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Biofouling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686044/anti-biofilm-properties-of-a-mupirocin-spray-formulation-against-escherichia-coli-wound-infections
#1
Dhamodharan Bakkiyaraj, Rutthapol Sritharadol, Alwar Ramanujam Padmavathi, Titpawan Nakpheng, Teerapol Srichana
Mupirocin ointment is a widely used topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. However, ointments have some limitations which motivated the development of a film forming spray of mupirocin. Mupirocin spray (2%) was formulated with Eudragit E100 as a film forming agent and tested for its antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against Escherichia coli, a skin pathogen causing wound and surgical site infections. Treatment with mupirocin spray resulted in significant antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities (inhibition and disruption) with single spray and sub-actual dose concentrations at par with the commercial ointment concentration...
July 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686037/hydrophobin-coating-prevents-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilm-formation-on-different-surfaces
#2
Marco Artini, Paola Cicatiello, Annarita Ricciardelli, Rosanna Papa, Laura Selan, Principia Dardano, Marco Tilotta, Gianluca Vrenna, Maria Luisa Tutino, Paola Giardina, Ermenegilda Parrilli
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a significant nosocomial pathogen in predisposed hosts because of its capability of forming a biofilm on indwelling medical devices. The initial stage of biofilm formation has a key role in S. epidermidis abiotic surface colonization. Recently, many strategies have been developed to create new anti-biofilm surfaces able to control bacterial adhesion mechanisms. In this work, the self-assembled amphiphilic layers formed by two fungal hydrophobins (Vmh2 and Pac3) have proven to be able to reduce the biofilm formed by different strains of S...
July 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685594/disruption-of-the-quorum-sensing-regulated-pathogenic-traits-of-the-biofilm-forming-fish-pathogen-aeromonas-hydrophila-by-tannic-acid-a-potent-quorum-quencher
#3
Bhakti Patel, Supriya Kumari, Rajanya Banerjee, Mrinal Samanta, Surajit Das
The quorum sensing (QS) phenomenon regulates a myriad of pathogenic traits in the biofilm forming fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Blocking the QS mechanism of A. hydrophila is a novel strategy to prevent disease in fish. This study evaluated the effect of tannic acid, a QS inhibitor, on A. hydrophila-associated QS regulated phenomena. A streaking assay with Chromobacterium violaceum (CVO26) reported the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) in A. hydrophila, which was confirmed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis...
July 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675109/titanium-surfaces-immobilized-with-the-major-antimicrobial-fragment-fk-16-of-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-are-potent-against-multiple-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#4
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Infections on implanted medical devices are a challenging problem, especially when bacteria form difficult-to-treat biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are considered to be a solution due to their potency against antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Previously, the authors' laboratory demonstrated the prevention of staphylococcal biofilm formation in an animal catheter model by injecting merecidin (formerly known as 17BIPHE2), a peptide engineered based on the only human cathelicidin. This study documents an alternative solution via covalent immobilization of FK-16, amino acid sequence FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV-amide, which corresponds to the major antimicrobial region (residues 17-32) of LL-37...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675055/biodiversity-characterisation-and-hydrodynamic-consequences-of-marine-fouling-communities-on-marine-renewable-energy-infrastructure-in-the-orkney-islands-archipelago-scotland-uk
#5
Andrew Want, Rebecca Crawford, Jenni Kakkonen, Greg Kiddie, Susan Miller, Robert E Harris, Joanne S Porter
As part of ongoing commitments to produce electricity from renewable energy sources in Scotland, Orkney waters have been targeted for potential large-scale deployment of wave and tidal energy converting devices. Orkney has a well-developed infrastructure supporting the marine energy industry; recently enhanced by the construction of additional piers. A major concern to marine industries is biofouling on submerged structures, including energy converters and measurement instrumentation. In this study, the marine energy infrastructure and instrumentation were surveyed to characterise the biofouling...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675051/impact-of-sludge-retention-time-on-mbr-fouling-role-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-determined-through-membrane-autopsy
#6
Ana F Silva, Silvia Antunes, Filomena Freitas, Gilda Carvalho, Maria A M Reis, Maria T Barreto Crespo
The impact of sludge retention time (SRT) on the biofouling of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was investigated. The MBR was operated at 60 and 20 d SRT. The gel layer (recovered through optimized membrane autopsy methods) and the cake layer were analyzed for their content and profile of EPS proteins and polysaccharides. The change to a shorter SRT led to decreased membrane filterability, concomitant with a higher expression of EPS proteins in the cake layer, which were identified as being mainly related with biosynthesis and stress functions...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675050/microfluidic-accumulation-assay-probes-attachment-of-biofilm-forming-diatom-cells
#7
Kim A Nolte, Jana Schwarze, Axel Rosenhahn
Testing of fouling release (FR) technologies is of great relevance for discovery of the next generation of protective marine coatings. In this paper, an accumulation assay to test diatom interaction under laminar flow with the model organism Navicula perminuta is introduced. Using time lapse microscopy with large area sampling allows determination of the accumulation kinetics of the diatom on three model surfaces with different surface properties at different wall shear stresses. The hydrodynamic conditions within the flow cell are described and a suitable shear stress range to perform accumulation experiments is identified at which statistically significant discrimination of surfaces is possible...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587519/inactivation-of-a-putative-efflux-pump-lmrb-in-streptococcus-mutans-results-in-altered-biofilm-structure-and-increased-exopolysaccharide-synthesis-implications-for-biofilm-resistance
#8
Jia Liu, Jianying Zhang, Lihong Guo, Wei Zhao, Xiaoli Hu, Xi Wei
Efflux pumps are a mechanism associated with biofilm formation and resistance. There is limited information regarding efflux pumps in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate potential roles of a putative efflux pump (LmrB) in S. mutans biofilm formation and susceptibility. Upon lmrB inactivation and antimicrobial exposure, the biofilm structure and expression of other efflux pumps were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and qRT-PCR...
June 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524724/antibacterial-effect-of-hydrogen-peroxide-titanium-dioxide-suspensions-in-the-decontamination-of-rough-titanium-surfaces
#9
David Wiedmer, Fernanda Cristina Petersen, Jessica Lönn-Stensrud, Hanna Tiainen
The chemical decontamination of infected dental implants is essential for the successful treatment of peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial effect of a hydrogen peroxide-titanium dioxide (H2O2-TiO2) suspension against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Titanium (Ti) coins were inoculated with a bioluminescent S. epidermidis strain for 8 h and subsequently exposed to H2O2 with and without TiO2 nanoparticles or chlorhexidine (CHX). Bacterial regrowth, bacterial load and viability after decontamination were analyzed by continuous luminescence monitoring, live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521545/silver-oxynitrate-an-efficacious-compound-for-the-prevention-and-eradication-of-dual-species-biofilms
#10
Joe A Lemire, Lindsay Kalan, Natalie Gugala, Alexandru Bradu, Raymond J Turner
Preventing and eradicating biofilms remains a challenge in clinical and industrial settings. Recently, the present authors demonstrated that silver oxynitrate (Ag7NO11) prevented and eradicated single-species planktonic and biofilm populations of numerous microbes at lower concentrations than other silver (Ag) compounds. Here, the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm efficacy of Ag7NO11 is elaborated by testing its in vitro activity against combinations of dual-species, planktonic and biofilm populations of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
May 19, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521511/effects-of-adaptation-to-carvacrol-on-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-planktonic-and-biofilm-phases
#11
Antonia Nostro, Andreana Marino, Giovanna Ginestra, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio, Giuseppe Bisignano
The effect of exposure to sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of carvacrol, for either 3-10 days, on direct (carvacrol) or cross-protection (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, antibiotics) and the influence on planktonic and biofilm growth of four Staphylococcus aureus strains were reported. The sequential exposure to carvacrol resulted in a direct protection that was more evident in two of the four strains after 10 days. No significant cross-protection against cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and antibiotics was detected...
May 18, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468513/biofouling-of-reverse-osmosis-membranes-effects-of-cleaning-on-biofilm-microbial-communities-membrane-performance-and-adherence-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances
#12
Ashraf Al Ashhab, Amer Sweity, Bihter Bayramoglu, Moshe Herzberg, Osnat Gillor
Laboratory-scale reverse osmosis (RO) flat-sheet systems were used with two parallel flow cells, one treated with cleaning agents and a control (ie undisturbed). The cleaning efforts increased the affinity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to the RO membrane and altered the biofilm surface structure. Analysis of the membrane biofilm community composition revealed the dominance of Proteobacteria. However, within the phylum Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria dominated the cleaned membrane biofilm, while β-Proteobacteria dominated the control biofilm...
May 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452235/molecular-characteristics-biofilm-forming-abilities-and-quorum-sensing-molecules-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-strains-isolated-from-marine-and-clinical-environments-in-korea
#13
Md Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Hyeon-Jo Bang, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Nari Lee, Tae-Jo Kim, Sang-Do Ha
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an inhabitant of marine and estuarine environments and causes seafood-borne gastroenteritis in humans. In this study, an UltraFast LabChip Real-Time PCR assay was evaluated for rapid detection and quantification of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Escherichia coli and Vibrio harveyi were used as negative controls. Twenty-six tdh-positive, biofilm-producing V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR). REP-PCR analysis showed that the majority of the V...
April 28, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604168/dynamics-of-silver-elution-from-functionalised-antimicrobial-nanofiltration-membranes
#14
S Choudhari, O Habimana, J Hannon, A Allen, E Cummins, E Casey
In an effort to mitigate biofouling on thin film composite membranes such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, a myriad of different surface modification strategies has been published. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has emerged as being particularly promising. Nevertheless, the stability of these surface modifications is still poorly understood, particularly under permeate flux conditions. Leaching or elution of Ag-NPs from the membrane surface can not only affect the antimicrobial characteristics of the membrane, but could also potentially present an environmental liability when applied in industrial-scale systems...
July 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604167/adaptation-to-copper-stress-influences-biofilm-formation-in-alteromonas-macleodii
#15
Kathleen D Cusick, Jason R Dale, Lisa A Fitzgerald, Brenda J Little, Justin C Biffinger
An Alteromonas macleodii strain was isolated from copper-containing coupons incubated in surface seawater (Key West, FL, USA). In addition to the original isolate, a copper-adapted mutant was created and maintained with 0.78 mM Cu(2+). Biofilm formation was compared between the two strains under copper-amended and low-nutrient conditions. Biofilm formation was significantly increased in the original isolate under copper amendment, while biofilm formation was significantly higher in the mutant under low-nutrient conditions...
July 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604166/the-effects-of-grooming-on-a-copper-ablative-coating-a-six-year-study
#16
Melissa Tribou, Geoffrey Swain
More than 90% of US Navy Ships are coated with copper ablative paint. These ships may spend long periods of time pier-side, which makes them vulnerable to fouling. Hull grooming has been proposed as a means of maintaining the coatings in an operational condition. This study investigated the effect of grooming on a copper ablative coating exposed statically for six years. Grooming was performed weekly or monthly with controls left ungroomed. The fouling community was visually assessed, dry film thickness measurements were taken to monitor coating loss, and the copper leaching rates were measured...
July 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508711/surface-sensing-and-stress-signalling-in-ulva-and-fouling-diatoms-potential-targets-for-antifouling-a-review
#17
Stephanie E M Thompson, Juliet C Coates
Understanding the underlying signalling pathways that enable fouling algae to sense and respond to surfaces is essential in the design of environmentally friendly coatings. Both the green alga Ulva and diverse diatoms are important ecologically and economically as they are persistent biofoulers. Ulva spores exhibit rapid secretion, allowing them to adhere quickly and permanently to a ship, whilst diatoms secrete an abundance of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are highly adaptable to different environmental conditions...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508710/transported-biofilms-and-their-influence-on-subsequent-macrofouling-colonization
#18
L Holly Sweat, Geoffrey W Swain, Kelli Z Hunsucker, Kevin B Johnson
Biofilm organisms such as diatoms are potential regulators of global macrofouling dispersal because they ubiquitously colonize submerged surfaces, resist antifouling efforts and frequently alter larval recruitment. Although ships continually deliver biofilms to foreign ports, it is unclear how transport shapes biofilm microbial structure and subsequent macrofouling colonization. This study demonstrates that different ship hull coatings and transport methods change diatom assemblage composition in transported coastal marine biofilms...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508709/characterisation-of-the-biofouling-community-on-a-floating-wave-energy-device
#19
Christopher R Nall, Marie-Lise Schläppy, Andrew J Guerin
Wave energy devices are novel structures in the marine environment and, as such, provide a unique habitat for biofouling organisms. In this study, destructive scrape samples and photoquadrats were used to characterise the temperate epibenthic community present on prototypes of the Pelamis wave energy converter. The biofouling observed was extensive and diverse with 115 taxa recorded including four non-native species. Vertical zonation was identified on the sides of the device, with an algae-dominated shallow subtidal area and a deeper area characterised by a high proportion of suspension-feeding invertebrates...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508708/erratum
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biofouling
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