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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

K Robin Yabroff, Jingxuan Zhao, Zhiyuan Zheng, Ashish Rai, Xuesong Han
Rising costs of cancer care have led to increased concerns about medical financial hardship for cancer survivors and their families in the United States. In this commentary, we provide an overview of research describing medical financial hardship and introduce a conceptual framework for identifying risk factors and research gaps at the patient and family, provider and care team, health care system, employer, and state and national policy levels. We then use this framework to highlight measurement and data infrastructure gaps related to hardship, summarize existing interventions to minimize hardship, and identify opportunities for future intervention efforts...
November 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Travis Gerke, Himisha Beltran, Xiaodong Wang, Gwo-Shu Mary Lee, Andrea Sboner, R Jeffrey Karnes, Eric A Klein, Elai Davicioni, Kasra Yousefi, Ashley E Ross, Daniela Börnigen, Curtis Huttenhower, Lorelei A Mucci, Bruce J Trock, Christopher J Sweeney
PURPOSE: Inflammation is linked to prostate cancer (PrCa) progression and is mediated by Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFκB). Tristetraprolin is a key node of NFκB activation and we investigated its biological and prognostic role in lethal PrCa. METHODS: In vitro assays assessed the function of tristetraprolin and the association between low mRNA tristetraprolin levels and lethal PrCa (metastatic disease or death) was assessed across independent prostatectomy cohorts: (i) nested case-control studies from Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study, and (ii) prostatectomy samples from Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Johns Hopkins and MSKCC...
November 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Kyoung Jin Kim, Jinyoung Shin, Jaekyung Choi
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence of an association between cancer risk and long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone (O3) according to obesity and health-related behaviors. METHODS: In the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey, survey data on socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and previous cancer history were collected from 100,867 participants. Daily average concentrations of PM10 and O3 (2003-2012) were obtained from the Korean Air Pollutants Emission Service...
November 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Marjorie L McCullough, Rebecca A Hodge, Caroline Y Um, Susan M Gapstur
BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, an industrial chemical and probable human carcinogen, can be formed in primarily carbohydrate-containing foods during high heat cooking or processing. Most epidemiological studies show no associations of dietary acrylamide intake with most cancer outcomes, but limited prospective evidence suggests a positive association with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: In 1999, 102,154 men and women from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort completed a questionnaire on diet, lifestyle and cancer risk factors and were followed through June 30, 2013...
November 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Shivanshu Awasthi, Travis Gerke, Jong Y Park, Francis A Asamoah, Vonetta L Williams, Angelina K Fink, Rajesh Balkrishnan, David I Lee, S Bruce Malkowicz, Priti Lal, Jasreman Dhillon, Julio M Pow-Sang, Timothy R Rebbeck, Kosj Yamoah
BACKGROUND: The impact of treatment delays on Prostate Cancer (PCa) specific outcomes remains ill-defined. This study investigates the effect of time to treatment on biochemical disease control after prostatectomy. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 1,807 patients who received a prostatectomy as a primary treatment at two large tertiary referral centers from 1987 - 2015. Multivariate cox model with restricted cubic spline were used to identify optimal time to receive treatment and estimate the risk of Biochemical recurrence...
November 9, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Markus Dines Knudsen, Anette Hjartåker, Kathryn A Robb, Thomas de Lange, Geir Hoff, Paula Berstad
Background: Cancer screening provides an opportunity to increase awareness of cancer-preventive lifestyle behaviors such as nonsmoking, physical activity, low alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet. We tested the effect of standardized, individually tailored written feedback (TF), and a standard leaflet (SL) on 1-year lifestyle behaviors in a colorectal cancer screening setting. Methods: A total of 3,642 men and women aged 50-74 years invited to sigmoidoscopy screening were randomly assigned to: (i) TF; (ii) SL for cancer-preventive lifestyle behaviors; or (iii) control...
November 2, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Yadira X Perez-Paramo, Gang Chen, Joseph H Ashmore, Christy J W Watson, Shamema Nasrin, Jennifer Adams-Haduch, Renwei Wang, Yu-Tang Gao, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, Philip Lazarus
BACKGROUND: The major mode of metabolism of nicotine is by hydroxylation via cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6, but it can also undergo glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and oxidation by flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The goal of this study was to examine the potential importance of FMOs in nicotine metabolism and assess the potential impact of missense polymorphisms in active FMOs on nicotine-N'-oxide formation. METHODS: Urine samples from 106 current Chinese smokers were analyzed for nicotine metabolites by mass spectrometry (MS)...
October 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Maria M Gramatges, Lindsay M Morton, Yutaka Yasui, Michael A Arnold, Joseph P Neglia, Wendy M Leisenring, Mitchell J Machiela, Casey L Dagnall, Stephen J Chanock, Gregory T Armstrong, Leslie L Robison, Smita Bhatia, Philip J Lupo
BACKGROUND: Given the inverse relationship previously described between telomere content and thyroid subsequent malignant neoplasm (thyroid SMN) in survivors of childhood cancer, we investigated the relationship between known genetic determinants of leukocyte telomere length and thyroid SMN among survivors. METHODS: Leveraging data from a large, genotyped survivor cohort, the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we used a well-described genetic risk score method to estimate the hazard ratio for thyroid SMN among 5,324 genotyped survivors...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Electra D Paskett, Gregory S Young, Brittany M Bernardo, Chasity Washington, Cecilia R DeGraffinreid, James L Fisher, Timothy R Huerta
BACKGROUND: Ohio, the catchment area of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center (OSUCCC), includes diverse populations with different cancer profiles. As part of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded initiative to conduct population health assessments in cancer center catchment areas, the OSUCCC surveyed residents, focusing on factors contributing to cancer disparities in Ohio populations. METHODS: Two sampling strategies were used: 1) probability sampling of mailing lists and 2) convenience sampling at community events, coupled with phone/in-person/web surveys...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Yanqin Niu, Mingyang Su, Yike Wu, Liwu Fu, Kang Kang, Qing Li, Li Li, Gang Hui, Furong Li, Deming Gou
BACKGROUND: Because of limited stability and sensitivity, circulating miRNAs as noninvasive biomarkers has not so far been used for early diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in clinic. Therefore, it is still imperative to find more reliable biomarker(s). METHODS: We performed one of most sensitive RT-qPCR assays, S-Poly(T) Plus to selected differently expressed miRNAs from genome-wide miRNA profiling. miRNA candidates were validated through a three-phase selection and two-validation process with 437 NSCLC cases and 415 controls...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jinpeng Liu, Thilakam Murali, Tianxin Yu, Chunming Liu, Theru A Sivakumaran, Hunter N B Moseley, Igor B Zhulin, Heidi L Weiss, Eric B Durbin, Sally R Ellingson, Jinze Liu, Bin Huang, Brent J Hallahan, Craig M Horbinski, Kurt Hodges, Dana L Napier, Thèrése Bocklage, Joseph Mueller, Nathan Vanderford, David W Fardo, Chi Wang, Susanne M Arnold
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States (US). Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) represents 22.6% of all lung cancers nationally, and 26.4% in Appalachian Kentucky (AppKY), where death from lung cancer is exceptionally high. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) characterized genetic alterations in lung SQCC, but this cohort did not focus on AppKY residents. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on tumor and normal DNA samples from 51 lung SQCC subjects from AppKY...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Michael T Marrone, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Stephan Ehrhardt, Corinne E Joshu, Timothy R Rebbeck, Thomas A Sellers, Elizabeth A Platz
BACKGROUND: Research reproducibility is vital for translation of epidemiologic findings. However, repeated studies of the same question may be undertaken without enhancing existing knowledge. To identify settings in which additional research is or is not warranted, we adapted research synthesis metrics to determine number of additional observational studies needed to change the inference from an existing meta-analysis. METHODS: The fail-safe number (FSN) estimates number of additional studies of average weight and null effect needed to drive a statistically significant meta-analysis to null (P≥0...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Erika L Moen, Nirav S Kapadia, A James O'Malley, Tracy Onega
BACKGROUND: Variation in cancer care coordination may impact care quality and patient outcomes. We sought to characterize the impact of geographic access to and dispersion of cancer care providers on variation in care coordination. METHODS: Using electronic health record data from 2,507 women diagnosed with breast cancer at a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center from April 2011 to September 2015, a breast cancer patient-sharing physician network was constructed...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Mollie E Barnard, Jonathan L Hecht, Megan S Rice, Mamta Gupta, Holly R Harris, A Heather Eliassen, Bernard A Rosner, Kathryn L Terry, Shelley S Tworoger
Background: NSAID use may affect ovarian cancer risk via prostaglandin synthesis and tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration. We evaluated if associations between aspirin or non-aspirin NSAID use and ovarian cancer risk differed by tumor expression of prostaglandin-related (COX1, COX2) and TAM-related (CD68, CD163) markers. Methods: We evaluated cases and matched controls from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHSII, and New England Case-Control Study (NECC). Cases with IHC data on COX1 and COX2 ( n = 532) or CD68 and CD163 ( n = 530) were included...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Erika Del Castillo, Richard Meier, Mei Chung, Devin C Koestler, Tsute Chen, Bruce J Paster, Kevin Charpentier, Karl T Kelsey, Jacques Izard, Dominique S Michaud
BACKGROUND: In mice, bacteria from the mouth can translocate to the pancreas and impact pancreatic cancer progression. In humans, oral bacteria associated with periodontal disease have been linked to pancreatic cancer risk. It is not known if DNA bacterial profiles in the pancreas and duodenum are similar within individuals. METHODS: Tissue samples were obtained from 50 subjects with pancreatic cancer or other conditions requiring foregut surgery at the Rhode Island Hospital (RIH), and from thirty-four organs obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange...
October 29, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Charleen Adams, Rebecca C Richmond, Diana L Santos Ferreira, Wes Spiller, Vanessa Y Tan, Jie Zheng, Peter Wurtz, Jenny L Donovan, Freddie C Hamdy, David E Neal, J Athene Lane, George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton, Rosalind A Eeles, Brian E Henderson, Christopher A Haiman, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ali Amin Al Olama, Sara Benlloch, Kenneth Muir, Sonja I Berndt, David V Conti, Fredrik Wiklund, Stephen J Chanock, Susan M Gapstur, Victoria L Stevens, Catherine M Tangen, Jyotsna Batra, Judith A Clements, Henrik Grönberg, Nora Pashayan, Johanna Schleutker, Demetrius Albanes, Alicja Wolk, Catharine M L West, Lorelei A Mucci, Geraldine Cancel-Tassin, Stella Koutros, Karina D Sørensen, Lovise Maehle, Ruth C Travis, Robert Hamilton, Sue Ann Ingles, Barry S Rosenstein, Yong-Jie Lu, Graham G Giles, Adam S Kibel, Ana Vega, Manolis Kogevinas, Kathryn L Penney, Jong Y Park, Janet L Stanford, Cezary Cybulski, Borge G Nordestgaard, Hermann Brenner, Christiane Maier, Jeri Kim, Esther M John, Manuel R Teixeira, Susan L Neuhausen, Kim DeRuyck, Azad Razack, Lisa F Newcomb, Davor Lessel, Radka P Kaneva, Nawaid Usmani, Frank Claessens, Paul Townsend, Manuela Gago Dominguez, Monique J Roobol, Florence Menegaux, Kay-Tee Khaw, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, Hardev Pandha, Stephen N Thibodeau, Richard M Martin
BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial...
October 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Richard B Warnecke, Richard T Campbell, Ganga Vijayasiri, Richard E Barrett, Garth H Rauscher
BACKGROUND: There is a substantial racial/ethnic disparity in female breast cancer mortality in Chicago between Non-Hispanic Black (NHBlack) and Hispanic patients compared to their Non-Hispanic White (NHWhite) counterparts prompting a multilevel examination of factors that might account for the disparity, with the goal of identifying potential policy interventions that might meaningfully address it Methods:In the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago study, 411 NHBlack, 397 NHWhite and 181 Hispanic patients diagnosed between the ages of 30-79 were interviewed, and medical records were abstracted information on screening and diagnostic follow-up...
October 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jette Brommann Kornum, Dora K Farkas, Claus Sværke, Marianne T Severinsen, Reimar Wernich Thomsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BACKGROUND: An elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may be a marker of occult cancer. METHODS: We linked Danish medical databases to examine cancer incidence in patients with a first-time hospital contact for elevated ESR during 1980-2013. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer compared with the general population, and comorbidity-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) versus matched population comparisons without elevated ESR. We also compared survival among cancer patients with elevated ESR with that among cancer patients without elevated ESR...
October 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Ji-Man Kang, Johyun Ha, Eung Kyung Hong, Hee Young Ju, Byung Kiu Park, Sang-Hoon Shin, Young-Joo Won, Kyu-Won Jung, Hyeon Jin Park
BACKGROUND: We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of childhood brain tumors (CBTs) in Korea, and compared our findings to those from the US. METHODS: We searched the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database of the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) from 2005 to 2014, which included all Korean patients with CBT aged 0-19 years at diagnosis. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and the 5-year relative survival rate (RSRs) were determined. The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) classification and definitions were applied to allow direct comparison with US data...
October 22, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Wen-Qing Li, Eunyoung Cho, Shaowei Wu, Suyun Li, Natalie H Matthews, Abrar A Qureshi
Background Several host characteristics, including pigmentary traits (hair color, sunburn susceptibility and tanning ability), number of common nevi (moles), and family history of melanoma, have been associated with risk of melanoma. Methods We prospectively examined the associations between host characteristics and risk of incident melanoma by Breslow thickness (≤1mm, thin melanoma; or >1mm, "thicker melanoma") based on the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n=86,380 women), NHS-II (n=104,100 women), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n=46,934 men)...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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