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Trends in Cell Biology

Patrick A Eyers, Karen Keeshan, Natarajan Kannan
The Tribbles (TRIB) pseudokinases control multiple aspects of eukaryotic cell biology and evolved unique features distinguishing them from all other protein kinases. The atypical pseudokinase domain retains a regulated binding platform for substrates, which are ubiquitinated by context-specific E3 ligases. This plastic configuration has also been exploited as a scaffold to support the modulation of canonical MAPK and AKT modules. In this review, we discuss the evolution of TRIBs and their roles in vertebrate cell biology...
November 28, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Thierry Soussi, Guido Kroemer
Identified as a TP53-binding protein, 53BP1 is a key regulator of the cellular response to double-strand breaks, a TP53-independent activity. Recent data have established a new TP53-dependent function for 53BP1 in mitotic surveillance after centrosome loss.
November 17, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Nihal Altan-Bonnet
Positive-strand RNA viruses are the largest group of RNA viruses on Earth and cellular membranes are critical for all aspects of their life cycle, from entry and replication to exit. In particular, membranes serve as platforms for replication and as carriers to transmit these viruses to other cells, the latter either as an envelope surrounding a single virus or as the vesicle containing a population of viruses. Notably, many animal and human viruses appear to induce and exploit phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate/cholesterol-enriched membranes for replication, whereas many plant and insect-vectored animal viruses utilize phosphatidylethanolamine/cholesterol-enriched membranes for the same purpose; and phosphatidylserine-enriched membrane carriers are widely used by both single and populations of viruses for transmission...
November 9, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
U B Kaupp, T Strünker
For a given sensory cell type, signaling motifs are rather uniform across phyla. By contrast, sperm from different species use diverse repertoires of sperm-specific signaling molecules and even closely related protein isoforms feature different properties and serve different functions. This surprising diversity has consequences for strategies in fertilization research and it will take some time to get the big picture. We discuss the function of receptors, ion channels, and exchangers embedded in cellular pathways from different sperm species...
November 5, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Viola Nähse, Liliane Christ, Harald Stenmark, Coen Campsteijn
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division and is concluded by abscission of the intercellular bridge to physically separate the daughter cells. Timing of cytokinetic abscission is monitored by a molecular machinery termed the abscission checkpoint. This machinery delays abscission in cells with persistent chromatin in the intercellular bridge. Recent work has also uncovered its response to high membrane tension, nuclear pore defects, and DNA replication stress. Although it is known that the abscission checkpoint depends on persistent activity of the Aurora B protein kinase, we have only recently begun to understand its molecular basis...
October 31, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Mu He, Stephanie Agbu, Kathryn V Anderson
The mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is required for development and for maintenance of adult stem cells, and overactivation of the pathway can cause tumorigenesis. All responses to Hh family ligands in mammals require the primary cilium, an ancient microtubule-based organelle that extends from the cell surface. Genetic studies in mice and humans have defined specific functions for cilium-associated microtubule motor proteins: they act in the construction and disassembly of the primary cilium, they control ciliary length and stability, and some have direct roles in mammalian Hh signal transduction...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Giorgia Guglielmi, Henning Johannes Falk, Stefano De Renzis
Optogenetics is an emerging and powerful technique that allows the control of protein activity with light. The possibility of inhibiting or stimulating protein activity with the spatial and temporal precision of a pulse of laser light is opening new frontiers for the investigation of developmental pathways and cell biological bases underlying organismal development. With this powerful technique in hand, it will be possible to address old and novel questions about how cells, tissues, and organisms form. In this review, we focus on the applications of existing optogenetic tools for addressing issues in animal morphogenesis...
October 7, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Alberto T Gatta, Tim P Levine
Contact sites are places where two organelles join together to carry out a shared activity requiring nonvesicular communication. A large number of contact sites have been discovered, and almost any two organelles can contact each other. General rules about contacts include constraints on bridging proteins, with only a minority of bridges physically creating contacts by acting as 'tethers'. The downstream effects of contacts include changing the physical behaviour of organelles, and also forming biochemically heterogeneous subdomains...
October 4, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Darcie L Moore, Sebastian Jessberger
Accumulating evidence suggests that mammalian cells asymmetrically segregate cellular components ranging from genomic DNA to organelles and damaged proteins during cell division. Asymmetric inheritance upon mammalian cell division may be specifically important to ensure cellular fitness and propagate cellular potency to individual progeny, for example in the context of somatic stem cell division. We review here recent advances in the field and discuss potential effects and underlying mechanisms that mediate asymmetric segregation of cellular components during mammalian cell division...
October 4, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Jim Woodgett, Danielle T Loughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Alexandre Webster, Melina Schuh
Eggs and sperm develop through a specialized cell division called meiosis. During meiosis, the number of chromosomes is reduced by two sequential divisions in preparation for fertilization. In human female meiosis, chromosomes frequently segregate incorrectly, resulting in eggs with an abnormal number of chromosomes. When fertilized, these eggs give rise to aneuploid embryos that usually fail to develop. As women become older, errors in meiosis occur more frequently, resulting in increased risks of infertility, miscarriage, and congenital syndromes, such as Down's syndrome...
September 27, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Martin Beck, Wolfgang Baumeister
Traditionally, macromolecular structure determination is performed ex situ, that is, with purified materials. But, there are strong incentives to develop approaches to study them in situ in their native functional context. In recent years, cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) has emerged as a powerful method for visualizing the molecular organization of unperturbed cellular landscapes with the potential to attain near-atomic resolution. Here, we review recent work on several macromolecular assemblies, demonstrating the power of in situ studies...
September 23, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
John Salogiannis, Samara L Reck-Peterson
The long-range movement of organelles, vesicles, and macromolecular complexes by microtubule-based transport is crucial for cell growth and survival. The canonical view of intracellular transport is that each cargo directly recruits molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptor molecules. Recently, a new paradigm called 'hitchhiking' has emerged: some cargos can achieve motility by interacting with other cargos that have already recruited molecular motors. In this way, cargos are co-transported together and their movements are directly coupled...
September 21, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
María Salazar-Roa, Marcos Malumbres
Cell division is a complex process with high energy demands. However, how cells regulate the generation of energy required for DNA synthesis and chromosome segregation is not well understood. Recent data suggest that changes in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolic pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis crosstalk with, and are tightly regulated by, the cell division machinery. Alterations in energy availability trigger cell-cycle checkpoints, suggesting a bidirectional connection between cell division and general metabolism...
September 19, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Georg Kustatscher, Juri Rappsilber
Proteomic studies find many proteins in unexpected cellular locations. Can functional components of organelles be distinguished from biochemical artefacts or misguided cellular sorting? The clue might reside in compositional changes that follow biological challenges and that can be decoded by machine learning.
September 17, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Georgia K Atkin-Smith, Ivan K H Poon
The disassembly of an apoptotic cell into subcellular fragments, termed apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs), is a hallmark of apoptosis. Although the generation of ApoBDs is generally understood as being stochastic, it is becoming increasingly clear that ApoBD formation is a highly regulated process involving distinct morphological steps and molecular factors. Functionally, ApoBDs could facilitate the efficient clearance of apoptotic material by surrounding phagocytes as well as mediate the transfer of biomolecules including microRNAs and proteins between cells to aid in intercellular communications...
September 16, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Abraham Q Kohrman, David Q Matus
Cell invasion through the basement membrane (BM) occurs during normal embryonic development and is a fundamental feature of cancer metastasis. The underlying cellular and genetic machinery required for invasion has been difficult to identify, due to a lack of adequate in vivo models to accurately examine invasion in single cells at subcellular resolution. Recent evidence has documented a functional link between cell cycle arrest and invasive activity. While cancer progression is traditionally thought of as a disease of uncontrolled cell proliferation, cancer cell dissemination, a critical aspect of metastasis, may require a switch from a proliferative to an invasive state...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Jarema J Malicki, Colin A Johnson
Cilia mediate an astonishing diversity of processes. Recent advances provide unexpected insights into the regulatory mechanisms of cilium formation, and reveal diverse regulatory inputs that are related to the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, proteostasis, and cilia-mediated signaling itself. Ciliogenesis and cilia maintenance are regulated by reciprocal antagonistic or synergistic influences, often acting in parallel to each other. By receiving parallel inputs, cilia appear to integrate multiple signals into specific outputs and may have functions similar to logic gates of digital systems...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
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