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Trends in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728836/chromosome-intermingling-mechanical-hotspots-for-genome-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Caroline Uhler, G V Shivashankar
Cells sense physical and chemical signals from their local microenvironment and transduce them to the nucleus to regulate genomic programs. In this review, we first discuss different modes of mechanotransduction to the nucleus. We then highlight the role of the spatial organization of chromosomes for integrating these signals. In particular, we emphasize the importance of chromosome intermingling for gene regulation. We also discuss various geometric models and recent advances in microscopy and genomics that have allowed access to these nanoscale chromosome intermingling regions...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711227/oncogenic-activities-of-idh1-2-mutations-from-epigenetics-to-cellular-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Laurence M Gagné, Karine Boulay, Ivan Topisirovic, Marc-Étienne Huot, Frédérick A Mallette
Gliomas and leukemias remain highly refractory to treatment, thus highlighting the need for new and improved therapeutic strategies. Mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), are frequently encountered in astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas, as well as in acute myeloid leukemias; however, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these mutations promote tumorigenesis remain to be fully characterized. Gain-of-function mutations in IDH1/2 have been shown to stimulate production of the oncogenic metabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), which inhibits α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent enzymes...
July 12, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698049/tensins-bridging-amp-activated-protein-kinase-with-integrin-activation
#3
REVIEW
Maria Georgiadou, Johanna Ivaska
Integrin activation is essential for cell adhesion and for connecting the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, inappropriate integrin activation has been linked to several diseases, including cancer. Recent insights demonstrate that the main fibrillar adhesion component tensin maintains β1-integrin active in these mature adhesions. Depletion or silencing of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor involved in maintaining the energy balance of the cell, enhances integrin activity by increasing the expression of tensin and thereby promoting cell adhesion, matrix formation, and mechanotransduction...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651823/novel-structural-insights-into-gpcr-%C3%AE-arrestin-interaction-and-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Ravi Ranjan, Hemlata Dwivedi, Mithu Baidya, Mohit Kumar, Arun K Shukla
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are major signal recognition and transmission units in the plasma membrane. The interaction of activated and phosphorylated GPCRs with the multifunctional adaptor proteins β-arrestins (βarrs) is crucial for regulation of their signaling and functional outcomes. Over the past few years, a range of structural, biochemical, and cellular studies have revealed novel insights into GPCR-βarr interaction and signaling. Some of these findings have come as a surprise and therefore have the potential to significantly refine the conceptual framework of the GPCR-βarr system...
June 23, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647092/regulating-secretory-proteostasis-through-the-unfolded-protein-response-from-function-to-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Lars Plate, R Luke Wiseman
Imbalances in secretory proteostasis induced by genetic, environmental, or aging-related insults are pathologically associated with etiologically diverse protein misfolding diseases. To protect the secretory proteome from these insults, organisms evolved stress-responsive signaling pathways that regulate the composition and activity of biologic pathways involved in secretory proteostasis maintenance. The most prominent of these is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR), which functions to regulate ER proteostasis in response to ER stress...
June 21, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642032/apoptosis-and-necroptosis-as-host-defense-strategies-to-prevent-viral-infection
#6
REVIEW
Megan H Orzalli, Jonathan C Kagan
Antiviral transcriptional responses and regulated cell death are crucial components of the host response to virus infection. However, in contrast to the signaling pathways that promote antiviral transcription, those that initiate cell death following virus infection are less understood. Several recent studies have identified pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the mammalian innate immune system that activate cell death pathways. These same receptors also have established roles in the induction of antiviral gene expression...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625463/trex1-cuts-down-on-cancer-immunogenicity
#7
Takahiro Yamazaki, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Demaria and colleagues have recently identified three prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) as a key determinant for the limited immunogenicity of cancer cells responding to single high-dose radiation. TREX1 stands out as a promising target for the development of novel strategies to boost anticancer immune responses driven by radiation therapy (RT).
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619472/gasdermins-effectors-of-pyroptosis
#8
REVIEW
Stephen B Kovacs, Edward A Miao
Pyroptosis is a form of lytic programmed cell death initiated by inflammasomes, which detect cytosolic contamination or perturbation. This drives activation of caspase-1 or caspase-11/4/5, which cleave gasdermin D, separating its N-terminal pore-forming domain (PFD) from the C-terminal repressor domain (RD). The PFD oligomerizes to form large pores in the membrane that drive swelling and membrane rupture. Gasdermin D is one of six (in humans) gasdermin family members; several other gasdermins have also been shown to form pores that cause pyroptosis after cleavage to activate their PFDs...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606446/plasticity-of-mitochondrial-translation
#9
REVIEW
Sven Dennerlein, Cong Wang, Peter Rehling
Mitochondria maintained a genome during evolution to synthesize core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Expression of the mitochondrial genome requires intraorganellar replication, transcription, and translation. Membrane-associated ribosomes translate mitochondrial-encoded proteins and facilitate co-translational insertion of newly synthesized polypeptides into the inner membrane. Considering that mitochondrial-encoded proteins assemble with imported, nuclear-encoded proteins into enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system, it is expected that expression of mitochondrial genes should adapt to the availability of their nuclear-encoded partners...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602424/using-force-to-punch-holes-mechanics-of-contractile-nanomachines
#10
REVIEW
Maximilian Brackmann, Sergey Nazarov, Jing Wang, Marek Basler
Using physical force to translocate macromolecules across a membrane has the advantage of being a universal solution independent of the properties of the target membrane. However, physically punching a stiff membrane is not a trivial task and three things are necessary for success: a sharp tip, a source of energy, and the ability to strongly bind to the target. In this review we describe the basic mechanism of membrane puncturing by contractile nanomachines with a focus on the T4 phage, R-type pyocin, and the bacterial Type VI secretion system (T6SS) based on recent studies of the structures and dynamics of their assembly...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648490/interface-between-physics-and-biology-training-a-new-generation-of-creative-bilingual-scientists
#11
Daniel Riveline, Karsten Kruse
Whereas physics seeks for universal laws underlying natural phenomena, biology accounts for complexity and specificity of molecular details. Contemporary biological physics requires people capable of working at this interface. New programs prepare scientists who transform respective disciplinary views into innovative approaches for solving outstanding problems in the life sciences.
June 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601431/serine-and-functional-metabolites-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Alice C Newman, Oliver D K Maddocks
Folate metabolism functions to supply one-carbon units that are vital for a range of biochemical reactions. Cancer cells can utilise serine as a major source of one-carbon units, rendering them dependent upon extracellular serine uptake or de novo serine synthesis for maximal growth and proliferation. One-carbon units are required for the production of critical cellular components, such as nucleotides, which enable cancer cells to maintain high proliferate rates. Of recent interest, one-carbon metabolism contributes to the biosynthesis and recycling of functional metabolites, such as ATP, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), and NAD(P)H, with important downstream consequences for cancer cell survival...
June 7, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552280/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-receptors-and-smads-regulatory-complexity-and-functional-versatility
#13
REVIEW
Erine H Budi, Dana Duan, Rik Derynck
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family proteins control cell physiology, proliferation, and growth, and direct cell differentiation, thus playing key roles in normal development and disease. The mechanisms of how TGF-β family ligands interact with heteromeric complexes of cell surface receptors to then activate Smad signaling that directs changes in gene expression are often seen as established. Even though TGF-β-induced Smad signaling may be seen as a linear signaling pathway with predictable outcomes, this pathway provides cells with a versatile means to induce different cellular responses...
May 25, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528988/ubiquitin-dependent-regulation-of-stem-cell-biology
#14
REVIEW
Achim Werner, Andrew G Manford, Michael Rape
The growth of a metazoan body relies on a series of highly coordinated cell-fate decisions by stem cells which can undergo self-renewal, reversibly enter a quiescent state, or terminally commit to a cell specification program. To guide their decisions, stem cells make frequent use of ubiquitylation, a post-translational modification that can affect the activity, interaction landscape, or stability of stem cell proteins. In this review we discuss novel findings that have provided insight into ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms of stem cell control and revealed how an essential and highly conserved protein modification can shape metazoan development...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528987/mining-for-micropeptides
#15
REVIEW
Catherine A Makarewich, Eric N Olson
Advances in computational biology and large-scale transcriptome analyses have revealed that a much larger portion of the genome is transcribed than was previously recognized, resulting in the production of a diverse population of RNA molecules with both protein-coding and noncoding potential. Emerging evidence indicates that several RNA molecules have been mis-annotated as noncoding and in fact harbor short open reading frames (sORFs) that encode functional peptides and that have evaded detection until now due to their small size...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522206/functional-properties-of-the-mitochondrial-carrier-system
#16
REVIEW
Eric B Taylor
The mitochondrial carrier system (MCS) transports small molecules between mitochondria and the cytoplasm. It is integral to the core mitochondrial function to regulate cellular chemistry by metabolism. The mammalian MCS comprises the transporters of the 53-member canonical SLC25A family and a lesser number of identified noncanonical transporters. The recent discovery and investigations of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) illustrate the diverse effects a single mitochondrial carrier may exert on cellular function...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487183/mammary-stem-cells-premise-properties-and-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Olivia B Harris, Christine J Watson, Felicity M Davis
Adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) drive postnatal organogenesis and remodeling in the mammary gland, and their longevity and potential have important implications for breast cancer. However, despite intense investigation the identity, location, and differentiation potential of MaSCs remain subject to deliberation. The application of genetic lineage-tracing models, combined with quantitative 3D imaging and biophysical methods, has provided new insights into the mammary epithelial hierarchy that challenge classical definitions of MaSC potency and behaviors...
May 6, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359692/disentangling-a-bad-reputation-changing-perceptions-of-amyloids
#18
Miling Wang, Timothy E Audas, Stephen Lee
Historically, amyloids were perceived as toxic/irreversible protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Recent papers are challenging this perception by uncovering widespread cellular roles for physiological amyloidogenesis. These findings suggest that the amyloid-fold should be considered, alongside the native-fold and unfolded configurations, as a physiological and reversible protein organization.
July 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284467/moonlighting-motors-kinesin-dynein-and-cell-polarity
#19
REVIEW
Wen Lu, Vladimir I Gelfand
In addition to their well-known role in transporting cargoes in the cytoplasm, microtubule motors organize their own tracks - the microtubules. While this function is mostly studied in the context of cell division, it is essential for microtubule organization and generation of cell polarity in interphase cells. Kinesin-1, the most abundant microtubule motor, plays a role in the initial formation of neurites. This review describes the mechanism of kinesin-1-driven microtubule sliding and discusses its biological significance in neurons...
July 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268050/breaking-symmetry-asymmetric-histone-inheritance-in-stem-cells
#20
REVIEW
Jing Xie, Matthew Wooten, Vuong Tran, Xin Chen
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) gives rise to two daughter cells with distinct fates. ACD is widely used during development and by many types of adult stem cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. ACD can be regulated by extrinsic cues, such as signaling molecules, as well as by intrinsic factors, such as organelles and cortex proteins. The recent discovery of asymmetric histone inheritance during stem cell ACD has revealed another intrinsic mechanism by which ACD produces two distinct daughters. In this review we discuss these findings in the context of cell-cycle regulation, as well as other studies of ACD, to begin understanding the underlying mechanisms and biological relevance of this phenomenon...
July 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
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