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Trends in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911913/phosphatidic-acid-and-cardiolipin-coordinate-mitochondrial-dynamics
#1
REVIEW
Shoichiro Kameoka, Yoshihiro Adachi, Koji Okamoto, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
Membrane organelles comprise both proteins and lipids. Remodeling of these membrane structures is controlled by interactions between specific proteins and lipids. Mitochondrial structure and function depend on regulated fusion and the division of both the outer and inner membranes. Here we discuss recent advances in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics by two critical phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) and cardiolipin (CL). These two lipids interact with the core components of mitochondrial fusion and division (Opa1, mitofusin, and Drp1) to activate and inhibit these dynamin-related GTPases...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899600/rebuilding-chromosomes-after-catastrophe-emerging-mechanisms-of-chromothripsis
#2
REVIEW
Peter Ly, Don W Cleveland
Cancer genome sequencing has identified chromothripsis, a complex class of structural genomic rearrangements involving the apparent shattering of an individual chromosome into tens to hundreds of fragments. An initial error during mitosis, producing either chromosome mis-segregation into a micronucleus or chromatin bridge interconnecting two daughter cells, can trigger the catastrophic pulverization of the spatially isolated chromosome. The resultant chromosomal fragments are religated in random order by DNA double-strand break repair during the subsequent interphase...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893461/nuclear-lamins-thin-filaments-with-major-functions
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca de Leeuw, Yosef Gruenbaum, Ohad Medalia
The nuclear lamina is a nuclear peripheral meshwork that is mainly composed of nuclear lamins, although a small fraction of lamins also localizes throughout the nucleoplasm. Lamins are classified as type V intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Mutations in lamin genes cause at least 15 distinct human diseases, collectively termed laminopathies, including muscle, metabolic, and neuronal diseases, and can cause accelerated aging. Most of these mutations are in the LMNA gene encoding A-type lamins. A growing number of nuclear proteins are known to bind lamins and are implicated in both nuclear and cytoskeletal organization, mechanical stability, chromatin organization, signaling, gene regulation, genome stability, and cell differentiation...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890254/rethinking-hsf1-in-stress-development-and-organismal-health
#4
REVIEW
Jian Li, Johnathan Labbadia, Richard I Morimoto
The heat shock response (HSR) was originally discovered as a transcriptional response to elevated temperature shock and led to the identification of heat shock proteins and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Since then HSF1 has been shown to be important for combating other forms of environmental perturbations as well as genetic variations that cause proteotoxic stress. The HSR has long been thought to be an absolute response to conditions of cell stress and the primary mechanism by which HSF1 promotes organismal health by preventing protein aggregation and subsequent proteome imbalance...
September 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886896/the-ire1-twist-that-links-proteostatic-with-lipostatic-control-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#5
Tomás Aragón, Eelco van Anken
The unfolded protein response (UPR) governs homeostasis of both luminal content and membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Molecular Cell, Halbleib et al. identified how a twist in the juxta-membrane amphipathic helix of the UPR transducer Ire1 in yeast is essential for responding to both proteostatic and lipostatic ER stress.
September 5, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882414/proinflammatory-signals-as-fuel-for-the-fire-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-emergence
#6
REVIEW
Raquel Espin-Palazon, Bart Weijts, Victor Mulero, David Traver
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the extraordinary ability to both self-renew and generate all mature blood cell lineages. The ability to produce or expand patient-derived HSCs in vitro would greatly improve the outcome for patients with blood disorders that are currently treated with allogeneic HSC transplantation. Many laboratories have been working to identify the signals required for HSC emergence in their native environments to apply this knowledge in vitro. Recently, several signals traditionally known to underlie classical inflammation have emerged as essential regulators of HSC development...
September 4, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882413/cgas-conducts-micronuclei-dna-surveillance
#7
Carina C de Oliveira Mann, Philip J Kranzusch
DNA damage elicits a potent proinflammatory immune response. A collection of four papers now reveals that micronuclear DNA is a new cell intrinsic immunostimulatory molecule, and that accumulation of the immune sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in micronuclei leads to a cell-cycle-dependent proinflammatory response following DNA damage.
September 4, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867158/acylglycerol-kinase-mitochondrial-protein-transport-meets-lipid-biosynthesis
#8
Christoph U Mårtensson, Thomas Becker
The carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) inserts hydrophobic proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane. Recently, the acylglycerol kinase (AGK) mutated in Sengers syndrome was identified as a novel subunit of the human TIM22 complex. This finding reveals an exciting link between mitochondrial protein and lipid biogenesis.
August 31, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838621/ki-67-and-the-chromosome-periphery-compartment-in-mitosis
#9
REVIEW
Daniel G Booth, William C Earnshaw
The chromosome periphery is a complex network of proteins and RNA molecules (many derived from nucleoli) that covers the outer surface of chromosomes and whose function remains mysterious. Although it was first described over 130 years ago, technological advances and the recent discovery that Ki-67 acts as an organiser of this region have allowed the chromosome periphery to be dissected in previously unattainable detail, leading to a revival of interest in this obscure chromosomal compartment. Here, we review the most recent advances into the composition, structure and function of the chromosome periphery, discuss possible roles of Ki-67 during mitosis and consider why this structure is likely to remain the focus of ongoing attention in the future...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838620/emerging-roles-for-the-lysosome-in-lipid-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
Ashley M Thelen, Roberto Zoncu
Precise regulation of lipid biosynthesis, transport, and storage is key to the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Cells rely on a sophisticated but poorly understood network of vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms to ensure efficient delivery of lipids to target organelles. The lysosome stands at the crossroads of this network due to its ability to process and sort exogenous and endogenous lipids. The lipid-sorting function of the lysosome is intimately connected to its recently discovered role as a metabolic command-and-control center, which relays multiple nutrient cues to the master growth regulator, mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 kinase...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822679/spatial-and-temporal-control-of-senescence
#11
REVIEW
Yoko Ito, Matthew Hoare, Masashi Narita
Cellular senescence is an autonomous tumor suppressor mechanism leading to stable cell cycle arrest. Senescent cells are highly secretory, driving a range of different functions through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Recent findings have suggested that the composition of the SASP is dynamically and spatially regulated and that the changing composition of the SASP can determine the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the senescence program, tipping the balance to either an immunosuppressive/profibrotic environment or proinflammatory/fibrolytic state...
August 16, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818395/lymphocyte-fate-and-metabolism-a-clonal-balancing-act
#12
REVIEW
Simone A Nish, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, Steven L Reiner
Activated lymphocytes perform a clonal balancing act, yielding a daughter cell that differentiates owing to intense PI3K signaling, alongside a self-renewing sibling cell with blunted anabolic signaling. Divergent cellular anabolism versus catabolism is emerging as a feature of several developmental and regenerative paradigms. Metabolism can dictate cell fate, in part, because lineage-specific regulators are embedded in the circuitry of conserved metabolic switches. Unequal transmission of PI3K signaling during regenerative divisions is reminiscent of compartmentalized PI3K activity during directed motility or polarized information flow in non-dividing cells...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779884/the-role-of-charge-in-protein-targeting-evolution-trends-in-cell-biology-26-894-905-2016
#13
Sriram G Garg, Sven B Gould
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778422/the-mediator-complex-at-the-nexus-of-rna-polymerase-ii-transcription
#14
REVIEW
Célia Jeronimo, François Robert
Mediator is an essential, large, multisubunit, transcriptional co-activator highly conserved across eukaryotes. Mediator interacts with gene-specific transcription factors at enhancers as well as with the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription machinery bound at promoters. It also interacts with several other factors involved in various aspects of transcription, chromatin regulation, and mRNA processing. Hence, Mediator is at the nexus of RNAPII transcription, regulating its many steps and connecting transcription with co-transcriptional events...
August 1, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743494/neural-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-proteins-in-synaptic-specification
#15
REVIEW
Ji Won Um, Jaewon Ko
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are a specialized class of lipid-associated neuronal membrane proteins that perform diverse functions in the dynamic control of axon guidance, synaptic adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, and localized signal transduction, particularly at lipid raft domains. Recent studies have demonstrated that a subset of GPI-anchored proteins act as critical regulators of synapse development by modulating specific synaptic adhesion pathways via direct interactions with key synapse-organizing proteins...
July 22, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734735/metabolic-interactions-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Costas A Lyssiotis, Alec C Kimmelman
Tumors are dynamic pseudoorgans that contain numerous cell types interacting to create a unique physiology. Within this network, the malignant cells encounter many challenges and rewire their metabolic properties accordingly. Such changes can be experienced and executed autonomously or through interaction with other cells in the tumor. The focus of this review is on the remodeling of the tumor microenvironment that leads to pathophysiologic interactions that are influenced and shaped by metabolism. They include symbiotic nutrient sharing, nutrient competition, and the role of metabolites as signaling molecules...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732600/hierarchy-and-plasticity-in-the-intestinal-stem-cell-compartment
#17
REVIEW
Maryam Yousefi, Linheng Li, Christopher J Lengner
Somatic stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by organizing themselves in such a way that they can maintain proliferative output while simultaneously protecting themselves from DNA damage that may lead to oncogenic transformation. There is considerable debate about how such stem cell compartments are organized. Burgeoning evidence from the small intestine and colon provides support for a two-stem cell model involving an actively proliferating but injury-sensitive stem cell and a rare, injury-resistant pool of quiescent stem cells...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728836/chromosome-intermingling-mechanical-hotspots-for-genome-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Caroline Uhler, G V Shivashankar
Cells sense physical and chemical signals from their local microenvironment and transduce them to the nucleus to regulate genomic programs. In this review, we first discuss different modes of mechanotransduction to the nucleus. We then highlight the role of the spatial organization of chromosomes for integrating these signals. In particular, we emphasize the importance of chromosome intermingling for gene regulation. We also discuss various geometric models and recent advances in microscopy and genomics that have allowed access to these nanoscale chromosome intermingling regions...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711227/oncogenic-activities-of-idh1-2-mutations-from-epigenetics-to-cellular-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Laurence M Gagné, Karine Boulay, Ivan Topisirovic, Marc-Étienne Huot, Frédérick A Mallette
Gliomas and leukemias remain highly refractory to treatment, thus highlighting the need for new and improved therapeutic strategies. Mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), are frequently encountered in astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas, as well as in acute myeloid leukemias; however, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these mutations promote tumorigenesis remain to be fully characterized. Gain-of-function mutations in IDH1/2 have been shown to stimulate production of the oncogenic metabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), which inhibits α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent enzymes...
July 12, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698049/tensins-bridging-amp-activated-protein-kinase-with-integrin-activation
#20
REVIEW
Maria Georgiadou, Johanna Ivaska
Integrin activation is essential for cell adhesion and for connecting the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, inappropriate integrin activation has been linked to several diseases, including cancer. Recent insights demonstrate that the main fibrillar adhesion component tensin maintains β1-integrin active in these mature adhesions. Depletion or silencing of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor involved in maintaining the energy balance of the cell, enhances integrin activity by increasing the expression of tensin and thereby promoting cell adhesion, matrix formation, and mechanotransduction...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
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