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Stacey A Maskarinec, Zehra Parlak, Qing Tu, Vrad Levering, Stefan Zauscher, Gabriel P López, Vance G Fowler, John R Perfect
Candida albicans is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and elimination of these biofilm-based infections without antifungal agents would constitute a significant medical advance. A novel urinary catheter prototype that utilizes on-demand surface deformation is effective at eliminating bacterial biofilms and here the broader applicability of this prototype to remove fungal biofilms has been demonstrated. C. albicans biofilms were debonded from prototypes by selectively inflating four additional intralumens surrounding the main lumen of the catheters to provide the necessary surface strain to remove the adhered biofilm...
June 13, 2018: Biofouling
Célia F Rodrigues, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Mariana Henriques
Candidiases are the most recurrent fungal infections, especially among immunosuppressed patients. Although Candida albicans is still the most widespread isolated species, non-Candida albicans Candida species have been increasing. The goal of this work was to determine the susceptibility of C. glabrata biofilms to echinocandins and to evaluate their effect on the biofilm matrix composition, comparing the results with other Candida species. Drug susceptibilities were assessed through the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of caspofungin (Csf) and micafugin (Mcf)...
May 25, 2018: Biofouling
Mado Kotsiri, Maria Protopapa, Gesthimani-Myrto Roumelioti, Athena Economou-Amilli, Eleni K Efthimiadou, Skarlatos G Dedos
To achieve their reproductive potential, barnacles combine tactile exploration of surface structural properties and integration of cellular signals originating from their antennular sensory setae within a developmentally defined, temporally narrow window of settlement opportunity. Behavioural assays with cyprids coupled with biometric analysis of scanning electron microscopy-acquired images in the presence of specific chemical compounds were used to investigate how settlement on a substratum is altered in response to the presence of these compounds...
May 24, 2018: Biofouling
Ashwin Ambi, Carolina Vera, Nisharg Parikh, Naidel Perez, Anthony Lopez Rojas, Sanket Kumar, Christopher Stradford, Katherine Borbon, Julia Bryan, Christian Traba
The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of propolis have been intensively reported. However, the application of this folk remedy as a means to prevent biomedical implant contamination has yet to be completely evaluated. In response to the significant resistant and infectious attributes of biofilms, biomaterials engineered to possess specific chemical and physical properties were immobilized with metal free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE), a known antibacterial agent. The results obtained from this study begin to examine the application of MFRPEE as a novel alternative method for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant infections...
May 24, 2018: Biofouling
Thomas Klammsteiner, Heribert Insam, Maraike Probst
Cooling and lubrication agents like triethanolamine (TEA) are essential for many purposes in industry. Due to biodegradation, they need continuous replacement, and byproducts of degradation may be toxic. This study investigates an industrial (1,200 m³) cooling-lubrication circuit (CLC) that has been in operation for 20 years and is supposedly in an ecological equilibrium, thus offering a unique habitat. Next-generation (Illumina Miseq 16S rRNA amplicon) sequencing was used to profile the CLC-based microbiota and relate it to TEA and bicine dynamics at the sampling sites, influent, machine rooms, biofilms and effluent...
May 21, 2018: Biofouling
Richard Piola, Andrew S M Ang, Matthew Leigh, Scott A Wade
Maritime hydraulic components are often exposed to harsh environmental conditions which can lead to accelerated deterioration, reduced function, equipment failure and costly repair. Two leading causes of maritime hydraulic failure are biofouling accumulation and corrosion. This study examined the antifouling performance of three candidate replacement high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coatings relative to the performance of the current baseline air plasma spray (APS) ceramic coating for protection of hydraulic actuators...
May 18, 2018: Biofouling
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Biofouling
Angela Oates, Sharon Lindsay, Hitesh Mistry, Fernando Ortega, Andrew J McBain
An in vitro model was developed to assess the effects of topical antimicrobials on taxonomically defined wound biofilms. Biofilms were exposed over seven days to povidone-iodine, silver acetate or polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) at concentrations used in wound dressings. The rank order of tolerance in multi-species biofilms, based on an analysis of the average bacterial counts over time was P. aeruginosa > methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) > B. fragilis > S. pyogenes. The rank order of effectiveness for the antimicrobials in the biofilm model was povidone-iodine > PHMB > silver acetate...
May 2018: Biofouling
Murugesan Sivaranjani, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Chairmandurai Aravindraja, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
The present study was designed to investigate the anti-biofilm potential of alpha-mangostin (α-MG) against Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). The biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) of α-MG against AB was found to be 2 μg ml-1 . α-MG (0.5, 1 and 2 μg ml-1 ) exhibited non-bactericidal concentration-dependent anti-biofilm activities against AB. However, α-MG failed to disintegrate the mature biofilms of AB even at a 10-fold increased concentration from its BIC. Results from qRT-PCR and in vitro bioassays further demonstrated that α-MG downregulated the expression of bfmR, pgaA, pgaC, csuA/B, ompA, bap, katE, and sodB genes, which correspondingly affects biofilm formation and its associated virulence traits...
May 2018: Biofouling
Xiao-Xue Yang, Yue Him Wong, Yu Zhang, Gen Zhang, Pei-Yuan Qian
The bryozoan Bugula neritina is a cosmopolitan marine fouling species that causes major fouling problems in sub-tropical waters. Settlement of B. neritina larvae can be triggered without an obvious external cue. Here, the negative regulatory role of nitric oxide (NO) during larval settlement of B. neritina was demonstrated to be mediated by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Although the regulatory role of the NO-p38 MAPK signaling axis in larval settlement was not evident, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) led to the deactivation of p38 MAPK...
May 2018: Biofouling
H O G Benschop, A J Guerin, A Brinkmann, M L Dale, A A Finnie, W-P Breugem, A S Clare, D Stübing, C Price, K J Reynolds
The manufacture and preliminary testing of a drag-reducing riblet texture with fouling-control properties is presented. The commercial fouling-release product Intersleek® 1100SR was modified to manufacture riblet-textured coatings with an embossing technology. Hydrodynamic drag measurements in a Taylor-Couette set-up showed that the modified Intersleek® riblets reduced drag by up to 6% compared to a smooth surface. Barnacle settlement assays demonstrated that the riblets did not substantially reduce the ability of Intersleek® 1100SR to prevent fouling by cyprids of Balanus amphitrite...
May 2018: Biofouling
J Fredrik Lindgren, Erik Ytreberg, Albin Holmqvist, Magnus Dahlström, Peter Dahl, Mattias Berglin, Anna-Lisa Wrange, Mia Dahlström
How zinc oxide influences copper release has been tested and the lowest release rate of copper from various combinations of copper and zinc in a paint matrix evaluated, whilst still deterring macrofouling, including barnacles and bryozoans. Copper (I) oxide was added to a generic AF paint in 0, 8.5, 11.7 or 16.3 wt% copper oxide in combination with 0, 10 or 20 wt% zinc oxide and applied on PMMA panels. The results show that zinc influences the release rate of copper. When 10 and 20 wt% zinc was added, the total amount of copper released significantly increased by on average 32 and 47% respectively...
April 2018: Biofouling
A Perrin, P Herbelin, F P A Jorand, S Skali-Lami, L Mathieu
The present study was aimed at designing and optimizing a rotating disk reactor simulating high hydrodynamic shear rates (γ), which are representative of cooling circuits. The characteristics of the hydrodynamic conditions in the reactor and the complex approach used to engineer it are described. A 60 l tank was filled with freshwater containing free-living amoebae (FLA) and bacteria. Adhesion of the bacteria and formation of a biofilm on the stainless steel coupons were observed. FLA were able to establish in these biofilms under γ as high as 85,000 s-1 ...
April 2018: Biofouling
Mark O Winfield, Adrian Downer, Jennifer Longyear, Marie Dale, Gary L A Barker
The bacterial and eukaryotic communities forming biofilms on six different antifouling coatings, three biocidal and three fouling-release, on boards statically submerged in a marine environment were studied using next-generation sequencing. Sequenced amplicons of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA and eukaryotic ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer were assigned taxonomy by comparison to reference databases and relative abundances were calculated. Differences in species composition, bacterial and eukaryotic, and relative abundance were observed between the biofilms on the various coatings; the main difference was between coating type, biocidal compared to fouling-release...
April 2018: Biofouling
Subhaswaraj Pattnaik, Tanveer Ahmed, Sampath Kumar Ranganathan, Dinakara Rao Ampasala, V Venkateswara Sarma, Siddharha Busi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing the majority of acute and persistent infections in human beings. The ability to form biofilm adds a new dimension to its resistance to conventional therapeutic agents. In the present study, down-regulation of quorum sensing regulated virulence and biofilm development resulting from exposure to Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis SSP13 extract was investigated. The in vitro results inferred impairment in the production of LasA protease, LasB elastase, chitinase, pyocyanin, exopolysaccharides and rhamnolipids...
April 2018: Biofouling
Kim A Nolte, Julian Koc, J M Barros, Kelli Hunsucker, Michael P Schultz, G W Swain, Axel Rosenhahn
Quick and reliable testing is crucial for the development of new fouling release (FR) coatings. Exposure of these coatings to natural multispecies communities is essential in evaluating their efficacy. To this end, we present a rotating disk setup for dynamic field exposure. To achieve a well-defined flow on the surface of the disk, an easy to use sample mounting system was developed that provides a smooth and even surface. We related the angular velocity of the disk to the wall shear stress on the surface with a hydrodynamic model...
April 2018: Biofouling
C Cattò, G James, F Villa, S Villa, F Cappitelli
The active moieties of the anti-biofilm natural compounds zosteric (ZA) and salicylic (SA) acids have been covalently immobilized on a low density polyethylene (LDPE) surface. The grafting procedure provided new non-toxic eco-friendly materials (LDPE-CA and LDPE-SA) with anti-biofilm properties superior to the conventional biocide-based approaches and with features suitable for applications in challenging fields where the use of antimicrobial agents is limited. Microbiological investigation proved that LDPE-CA and LDPE-SA: (1) reduced Escherichia coli biofilm biomass by up to 61% with a mechanism that did not affect bacterial viability; (2) significantly affected biofilm morphology, decreasing biofilm thickness, roughness, substratum coverage, cell and matrix polysaccharide bio-volumes by >80% and increasing the surface to bio-volume ratio; (3) made the biofilm more susceptible to ampicillin and ethanol...
April 2018: Biofouling
Gopal Bhojani, Sweta Binod Kumar, Nirmal Kumar Saha, Soumya Haldar
In this study, bacteria isolated from a lake were characterised for their chlorine resistivity and the effects of chlorination on growth, mortality, protein expression and attachment propensity towards membranes. Biofouling and membrane performance were analysed. All isolated chlorine resistant strains, characterised by 16s rRNA gene sequencing, belonged to the genus Bacillus. Chlorination caused limited effects on bacterial growth and mortality. B. safensis and B. lechinoformis suffered the maximum effects due to chlorination...
April 2018: Biofouling
Fernanda Alves, Ana Cláudia Pavarina, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira Mima, Anthony P McHale, John Francis Callan
Candida albicans biofilms exhibit unique characteristics and are highly resistant to antifungal agents. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an alternative treatment limited to treating superficial infections due to the poor light penetration. In this manuscript, the antifungal properties of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) were assessed. SDT uses ultrasound instead of light, enabling the treatment of deeper infections. Planktonic cells and biofilms of C. albicans were treated with aPDT or SDT, in addition to combined aPDT/SDT, with cell survival determined using colony forming units...
April 2018: Biofouling
Carina Hüwe, Jennifer Schmeichel, Florian Brodkorb, Sophia Dohlen, Katrin Kalbfleisch, Martin Kreyenschmidt, Reinhard Lorenz, Judith Kreyenschmidt
Antimicrobial surfaces are one approach to prevent biofilms in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of poly((tert-butyl-amino)-methyl-styrene) (poly(TBAMS)) incorporated into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) on the formation of mono- and mixed-species biofilms. The biofilm on untreated and treated LLDPE was determined after 48 and 168 h. The comparison of the results indicated that the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to form biofilms was completely suppressed by poly(TBAMS) (Δ168 h 3...
April 2018: Biofouling
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