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Trends in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291566/with-the-help-of-mom-mitochondrial-contributions-to-cellular-quality-control
#1
REVIEW
Ralf J Braun, Benedikt Westermann
Mitochondria are essential organelles because they have key roles in cellular energy metabolism and many other metabolic pathways. Several quality control systems have evolved to ensure that dysfunctional mitochondria are either repaired or eliminated. The activities of these pathways are crucial for cellular health because they maintain functional mitochondria. In addition, the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the mitochondria-associated degradation pathway (MAD) share some of their core components, are functionally tightly interconnected, and mutually modulate their activities...
March 10, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285738/bursting-the-bubble-nuclear-envelope-rupture-as-a-path-to-genomic-instability
#2
REVIEW
Pragya Shah, Katarina Wolf, Jan Lammerding
The nuclear envelope safeguards the genetic material inside the nucleus by separating it from the cytoplasm. Until recently, it was assumed that nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown occurs only in a highly controlled fashion during mitosis when the chromatin is condensed and divided between the daughter cells. However, recent studies have demonstrated that adherent and migrating cells exhibit transient NE rupture during interphase caused by compression from cytoskeletal or external forces. NE rupture results in uncontrolled exchange between the nuclear interior and cytoplasm and leads to DNA damage...
March 9, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284467/moonlighting-motors-kinesin-dynein-and-cell-polarity
#3
REVIEW
Wen Lu, Vladimir I Gelfand
In addition to their well-known role in transporting cargoes in the cytoplasm, microtubule motors organize their own tracks - the microtubules. While this function is mostly studied in the context of cell division, it is essential for microtubule organization and generation of cell polarity in interphase cells. Kinesin-1, the most abundant microtubule motor, plays a role in the initial formation of neurites. This review describes the mechanism of kinesin-1-driven microtubule sliding and discusses its biological significance in neurons...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284466/mitochondrial-function-and-cell-size-an-allometric-relationship
#4
REVIEW
Teemu P Miettinen, Mikael Björklund
Allometric scaling of metabolic rate results in lower total mitochondrial oxygen consumption with increasing organismal size. This is considered a universal law in biology. Here, we discuss how allometric laws impose size-dependent limits to mitochondrial activity at the cellular level. This cell-size-dependent mitochondrial metabolic activity results in nonlinear scaling of metabolism in proliferating cells, which can explain size homeostasis. The allometry in mitochondrial activity can be controlled through mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery, suggesting that mitochondrial connectivity can bypass transport limitations, the presumed biophysical basis for allometry...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283221/actin-waves-origin-of-cell-polarization-and-migration
#5
REVIEW
Naoyuki Inagaki, Hiroko Katsuno
Actin filaments and associated proteins undergo wave-like movement in various cell types. Recent studies with cutting-edge analyses, including live-cell imaging, biophysical monitoring and manipulation, and mathematical modeling, have highlighted roles of 'actin waves' in cellular protrusion, polarization, and migration. The prevailing models to explain the wave-like dynamics of actin filaments involve an activator-inhibitor mechanism. In addition, axonal actin waves migrate by means of directional assembly and disassembly of membrane-anchored actin filaments, and thus represent a new type of machinery that translocates their component molecules to the cell edge...
March 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274652/mitochondria-and-epigenetics-crosstalk-in-homeostasis-and-stress
#6
REVIEW
Olli Matilainen, Pedro M Quirós, Johan Auwerx
Through epigenetic mechanisms cells integrate environmental stimuli to fine-tune gene expression levels. Mitochondrial function is essential to provide the intermediate metabolites necessary to generate and modify epigenetic marks in the nucleus, which in turn can regulate the expression of mitochondrial proteins. In this review we summarize the function of mitochondria in the regulation of epigenetic mechanisms as a new aspect of mitonuclear communication. We focus in particular on the most common epigenetic modifications - histone acetylation and histone and DNA methylation...
March 5, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268050/breaking-symmetry-asymmetric-histone-inheritance-in-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Jing Xie, Matthew Wooten, Vuong Tran, Xin Chen
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) gives rise to two daughter cells with distinct fates. ACD is widely used during development and by many types of adult stem cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. ACD can be regulated by extrinsic cues, such as signaling molecules, as well as by intrinsic factors, such as organelles and cortex proteins. The recent discovery of asymmetric histone inheritance during stem cell ACD has revealed another intrinsic mechanism by which ACD produces two distinct daughters. In this review we discuss these findings in the context of cell-cycle regulation, as well as other studies of ACD, to begin understanding the underlying mechanisms and biological relevance of this phenomenon...
March 4, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259601/%C3%AE-synuclein-regulator-of-exocytosis-endocytosis-or-both
#8
REVIEW
Janin Lautenschläger, Clemens F Kaminski, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle
α-Synuclein is known as a presynaptic protein that binds to small synaptic vesicles. Recent studies suggest that α-synuclein is not only attracted to these tiny and therewith highly curved membranes, but that in fact the sensing and regulation of membrane curvature is part of its physiological function. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that α-synuclein plays a role in the endocytosis of synaptic vesicles, and have provided support for a function of α-synuclein during exo- and endocytosis in which curvature sensing and membrane stabilization are crucial steps...
March 1, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237661/inflammation-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-tissue-specific-functions-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#9
REVIEW
Leen Catrysse, Geert van Loo
Obesity is becoming a major health concern in Western society, and medical conditions associated with obesity are grouped in the metabolic syndrome. Overnutrition activates several proinflammatory signaling pathways, leading to a condition of chronic low-grade inflammation in several metabolic tissues affecting their proper function. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling is a crucial pathway in this process and has been studied extensively in the context of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Here we give an overview of the molecular mechanisms behind the inflammatory function of NF-κB in response to overnutrition and the effect this has on several metabolic tissues...
February 22, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228333/the-interplay-of-axonal-energy-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-trafficking-and-anchoring
#10
REVIEW
Zu-Hang Sheng
Mitochondria are key cellular power plants essential for neuronal growth, survival, function, and regeneration after injury. Given their unique morphological features, neurons face exceptional challenges in maintaining energy homeostasis at distal synapses and growth cones where energy is in high demand. Efficient regulation of mitochondrial trafficking and anchoring is critical for neurons to meet altered energy requirements. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired transport have been implicated in several major neurological disorders...
February 19, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209295/aluternative-regulation-for-gene-expression
#11
REVIEW
Ling-Ling Chen, Li Yang
Alu elements belong to the primate-specific SINE family of retrotransposons and constitute almost 11% of the human genome. Alus are transcribed by RNA polymerase (Pol) III and are inserted back into the genome with the help of autonomous LINE retroelements. Since Alu elements are preferentially located near to or within gene-rich regions, they can affect gene expression by distinct mechanisms of action at both DNA and RNA levels. In this review we focus on recent advances of how Alu elements are pervasively involved in gene regulation...
February 10, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131647/new-insights-into-the-physiological-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-degradation
#12
REVIEW
Ling Qi, Billy Tsai, Peter Arvan
Many human diseases are associated with mutations causing protein misfolding and aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is a principal quality-control mechanism responsible for targeting misfolded ER proteins for cytosolic degradation. However, despite years of effort, the physiological role of ERAD in vivo remains largely unknown. Several recent studies have reported intriguing phenotypes of mice deficient for ERAD function in specific cell types. These studies highlight that mammalian ERAD has been designed to perform a wide-range of cell-type-specific functions in vivo in a substrate-dependent manner...
February 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188028/post-translational-modification-of-caspases-the-other-side-of-apoptosis-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Alexey V Zamaraev, Gelina S Kopeina, Evgeniia A Prokhorova, Boris Zhivotovsky, Inna N Lavrik
Apoptosis is a crucial program of cell death that controls development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. The main initiators and executors of this process are the Cysteine-dependent ASPartate proteASES - caspases. A number of regulatory circuits tightly control caspase processing and activity. One of the most important, yet, at the same time still poorly understood control mechanisms of activation of caspases involves their post-translational modifications. The addition and/or removal of chemical groups drastically alters the catalytic activity of caspases or stimulates their nonapoptotic functions...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188027/a-new-mode-of-mitotic-surveillance
#14
REVIEW
Bramwell G Lambrus, Andrew J Holland
Cells have evolved certain precautions to preserve their genomic content during mitosis and avoid potentially oncogenic errors. Besides the well-established DNA damage checkpoint and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), recent observations have identified an additional mitotic failsafe referred to as the mitotic surveillance pathway. This pathway triggers a cell cycle arrest to block the growth of potentially unfit daughter cells and is activated by both prolonged mitosis and centrosome loss. Recent genome-wide screens surprisingly revealed that 53BP1 and USP28 act upstream of p53 to mediate signaling through the mitotic surveillance pathway...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169082/autophagy-receptors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Zhiqiang Deng, Kerry Purtell, Veronik Lachance, Mitchell S Wold, Shi Chen, Zhenyu Yue
Previously thought of as a nonselective digestion process, autophagy is now known to specifically degrade aggregated proteins and damaged cellular organelles through the action of autophagy receptors, which provides cellular quality control and maintains homeostasis. Autophagy receptors recognize and recruit specific cargoes to the autophagosome-lysosome pathway for degradation in ubiquitin-dependent and -independent manners, and their functions (in selective autophagy) are regulated by protein modifications, for example, phosphorylation and ubiquitination...
February 3, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153580/from-planar-cell-polarity-to-ciliogenesis-and-back-the-curious-tale-of-the-ppe-and-cplane-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Paul N Adler, John B Wallingford
Why some genes are more popular than others remains an open question, but one example of this phenomenon involves the genes controlling planar cell polarity (PCP), the polarization of cells within a plane of a tissue. Indeed, the so-called 'core' PCP genes such as dishevelled, frizzled, and prickle have been extensively studied both in animal models and by human genetics. By contrast, other genes that influence PCP signaling have received far less attention. Among the latter are inturned, fuzzy, and fritz, but recent work should bring these once obscure regulators into the limelight...
January 30, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989656/pathways-of-unconventional-protein-secretion
#17
REVIEW
Catherine Rabouille
Secretory proteins are conventionally transported through the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and then to the plasma membrane where they are released into the extracellular space. However, numerous substrates also reach these destinations using unconventional pathways. Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) is complex and comprises cargos without a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain that can translocate across the plasma membrane, and cargos that reach the plasma membrane by bypassing the Golgi despite entering the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
March 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989654/endocytosis-metastasis-and-beyond-multiple-facets-of-snx9
#18
REVIEW
Nawal Bendris, Sandra L Schmid
Sorting nexin (SNX)9 was first discovered as an endocytic accessory protein involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, recent data suggest that SNX9 is a multifunctional scaffold that coordinates membrane trafficking and remodeling with changes in actin dynamics to affect diverse cellular processes. Here, we review the accumulated knowledge on SNX9 with an emphasis on its recently identified roles in clathrin-independent endocytic pathways, cell invasion, and cell division, which have implications for SNX9 function in human disease, including cancer...
March 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979573/extracellular-vesicles-unique-intercellular-delivery-vehicles
#19
REVIEW
Sybren L N Maas, Xandra O Breakefield, Alissa M Weaver
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous collection of membrane-bound carriers with complex cargoes including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. While the release of EVs was previously thought to be only a mechanism to discard nonfunctional cellular components, increasing evidence implicates EVs as key players in intercellular and even interorganismal communication. EVs confer stability and can direct their cargoes to specific cell types. EV cargoes also appear to act in a combinatorial manner to communicate directives to other cells...
March 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932063/toward-connecting-metabolism-to-the-exocytotic-site
#20
REVIEW
Mourad Ferdaoussi, Patrick E MacDonald
Within cells the regulated exocytosis of secretory granules controls multiple physiological functions, including endocrine hormone secretion. Release of the glucose-regulating hormone insulin from pancreatic islet β cells is critical for whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Impaired insulin secretion appears early in the progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Key mechanisms that control the β-cell exocytotic response, mediating the long-known but little understood metabolic amplification of insulin secretion, are becoming clearer...
March 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
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