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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

Ana Gradíssimo, Jessica Lam, John D Attonito, Joel Palefsky, L Stewart Massad, Xianhong Xie, Isam-Eldin Eltoum, Lisa Rahangdale, Margaret A Fischl, Kathryn Anastos, Howard Minkoff, Xiaonan Xue, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Lisa C Flowers, Christine Colie, Sadeep Shrestha, Nancy A Hessol, Howard D Strickler, Robert D Burk
BACKGROUND: HIV-positive women are at substantial risk of HPV-associated cervical neoplasia caused by high-risk (HR) HPVs. Methylation of the HPV genome is associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) in HIV-negative women, yet it is unknown whether this holds true for HIV-positive women. METHODS: We designed a case-control study within the WIHS cohort comparing HIV-positive CIN3 cases (N=72) to HIV-positive controls without detectable CIN2+...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Babatunde O Akinwunmi, Ana Babic, Allison F Vitonis, Daniel W Cramer, Linda Titus, Shelley S Tworoger, Kathryn L Terry
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials using the biomarker CA125, with or without pelvic ultrasound, have failed to show a clear benefit of general population screening for ovarian cancer. In part this may be due to a lack of information about conditions, besides ovarian cancer, that can alter CA125 levels and affect specificity or sensitivity. We evaluated the association between common medical conditions and CA125 levels among women without ovarian cancer. METHODS: We used data and specimens from 2,004 women without ovarian cancer who participated in the New England Case Control study between 1992 and 2008...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Mark A Guinter, Dale P Sandler, Alexander C McLain, Anwar T Merchant, Susan E Steck
Background: The results of previous studies on diet and postmenopausal breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, but there is some evidence that dietary patterns developed to correlate with estrogen levels are associated with breast cancer. We aimed to examine the association of a previously developed estrogen-related dietary pattern (ERDP) with postmenopausal breast cancer in the Sister Study. Methods: The ERDP was calculated from food frequency questionnaire responses among Sister Study participants without a personal history of cancer and who contributed postmenopausal person-time at risk...
September 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Daolu Yuwen, Yuzhu Ma, Deqiang Wang, Jian Gao, Xin Li, Wenwen Xue, Minmin Fan, Qiang Xu, Yan Shen, Yongqian Shu
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based doublets with a third-generation agent are the recommended option for many NSCLC patients with no contraindications to platinum compounds. Unfortunately, the clinical effectiveness of such chemotherapy is limited by intrinsic or acquired resistance. METHODS: Circulating exosomal miRNAs were isolated and used to perform HiSeq deep sequencing analyses on serum pool samples from platinum-resistant or platinum-sensitive patients, and six exosomal miRNAs were further validated for their predictive utility by RT-qPCR in 170 serum samples of advanced NSCLC patients...
September 18, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Rachel Denholm, Bianca L De Stavola, John H Hipwell, Simon J Doran, Jeff Mp Holly, Elizabeth Folkerd, Mitch Dowsett, Martin O Leach, David J Hawkes, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva
BACKGROUND: Endogenous hormones are associated with breast cancer risk, but little is known about their role on breast-tissue composition, a strong risk predictor. This study aims to investigate the relationship between growth and sex hormone levels and breast-tissue composition in young nulliparous women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 415 young (aged ~21.5 years) nulliparous women from an English pre-birth cohort underwent a magnetic resonance imaging examination of their breasts to estimate percent-water (a proxy for mammographic percent-density) and provided a blood sample to measure plasma levels of growth factors (insulin-like growth-factor-I, insulin-like growth-factor-II, insulin-growth-factor-binding-protein-3, growth-hormone) and, if not on hormonal contraception (n=117) sex-hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, estadiol, sex-hormone-binding-globulin, prolactin)...
September 18, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Juliet A Usher-Smith, Stephen J Sharp, Robert Luben, Simon J Griffin
BACKGROUND: Most risk models for cancer are either specific to individual cancers or include complex or predominantly non-modifiable risk factors. METHODS: We developed lifestyle-based models for the five cancers for which the most cases are potentially preventable through lifestyle change in the UK (lung, colorectal, bladder, kidney and oesophageal for men and breast, lung, colorectal, endometrial and kidney for women). We selected lifestyle risk factors from the European Code against Cancer and obtained estimates of relative risks from meta-analyses of observational studies...
September 13, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Daniela Bond-Smith, Jennifer Stone
BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is an established predictor of breast cancer (BC) risk. However, there is limited information on the robustness of the risk associations for different study designs and the associated methodological challenges. METHODS: Our analysis includes 165 samples from studies published since 2006. We use a weakly-informative Bayesian approach to avoid unduly optimistic estimates of uncertainty, as found in the previous literature. RESULTS: While much of the published literature is based on categorical measurement of MD, there are tangible advantages in using continuous data in terms of estimate precision and relevance for different patient populations...
September 11, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Benjamin C Fu, Timothy W Randolph, Unhee Lim, Kristine R Monroe, Iona Cheng, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Johanna W Lampe, Meredith A J Hullar
BACKGROUND: Measurement reliability and biological stability need to be considered when developing sampling protocols for population-based fecal microbiome studies. METHODS: Stool samples were collected biannually over a two-year period and sequenced for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene in 50 participants from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. We evaluated the temporal stability of the fecal microbiome on a community level with permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), as well as on taxa and diversity measures with intraclass correlation coefficients...
September 11, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jie-Bin Lew, D James B St John, Finlay A Macrae, Jon D Emery, Hooi C Ee, Mark A Jenkins, Emily He, Paul Grogan, Michael Caruana, Marjolein Je Greuter, Veerle M H Coupe, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program(NBCSP) is rolling out 2-yearly immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test screening in people 50-74 years. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness of extending the NBCSP to younger and/or older ages. METHODS: A comprehensive validated microsimulation model, Policy1-Bowel, was used to simulate the fully rolled-out NBCSP and alternative strategies assuming screening starts at 45 or 40 years and/or ceases at 79 or 84 years given three scenarios:(i) perfect adherence(100%), (ii) high adherence(60%), and (ii) low adherence(40%, as currently achieved)...
September 6, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Yichen Guo, Ruyang Zhang, Sipeng Shen, Yongyue Wei, Sebastian Moran Salama, Thomas Fleischer, Maria Moksnes Bjaanæs, Anna Karlsson, Maria Planck, Li Su, Zhaozhong Zhu, Johan Staaf, Åslaug Helland, Manel Esteller, David C Christiani
BACKGROUND: Previous studies support a tumor-suppressor role for LRRC3B across various types of cancers. We aim to investigate the association between DNA methylation of LRRC3B and overall survival for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. METHODS: This study included 1,230 early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. DNA was extracted from lung tumor tissues and DNA methylation was measured using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The association between DNA methylation and overall survival was first tested using Cox regression on a discovery cohort and then validated in an independent cohort...
September 5, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Sandi L Pruitt, Claudia L Werner, Eric K Borton, Joanne M Sanders, Bijal A Balasubramanian, Arti Barnes, Andrea C Betts, Celette Sugg Skinner, Jasmin A Tiro
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of cervical cancer at safety-net health systems requires careful analysis to best inform prevention and quality improvement efforts. We characterized cervical cancer burden and identified opportunities for prevention in a U.S. safety-net system. METHODS: We reviewed tumor registry and electronic health record (EHR) data of women with invasive cervical cancer ages 18+ diagnosed 2010-2015 in a large, integrated urban safety-net. We developed an algorithm to: (a) classify whether women had been engaged in care (≥1 clinical encounter between 6 months and 5 years before cancer diagnosis); and (b) identify missed opportunities (no screening, no follow-up, failure of a test to detect cancer, treatment failure) and associated factors among engaged patients...
September 5, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Victoria L Champion, Shannon M Christy, William Rakowski, Wambui G Gathirua-Mwangi, Will L Tarver, Lisa Carter-Harris, Andrea A Cohee, Andrew R Marley, Nenette M Jessup, Erika Biederman, Carla D Kettler, Timothy E Stump, Patrick Monahan, David R Lairson, Susan M Rawl
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer mortality could be decreased with risk-appropriate cancer screening. We examined the efficacy of three tailored interventions compared to Usual Care for increasing screening adherence. METHODS: Women (n=1196) ages 51 to 74, from primary care networks and non-adherent to colorectal cancer guidelines were randomized to: 1) Usual Care, 2) tailored Web intervention, 3) tailored Phone intervention, or 4) tailored Web + Phone intervention...
September 4, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Patricia Erickson, Lisa D Gardner, Christopher A Loffredo, Diane Marie St George, Elise D Bowman, Janaki Deepak, Khadijah A Mitchell, Claire L Meaney, Patricia Langenberg, Debra H Bernat, Sania Amr, Brid M Ryan
BACKGROUND: African Americans (AA) experience higher incidence and mortality of lung cancer as compared with European Americans (EA). Inflammation is associated with lung cancer, many aspects of which differ between AA and EA. We investigated whether use, frequency, and duration of the anti-inflammatory drug aspirin was associated with lung cancer risk and survival, separately among AA and EA populations. METHODS: Using data from the Maryland Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Case-Control Study (1,220 cases [404 AA and 816 EA] and 1,634 controls [1,004 EA and 630 AA]), we estimated the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the associations between aspirin use and NSCLC risk and survival, respectively...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Meira Epplein, Julia Butt, Yang Zhang, Laura H Hendrix, Christian C Abnet, Gwen Murphy, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Shoichiro Tsugane, You-Lin Qiao, Philip R Taylor, Taichi Shimazu, Keun-Young Yoo, Sue K Park, Jeongseon Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Tim Waterboer, Michael Pawlita, Wei-Cheng You, Kai-Feng Pan
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the leading cause of gastric cancer, yet the majority of infected individuals will not develop neoplasia. Previously we developed and replicated serologic H. pylori biomarkers for gastric cancer risk among prospective cohorts in East Asia, and now seek to validate the performance of these biomarkers in identifying individuals with premalignant lesions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,402 individuals from Linqu County screened by upper endoscopy...
August 29, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Alexandra M Binder, Camila Corvalan, Ana Pereira, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, John Shepherd, Karin B Michels
BACKGROUND: During puberty, mammary tissue undergoes rapid development, which provides a window of heightened susceptibility of breast composition to the influence of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may affect breast development and composition and the risk of developing breast cancer in adulthood. METHODS: We evaluated the associations between breast density and urinary concentrations of phenols and phthalates collected at Tanner 1 (B1) and Tanner 4 (B4) in 200 Chilean girls...
August 29, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Amy E Hughes, Jasmin A Tiro, Bijal A Balasubramanian, Celette Sugg Skinner, Sandi L Pruitt
BACKGROUND: Social disadvantage predicts colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes across the cancer care continuum for many populations and places. For medically underserved populations, social disadvantage is likely intersectional- affecting individuals at multiple levels and through membership in multiple disadvantaged groups. However, most measures of social disadvantage are cross-sectional and limited to race, ethnicity, and income. Linkages between electronic health records (EHRs) and external datasets offer rich, multilevel measures that may be more informative...
August 22, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Keiko Wada, Michiko Tsuji, Takashi Tamura, Kie Konishi, Yuko Goto, Fumi Mizuta, Sachi Koda, Takahiro Uji, Akihiro Hori, Shinobu Tanabashi, Shogen Matsushita, Naoki Tokimitsu, Chisato Nagata
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence suggesting that soy isoflavones play a protective role in the development of cancer. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between soy isoflavone intake and bladder cancer. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of soy and isoflavone intakes with bladder cancer incidence in a population-based prospective study in Japan. Subjects were 14,233 men and 16,584 women aged 35 years or older in September 1992...
August 21, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Shiyang Zhang, Ying Liu, Shumei Yun, Min Lian, Goldie Komaie, Graham A Colditz
BACKGROUND: To examine associations of neighborhood characteristics with treatment and outcomes of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS). METHODS: From the Missouri Cancer Registry, we identified 9,195 women with DCIS diagnosed between 1996 and 2011. A composite index using US Census data and American Community Survey data was developed to assess census tract-level socioeconomic deprivation, and rural-urban commuting area codes were used to define rural census tracts...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Robert J Rounbehler, Anders E Berglund, Travis Gerke, Mandeep M Takhar, Shivanshu Awasthi, Weimin Li, Elai Davicioni, Nicholas G Erho, Ashley E Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Eric A Klein, R Jeffrey Karnes, Robert B Jenkins, John L Cleveland, Jong Y Park, Kosj Yamoah
BACKGROUND: We studied the utility of the tumor suppressor Tristetraprolin (TTP, ZFP36) as a clinically relevant biomarker of aggressive disease in prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: TTP RNA expression was measured in an RP cohort of patients treated at Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) and obtained from six publically available RP datasets with biochemical recurrence (BCR) (total n=1,394) and/or metastatic outcome data (total n=1,222)...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Charles E Matthews, Joshua N Sampson, Darren R Brenner, Steven C Moore, Kerry S Courneya, Regina G Ziegler, Christine M Friedenreich
BACKGROUND: Lowering endogenous estrogen levels is one mechanism whereby physical activity may lower postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Several prospective studies have suggested that increased 2-hydroxylation of estrogens may also reduce postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but whether or not exercise alters estrogen metabolism through this mechanism is unclear. METHODS: We measured total circulating concentrations of parent estrogens (estrone, estradiol) and 13 estrogen metabolites, including glucuronidated, sulfated, and unconjugated forms, by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 153 postmenopausal women randomized to 12-months of moderate-vigorous exercise and 153 controls...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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