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Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

Guoqin Yu, Steve Phillips, Mitchell H Gail, James J Goedert, Michael Humphrys, Jacques Ravel, Yanfang Ren, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: The human microbiota is postulated to affect cancer risk, but collecting microbiota specimens with prospective follow-up for diseases will take time. Buccal cell samples have been obtained from mouthwash for the study of human genomic DNA in many cohort studies. Here we evaluate the feasibility of using buccal cell samples to examine associations of human microbiota and disease risk. METHODS: We obtained buccal cells from mouthwash in 41 healthy participants using a protocol that is widely employed to obtain buccal cells for the study of human DNA...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Carolyn M Reyes-Guzman, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Jay Lubin, Neal D Freedman, Sean D Cleary, Paul H Levine, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: Light and/or intermittent smokers have been the fastest growing segment of cigarette smokers in the U.S. over the past two decades. Defining their behavioral characteristics is a critical public health priority. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our sample included 78,229 U.S. adults from three pooled contemporary population-based surveys: the 2012 NHIS, 2012 NSDUH, and 2011-2012 NHANES. We classified current smokers into four categories (light and intermittent [LITS], light-daily, heavier-intermittent and heavier-daily) and assessed smoking behaviors, illicit drug use, and mental health indicators using weighted analyses...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Xuesong Han, Ahmedin Jemal, Erin Hulland, Edgar P Simard, Loretta Nastoupil, Elizabeth M Ward, Christopher R Flowers
BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has extended the life expectancy of HIV/AIDS patients to approach that of the general population. However, it remains unclear whether HIV infection affects the survival of lymphoma patients in the HAART era. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt lymphoma (BL), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) or follicular lymphoma (FL) during 2004-2011 were identified from the National Cancer Database...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Zebo Huang, Danxia Zhu, Lirong Wu, Mingfeng He, Xin Zhou, Lan Zhang, Huo Zhang, Weiwei Wang, Jun Zhu, Wenfang Cheng, Yan Chen, Yong Fan, Lianwen Qi, Yin Yin, Wei Zhu, Yongqian Shu, Ping Liu
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum may serve as promising diagnostic biomarkers for patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) based Exiqon panel, we identified 58 differentially expressed miRNAs from 3 GC pool samples and 1 normal control (NC) pool in the initial screening phase. Identified miRNAs were further validated in the training (49 GC VS. 47 NCs) and validation phases (154 GC VS...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Katie M O'Brien, Denis R Whelan, Dale P Sandler, Clarice R Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa affect overall and reproductive health and may also affect breast cancer risk. We studied the association between self-reported eating disorders and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: In 2003-2009, the Sister Study enrolled women aged 35-74 who had a sister with breast cancer but had never had it themselves. Using data from 47,813 women, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between eating disorders and invasive breast cancer over a median of 5...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Kimberly A Bertrand, Traci N Bethea, Lucile L Adams-Campbell, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R Palmer
BACKGROUND: Given the disproportionately high incidence of early-onset breast cancer and aggressive subtypes such as estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors in African American (AA) women, elucidation of risk factors for early-onset of specific subtypes of breast cancer is needed. METHODS: We evaluated associations of reproductive, anthropometric, and other factors with incidence of invasive breast cancer by age at onset (<45, {greater than or equal to}45) in 57,708 AA women in the prospective Black Women's Health Study...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Roman Gulati, Heather H Cheng, Paul H Lange, Peter S Nelson, Ruth Etzioni
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in subgroups with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis due to race or genotype are underdeveloped. Our goal was to investigate types of increased PCa risk and implications for targeted screening. METHODS: Computer simulation of subgroups with average and hypothetical increased risk(s) of onset of latent disease, progression, and/or cancer-specific death. For each subgroup, we predicted lifetime probabilities of overdiagnosis and life saved under more and less intensive PSA screening strategies...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Kathrin Günther, Ronja Foraita, Juliane Friemel, Frauke Günther, Jörn Bullerdiek, Rolf Nimzyk, Dominique Nadine Markowski, Thomas Behrens, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor high-mobility AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is involved in stem cell renewal and is expressed in many tumor tissues. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) comprise tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and are characterized by high recurrence rates that represent a challenge to patient management. The study addresses the potential of HMGA2 as a molecular biomarker for HNSCC patient survival. METHODS: Patients with HNSCC of the larynx, pharynx, tonsils, or oral cavity were recruited in a hospital-based case-control study (n=202)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Dong-Woo Kang, Junga Lee, Sang-Hoon Suh, Jennifer A Ligibel, Kerry S Courneya, Justin Y Jeon
BACKGROUND: Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-axis, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers are associated with breast cancer. Given that physical activity improve prognosis of breast cancer survivors, we investigated the effects of exercise on these markers as potential mediators between physical activity and breast cancer. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and SportDiscus were searched up to December 3, 2015 to identify RCTs that investigated the effect of exercise on insulin, insulin-like growth factor axis, and cytokines in breast cancer survivors...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne, Jon M Davison, Jeffrey W Prichard, Lia M Reese, Yi Zhang, Kathleen A Repa, Jinhong Li, David L Diehl, Nirag C Jhala, Gregory Ginsberg, Maureen DeMarshall, Tyler Foxwell, Blair A Jobe, Ali H Zaidi, Lucas C Duits, Jacques J G H M Bergman, Anil K Rustgi, Gary W Falk
BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved tools to detect high grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). In previous work, we demonstrated that a 3-tier classifier predicted risk of incident progression in BE. Our aim was to determine if this risk classifier could detect a field effect in non-dysplastic (ND), indefinite for dysplasia (IND) or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) biopsies from BE patients with prevalent HGD/EAC. METHODS: We performed a multi-institutional case-control study to evaluate a previously developed risk classifier that is based upon quantitative image features derived from 9 biomarkers and morphology, and predicts risk for HGD/EAC in BE patients...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Camille Powe, Deirdre K Tobias, Karin Michels, Wendy Y Chen, A Heather Eliassen, JoAnn E Manson, Bernard Rosner, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu, Cuilin Zhang, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Kathryn M Rexrode
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with breast cancer in epidemiologic studies. Pregnancy also modifies breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which shares pathogenesis and risk factors with type 2 diabetes, would have greater invasive breast cancer risk than parous women without a history of GDM. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis among parous women in the Nurses' Health Study II, with mean age 35 years in 1989...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Song-Yi Park, Lynne R Wilkens, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand
BACKGROUND: Evidence has accumulated that long-term use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protects against colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested whether the inverse associations between NSAIDs and CRC is similarly observed across sexes and five racial/ethnic groups (Japanese, Latino, African American, Native Hawaiian, and white) in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. METHODS: During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, we identified 4,882 invasive incident CRC cases among 183,199 eligible participants...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Alfheidur Haraldsdottir, Laufey Steingrimsdottir, Unnur Valdimarsdottir, Thor Aspelund, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Tamara B Harris, Lenore Launer, Lorelei A Mucci, Edward L Giovannucci, Hans-Olov Adami, Vilmundur Gudnason, Johanna E Torfadottir
BACKGROUND: Little is known about fish intake throughout the life course and the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We used data on the first residence of 9,340 women born 1908-1935 in the Reykjavik Study as well as food frequency data for different periods of life from a subgroup of the cohort entering the AGES-Reykjavik Study (n = 2,882). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 27.3 years, 744 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the Reykjavik Study...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Humberto Parada, Patrick T Bradshaw, Lawrence S Engel, Kathleen Conway, Susan E Steck, Susan L Teitelbaum, Alfred I Neugut, Regina M Santella, Marilie D Gammon
BACKGROUND: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is hypothesized to influence survival after breast cancer, but few studies have examined this association. METHODS: A population-based cohort of women (N=1,508) diagnosed with first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997 was interviewed shortly after diagnosis and again approximately 5 years later to assess ETS exposure, and women were followed for over 18 years using the National Death Index; 597 deaths (237 associated with breast cancer) were identified...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Amelia K Smit, David Espinoza, Ainsley J Newson, Rachael L Morton, Georgina Fenton, Lucinda Freeman, Kate Dunlop, Phyllis N Butow, Matthew H Law, Michael G Kimlin, Louise A Keogh, Suzanne J Dobbinson, Judy Kirk, Peter A Kanetsky, Graham J Mann, Anne E Cust
BACKGROUND: Communication of personalised melanoma genomic risk information may improve melanoma prevention behaviours. METHODS: We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of communicating personalised genomic risk of melanoma to the public, and its preliminary impact on behaviours and psychosocial outcomes. 118 people aged 22-69 years provided a saliva sample and were randomised to the control (non-personalised educational materials), or intervention (personalised booklet presenting melanoma genomic risk as absolute and relative risks and a risk category based on variants in 21 genes, telephone-based genetic counselling, and non-personalised educational materials)...
October 4, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Christopher I Amos, Joe Dennis, Zhaoming Wang, Jinyoung Byun, Fredrick R Schumacher, Simon A Gayther, Graham Casey, David J Hunter, Thomas A Sellers, Stephen B Gruber, Alison M Dunning, Kyriaki Michailidou, Laura Fachal, Kimberly Doheny, Amanda B Spurdle, Yafang Li, Xiangjun Xiao, Jane Romm, Elizabeth Pugh, Gerhard A Coetzee, Dennis J Hazelett, Stig E Bojesen, Charlisse Caga-Anan, Christopher A Haiman, Ahsan Kamal, Craig Luccarini, Daniel Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, David J Van Den Berg, Stefanie Nelson, Stephen Demetriades, David E Goldgar, Fergus J Couch, Judith L Forman, Graham G Giles, David V Conti, Heike Bickeböller, Angela Risch, Melanie Waldenberger, Irene Brüske-Hohlfeld, Belynda D Hicks, Hua Ling, Lesley McGuffog, Andrew Lee, Karoline Kuchenbaecker, Penny Soucy, Judith Manz, Julie M Cunningham, Katja Butterbach, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Peter Kraft, Liesel FitzGerald, Sara Lindstrom, Marcia Adams, James D McKay, Catherine M Phelan, Sara Benlloch, Linda E Kelemen, Paul Brennan, Marjorie Riggan, Tracy A O'Mara, Hongbing Shen, Yong-Yong Shi, Deborah J Thompson, Marc T Goodman, Sune F Nielsen, Andrew Berchuck, Sylvie Laboissiere, Stephanie L Schmit, Tameka Shelford, Christopher K Edlund, Jack A Taylor, John Kirkpatrick Field, Sue K Park, Kenneth Offit, Mads Thomassen, Rita Schmutzler, Laura Ottini, Rayjean J Hung, Jonathan Marchini, Ali Amin Al Olama, Ulrike Peters, Rosalind A Eeles, Michael F Seldin, Elizabeth Gillanders, Daniela Seminara, Antonis C Antoniou, Paul D P Pharoah, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Stephen J Chanock, Jacques Simard, Douglas F Easton
BACKGROUND: Common cancers develop through a multistep process often including inherited susceptibility. Collaboration among multiple institutions, and funding from multiple sources, has allowed the development of an inexpensive genotyping microarray, the OncoArray. The array includes a genome-wide backbone, comprising 230,000 SNPs tagging most common genetic variants, together with dense mapping of known susceptibility regions, rare variants from sequencing experiments, pharmacogenetic markers and cancer related traits...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Rikki Cannioto, Alyssa I Clay, John Lewis Etter, Kevin H Eng, Song Liu, Sebastiano Battaglia, Qiang Hu, J Brian Szender, Albina Minlikeeva, Janine Joseph, Paul Mayor, Scott I Abrams, Brahm Segal, Paul K Wallace, Kah Teong Soh, Emese Z Zsiros, Hoda Anton-Culver, Elisa V Bandera, Matthias W Beckmann, Andrew Berchuck, Line Bjørge, Amanda Bruegl, Ian G Campbell, Shawn Patrice Campbell, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Daniel Cramer, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Fanny Dao, Brenda Diergaarde, Thilo Doerk, Jennifer A Doherty, Andreas du Bois, Diana Eccles, Svend Aage Engelholm, Peter A Fasching, Simon A Gayther, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Rosalind M Glasspool, Marc T Goodman, Jacek Gronwald, Philipp Harter, Alexander Hein, Florian Heitz, Peter Hillemmanns, Claus Hogdall, Estrid V S Høgdall, Tomasz Huzarski, Allan Jensen, Sharon E Johnatty, Audrey Jung, Beth Karlan, Rüdiger Klapdor, Tomasz Kluz, Bozena Konopka, Susanne Krüger Kjær, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Diether Lambrechts, Jenny Lester, Jan Lubiński, Douglas A Levine, Lene Lundvall, Valerie McGuire, Iain A McNeish, Usha Menon, Francesmary Modugno, Roberta B Ness, Sandra Orsulic, James Paul, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Tanja Pejovic, Paul Pharoah, Susan J Ramus, Joseph Rothstein, Mary Anne Rossing, Matthias Rübner, Joellen M Schildkraut, Barbara Schmalfeldt, Ira Schwaab, Nadeem Siddiqui, Weiva Sieh, Piotr Sobiczewski, Honglin Song, Kathryn L Terry, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Adriaan Vanderstichele, Ignace Vergote, Christine S Walsh, Penelope M Webb, Nicolas Wentzensen, Alice S Whittemore, Anna H Wu, Argyrios Ziogas, Kunle Odunsi, Jenny Chang-Claude, Ellen L Goode, Kirsten B Moysich
BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which the immune system is adversely affected in cancer patients remains poorly understood, but the accumulation of immune suppressive/pro-tumorigenic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is thought to be one prominent mechanism contributing to immunologic tolerance of malignant cells in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To this end, we hypothesized genetic variation in MDSC pathway genes would be associated with survival after EOC diagnoses. METHODS: We measured the hazard of death due to EOC within 10 years of diagnosis, overall and by invasive subtype, attributable to SNPs in 24 genes relevant in the MDSC pathway in 10,751 women diagnosed with invasive EOC...
September 27, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Kaoutar Ennour-Idrissi, Elizabeth Maunsell, Caroline Diorio
Telomeres ensure genome integrity during replication. Loss of telomeric function leads to cell immortalization and accumulation of genetic alterations. The association of telomere length (TL) with breast cancer prognosis is examined through a systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL), from inception to December 2015, and relevant reviews were searched. Studies that evaluated TL (blood and/or tumor) in association with breast cancer survival or prognostic factor, were included. Thirty-six studies met inclusion criteria...
September 27, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Megan S Farris, Karen A Kopciuk, Kerry S Courneya, Elizabeth McGregor, Qinggang Wang, Christine M Friedenreich
BACKGROUND: This prospective study examined the associations between post-diagnosis physical activity and change from pre-diagnosis physical activity with quality of life (QoL) in prostate cancer survivors. METHODS: Prostate cancer survivors (n=830) who participated in a case-control study with invasive stage {greater than or equal to}II disease were followed up to 2007 to capture QoL outcomes. At baseline and three time points post-diagnosis (2000-2007), interviews/questionnaires were used to collect data on physical activity, general QoL measured by the SF-36 and other treatment/lifestyle factors...
September 27, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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