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Trends in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625463/trex1-cuts-down-on-cancer-immunogenicity
#1
Takahiro Yamazaki, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Demaria and colleagues have recently identified three prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) as a key determinant for the limited immunogenicity of cancer cells responding to single high-dose radiation. TREX1 stands out as a promising target for the development of novel strategies to boost anticancer immune responses driven by radiation therapy (RT).
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619472/gasdermins-effectors-of-pyroptosis
#2
REVIEW
Stephen B Kovacs, Edward A Miao
Pyroptosis is a form of lytic programmed cell death initiated by inflammasomes, which detect cytosolic contamination or perturbation. This drives activation of caspase-1 or caspase-11/4/5, which cleave gasdermin D, separating its N-terminal pore-forming domain (PFD) from the C-terminal repressor domain (RD). The PFD oligomerizes to form large pores in the membrane that drive swelling and membrane rupture. Gasdermin D is one of six (in humans) gasdermin family members; several other gasdermins have also been shown to form pores that cause pyroptosis after cleavage to activate their PFDs...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606446/plasticity-of-mitochondrial-translation
#3
REVIEW
Sven Dennerlein, Cong Wang, Peter Rehling
Mitochondria maintained a genome during evolution to synthesize core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Expression of the mitochondrial genome requires intraorganellar replication, transcription, and translation. Membrane-associated ribosomes translate mitochondrial-encoded proteins and facilitate co-translational insertion of newly synthesized polypeptides into the inner membrane. Considering that mitochondrial-encoded proteins assemble with imported, nuclear-encoded proteins into enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system, it is expected that expression of mitochondrial genes should adapt to the availability of their nuclear-encoded partners...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602424/using-force-to-punch-holes-mechanics-of-contractile-nanomachines
#4
REVIEW
Maximilian Brackmann, Sergey Nazarov, Jing Wang, Marek Basler
Using physical force to translocate macromolecules across a membrane has the advantage of being a universal solution independent of the properties of the target membrane. However, physically punching a stiff membrane is not a trivial task and three things are necessary for success: a sharp tip, a source of energy, and the ability to strongly bind to the target. In this review we describe the basic mechanism of membrane puncturing by contractile nanomachines with a focus on the T4 phage, R-type pyocin, and the bacterial Type VI secretion system (T6SS) based on recent studies of the structures and dynamics of their assembly...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601431/serine-and-functional-metabolites-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Alice C Newman, Oliver D K Maddocks
Folate metabolism functions to supply one-carbon units that are vital for a range of biochemical reactions. Cancer cells can utilise serine as a major source of one-carbon units, rendering them dependent upon extracellular serine uptake or de novo serine synthesis for maximal growth and proliferation. One-carbon units are required for the production of critical cellular components, such as nucleotides, which enable cancer cells to maintain high proliferate rates. Of recent interest, one-carbon metabolism contributes to the biosynthesis and recycling of functional metabolites, such as ATP, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), and NAD(P)H, with important downstream consequences for cancer cell survival...
June 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552280/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-receptors-and-smads-regulatory-complexity-and-functional-versatility
#6
REVIEW
Erine H Budi, Dana Duan, Rik Derynck
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family proteins control cell physiology, proliferation, and growth, and direct cell differentiation, thus playing key roles in normal development and disease. The mechanisms of how TGF-β family ligands interact with heteromeric complexes of cell surface receptors to then activate Smad signaling that directs changes in gene expression are often seen as established. Even though TGF-β-induced Smad signaling may be seen as a linear signaling pathway with predictable outcomes, this pathway provides cells with a versatile means to induce different cellular responses...
May 25, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528988/ubiquitin-dependent-regulation-of-stem-cell-biology
#7
REVIEW
Achim Werner, Andrew G Manford, Michael Rape
The growth of a metazoan body relies on a series of highly coordinated cell-fate decisions by stem cells which can undergo self-renewal, reversibly enter a quiescent state, or terminally commit to a cell specification program. To guide their decisions, stem cells make frequent use of ubiquitylation, a post-translational modification that can affect the activity, interaction landscape, or stability of stem cell proteins. In this review we discuss novel findings that have provided insight into ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms of stem cell control and revealed how an essential and highly conserved protein modification can shape metazoan development...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528987/mining-for-micropeptides
#8
REVIEW
Catherine A Makarewich, Eric N Olson
Advances in computational biology and large-scale transcriptome analyses have revealed that a much larger portion of the genome is transcribed than was previously recognized, resulting in the production of a diverse population of RNA molecules with both protein-coding and noncoding potential. Emerging evidence indicates that several RNA molecules have been mis-annotated as noncoding and in fact harbor short open reading frames (sORFs) that encode functional peptides and that have evaded detection until now due to their small size...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522206/functional-properties-of-the-mitochondrial-carrier-system
#9
REVIEW
Eric B Taylor
The mitochondrial carrier system (MCS) transports small molecules between mitochondria and the cytoplasm. It is integral to the core mitochondrial function to regulate cellular chemistry by metabolism. The mammalian MCS comprises the transporters of the 53-member canonical SLC25A family and a lesser number of identified noncanonical transporters. The recent discovery and investigations of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) illustrate the diverse effects a single mitochondrial carrier may exert on cellular function...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487183/mammary-stem-cells-premise-properties-and-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Olivia B Harris, Christine J Watson, Felicity M Davis
Adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) drive postnatal organogenesis and remodeling in the mammary gland, and their longevity and potential have important implications for breast cancer. However, despite intense investigation the identity, location, and differentiation potential of MaSCs remain subject to deliberation. The application of genetic lineage-tracing models, combined with quantitative 3D imaging and biophysical methods, has provided new insights into the mammary epithelial hierarchy that challenge classical definitions of MaSC potency and behaviors...
May 6, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433487/ramping-up-stress-signaling-protein-ampylation-in-metazoans
#11
REVIEW
Matthias C Truttmann, Hidde L Ploegh
Protein AMPylation - the covalent attachment of an AMP residue to amino acid side chains using ATP as the donor - is a post-translational modification (PTM) increasingly appreciated as relevant for both normal and pathological cell signaling. In metazoans single copies of filamentation induced by cAMP (fic)-domain-containing AMPylases - the enzymes responsible for AMPylation - preferentially modify a set of dedicated targets and contribute to the perception of cellular stress and its regulation. Pathogenic bacteria can exploit AMPylation of eukaryotic target proteins to rewire host cell signaling machinery in support of their propagation and survival...
April 19, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412099/tumor-cell-invadopodia-invasive-protrusions-that-orchestrate-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Robert J Eddy, Maxwell D Weidmann, Ved P Sharma, John S Condeelis
Invadopodia are a subset of invadosomes that are implicated in the integration of signals from the tumor microenvironment to support tumor cell invasion and dissemination. Recent progress has begun to define how tumor cells regulate the plasticity necessary for invadopodia to assemble and function efficiently in the different microenvironments encountered during dissemination in vivo. Exquisite mapping by many laboratories of the pathways involved in integrating diverse invadopodium initiation signals, from growth factors, to extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell contact in the tumor microenvironment, has led to insight into the molecular basis of this plasticity...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363667/stop-or-go-endosome-positioning-in-the-establishment-of-compartment-architecture-dynamics-and-function
#13
REVIEW
Jacques Neefjes, Marlieke M L Jongsma, Ilana Berlin
The endosomal system constitutes a key negotiator between the environment of a cell and its internal affairs. Comprised of a complex membranous network, wherein each vesicle can in principle move autonomously throughout the cell, the endosomal system operates as a coherent unit to optimally face external challenges and maintain homeostasis. Our appreciation of how individual endosomes are controlled in time and space to best serve their collective purpose has evolved dramatically in recent years. In light of these efforts, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - with its expanse of membranes permeating the cytoplasmic space - has emerged as a potent spatiotemporal organizer of endosome biology...
March 28, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359692/disentangling-a-bad-reputation-changing-perceptions-of-amyloids
#14
Miling Wang, Timothy E Audas, Stephen Lee
Historically, amyloids were perceived as toxic/irreversible protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Recent papers are challenging this perception by uncovering widespread cellular roles for physiological amyloidogenesis. These findings suggest that the amyloid-fold should be considered, alongside the native-fold and unfolded configurations, as a physiological and reversible protein organization.
July 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284467/moonlighting-motors-kinesin-dynein-and-cell-polarity
#15
REVIEW
Wen Lu, Vladimir I Gelfand
In addition to their well-known role in transporting cargoes in the cytoplasm, microtubule motors organize their own tracks - the microtubules. While this function is mostly studied in the context of cell division, it is essential for microtubule organization and generation of cell polarity in interphase cells. Kinesin-1, the most abundant microtubule motor, plays a role in the initial formation of neurites. This review describes the mechanism of kinesin-1-driven microtubule sliding and discusses its biological significance in neurons...
July 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487182/mitochondria-bioenergetic-and-cognitive-functions-the-cannabinoid-link
#16
Giacomo Mancini, Tamas L Horvath
Despite the well-known role of chronic mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of the brain, the impact of acute impairment of mitochondrial activity by cannabinoids on higher brain functions is unknown. In a recent paper in Nature, Hebert-Chatelain et al. elegantly uncovered the essential role that bioenergetic processes have in the regulation of higher brain functions, such as learning and memory.
June 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228333/the-interplay-of-axonal-energy-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-trafficking-and-anchoring
#17
REVIEW
Zu-Hang Sheng
Mitochondria are key cellular power plants essential for neuronal growth, survival, function, and regeneration after injury. Given their unique morphological features, neurons face exceptional challenges in maintaining energy homeostasis at distal synapses and growth cones where energy is in high demand. Efficient regulation of mitochondrial trafficking and anchoring is critical for neurons to meet altered energy requirements. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired transport have been implicated in several major neurological disorders...
June 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131647/new-insights-into-the-physiological-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-degradation
#18
REVIEW
Ling Qi, Billy Tsai, Peter Arvan
Many human diseases are associated with mutations causing protein misfolding and aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is a principal quality-control mechanism responsible for targeting misfolded ER proteins for cytosolic degradation. However, despite years of effort, the physiological role of ERAD in vivo remains largely unknown. Several recent studies have reported intriguing phenotypes of mice deficient for ERAD function in specific cell types. These studies highlight that mammalian ERAD has been designed to perform a wide-range of cell-type-specific functions in vivo in a substrate-dependent manner...
June 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188028/post-translational-modification-of-caspases-the-other-side-of-apoptosis-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Alexey V Zamaraev, Gelina S Kopeina, Evgeniia A Prokhorova, Boris Zhivotovsky, Inna N Lavrik
Apoptosis is a crucial program of cell death that controls development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. The main initiators and executors of this process are the Cysteine-dependent ASPartate proteASES - caspases. A number of regulatory circuits tightly control caspase processing and activity. One of the most important, yet, at the same time still poorly understood control mechanisms of activation of caspases involves their post-translational modifications. The addition and/or removal of chemical groups drastically alters the catalytic activity of caspases or stimulates their nonapoptotic functions...
May 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188027/a-new-mode-of-mitotic-surveillance
#20
REVIEW
Bramwell G Lambrus, Andrew J Holland
Cells have evolved certain precautions to preserve their genomic content during mitosis and avoid potentially oncogenic errors. Besides the well-established DNA damage checkpoint and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), recent observations have identified an additional mitotic failsafe referred to as the mitotic surveillance pathway. This pathway triggers a cell cycle arrest to block the growth of potentially unfit daughter cells and is activated by both prolonged mitosis and centrosome loss. Recent genome-wide screens surprisingly revealed that 53BP1 and USP28 act upstream of p53 to mediate signaling through the mitotic surveillance pathway...
May 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
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