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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

Devon J Boyne, Dylan E O'Sullivan, Branko F Olij, Will D King, Christine M Friedenreich, Darren R Brenner
BACKGROUND: The extent to which physical activity reduces breast cancer risk through changes in global DNA methylation is unknown. METHODS: We systematically identified studies that investigated the association between: 1) physical activity and global DNA methylation; or 2) global DNA methylation and breast cancer risk. Associations were quantified using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was investigated through subgroup analyses and the Q-test and I2 statistics...
July 10, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Dong-Hee Ryu, Hee Tae Yu, Se-A Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Seon-Hui Hong, Young-Ran Yoon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hyo-Bang Moon, Eui-Cheol Shin, Duk-Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: T cell immunosenescence, i.e., a hallmark of aging immune system, is potentially linked to the risk of developing cancer and other aging-related diseases. Chronic infection by cytomegalovirus(CMV) has been widely studied as a risk factor for T cell immunosenescence, but the role of persistent chemicals has never been examined. As a typical example of persistent chemicals, we evaluated whether organochlorine pesticides(OCPs) are related to T cell immunosenescence in the general population...
July 10, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Freja Lærke Sand, Christina Louise Rasmussen, Marie Hoffmann Frederiksen, Klaus Kaae Andersen, Susanne Krüger Kjær
It has been shown that HPV and p16 status has prognostic value in some HPV-associated cancers. However, studies examining survival in men with penile cancer according to HPV or p16 status are often inconclusive, mainly because of small study populations. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the association between HPV DNA and p16 status and survival in men diagnosed with penile cancer. Multiple electronic databases were searched. Twenty studies were ultimately included and study-specific and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of overall survival and disease specific survival (DSS) were calculated using a fixed effects model...
July 9, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Rebecca J Bergin, Jon Emery, Ruth C Bollard, Alina Zalounina Falborg, Henry Jensen, David Weller, Usha Menon, Peter Vedsted, Robert J Thomas, Kathryn Whitfield, Victoria White
BACKGROUND: Longer cancer pathways may contribute to rural-urban survival disparities, but research in this area is lacking. We investigated time to diagnosis and treatment for rural and urban patients with colorectal or breast cancer in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Population-based surveys (2013-2014) of patients (aged ≥40, approached within six months of diagnosis), primary care physicians (PCP), and specialists were collected as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership, Module 4...
July 9, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Petra Vychytilova-Faltejskova, Karolina Stitkovcova, Lenka Radova, Milana Sachlova, Zdenka Kosarova, Katerina Slaba, Zdenek Kala, Marek Svoboda, Igor Kiss, Rostislav Vyzula, William C S Cho, Ondrej Slaby
BACKGROUND: The early detection of colon cancer is one of the main prerequisites for successful treatment and mortality reduction. Circulating PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) were recently identified as novel promising biomarkers. The purpose of the study was to assess the profiles of piRNAs in blood serum of colon cancer patients with the aim to identify those with high diagnostic potential. METHODS: Blood serum samples from 403 colon cancer patients and 276 healthy donors were included in this 3‑phase biomarker study...
July 5, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Brooke L Fridley, Junqiang Dai, Rama Raghavan, Qian Li, Stacey J Winham, Xiaonan Hou, S John Weroha, Chen Wang, Kimberly R Kalli, Julie M Cunningham, Kate Lawrenson, Simon A Gayther, Ellen L Goode
BACKGROUND: Endometrioid carcinoma (EC) and clear cell carcinoma (CC) histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer are understudied compared to the more common high grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). We therefore sought to characterize EC and CC transcriptomes in relation to HGSC. METHODS: Following bioinformatics processing and gene abundance normalization, differential expression analysis of RNA sequence data collected on fresh frozen tumors was completed with nonparametric statistical analysis methods (55 ECs, 19 CCs, 112 HGSCs)...
July 2, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Sonia A Duffy, Stephanie V Hall, Alai Tan, Andrea H Waltje, Samantha A Cooper, Carolyn J Heckman
Background: Because Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators) are outdoor workers at risk for skin cancer, interventions are needed to promote sun safety. The objectives were to determine changes in sunscreen use and sunburning among Operating Engineers randomized to four conditions in the Sun Solutions study: (i) education only; (ii) education and text message reminders; (ii) education and mailed sunscreen; and (iv) education, text message reminders, and mailed sunscreen. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, Operating Engineers ( N = 357) were recruited at required safety training sessions throughout Michigan during winter/spring of 2012 to 2013 and provided baseline surveys...
June 28, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
James Yarmolinsky, Kaitlin H Wade, Rebecca C Richmond, Ryan J Langdon, Caroline J Bull, Kate M Tilling, Caroline L Relton, Sarah J Lewis, George Davey Smith, Richard M Martin
Observational epidemiological studies are prone to confounding, measurement error, and reverse causation, undermining robust causal inference. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic variants to proxy modifiable exposures to generate more reliable estimates of the causal effects of these exposures on diseases and their outcomes. MR has seen widespread adoption within cardio-metabolic epidemiology, but also holds much promise for identifying possible interventions for cancer prevention and treatment. However, some methodological challenges in the implementation of MR are particularly pertinent when applying this method to cancer aetiology and prognosis, including reverse causation arising from disease latency and selection bias in studies of cancer progression...
June 25, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Kirsti Vik Hjerkind, Merete Ellingjord-Dale, Anna L V Johansson, Hildegunn Siv Aase, Solveig Roth Hoff, Solveig Hofvind, Siri Fagerheim, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Giske Ursin
BACKGROUND: Volumetric mammographic density (VMD) measures can be obtained automatically, but it is not clear how these relate to breast cancer risk factors. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 46 428 women (aged 49-71 years) who participated in BreastScreen Norway between 2007 and 2014 and had information on VMD and breast cancer risk factors. We estimated means of percent and absolute VMD associated with age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and other factors...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Melissa B Gilkey, Mo Zhou, Annie-Laurie McRee, Melanie L Kornides, John F P Bridges
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could prevent most HPV-associated cancers, but few U.S. adolescents are vaccinated according to guidelines. To inform efforts to counsel parents more effectively, we sought to quantify their views on the best and worst reasons for guideline-consistent HPV vaccination. We hypothesized that parents' views would differ according to their vaccination confidence. Methods: We developed a best-worst scaling experiment to evaluate 11 reasons healthcare providers commonly give for HPV vaccination...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Molly Scannell Bryan, Maria Argos, Irene L Andrulis, John L Hopper, Jenny Chang-Claude, Kathleen E Malone, Esther M John, Marilie D Gammon, Mary B Daly, Mary Beth Terry, Saundra S Buys, Dezheng Huo, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Jeanine M Genkinger, Alice S Whittemore, Farzana Jasmine, Muhammad G Kibriya, Lin S Chen, Habibul Ahsan
BACKGROUND: Although germline genetics influences breast cancer incidence, published research only explains approximately half of the expected association. Moreover, the accuracy of prediction models remains low. For women who develop breast cancer early, the genetic architecture is less established. METHODS: To identify loci associated with early-onset breast cancer, gene-based tests were carried out using exome array data from 3479 women with breast cancer diagnosed before age 50 and 973 age-matched controls...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jiaoyuan Li, Jiang Chang, Jianbo Tian, Juntao Ke, Ying Zhu, Yang Yang, Yajie Gong, Danyi Zou, Xiating Peng, Nan Yang, Shufang Mei, Xiaoyang Wang, Liming Cheng, Weiguo Hu, Jing Gong, Rong Zhong, Xiaoping Miao
BACKGROUND: Telomere dysfunction triggers cellular senescence and constitutes a driving force for cancer initiation. Genetic variants in genes involved in telomere maintenance may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. METHODS: In this study, we firstly captured germline mutations in 192 CRC patients by sequencing the coding regions of 13 core components implicated in telomere biology. Five potential functional variants were then genotyped and assessed in a case-control set with 3,761 CRC cases and 3,839 healthy controls...
June 11, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jonathan S Slater, Michael J Parks, Christina L Nelson, Kelly D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Despite lower cancer screening rates and survival rates in the Medicaid population compared to those with private insurance, there is a dearth of population-based evidence-based interventions targeting Medicaid clients to address this problem. METHODS: This study reports results of a population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) among all individuals enrolled in Minnesota's Medicaid program who were overdue for breast cancer (BC; n=22,113) and/or colorectal cancer (CRC; n=94,294) screening...
June 11, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Owen M Wilkins, Alexander J Titus, Lucas A Salas, Jiang Gui, Melissa Eliot, Rondi A Butler, Erich M Sturgis, Guojun Li, Karl T Kelsey, Brock C Christensen
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is commonly diagnosed at an advanced stage and prognosis for such patients is poor. There remains a gap in our understanding of genetic variants related with HNSCC prognosis. MicroRNA-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (miR-SNPs) are a class of genetic variants with gene regulatory potential. We used a genome-scale approach and independent patient populations in a two-stage approach to test 40,286 common miR-SNPs for association with HNSCC survival in the discovery population (n = 847), and selected the strongest associations for replication in validation phase cases (n = 1236)...
June 7, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Katherine J Briant, Janeth I Sanchez, Genoveva Ibarra, Monica Escareño, Nora E Gonzalez, Virginia Jimenez Gonzalez, Nathan Marchello, Stephanie Louie, Beti Thompson
BACKGROUND: Disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates exist among racial/ethnic minorities, especially those living in rural areas. There is an urgent need to implement interventions to improve CRC screening behaviors among such groups, particularly those living in rural areas in the US. METHODS: From a rural community of Hispanics, we recruited participants to attend home-based promotor(a)-led "home health parties" in which participants were taught about CRC screening; participants aged 50 and older were given a free fecal occult blood test (FOBT) kit to complete on their own...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Parth D Shah, William Calo, Macary W Marciniak, Melissa B Gilkey, Noel T Brewer
BACKGROUND: State laws about pharmacists providing HPV vaccine vary considerably, limiting many pharmacists' ability to provide this important cancer prevention service. We characterized physician and parent support for pharmacist-provided HPV vaccination for adolescents who are past due for vaccination. METHODS: In 2014-2015, we conducted two national US surveys of 776 primary care physicians (PCP) and 1,504 parents of adolescents. Respondents indicated the extent to which they supported pharmacist-provided HPV vaccination for 13-17 year olds who are past due...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Maria Sala, Laia Domingo, Javier Louro, Isabel Torá-Rocamora, Marisa Baré, Joana Ferrer, Maria Carmen Carmona-Garcia, Teresa Barata, Marta Román, Francesc Macià, Xavier Castells
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate survival and disease-free survival in different subtypes of interval cancers by breast density, taking into account clinical and biological characteristics. METHODS: We included 374 invasive breast tumors (195 screen-detected cancers; 179 interval cancers, classified into true interval, false-negatives, occult tumors and minimal-sign cancers) diagnosed in women aged 50-69 years undergoing biennial screening from 2000-2009, followed up to 2014...
May 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Lanqing Wang, John T Bernert, Neal L Benowitz, June Feng, Peyton Jacob, Ernest McGahee, Samuel P Caudill, Gerhard Scherer, Max Scherer, Nikola Pluym, Mira V Doig, Kirk Newland, Sharon E Murphy, Nicolas J Caron, Lane C Sander, Makiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Sung Kim, Loralie J Langman, Jeanita S Pritchett, Lorna T Sniegoski, Yao Li, Benjamin Blount, James L Pirkle
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of tobacco exposure have a central role in studies of tobacco use and nicotine intake. The most significant exposure markers are nicotine itself and its metabolites in urine. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the performance of laboratories conducting these biomarker measurements. METHODS: This report presents the results from a method performance study involving 11 laboratories from 6 countries which are currently active in this area...
May 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Taraneh Taghavi, Maria Novalen, Caryn Lerman, Tony P George, Rachel F Tyndale
BACKGROUND: Total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of nicotine and metabolites in urine, is a valuable tool for evaluating nicotine exposure. Most methods for measuring TNE involve two-step enzymatic hydrolysis for indirect quantification of glucuronide metabolites. Here, we describe a rapid, low-cost direct liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay. METHODS: In 139 smokers' urine samples, Bland-Altman, correlation, and regression analyses were used to investigate differences in quantification of nicotine and metabolites, TNE, and nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) between direct and indirect LCMS methods...
May 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jenna Kiridly-Calderbank, Susan R Sturgeon, Candyce H Kroenke, Katherine W Reeves
BACKGROUND: Some prior studies have reported reduced colorectal cancer risk among individuals using antidepressant (AD) medications, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Yet, most studies have not considered the potential role of depression or other confounders in their analyses. METHODS: We utilized prospectively collected data from 145,190 participants in the Women's Health Initiative, among whom 2,580 incident colorectal cancer cases were diagnosed...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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