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Phytochemical Analysis: PCA

Giancarlo Verardo, Andrea Gorassini, Donata Ricci, Daniele Fraternale
INTRODUCTION: Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious (GD) and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" (MRM), and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures. METHODOLOGY: Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements...
September 30, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Marian Bittner, Regina Schenk, Andreas Springer, Matthias F Melzig
INTRODUCTION: The medicinal plant Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae, aka black cohosh) is widely used to treat climacteric complaints as an alternative to hormone substitution. Recent trials prove efficacy and safety of the approved herbal medicinal products from extracts of pharmaceutical quality. This led to worldwide increasing sales. A higher demand for the plant material results in problems with economically motivated adulteration. Thus, reliable tools for herbal drug authentication are necessary...
November 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
William Deasy, Tom Shepherd, Colin J Alexander, A Nicholas E Birch, K Andrew Evans
INTRODUCTION: Collection of volatiles from plant roots poses technical challenges due to difficulties accessing the soil environment without damaging the roots. OBJECTIVES: To validate a new non-invasive method for passive sampling of root volatiles in situ, from plants grown under field conditions, using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). METHODS: SPME fibres were inserted into perforated polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) tubes positioned in the soil next to broccoli plants for collection of root volatiles pre- and post-infestation with Delia radicum larvae...
November 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
William Deasy, Tom Shepherd, Colin J Alexander, A Nicholas E Birch, K Andrew Evans
INTRODUCTION: Research on plant root chemical ecology has benefited greatly from recent developments in analytical chemistry. Numerous reports document techniques for sampling root volatiles, although only a limited number describe in situ collection. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a new method for non-invasive in situ passive sampling using solid phase micro extraction (SPME), from the immediate vicinity of growing roots. METHODS: SPME fibres inserted into polyfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sampling tubes located in situ which were either perforated, covered with stainless steel mesh or with microporous PTFE tubing, were used for non-invasive sub-surface sampling of root volatiles from glasshouse-grown broccoli...
November 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Yan Qin, Yingming Pang, Zhihong Cheng
INTRODUCTION: The needle trap device (NTD) technique is a new microextraction method for sampling and preconcentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Previous NTD studies predominantly focused on analysis of environmental volatile compounds in the gaseous and liquid phases. Little work has been done on its potential application in biological samples and no work has been reported on analysis of bioactive compounds in essential oils from herbal medicines. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the present study is to develop a NTD sampling method for profiling VOCs in biological samples using herbal medicines as a case study...
November 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Pierre Le Pogam, Anne-Cécile Le Lamer, Béatrice Legouin, Joël Boustie, David Rondeau
INTRODUCTION: Lichens widely occur all over the world and are known to produce unique secondary metabolites with various biological activities. OBJECTIVE: To develop high-throughput screening approaches requiring little to no sample preparation to alleviate the dereplication holdup and accelerate the discovery workflow of new structures from lichens. METHODOLOGY: The extracellular distribution of lichen metabolites is incentive for in situ chemical profiling of lichens using the ambient mass spectrometry DART-MS...
November 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Dolors Company-Arumí, Mercè Figueras, Victoria Salvadó, Marisa Molinas, Olga Serra, Enriqueta Anticó
INTRODUCTION: Protective plant lipophilic barriers such as suberin and cutin, with their associated waxes, are complex fatty acyl derived polyesters. Their precise chemical composition is valuable to understand the specific role of each compound to the physiological function of the barrier. OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for the compositional analysis of suberin and associated waxes by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to ion trap-mass spectrometry (IT-MS) using N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as sylilating reagent, and apply it to compare the suberin of the root and tuber periderm of potato (Solanum tuberosum)...
November 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Kamonthip Jutathis, Tharita Kitisripanya, Orain Udomsin, Chadathorn Inyai, Boonchoo Sritularak, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Waraporn Putalun
INTRODUCTION: Genistein 7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-glucopyranoside (GTG) is a major bioactive compound in Derris scandens. It is responsible for anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. There are many commercial products of D. scandens available in Thailand. OBJECTIVE: To develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitative analysis of GTG in plant material and derived products using a polyclonal antibody...
November 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Norazah Basar, Lutfun Nahar, Olayinka Ayotunde Oridupa, Kenneth J Ritchie, Anupam D Talukdar, Angela Stafford, Habibjon Kushiev, Asuman Kan, Satyajit D Sarker
INTRODUCTION: Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of many detoxification enzymes. Nrf2-antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2-ARE) signalling pathway can be a target for cancer chemoprevention. Glycyrrhiza glabra, common name, 'liquorice', is used as a sweetening and flavouring agent, and traditionally, to treat various ailments, and implicated to chemoprevention. However, its chemopreventive property has not yet been scientifically substantiated...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Stela Jokić, Marina Rajić, Blanka Bilić, Maja Molnar
INTRODUCTION: The increasing popularity of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don) and its products, particularly in the cosmetic industry, is evident nowadays. This plant is a source of coumarins, especially scopoletin, which are highly soluble in supercritical CO2 . OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform the supercritical CO2 extraction process of Helichrysum italicum flowers at different values of pressure and temperature and to optimise the extraction process using response surface methodology in terms of obtaining the highest extraction yield and yield of extracted scopoletin...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Nilufar Z Mamadalieva, Khayrulla M Bobakulov, Vittorio Vinciguerra, Antonio Tiezzi, Nasrulla D Abdullaev, Lutfun Nahar, Shahnoz S Azimova, Satyajit D Sarker
INTRODUCTION: The genus Leonurus L. (fam: Lamiaceae) is represented in Uzbekistan by two species, L. panzerioides Popov. and L. turkestanicus V. I. Krecz. & Kuprian, which are used to treat nervous disorders and also as sedative and hypotensive agents. OBJECTIVES: To establish the taxonomic status of Leonurus panzerioides and L. turkestanicus based on their chemical constituents analysed by GC-MS and q-NMR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative (1) H-NMR (q-NMR) was used to identify and quantify known major components in the methanol extracts of these two species...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Julita Malejko, Edyta Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Julia Szabuńko, Jolanta Nazaruk
INTRODUCTION: The quality of herbs is directly related to the presence of polyphenolic antioxidants. This is the first report on the quantification of individual polyphenolic constituents of Erigeron acris L. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and chemiluminescence (UHPLC-PDA-CL) detection for the separation and determination of polyphenols in Erigeron acris extracts. METHODOLOGY: The methanolic extracts from leaves and inflorescences of Erigeron acris were prepared by ultrasound assisted extraction...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Mariateresa Maldini, Mario Chessa, Giacomo L Petretto, Paola Montoro, Jonathan P Rourke, Marzia Foddai, Marcello Nicoletti, Giorgio Pintore
INTRODUCTION: Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) is a self-seeded shrub, widespread in Sardinia, with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antimicrobial, hypoglycemic and balsamic properties. Its berries, employed for the production of sweet myrtle liqueur, are characterised by a high content of bioactive polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins. Anthocyanin composition is quite specific for vegetables/fruits and can be used as a fingerprint to determine the authenticity, geographical origin and quality of raw materials, products and extracts...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Sławomir Dresler, Tomasz Kubrak, Ewelina Rutkowska, Mariusz Gagoś, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Ryszard Świeboda, Małgorzata Wójcik
INTRODUCTION: Adverse environmental conditions usually change plant biochemical pathways resulting in accumulation or decreased content of both primary and secondary metabolites. The chemometric fingerprinting analysis proves to be a useful tool to reveal phytochemical differentiation between plants inhabiting heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated areas. OBJECTIVE: Development and assessment of four analytical techniques - high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in chemometric fingerprinting of metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Bruna de Falco, Guido Incerti, Rosa Pepe, Mariana Amato, Virginia Lanzotti
INTRODUCTION: Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. Fiori) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) are sources of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES: To apply a NMR metabolomic fingerprinting approach to Cynara cardunculus heads to obtain simultaneous identification and quantitation of the major classes of organic compounds. METHODOLOGY: The edible part of 14 Globe artichoke populations, belonging to the Romaneschi varietal group, were extracted to obtain apolar and polar organic extracts...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Sunil Kumar, Awantika Singh, Vikas Bajpai, Mukesh Srivastava, Bhim Pratap Singh, Sanjeev Ojha, Brijesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Rauvolfia serpentina is an endangered plant species due to its over-exploitation. It has highly commercial and economic importance due to the presence of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmaline, yohimbine, ajmalicine, serpentine and reserpine. OBJECTIVE: To develop a validated, rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQLIT -MS/MS) method in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for simultaneous determination of bioactive MIAs in ethanolic extract of seven Rauvolfia species and herbal formulations...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Steven M Colegate, Dale R Gardner, Joseph M Betz, Ottmar W Fischer, Sigrid Liede-Schumann, Michael Boppré
INTRODUCTION: Within the Apocynoideae (Apocynaceae) pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids have been reported only in Echiteae. However, attraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects suggested their presence in Alafia cf. caudata Stapf (Nerieae: Alafiinae) and Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton (Apocyneae: Amphineuriinae), both used as medicinal plants. OBJECTIVE: To confirm the presence of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in Alafia cf...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Ivana Kroslakova, Simona Pedrussio, Evelyn Wolfram
INTRODUCTION: Thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of plant raw materials and extracts for food and pharma applications often focus on phenol carbonic acids and flavonoids. The visual detection and comparison of Rf values of applied reference substances only renders limited phytochemical information. Recently, direct coupling of TLC with MALDI-TOF MS has been successfully applied for analysis of biologically relevant compounds such as lipids. The mass analysis of low molecular weight TLC or HPTLC fingerprints of flavonoids has, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated...
May 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Vivian T Dike, Burbwa Vihiior, Joel A Bosha, Tung Mei Yin, Godwin Unekwuojo Ebiloma, Harry P de Koning, John O Igoli, Alexander I Gray
INTRODUCTION: Several taccalonolides with various bioactivities have been isolated from Tacca species but no studies to isolate taccalonolides with anti-trypanosomal activity from Tacca leontopetaloides have been reported. OBJECTIVES: To analyse extracts of the roots of Tacca leontopetaloides, purify the extracts by column chromatography and identify isolated compounds by spectroscopic methods. The compounds and fractions will be tested for antitrypanosomal activity in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei...
May 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Jiayong He, Ying Liu, Yun Kang, Ping Yang, Yaqin Wang, Jixian Guo, Jianming Huang
INTRODUCTION: Plants in the genus Stephania can produce diverse bioactive alkaloids. Stephania hainanensis is a medicinal plant that contains effective alkaloids. However, only 10 alkaloids have been reported in this species. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the alkaloids in Stephania hainanensis using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). METHODS: An LC-QTOF-MS/MS method was developed for structural characterisation of the alkaloids in Stephania hainanensis...
May 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
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