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Dinis Oliveira, Ann I Larsson, Lena Granhag
Hull biofouling is a well-known problem for the shipping industry, leading to increased resistance and fuel consumption. Considering that the effects of hull form on resistance are known to be higher for a less slender hull, it is hypothesised in this paper that the effect of biofouling roughness on resistance is also dependent on the hull form. To test this hypothesis, previously reported full-scale numerical results on a containership are re-analysed. Form effects on roughness penalties, corresponding to KΔCT = 0...
February 19, 2018: Biofouling
Guillermo E Juarez, Estela M Galván
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli form mixed species biofilms in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Recently, a detrimental effect of K. pneumoniae over E. coli was observed in mixed species biofilms grown in an artificial urine medium. The mechanism behind this competitive interaction was studied. K. pneumoniae partially outcompeted E. coli in early-stage batch-fed biofilms, whereas both microorganisms co-exist at longer times (K. pneumoniae:E. coli ratio, 55:1), as shown by cell counts and confocal microscopy...
February 19, 2018: Biofouling
Lisendra Marbelia, Marie-Aline Hernalsteens, Shazia Ilyas, Basak Öztürk, Anthony Szymczyk, Dirk Springael, Ivo Vankelecom
The influence of membrane surface charge on biofouling community composition during activated sludge filtration in a membrane bioreactor was investigated in this study using polyacrylonitrile-based membranes. Membranes with different surface properties were synthesized by phase inversion followed by a layer-by-layer modification. Various characterization results showed that the membranes differed only in their surface chemical composition and charge, ie two of them were negative, one neutral and one positive...
February 15, 2018: Biofouling
Ashwin Ambi, Nisharg Parikh, Carolina Vera, Krystal Burns, Naidel Montano, Leonard Sciorra, Jessica Epstein, Debing Zeng, Christian Traba
Many research groups have attained slow, persistent, continuous release of silver ions through careful experimental design using existing methods. Such methods effectively kill planktonic bacteria and therefore prevent surface adhesion of pathogens. However, the resultant modified coatings cannot provide long-term antibacterial efficacy due to sustained anti-microbial release. In this study, the anti-infection activity of AgNP immobilized biomaterials was evaluated, facilitated by argon plasma grafting technology and activated by bacterial colonization...
February 15, 2018: Biofouling
Aline Silva Braga, Juliana Gonçalves Pires, Ana Carolina Magalhães
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial (anti-biofilm) and anti-caries (enamel demineralization prevention) effects of Malva sylvestris (Malvatricin® Plus) compared with known antimicrobial mouthrinses. Microcosm biofilm was produced on enamel, using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva (0.2% sucrose) for 14 days. The biofilm was treated with mouthrinses for 1 min day-1. Oral-B® Complete, Listerine® Zero and Malvatricin® Plus had the greatest effect on the reduction of biofilm viability (p < 0...
February 11, 2018: Biofouling
Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Janaina Araújo de Alvarenga, Felipe de Camargo Ribeiro, Marisol Dos Santos Velloso, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
This study isolated Lactobacillus strains from caries-free subjects and evaluated the inhibitory effects directly on three strains of C. albicans, two clinical strains and one reference strain. Thirty Lactobacillus strains were isolated and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against in vitro C. albicans biofilms. L. paracasei 28.4, L. rhamnosus 5.2 and L. fermentum 20.4 isolates exhibited the most significant inhibitory activity against C. albicans. Co-incubation between these microorganisms resulted in deterrence of biofilm development and retardation of hyphal formation...
January 30, 2018: Biofouling
Takefumi Yorisue, Yuki Yoshioka, Kay Sakuma, Akira Iguchi
Many coastal barnacles are introduced to non-native regions. However, data are lacking on cryptic invasion, which is defined as an invasion that remains unrecognised because the invader is mistaken for a native or previously introduced species or clade. In this work, cryptic invasions of an intertidal barnacle, Semibalanus cariosus, between Japan and the north-eastern Pacific were evaluated based on population genetic analyses. A significant genetic differentiation was found between the Japanese and north-eastern Pacific populations, suggesting a limited introduction of non-native genotypes between these regions...
January 29, 2018: Biofouling
Chen Liu, Lei Geng, YiFan Yu, Yutong Zhang, Buyun Zhao, Qi Zhao
It has been demonstrated that Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings with excellent antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility have the potential to reduce infection problems. However, the mechanism of the synergistic effect of Ag-TiO2 coatings on antibacterial efficiency is still not well understood. In this study, five types of Ag-TiO2 nanocomposited coatings with different TiO2 contents were prepared on a titanium substratum. Leaching tests indicated that the incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles into an Ag matrix significantly promoted Ag ion release...
January 29, 2018: Biofouling
Kelli Z Hunsucker, Gary J Vora, J Travis Hunsucker, Harrison Gardner, Dagmar H Leary, Seongwon Kim, Baochuan Lin, Geoffrey Swain
Grooming is a proactive method to keep a ship's hull free of fouling. This approach uses a frequent and gentle wiping of the hull surface to prevent the recruitment of fouling organisms. A study was designed to compare the community composition and the drag associated with biofilms formed on a groomed and ungroomed fouling release coating. The groomed biofilms were dominated by members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria as well the diatoms Navicula, Gomphonemopsis, Cocconeis, and Amphora. Ungroomed biofilms were characterized by Phyllobacteriaceae, Xenococcaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and the pennate diatoms Cyclophora, Cocconeis, and Amphora...
January 18, 2018: Biofouling
Flávia Correa Raffaini, Alice Ramos Freitas, Thalisson Saymo Oliveira Silva, Tarsis Cavagioni, Jessica Felix Oliveira, Rubens Ferreira Albuquerque Junior, Vinícius Pedrazzi, Ricardo Faria Ribeiro, Cássio do Nascimento
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify and quantify up to 42 target species colonizing the early biofilm of dental implants restored with titanium or zirconia abutments. A total of 720 samples from 20 healthy individuals were investigated. Biofilm samples were collected from the peri-implant sulci, inner parts of implants, abutment surfaces and prosthetic crowns over a functioning period of 30 days. Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was used for microbial detection and quantitation. Clinical characteristics (probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level and marginal bone loss) were also investigated during the monitoring period...
January 16, 2018: Biofouling
Laurie Favre, Annick Ortalo-Magné, Carole Pichereaux, Audrey Gargaros, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Valérie Cotelle, Gérald Culioli
A number of bacteria adopt various lifestyles such as planktonic free-living or sessile biofilm stages. This enables their survival and development in a wide range of contrasting environments. With the aim of highlighting specific metabolic shifts between these phenotypes and to improve the overall understanding of marine bacterial adhesion, a dual metabolomics/proteomics approach was applied to planktonic and biofilm cultures of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica TC8. The liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolomics study indicated that membrane lipid composition was highly affected by the culture mode: phosphatidylethanolamine (PEs) derivatives were over-produced in sessile cultures while ornithine lipids (OLs) were more specifically synthesized in planktonic samples...
January 10, 2018: Biofouling
Jolanta Cieśla, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Małgorzata Łukowska, Tomasz Hauschild, Andrzej Wernicki, Andrzej Bieganowski
Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most significant bacterial pathogens associated with the first-week mortality of chickens. Here, the surface properties of bacterial cells and the selected virulence factors of E. faecalis strains isolated from the hearts of clinically healthy broiler chickens were studied. Investigations were carried out on live and autoclaved cells. E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was used as a reference strain. The bacterial cells revealed different haemolytic activities. Their surface free energy was dominated by the hydrophobic component...
January 10, 2018: Biofouling
Linlin Xiao, John A Finlay, Michael Röhrig, Sophie Mieszkin, Matthias Worgull, Hendrik Hölscher, James A Callow, Maureen E Callow, Michael Grunze, Axel Rosenhahn
Surface topography plays a key role in the colonization of substrata by the colonizing stages of marine fouling organisms. For the innovation of marine antifouling coatings, it is essential to understand how topographic cues affect the settlement of these organisms. In this study, tapered, spiked microstructures and discrete honeycombs of varying feature dimensions were designed and fabricated in order to examine the influence of topography on the attachment of zoospores of the green macroalga Ulva linza and cells of the diatom (microalga) Navicula incerta...
December 28, 2017: Biofouling
Stanislaus Raditya Suwarno, Wenhai Huang, Y M John Chew, Sio Hoong Henrich Tan, Augustinus Elmer Trisno, Yan Zhou
A fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) technique was used for on-line and in situ measurements of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm thickness and strength on flat sheet polyethersulphone membranes. The measurements are the first to be successfully conducted in a membrane cross-flow filtration system under constant permeation. In addition, FDG was used to demonstrate the removal behaviour of biofilms through local biofilm strength and removal energy estimation, which other conventional measurements such as flux and TMP cannot provide...
December 22, 2017: Biofouling
Juliana Barchelli Pinheiro, Marina Peris Vomero, Cássio do Nascimento, Evandro Watanabe, Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos, Neide Pena Coto, Reinaldo Brito Dias, Viviane Cássia de Oliveira, Cláudia Helena Silva-Lovato
This study investigated the microbial colonization of maxillofacial prostheses and support tissues using the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method, and the efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 10% Ricinus communis solutions, or brushing, on colony forming unit (CFU) reduction in monospecies biofilms (Candida glabrata, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) formed on two silicones (MDX 4-4210 and Bio-Skin). Biofilm was harvested from 43 maxillofacial prosthesis wearers for detection of 38 species of microorganisms...
December 20, 2017: Biofouling
Nara Ligia Martins Almeida, Luiz Leonardo Saldanha, Rafaela Alves da Silva, Karen Henriette Pinke, Eliane Ferraz da Costa, Vinicius Carvalho Porto, Anne Lígia Dokkedal, Vanessa Soares Lara
Candida biofilms adhere to the internal surface of removable dentures, which is an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis (DS). Adhesive materials are used at the base of maxillary complete dentures to improve their retention and chewing qualities. This article reports the antimicrobial activity of the enriched fractions of Equisetum giganteum and Punica granatum incorporated into a denture adhesive against C. albicans biofilm. The biofilms were induced on the surface of heat-cured acrylic resin specimens that were previously treated with a mixture of adhesive/herb extracts...
December 18, 2017: Biofouling
Samantha Eslava Martins, Gilberto Fillmann, Adam Lillicrap, Kevin V Thomas
Hazard assessments of Irgarol 1051, diuron, 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole (TCMTB), dichloro-octylisothiazolin (DCOIT), chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, thiram, zinc pyrithione, copper pyrithione, triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP), capsaicin, nonivamide, tralopyril and medetomidine were performed to establish robust environmental quality standards (EQS), based on predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs). Microalgae, zooplankton, fish and amphibians were the most sensitive ecological groups to all the antifoulants evaluated, especially in the early life stages...
December 17, 2017: Biofouling
Ji-Soo Park, Jeung-Hoon Lee
An ultrasonic antifouling treatment was applied to a 96,000 m3 class drill-ship to verify its feasibility through a sea-trial. Soon after the hull cleaning had been performed, six ultrasonic projectors were evenly deployed around the starboard shell plate. Driven by a 23 kHz sinusoidal ultrasound in an intermittent manner, the projectors emitted a high-intensity sound reaching 214 dB at the source level causing cavitation around the adjacent water and eventually deterring the settlement of marine fouling organisms...
December 12, 2017: Biofouling
María C Tarifa, Diego Genovese, Jorge E Lozano, Lorena I Brugnoni
The factors affecting the mechanical properties of biofilms formed by yeast species (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, C. kefyr and C. tropicalis) isolated from the juice processing industries have been investigated. Variables studied were: the food matrix (apple/pear juice), the sugar concentration (6/12 °Bx) and the hydrodynamic conditions (static/turbulent flow). A range of environmental cues were included as the mechanical properties of biofilms are complex. Yeast counts were significantly higher in turbulent flow compared with under static conditions...
December 12, 2017: Biofouling
Xiaochun Huang, Chang Chen, Chunhua Ren, Yingying Li, Yiqin Deng, Yiying Yang, Xiongqi Ding
Colanic acid (CA) is a group I extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) that contributes to resistance against adverse environments in many members of the Enterobacteriaceae. In the present study, a genetic locus EPSC putatively involved in CA biosynthesis was identified in Vibrio alginolyticus ZJ-51, which undergoes colony morphology variation between translucent/smooth (ZJ-T) and opaque/rugose (ZJ-O). EPSC in ZJ-T carries 21 ORFs and resembles the CA cluster of Escherichia coli K-12. The deletion of EPSC led to decreased EPS and biofilm formation in both genetic backgrounds but no alternation of lipopolysaccharide...
December 6, 2017: Biofouling
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