newman, Alison Fraser, Ken Smith, Kimberly Herget, Jaewhan Kim, Anne C Kirchhoff, Christina Porucznik, Heidi Hanson, Marcus Monroe, Mia Hashibe
Background: Thyroid cancer is the most rapidly increasing cancer in the United States, affects a young population, has high survival, and is one of the most common cancers in people under age 40. The aim of this study was to examine the risks of aging-related diseases in a statewide sample of thyroid cancer survivors who were diagnosed <40 years compared with those diagnosed ≥40 and a cancer-free sample.Methods: Thyroid cancer survivors diagnosed 1997 to 2012 were matched to up to 5 cancer-free individuals on birth year, sex, birth state, using the statewide Utah Population Database...
November 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Laszlo Tabar, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, May Ms Ku, Wendy Yi-Ying Wu, Chen-Yang Hsu, Yu-Ying Chen, Kerri Beckmann, Robert A Smith, Stephen W Duffy
BACKGROUND: It has been asserted that mammography screening preferentially benefits those with less aggressive cancers, with lesser or no impact on more rapidly progressing and therefore more life-threatening tumours. METHODS: We utilized data from the Swedish Two-County Trial, which randomized 77,080 women aged 40-74 to invitation to screening and 55,985 for usual care. We tabulated cancers by histological grade and then compared mortality from cancers specific to histological grade between the invited and control group using Poisson regression, with specific interest in the effect on mortality from grade 3 cancers...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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