Read by QxMD icon Read

Trends in Cell Biology

Liying Li, J P McGinnis, Kausik Si
Prion-like proteins overlap with intrinsically disordered and low-complexity sequence families. These proteins are widespread, especially among mRNA-binding proteins. A salient feature of these proteins is the ability to form protein assemblies with distinct biophysical and functional properties. While prion-like proteins are involved in myriad of cellular processes, we propose potential roles for protein assemblies in regulated protein synthesis. Since proteins are the ultimate functional output of gene expression, when, where, and how much of a particular protein is made dictates the functional state of a cell...
March 9, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Ludger Johannes, Weria Pezeshkian, John H Ipsen, Julian C Shillcock
Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering...
March 1, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Alberto Elosegui-Artola, Xavier Trepat, Pere Roca-Cusachs
The linkage of cells to their microenvironment is mediated by a series of bonds that dynamically engage and disengage, in what has been conceptualized as the molecular clutch model. Whereas this model has long been employed to describe actin cytoskeleton and cell migration dynamics, it has recently been proposed to also explain mechanotransduction (i.e., the process by which cells convert mechanical signals from their environment into biochemical signals). Here we review the current understanding on how cell dynamics and mechanotransduction are driven by molecular clutch dynamics and its master regulator, the force loading rate...
February 26, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Iain Scott, Lingdi Wang, Kaiyuan Wu, Dharendra Thapa, Michael N Sack
General control of amino acid synthesis 5 (GCN5) like-1 (GCN5L1) was identified as a novel gene with sequence homology to the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5. Subsequent protein-interaction studies identified GCN5L1 as a subunit of the multiprotein lysosome biogenesis complex, resulting in an alternative designation as biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex 1 subunit 1 (BLOS1 or BLOC1S1). Despite the distinct nomenclatures, GCN5L1/BLOS1 has been shown to play crucial roles in mitochondria, endosomes, lysosomes, and synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs)...
February 21, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Carly Leung, Si Hui Tan, Nick Barker
The discovery of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) as both a marker of adult stem cells and a critical modulator of their activity via its role as an effector of Wnt/R-spondin (Rspo) signaling has driven major advances in our understanding of stem cell biology during homeostasis, regeneration, and disease. Exciting new mouse and organoid culture models developed to study the endogenous behavior of Lgr5-expressing cells in health and disease settings have revealed the existence of facultative stem cell populations responsible for tissue regeneration, cancer stem cells (CSCs) driving metastasis in the gut, and Lgr5+ niche cells in the lung...
February 21, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Alejandra Hernandez-Segura, Jamil Nehme, Marco Demaria
Cellular senescence is a permanent state of cell cycle arrest that promotes tissue remodeling during development and after injury, but can also contribute to the decline of the regenerative potential and function of tissues, to inflammation, and to tumorigenesis in aged organisms. Therefore, the identification, characterization, and pharmacological elimination of senescent cells have gained attention in the field of aging research. However, the nonspecificity of current senescence markers and the existence of different senescence programs strongly limit these tasks...
February 21, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Jonathan Gaucher, Emilie Montellier, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The cell cycle and the circadian clock operate as biological oscillators whose timed functions are tightly regulated. Accumulating evidence illustrates the presence of molecular links between these two oscillators. This mutual interplay utilizes various coupling mechanisms, such as the use of common regulators. The connection between these two cyclic systems has unique interest in the context of aberrant cell proliferation since both of these oscillators are frequently misregulated in cancer cells. Further studies will provide deeper understanding of the detailed molecular connections between the cell cycle and the circadian clock and may also serve as a basis for the design of innovative therapeutic strategies...
February 19, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Kristen K Penberthy, Jeffrey J Lysiak, Kodi S Ravichandran
Specialized phagocytes are a newly appreciated classification of phagocyte that currently encompasses Sertoli cells (SCs) of the testes and the retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) of the retina. While these cells support very different tissues, they have a striking degree of similarity both as phagocytes and in ways that go beyond cell clearance. The clearance of apoptotic germ cells, cell debris, and used photoreceptor outer segments are critical functions of these cells, and the unique nature of their clearance events make specialized phagocytes uniquely suited for studying the larger implications of cell clearance in vivo...
February 14, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Francesco Di Virgilio, Günther Schmalzing, Fritz Markwardt
ATP, which is released under pathological conditions and is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), activates P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), trimeric plasma membrane ion channels selective for small cations. P2X7Rs are partners in NOD-like receptor containing a pyrin (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and promoters of tumor cell growth. P2X7R overstimulation triggers the ATP-dependent opening of a nonselective plasma membrane pore, known as a 'macropore', which allows fluxes of large hydrophilic molecules...
February 10, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Carlotta Giorgi, Alberto Danese, Sonia Missiroli, Simone Patergnani, Paolo Pinton
Calcium (Ca2+) is considered one of the most-important biological cations, because it is implicated in cell physiopathology and cell fate through a finely tuned signaling system. In support of this notion, Ca2+ is the primary driver of cell proliferation and cell growth; however, it is also intimately linked to cell death. Functional abnormalities or mutations in proteins that mediate Ca2+ homeostasis usually lead to a plethora of diseases and pathogenic states, including cancer, heart failure, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disease...
February 3, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Christophe Viret, Aurore Rozières, Mathias Faure
NDP52/CALCOCO2 makes multiple contributions to selective autophagy. By interacting with cargos and LC3, NDP52 directs autophagy targets to autophagosomes. In addition, NDP52 promotes autophagosomes fusion with endolysosomes by connecting autophagosomes to MYOSIN VI. Recent studies reveal that Rab35 GTPase controls NDP52 recruitment to its targets and that NDP52 triggers MYOSIN VI (MYO6) motility.
January 30, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Valentin J A Barthet, Kevin M Ryan
The autophagy-lysosome pathway maintains cellular homeostasis and protects against neurodegenerative disorders. Recent findings show that autophagy can be impaired in these diseases, and that the cell activates an alternative Golgi-mediated degradation pathway, leading to expulsion of toxic protein aggregates. Ultimately this process leads to nuclear breakdown and neuronal cell death.
January 26, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Henri-François Renard, Ludger Johannes, Pierre Morsomme
Membrane fission is essential to life. It is required for many fundamental cellular processes, as diverse as cyto- and karyokinesis, organelle division, membrane repair, and membrane trafficking and endocytosis. While membrane fission was originally seen as resulting from the action of mechanoenzymes such as dynamin, it is clear that the reality is more complex. In this review, we propose an updated overview of fission mechanisms, and try to extract essential requirements for each. We also present examples of cellular processes that involve these fission mechanisms...
January 4, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Annegret Holm, Tina Heumann, Hellmut G Augustin
Microvascular mural cells (MMCs), comprising pericytes and microvascular smooth muscle cells, are of increasing interest in multiple fields of research for their plasticity and their organotypic functional roles in microvascular homeostasis and disease. They have been described as a heterogeneous cell population constituting a continuum of cell phenotypes along the microvascular bed with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at one end of the spectrum and pericytes at the other end. MMC organotypic subpopulations have been suggested to function in a tissue-context-dependent manner, thereby contributing to organ-specific functional roles...
January 4, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Anne K Lagendijk, Alpha S Yap, Benjamin M Hogan
Vascular barrier function is controlled at cell-cell junctions in response to blood flow, but how vascular endothelial cells sense and respond to flow remains to be understood. A recent study describes a flow-sensing pathway involving non-canonical Notch and cadherin signaling that sheds new light on mechanisms controlling the endothelial barrier.
January 2, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Chunru Lin, Liuqing Yang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are encoded by a vast less explored region of the human genome, may hold missing drivers of cancer and have gained attention recently as a potentially crucial layer of cancer cell regulation. lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in a broad spectrum of cancers, and they play key roles in promoting and maintaining tumor initiation and progression, demonstrating their clinical potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Recent discoveries have revealed that lncRNAs act as key signal transduction mediators in cancer signaling pathways by interacting with proteins, RNA, and lipids...
December 20, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
Adam J Wolpaw, Chi V Dang
Links between oncogenic drivers and cancer cell metabolism have emerged over the past several decades, indicating that constitutive oncogenic growth signaling can render cancers susceptible to metabolic interventions. While significant progress has been achieved in the identification of metabolic vulnerabilities of cancer cells, the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the dynamic nature of organismal circadian metabolism challenge the precision of targeting cancer metabolism. Here current progress in the areas of cancer metabolism and TME metabolism is reviewed, highlighting how cancer metabolism can be accurately and precisely targeted...
March 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Qianhua Xu, Wei Xie
Drastic epigenetic reprogramming takes place during preimplantation development, leading to the conversion of terminally differentiated gametes to a totipotent embryo. Deficiencies in remodeling of the epigenomes can cause severe developmental defects, including embryonic lethality. However, how chromatin modifications and chromatin organization are reprogrammed upon fertilization in mammals has long remained elusive. Here, we review recent progress in understanding how the epigenome is dynamically regulated during early mammalian development...
March 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Joel Paz, Jens Lüders
Despite decades of molecular analysis of the centrosome, an important microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) of animal cells, the molecular basis of microtubule organization remains obscure. A major challenge is the sheer complexity of the interplay of the hundreds of proteins that constitute the centrosome. However, this complexity owes not only to the centrosome's role as a MTOC but also to the requirements of its duplication cycle and to various other functions such as the formation of cilia, the integration of various signaling pathways, and the organization of actin filaments...
March 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Jonathan J Chen, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Tumor progression and resistance to treatment are often accompanied by the polarization of malignant cells towards a mesenchymal or poorly differentiated state. Such a transition generates an accrued vulnerability to the induction of ferroptosis, potentially paving the way to novel therapeutic strategies for targeting residual disease in patients with cancer.
February 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"