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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

Geoffrey C Kabat, Mimi Y Kim, Jennifer S Lee, Gloria Y Ho, Scott B Going, Jennifer Beebe-Dimmer, JoAnn E Manson, Rowan T Chlebowski, Thomas E Rohan
BACKGROUND: Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have both been linked to increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer; however, their relative contributions are poorly understood. METHODS: We examined the association of metabolic phenotypes of obesity defined by presence of the MetS (yes, no) and body mass index (normal, overweight, obese) with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective analysis of a cohort of postmenopausal women (n ~ 21,000) with baseline measurements of blood glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Robert A Hiatt, Susan L Stewart, Kristin S Hoeft, Lawrence H Kushi, Gayle C Windham, Frank M Biro, Susan M Pinney, Mary S Wolff, Susan L Teitelbaum, Dejana Braithwaite
BACKGROUND: Higher socioeconomic position (SEP) has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Its relationship with earlier age of pubertal onset, a risk factor for breast cancer, is less clear. METHODS: We studied the relationship of SEP to pubertal onset in multiethnic cohort of 1237 girls aged 6-8 years at baseline. Girls in three U.S. cities were followed for 5-8 years with annual clinical examinations from 2004 to 2012. SEP measures were examined for associations with pubertal onset, assessed by breast budding (thelarche) and pubic hair development (adrenarche)...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Donghao Lu, Jessica Carlsson, Kathryn L Penney, Sabina Davidsson, Swen-Olof Andersson, Lorelei A Mucci, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Ove Andrén, Fang Fang, Katja Fall
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that neuroendocrine signaling pathways may play a role in the progression of prostate cancer, particularly for early-stage disease. We aimed to explore whether expression of selected genes in the adrenergic, serotoninergic, glucocorticoid, and dopaminergic pathways differs in prostate tumor tissue from men with lethal disease compared to men with nonlethal disease. METHODS: Based on the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort, we included 511 men diagnosed with incidental prostate cancer through TURP during 1977-1998 with follow-up up to 30 years...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Aisha K Lofters, Mandana Vahabi, Eliane Kim, Lisa Ellison, Erin Graves, Richard H Glazier
Background: Immigrant women are less likely to be screened for cervical cancer in Ontario. Religion may play a role for some women. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, we used country of birth as a proxy for religious affiliation and examined screening uptake among foreign-born women from Muslim-majority versus other countries, stratified by region of origin.Methods: We linked provincial databases and identified all women eligible for cervical cancer screening between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2015...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Yingjia Chen, Rosemary D Cress, Susan L Stewart, Thomas J Semrad, Danielle Harvey, Daniel J Tencredi, Laurel Beckett
Introduction: Both colon cancer and dementia are prevalent among the elderly and have a high risk of cooccurrence. Previous studies found that patients with dementia were treated less aggressively. In this study, we hypothesized that presence of preexisting dementia was associated with worse survival for stage III colon cancer patients, and that postoperative chemotherapy was on the causal pathway.Methods: We defined preexisting dementia in Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Medicare data through either a formal diagnosis or a prescription for dementia drugs or both before the diagnosis of cancer...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Lynn Chollet-Hinton, Andrew F Olshan, Hazel B Nichols, Carey K Anders, Jennifer L Lund, Emma H Allott, Traci N Bethea, Chi-Chen Hong, Stephanie M Cohen, Thaer Khoury, Gary R Zirpoli, Virginia F Borges, Lynn A Rosenberg, Elisa V Bandera, Christine B Ambrosone, Julie R Palmer, Melissa A Troester
BACKGROUND: African American (AA) women have higher incidence of aggressive, young-onset (<40 years) breast cancers. Young- and older-onset disease may have distinct tumor biologies and etiologies; however, studies investigating age differences among AA women have been rare and generally underpowered. METHODS: We examined tumor characteristics and breast cancer risk factors associated with premenopausal young (<40) vs. older (≥40) AA women's breast cancer in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium (2,008 cases and 5,144 controls)...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Grazyna A Stanczuk, Gwen J Baxter, Heather Currie, William Forson, James R Lawrence, Kate Cuschieri, Allan Wilson, Lynne Patterson, Lynn Govan, Janice Black, Tim Palmer, Marc Arbyn
BACKGROUND: Several options for the triage of high-risk HPV screen positive (hrHPV+) women were assessed. METHODS: This study incorporated CIN2+ cases and controls, all of whom tested hrHPV+ and whose results of liquid-based cytology (LBC), HPV16/18 genotyping and p16/Ki67 cyto-immunochemistry were available. Sensitivity and specificity for the CIN2+ of these triage tests were evaluated. RESULTS: Absolute sensitivities of HPV 16/18 typing, LBC and p16/Ki-67 cyto-immunochemistry for CIN2+ detection were 61...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Felisa A Gonzales, Gordon B Willis, Nancy Breen, Ting Yan, Kathleen A Cronin, Stephen H Taplin, Mandi Yu
BACKGROUND: Using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examine the effect of question wording on estimates of past year mammography among racially/ethnically diverse women ages 40-49 and 50-74 without a history of breast cancer. METHODS: Data from one-part ("Have you had a mammogram during the past 12 months?") and two-part ("Have you ever had a mammogram"; "When did you have your most recent mammogram?") mammography history questions administered in the 2008, 2011 and 2013 NHIS were analyzed...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Merete Ellingjord-Dale, Linda Vos, Kirsti Vik Hjerkind, Anette Hjartåker, Hege G Russnes, Steinar Tretli, Solveig Hofvind, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Giske Ursin
BACKGROUND: To what extent alcohol, smoking and physical activity are associated with the various subtypes of breast cancer is not clear. We took advantage of a large population-based screening cohort to determine whether these risk factors also increase the risk of the poor prognosis subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study nested within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program during 2006-2014. A total of 4 402 breast cancer cases with risk factor and receptor data were identified...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jana Biermann, Szilárd Nemes, Toshima Z Parris, Hanna Engqvist, Elisabeth Werner Rönnerman, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Gunnar Steineck, Per Karlsson, Khalil Helou
BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling has made considerable contributions to our understanding of cancer biology and clinical care. This study describes a novel gene expression signature for breast cancer-specific survival that was validated using external datasets. METHODS: Gene expression signatures for invasive breast carcinomas (mainly Luminal B subtype) corresponding to 136 patients were analysed using Cox regression and the effect of each gene on disease-specific survival (DSS) was estimated...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
David R Lairson, Chi-Fang Wu, Wenyaw Chan, Kristina R Dahlstrom, Samantha Tam, Erich M Sturgis
Background: The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer is rising rapidly, with the majority of cases being attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV). Despite the availability of a vaccine, rates of HPV vaccination among Texas youth are low. The healthcare cost of oropharyngeal cancer in Texas is unknown. The aims of this study were to estimate the first 2-year cost of treating new cases of oropharyngeal cancer and determine the predictors of oropharyngeal cancer treatment cost in Texas.Methods: This study included a retrospective cohort of 467 Texas patients with commercial insurance claims data with oropharyngeal cancer diagnosed from 2011 to 2014 and a control group of 467 noncancer patients obtained with propensity score matching...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Katie M O'Brien, Dale P Sandler, H Karimi Kinyamu, Jack A Taylor, Clarice R Weinberg
BACKGROUND: We previously observed that high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (>38.0 ng/mL) was inversely associated with breast cancer. Here, we examined effect modification by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D-related genes. METHODS: The Sister Study enrolled 50,884 US women who had a sister with breast cancer, but who had never had breast cancer themselves. Using a case-cohort design, we compared 1,524 women who developed breast cancer within 5 years to 1,810 randomly selected participants...
August 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jonathan Shoag, Oleksander Savenkov, Paul J Christos, Sameer Mittal, Joshua A Halpern, Gulce Askin, Daniel Shoag, Ron Golan, Daniel J Lee, Padraic O'Malley, Bobby Najari, Brian Eisner, Jim C Hu, Douglas Scherr, Peter Schlegel, Christopher E Barbieri
BACKGROUND: Vasectomy has been implicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer in multiple epidemiologic studies over the past 25 years. Whether this relationship is causal remains unclear. This study examines the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer in the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial, which randomized men to usual care or annual prostate cancer screening. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 13-year screening and outcomes data from the PLCO trial...
August 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Michael B Cook, Frank Z Stanczyk, Shannon N Wood, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Muhannad Hafi, Carmela C Veneroso, Barlow Lynch, Roni T Falk, Cindy Ke Zhou, Shelley Niwa, Eric Emanuel, Yu-Tang Gao, George P Hemstreet, Ladan Zolfghari, Peter R Carroll, Michael J Manyak, Isabell A Sesterhenn, Paul H Levine, Ann W Hsing
Background Sex hormones have been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, yet epidemiological studies have not provided substantiating evidence. We tested the hypothesis that circulating concentrations of sex steroid hormones reflect intraprostatic concentrations using serum and adjacent microscopically-verified benign prostate tissue from prostate cancer cases. Methods Incident localized prostate cancer cases scheduled for surgery were invited to participate. Consented participants completed surveys, and provided resected tissues and blood...
August 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jie Cheng, Qiuqiong Tang, Xue Cao, Barbara Burwinkel
BACKGROUND: Cell-free DNA integrity (cfDI) has been identified as a potential diagnostic biomarker for different types of cancer as the importance of liquid biopsy. METHODS: This systematic review aims to assess the diagnostic performance of cfDI in cancer. After an extensive literature search until 28th February, 2017, 25 articles including 40 studies were included. The description of all the studies was analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratios, weighted symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) of cfDI in these studies were calculated...
August 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Lu Chen, Jessica Chubak, Denise M Boudreau, William E Barlow, Noel S Weiss, Christopher I Li
BACKGROUND: It is unclear if use of common antihypertensive medications influences the risk of adverse breast cancer outcomes. METHODS: Using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified 14,766 women between ages 66 and 80 years diagnosed with incident stage I/II breast cancer between 2007-2011. Medicare Part D data were obtained to characterize women's post-cancer use of various antihypertensive medications. Outcomes included a second breast cancer event (SBCE, a composite outcome defined as the first of a recurrence or a second contralateral primary breast cancer), breast cancer recurrence, and breast-cancer specific mortality...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Irēna Meistere, Simone Werner, Pawel Zayakin, Karīna Siliņa, Undīne Rulle, Angelina Pismennaja, Daiga Šantare, Ilze Kikuste, Sergejs Isajevs, Marcis Leja, Limas Kupčinskas, Juozas Kupčinskas, Laimas Jonaitis, Chun-Ying Wu, Hermann Brenner, Aija Linē, Zane Kalniņa
BACKGROUND: Serum autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are detectable in early stage gastric cancer patients; however, the time point during cancerogenesis when they appear in circulation is still obscure. METHODS: In this study, we developed a recombinant antigen microarray and analyzed the prevalence of autoantibodies against 102 TAAs in 829 gastric cancer patients and 929 healthy controls from Caucasian and Asian populations, as well as 100 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and 775 individuals staged according to different grades of intestinal metaplasia...
August 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Elizabeth A Platz, Ibrahim Kulac, John R Barber, Charles G Drake, Corinne E Joshu, William G Nelson, M Scott Lucia, Eric A Klein, Scott M Lippman, Howard L Parnes, Ian M Thompson, Phyllis J Goodman, Catherine M Tangen, Angelo M De Marzo
BACKGROUND: We leveraged two trials to test the hypothesis of an inflammation-prostate cancer link prospectively in men without indication for biopsy. METHODS: Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) participants who had an end-of-study biopsy performed per protocol that was negative for cancer and who subsequently enrolled in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) were eligible. We selected all 100 cases and sampled 200 frequency-matched controls and used PCPT end-of-study biopsies as "baseline"...
July 28, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Samantha A Streicher, Alison P Klein, Sara H Olson, Laufey T Amundadottir, Andrew T DeWan, Hongyu Zhao, Harvey A Risch
BACKGROUND: The higher risk of pancreatic cancer in Ashkenazi Jews compared to non-Jews is only partially explained by the increased frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Ashkenazi Jews. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of 16 established pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci in a case-control sample of American Jews, largely Ashkenazi, including 406 full-Jewish pancreatic cancer patients and 2,332 full-Jewish controls, genotyped as part of the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort and Case-Control Consortium I/II (PanScan I/II), Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4), and Resource for Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) data sets...
July 28, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Gökhan Ertaylan, Charlotte Le Cornet, Eline H van Roekel, Audrey Y Jung, Martijn J L Bours, Antje Damms-Machado, Piet A van den Brandt, Helena Schock, Theo M de Kok, Jan Theys, Ilja C W Arts, Rudolf Kaaks, Matty P Weijenberg, Renée Turzanski Fortner
The World Cancer Research Fund International and the University of Bristol have developed a novel framework for providing an overview of mechanistic pathways and conducting a systematic literature review of the biologically plausible mechanisms underlying exposure-cancer associations. Two teams independently applied the two-stage framework on mechanisms underpinning the association between body fatness and breast cancer to test the framework feasibility and reproducibility as part of a WCRF-Commissioned validation study...
July 28, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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