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Patricia Milagros Maquera-Huacho, Caroline Coradi Tonon, Marilia Ferreira Correia, Renata Serignoli Francisconi, Ester Alves Ferreira Bordini, Élcio Marcantonio, Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio
This study evaluated the antibacterial properties of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum and its cytotoxic effects on fibroblast cells. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were examined. The minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (MBIC) was evaluated by XTT assay. Biofilm decontamination on titanium surfaces was quantified (CFU ml-1 ), evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and cytotoxic activity by MTT...
September 6, 2018: Biofouling
Hye Won Kim, Min Suk Rhee
A response surface methodology was used to build a model to predict reductions in uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms in response to three compounds: cranberry extract [CB] at 3.0-9.0%, and caprylic acid [CAR] and thymol [TM] at 0.01%-0.05%. The predictive model for microbial reduction had a high regression coefficient (R2  = 0.9988), and the accuracy of the model was verified (R2  = 0.9527). Values of CAR, TM, and the quadratic term CAR2 were the most significant (P < 0.0001) for bacterial reduction...
September 6, 2018: Biofouling
Magdalena Pezzoni, Ramón A Pizarro, Cristina S Costa
The establishment of bacterial biofilms on abiotic surfaces is a complex process regulated by multiple genetic regulators and environmental factors which are able to modulate the passage of planktonic cells to a sessile state. Solar ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA, 315-400) is one of the main environmental stress factors that bacteria must face at the Earth´s surface. The deleterious effects of UVA are mainly due to oxidative damage. This paper reports that exposure to low UVA doses promotes biofilm formation in three prototypical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a relevant opportunistic human pathogen...
September 6, 2018: Biofouling
Jean-François Briand, Xavier Pochon, Susanna A Wood, Christine Bressy, Cédric Garnier, Karine Réhel, Félix Urvois, Gérald Culioli, Anastasija Zaiko
Metabarcoding and metabolomics were used to explore the taxonomic composition and functional diversity of eukaryotic biofouling communities on plates with antifouling paints at two French coastal sites: Lorient (North Eastern Atlantic Ocean; temperate and eutrophic) and Toulon (North-Western Mediterranean Sea; mesotrophic but highly contaminated). Four distinct coatings were tested at each site and season for one month. Metabarcoding showed biocidal coatings had less impact on eukaryotic assemblages compared to spatial and temporal effects...
September 6, 2018: Biofouling
Mohita Sharma, Priyesh Menon, Johanna Voordouw, Yin Shen, Gerrit Voordouw
Samples of (I) produced waters, (II) central processing facility (CPF) waters and (III) pipeline solids were collected from a light oil-producing field. The biocide, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS) was routinely used in the CPF. Samples monitoring indicated that THPS was effective in microbial control but also increased concentrations of sulfate and phosphate in transitioning from Type I to Type II waters. Type II waters had high concentrations (up to 60 mM) of acetate but low most probable numbers (MPNs) of acid-producing and sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating the presence of active biocide, as high MPNs were found in Type I waters...
August 27, 2018: Biofouling
Sabine Ulrike Gerbersdorf, Silke Wieprecht, Moritz Thom, David M Paterson, Marc Scheffler
The adhesiveness and stability of ubiquitously distributed biofilms is a significant issue in many areas such as ecology, biotechnology and medicine. The magnetic particle induction (MagPI) system allows precise determinations of biofilm adhesiveness at high temporal and spatial resolution on the mesoscale. This paper concerns several technical aspects to further improve the performance of this powerful experimental approach and enhance the range of MagPI applications. First, several electromagnets were built to demonstrate the influence of material and geometry with special regard to core remanence and magnetic strength...
August 27, 2018: Biofouling
Anna Marchese, Carla Renata Arciola, Erika Coppo, Ramona Barbieri, Davide Barreca, Salima Chebaibi, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia
Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methyl phenol) is a natural compound that occurs in the leaves of a number of plants and herbs including wild bergamot, thyme and pepperwort, but which is most abundant in oregano. The aim of this review is to analyse the scientific data from the last five years (2012-2017) on the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of carvacrol, targeting different bacteria and fungi responsible for human infectious diseases. The antimicrobial and anti-biofilm mechanisms of carvacrol and its synergies with antibiotics are illustrated...
August 1, 2018: Biofouling
Marija Miljkovic, Pavle Marinkovic, Katarina Novovic, Branko Jovcic, Amarela Terzic-Vidojevic, Milan Kojic
The ability of lactic acid bacteria to form multi-cellular aggregates via self-aggregation is regarded as an important mechanism for stress tolerance, adhesion, colonization and genetic material exchange. The novel aggLr gene encoding for the auto-aggregation promoting protein (AggLr) of Lactococcus raffinolactis BGTRK10-1 was cloned. Heterologous expression of AggLr enabled auto-aggregation, higher hydrophobicity and collagen and fibronectin binding of the carrier strains. Domain analysis and the type of aggregates formed by cells expressing AggLr confirmed that this aggregation factor belongs to the family of high molecular weight proteins that the authors propose to be called Snow-flake Forming Collagen Binding Aggregation Factors (SFCBAF)...
July 20, 2018: Biofouling
Stacey A Maskarinec, Zehra Parlak, Qing Tu, Vrad Levering, Stefan Zauscher, Gabriel P López, Vance G Fowler, John R Perfect
Candida albicans is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and elimination of these biofilm-based infections without antifungal agents would constitute a significant medical advance. A novel urinary catheter prototype that utilizes on-demand surface deformation is effective at eliminating bacterial biofilms and here the broader applicability of this prototype to remove fungal biofilms has been demonstrated. C. albicans biofilms were debonded from prototypes by selectively inflating four additional intralumens surrounding the main lumen of the catheters to provide the necessary surface strain to remove the adhered biofilm...
June 13, 2018: Biofouling
Célia F Rodrigues, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Mariana Henriques
Candidiases are the most recurrent fungal infections, especially among immunosuppressed patients. Although Candida albicans is still the most widespread isolated species, non-Candida albicans Candida species have been increasing. The goal of this work was to determine the susceptibility of C. glabrata biofilms to echinocandins and to evaluate their effect on the biofilm matrix composition, comparing the results with other Candida species. Drug susceptibilities were assessed through the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of caspofungin (Csf) and micafugin (Mcf)...
May 25, 2018: Biofouling
Mado Kotsiri, Maria Protopapa, Gesthimani-Myrto Roumelioti, Athena Economou-Amilli, Eleni K Efthimiadou, Skarlatos G Dedos
To achieve their reproductive potential, barnacles combine tactile exploration of surface structural properties and integration of cellular signals originating from their antennular sensory setae within a developmentally defined, temporally narrow window of settlement opportunity. Behavioural assays with cyprids coupled with biometric analysis of scanning electron microscopy-acquired images in the presence of specific chemical compounds were used to investigate how settlement on a substratum is altered in response to the presence of these compounds...
May 24, 2018: Biofouling
Ashwin Ambi, Carolina Vera, Nisharg Parikh, Naidel Perez, Anthony Lopez Rojas, Sanket Kumar, Christopher Stradford, Katherine Borbon, Julia Bryan, Christian Traba
The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of propolis have been intensively reported. However, the application of this folk remedy as a means to prevent biomedical implant contamination has yet to be completely evaluated. In response to the significant resistant and infectious attributes of biofilms, biomaterials engineered to possess specific chemical and physical properties were immobilized with metal free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE), a known antibacterial agent. The results obtained from this study begin to examine the application of MFRPEE as a novel alternative method for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant infections...
May 24, 2018: Biofouling
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May 2018: Biofouling
Angela Oates, Sharon Lindsay, Hitesh Mistry, Fernando Ortega, Andrew J McBain
An in vitro model was developed to assess the effects of topical antimicrobials on taxonomically defined wound biofilms. Biofilms were exposed over seven days to povidone-iodine, silver acetate or polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) at concentrations used in wound dressings. The rank order of tolerance in multi-species biofilms, based on an analysis of the average bacterial counts over time was P. aeruginosa > methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) > B. fragilis > S. pyogenes. The rank order of effectiveness for the antimicrobials in the biofilm model was povidone-iodine > PHMB > silver acetate...
May 2018: Biofouling
Murugesan Sivaranjani, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Chairmandurai Aravindraja, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
The present study was designed to investigate the anti-biofilm potential of alpha-mangostin (α-MG) against Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). The biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) of α-MG against AB was found to be 2 μg ml-1 . α-MG (0.5, 1 and 2 μg ml-1 ) exhibited non-bactericidal concentration-dependent anti-biofilm activities against AB. However, α-MG failed to disintegrate the mature biofilms of AB even at a 10-fold increased concentration from its BIC. Results from qRT-PCR and in vitro bioassays further demonstrated that α-MG downregulated the expression of bfmR, pgaA, pgaC, csuA/B, ompA, bap, katE, and sodB genes, which correspondingly affects biofilm formation and its associated virulence traits...
May 2018: Biofouling
Xiao-Xue Yang, Yue Him Wong, Yu Zhang, Gen Zhang, Pei-Yuan Qian
The bryozoan Bugula neritina is a cosmopolitan marine fouling species that causes major fouling problems in sub-tropical waters. Settlement of B. neritina larvae can be triggered without an obvious external cue. Here, the negative regulatory role of nitric oxide (NO) during larval settlement of B. neritina was demonstrated to be mediated by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Although the regulatory role of the NO-p38 MAPK signaling axis in larval settlement was not evident, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) led to the deactivation of p38 MAPK...
May 2018: Biofouling
H O G Benschop, A J Guerin, A Brinkmann, M L Dale, A A Finnie, W-P Breugem, A S Clare, D Stübing, C Price, K J Reynolds
The manufacture and preliminary testing of a drag-reducing riblet texture with fouling-control properties is presented. The commercial fouling-release product Intersleek® 1100SR was modified to manufacture riblet-textured coatings with an embossing technology. Hydrodynamic drag measurements in a Taylor-Couette set-up showed that the modified Intersleek® riblets reduced drag by up to 6% compared to a smooth surface. Barnacle settlement assays demonstrated that the riblets did not substantially reduce the ability of Intersleek® 1100SR to prevent fouling by cyprids of Balanus amphitrite...
May 2018: Biofouling
Thomas Klammsteiner, Heribert Insam, Maraike Probst
Cooling and lubrication agents like triethanolamine (TEA) are essential for many purposes in industry. Due to biodegradation, they need continuous replacement, and byproducts of degradation may be toxic. This study investigates an industrial (1,200 m³) cooling-lubrication circuit (CLC) that has been in operation for 20 years and is supposedly in an ecological equilibrium, thus offering a unique habitat. Next-generation (Illumina Miseq 16S rRNA amplicon) sequencing was used to profile the CLC-based microbiota and relate it to TEA and bicine dynamics at the sampling sites, influent, machine rooms, biofilms and effluent...
May 2018: Biofouling
Richard Piola, Andrew S M Ang, Matthew Leigh, Scott A Wade
Maritime hydraulic components are often exposed to harsh environmental conditions which can lead to accelerated deterioration, reduced function, equipment failure and costly repair. Two leading causes of maritime hydraulic failure are biofouling accumulation and corrosion. This study examined the antifouling performance of three candidate replacement high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coatings relative to the performance of the current baseline air plasma spray (APS) ceramic coating for protection of hydraulic actuators...
May 2018: Biofouling
J Fredrik Lindgren, Erik Ytreberg, Albin Holmqvist, Magnus Dahlström, Peter Dahl, Mattias Berglin, Anna-Lisa Wrange, Mia Dahlström
How zinc oxide influences copper release has been tested and the lowest release rate of copper from various combinations of copper and zinc in a paint matrix evaluated, whilst still deterring macrofouling, including barnacles and bryozoans. Copper (I) oxide was added to a generic AF paint in 0, 8.5, 11.7 or 16.3 wt% copper oxide in combination with 0, 10 or 20 wt% zinc oxide and applied on PMMA panels. The results show that zinc influences the release rate of copper. When 10 and 20 wt% zinc was added, the total amount of copper released significantly increased by on average 32 and 47% respectively...
April 2018: Biofouling
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