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Trends in Cell Biology

Mu He, Stephanie Agbu, Kathryn V Anderson
The mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is required for development and for maintenance of adult stem cells, and overactivation of the pathway can cause tumorigenesis. All responses to Hh family ligands in mammals require the primary cilium, an ancient microtubule-based organelle that extends from the cell surface. Genetic studies in mice and humans have defined specific functions for cilium-associated microtubule motor proteins: they act in the construction and disassembly of the primary cilium, they control ciliary length and stability, and some have direct roles in mammalian Hh signal transduction...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Giorgia Guglielmi, Henning Johannes Falk, Stefano De Renzis
Optogenetics is an emerging and powerful technique that allows the control of protein activity with light. The possibility of inhibiting or stimulating protein activity with the spatial and temporal precision of a pulse of laser light is opening new frontiers for the investigation of developmental pathways and cell biological bases underlying organismal development. With this powerful technique in hand, it will be possible to address old and novel questions about how cells, tissues, and organisms form. In this review, we focus on the applications of existing optogenetic tools for addressing issues in animal morphogenesis...
October 7, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Bo Lu, Marc Fivaz
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is the primary Ca(2+) influx pathway in non-excitable cells. Long thought to be absent in nerve cells, neuronal SOCE is gaining popularity. We argue here that the evidence for SOCE in neurons remains contentious, mostly because SOCE imaging assays are inadequate in these cells.
October 5, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Alberto T Gatta, Tim P Levine
Contact sites are places where two organelles join together to carry out a shared activity requiring nonvesicular communication. A large number of contact sites have been discovered, and almost any two organelles can contact each other. General rules about contacts include constraints on bridging proteins, with only a minority of bridges physically creating contacts by acting as 'tethers'. The downstream effects of contacts include changing the physical behaviour of organelles, and also forming biochemically heterogeneous subdomains...
October 4, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Darcie L Moore, Sebastian Jessberger
Accumulating evidence suggests that mammalian cells asymmetrically segregate cellular components ranging from genomic DNA to organelles and damaged proteins during cell division. Asymmetric inheritance upon mammalian cell division may be specifically important to ensure cellular fitness and propagate cellular potency to individual progeny, for example in the context of somatic stem cell division. We review here recent advances in the field and discuss potential effects and underlying mechanisms that mediate asymmetric segregation of cellular components during mammalian cell division...
October 4, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Jim Woodgett, Danielle T Loughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Martin Beck, Wolfgang Baumeister
Traditionally, macromolecular structure determination is performed ex situ, that is, with purified materials. But, there are strong incentives to develop approaches to study them in situ in their native functional context. In recent years, cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) has emerged as a powerful method for visualizing the molecular organization of unperturbed cellular landscapes with the potential to attain near-atomic resolution. Here, we review recent work on several macromolecular assemblies, demonstrating the power of in situ studies...
September 23, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Dae In Kim, Kyle J Roux
There are inherent limitations with traditional methods to study protein behavior or to determine the constituency of proteins in discrete subcellular compartments. In response to these limitations, several methods have recently been developed that use proximity-dependent labeling. By fusing proteins to enzymes that generate reactive molecules, most commonly biotin, proximate proteins are covalently labeled to enable their isolation and identification. In this review we describe current methods for proximity-dependent labeling in living cells and discuss their applications and future use in the study of protein behavior...
September 22, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
John Salogiannis, Samara L Reck-Peterson
The long-range movement of organelles, vesicles, and macromolecular complexes by microtubule-based transport is crucial for cell growth and survival. The canonical view of intracellular transport is that each cargo directly recruits molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptor molecules. Recently, a new paradigm called 'hitchhiking' has emerged: some cargos can achieve motility by interacting with other cargos that have already recruited molecular motors. In this way, cargos are co-transported together and their movements are directly coupled...
September 21, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Lorenzo Galluzzi
At odds with its nuclear counterpart, extranuclear promyelocytic leukemia constitutively inhibits autophagy, hence limiting cancer progression. These data raise the interesting possibility that some tumor suppressors have become specialized to operate at multiple subcellular compartments for counteracting different aspects of the oncogenic process.
September 20, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
MarĂ­a Salazar-Roa, Marcos Malumbres
Cell division is a complex process with high energy demands. However, how cells regulate the generation of energy required for DNA synthesis and chromosome segregation is not well understood. Recent data suggest that changes in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolic pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis crosstalk with, and are tightly regulated by, the cell division machinery. Alterations in energy availability trigger cell-cycle checkpoints, suggesting a bidirectional connection between cell division and general metabolism...
September 19, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Georg Kustatscher, Juri Rappsilber
Proteomic studies find many proteins in unexpected cellular locations. Can functional components of organelles be distinguished from biochemical artefacts or misguided cellular sorting? The clue might reside in compositional changes that follow biological challenges and that can be decoded by machine learning.
September 17, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Georgia K Atkin-Smith, Ivan K H Poon
The disassembly of an apoptotic cell into subcellular fragments, termed apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs), is a hallmark of apoptosis. Although the generation of ApoBDs is generally understood as being stochastic, it is becoming increasingly clear that ApoBD formation is a highly regulated process involving distinct morphological steps and molecular factors. Functionally, ApoBDs could facilitate the efficient clearance of apoptotic material by surrounding phagocytes as well as mediate the transfer of biomolecules including microRNAs and proteins between cells to aid in intercellular communications...
September 16, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Bob Goldstein, Nicole King
Most current research in cell biology uses just a handful of model systems including yeast, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, zebrafish, mouse, and cultured mammalian cells. And for good reason - for many biological questions, the best system for the question is likely to be found among these models. However, in some cases, and particularly as the questions that engage scientists broaden, the best system for a question may be a little-studied organism. Modern research tools are facilitating a renaissance for unusual and interesting organisms as emerging model systems...
September 14, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Christopher S Chen
Advances in engineering of cells and culture formats have led to the development of a new generation of 3D cultures that can recapitulate a variety of multicell-type, morphogenetic behaviors that were previously largely observable only in in vivo settings. Ultimately, these systems are likely to be assimilated into and forever change the landscape of biomedical research.
September 13, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Abraham Q Kohrman, David Q Matus
Cell invasion through the basement membrane (BM) occurs during normal embryonic development and is a fundamental feature of cancer metastasis. The underlying cellular and genetic machinery required for invasion has been difficult to identify, due to a lack of adequate in vivo models to accurately examine invasion in single cells at subcellular resolution. Recent evidence has documented a functional link between cell cycle arrest and invasive activity. While cancer progression is traditionally thought of as a disease of uncontrolled cell proliferation, cancer cell dissemination, a critical aspect of metastasis, may require a switch from a proliferative to an invasive state...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Jarema J Malicki, Colin A Johnson
Cilia mediate an astonishing diversity of processes. Recent advances provide unexpected insights into the regulatory mechanisms of cilium formation, and reveal diverse regulatory inputs that are related to the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, proteostasis, and cilia-mediated signaling itself. Ciliogenesis and cilia maintenance are regulated by reciprocal antagonistic or synergistic influences, often acting in parallel to each other. By receiving parallel inputs, cilia appear to integrate multiple signals into specific outputs and may have functions similar to logic gates of digital systems...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Fangyuan Wang, Lei S Qi
Recent advances in genome engineering are starting a revolution in biological research and translational applications. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated RNA-guided endonuclease CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) and its variants enable diverse manipulations of genome function. In this review, we describe the development of Cas9 tools for a variety of applications in cell biology research, including the study of functional genomics, the creation of transgenic animal models, and genomic imaging...
September 3, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
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