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Biofouling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155334/inhibitory-effects-of-the-essential-oils-%C3%AE-longipinene-and-linalool-on-biofilm-formation-and-hyphal-growth-of-candida-albicans
#1
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Soon-Il Kim, Jintae Lee
Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogens, and causes systemic and invasive infections in humans. C. albicans biofilms are composed of yeast and hyphal and pseudohyphal elements, and the transition of yeast to the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. In this study, diverse essential oils were initially investigated for anti-biofilm activity against C. albicans strains, and cascarilla bark oil and helichrysum oil and their components α-longipinene (a major constituent of both) and linalool were found to markedly inhibit biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth...
February 3, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151007/antialgal-activity-of-poly-2-dimethylamino-ethyl-methacrylate-pdmaema-brushes-against-the-marine-alga-ulva
#2
Wetra Yandi, Sophie Mieszkin, Maureen E Callow, James A Callow, John A Finlay, Bo Liedberg, Thomas Ederth
Marine biofouling has detrimental effects on the environment and economy, and current antifouling coatings research is aimed at environmentally benign, non-toxic materials. The possibility of using contact-active coatings is explored, by considering the antialgal activity of cationic poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The antialgal activity was investigated via zoospore settlement and sporeling growth assays of the marine algae Ulva linza and U. lactuca. The assay results for PDMAEMA brushes were compared to those for anionic and neutral surfaces...
February 2, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140677/furvina-inhibits-the-3-oxo-c12-hsl-based-quorum-sensing-system-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-qs-dependent-phenotypes
#3
Anabela Borges, Pedro Sousa, Alexandra Gaspar, Santiago Vilar, Fernanda Borges, Manuel Simões
Disruption of cell-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS) is considered a stimulating approach for reducing bacterial pathogenicity and resistance. Although several QS inhibitors (QSIs) have been discovered so far their clinical use remains distant. This problem can be circumvented by searching for QSI among drugs already approved for the treatment of different diseases. In this context, antibiotics have earned special attention. Whereas at high concentrations antibiotics exert a killing effect, at lower concentrations they may act as signaling molecules and as such can modulate gene expression...
January 31, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121162/quorum-sensing-inhibition-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-new-insights-through-network-mining
#4
Martín Pérez-Pérez, Paula Jorge, Gael Pérez Rodríguez, Maria Olívia Pereira, Anália Lourenço
Quorum sensing plays a pivotal role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa's virulence. This paper reviews experimental results on antimicrobial strategies based on quorum sensing inhibition and discusses current targets in the regulatory network that determines P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and virulence. A bioinformatics framework combining literature mining with information from biomedical ontologies and curated databases was used to create a knowledge network of potential anti-quorum sensing agents for P. aeruginosa...
January 25, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054493/epilithic-and-endolithic-microorganisms-and-deterioration-on-stone-church-facades-subject-to-urban-pollution-in-a-sub-tropical-climate
#5
Christine Gaylarde, Jose Antônio Baptista-Neto, Akiko Ogawa, Matthew Kowalski, Sukriye Celikkol-Aydin, Iwona Beech
Weathering of two church facades in Rio de Janeiro was caused substantially by salts, mainly halite and gypsum, detected by SEM and chemical analyses, which cause physical stresses by deposition within the rock. Biofilm populations, determined by SEM and as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), degraded stone by penetration, solubilization and redeposition of minerals on their surfaces. Endolithic cyanobacteria were associated with gypsum deposits. Microbiomes were typical for high-stress environments, high salt, intense insolation, low water and low nutrients (eg halophilic Rubrobacter, Salinicola, Sterigmatomyces)...
January 5, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198664/microbial-fouling-and-corrosion-of-carbon-steel-in-deep-anoxic-alkaline-groundwater
#6
Pauliina Rajala, Malin Bomberg, Mikko Vepsäläinen, Leena Carpén
Understanding the corrosion of carbon steel materials of low and intermediate level radioactive waste under repository conditions is crucial to ensure the safe storage of radioactive contaminated materials. The waste will be in contact with the concrete of repository silos and storage containers, and eventually with groundwater. In this study, the corrosion of carbon steel under repository conditions as well as the microbial community forming biofilm on the carbon steel samples, consisting of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, was studied over a period of three years in a groundwater environment with and without inserted concrete...
February 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198663/unhindered-copper-uptake-by-glutaraldehyde-polyethyleneimine-coatings-in-an-artificial-seawater-model-system-with-adsorbed-swollen-polysaccharides-and-competing-ligand-edta
#7
Simarpreet Kaur, Ivan M Kempson, Johan B Lindén, Mikael Larsson, Magnus Nydén
Shortly after a surface is submerged in the sea, a conditioning film is generally formed by adsorption of organic molecules, such as polysaccharides. This could affect transport of molecules and ions between the seawater and the surface. An artificial seawater model system was developed to understand how adsorbed polysaccharides impact copper binding by glutaraldehyde-crosslinked polyethyleneimine coatings. Coating performance was also determined when competed against copper-chelating EDTA. Polysaccharide adsorption and copper binding and distribution were investigated using advanced analytical techniques, including depth-resolved time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
February 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005415/proteome-analysis-of-human-serum-proteins-adsorbed-onto-different-titanium-surfaces-used-in-dental-implants
#8
Francisco Romero-Gavilán, N C Gomes, Joaquin Ródenas, Ana Sánchez, Mikel Azkargorta, Ibon Iloro, Felix Elortza, Iñaki García Arnáez, Mariló Gurruchaga, Isabel Goñi, Julio Suay
Titanium dental implants are commonly used due to their biocompatibility and biochemical properties; blasted acid-etched Ti is used more frequently than smooth Ti surfaces. In this study, physico-chemical characterisation revealed important differences in roughness, chemical composition and hydrophilicity, but no differences were found in cellular in vitro studies (proliferation and mineralization). However, the deposition of proteins onto the implant surface might affect in vivo osseointegration. To test that hypothesis, protein layers formed on discs of both surface type after incubation with human serum were analysed...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936915/promethazine-improves-antibiotic-efficacy-and-disrupts-biofilms-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#9
José Júlio Costa Sidrim, David Caldas Vasconcelos, Giovanna Barbosa Riello, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Rosana Serpa, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes Bandeira, André Jalles Monteiro, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante
Efflux pumps are important defense mechanisms against antimicrobial drugs and maintenance of Burkholderia pseudomallei biofilms. This study evaluated the effect of the efflux pump inhibitor promethazine on the structure and antimicrobial susceptibility of B. pseudomallei biofilms. Susceptibility of planktonic cells and biofilms to promethazine alone and combined with antimicrobials was assessed by the broth microdilution test and biofilm metabolic activity was determined with resazurin. The effect of promethazine on 48 h-grown biofilms was also evaluated through confocal and electronic microscopy...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928939/developing-an-ecologically-relevant-heterogeneous-biofilm-model-for-dental-unit-waterlines
#10
Sham Lal, Mark Pearce, Undine E M Achilles-Day, John G Day, L H Glyn Morton, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
This study monitored the biodiversity of microbes cultured from a heterogeneous biofilm which had formed on the lumen of a section of dental waterline tubing over a period of 910 days. By day 2 bacterial counts on the outlet-water showed that contamination of the system had occurred. After 14 days, a biofilm comparable to that of clinical waterlines, consisting of bacteria, fungi and amoebae had formed. This showed that the proprietary silver coating applied to the luminal surface of the commercial waterline tubing failed to prevent biofilm formation...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927017/assessments-of-quaternary-ammonium-compounds-qac-for-in-water-treatment-of-mussel-fouling-in-vessel-internals-and-sea-chests-using-an-experimental-seawater-pipework-system
#11
Richard Piola, Clare Grandison
The primary in-water emergency treatment method for mussel fouling of internal seawater systems of Royal Australian Navy vessels is to flush with a 1% detergent solution containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC). Parameters for application of this treatment are based on previous research; however, much of the research has been conducted at small-scales under controlled laboratory conditions. This study examined the efficacy of QAC solutions for treating mussel biofouling under realistic field conditions using experimental seawater piping systems...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918204/removal-of-listeria-monocytogenes-dual-species-biofilms-using-combined-enzyme-benzalkonium-chloride-treatments
#12
Pedro Rodríguez-López, Alba Carballo-Justo, Lorraine A Draper, Marta L Cabo
The effects of pronase (PRN), cellulase (CEL) or DNaseI alone or combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) against Listeria monocytogenes-carrying biofilms were assayed. The best removal activity against L. monocytogenes-Escherichia coli biofilms was obtained using DNaseI followed by PRN and CEL. Subsequently, a modified logistic model was used to quantify the combined effects of PRN or DNaseI with BAC. A better BAC performance after PRN compared to DNaseI eradicating L. monocytogenes was observed. In E. coli the effects were the opposite...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911097/performance-of-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-in-which-granular-sludge-and-dynamic-filtration-are-integrated
#13
Jixiang Yang, Xin Ji, Lunhui Lu, Hua Ma, Youpeng Chen, Jinsong Guo, Fang Fang
To alleviate the fouling of a filter, simple substrates, dynamic filtration, and granular sludge were applied in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The results showed that under a transmembrane pressure < 20 kPa, the filter flux ranged between 15 and 20 l (m(-2) h)(-1) for a period of 30 days. The flux was higher than the typical flux of AnMBRs with conventional membranes and most current dynamic filters. In addition, the low cost of the filter avoided the need for a higher flux. Moreover, a stable granular sludge bed, which consumed all volatile fatty acids, was maintained...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911078/laboratory-grown-subaerial-biofilms-on-granite-application-to-the-study-of-bioreceptivity
#14
Daniel Vázquez-Nion, Benita Silva, Federica Troiano, Beatriz Prieto
Simulated environmental colonisation of granite was induced under laboratory conditions in order to develop an experimental protocol for studying bioreceptivity. The experimental set-up proved suitable for producing subaerial biofilms by inoculating granite blocks with planktonic multi-species phototrophic cultures derived from natural biofilms. The ability of four different cultures to form biofilms was monitored over a three-month growth period via colour measurements, quantification of photosynthetic pigments and EPS, and CLSM observations...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892689/biofilm-inhibitors-targeting-the-outer-membrane-protein-a-of-pasteurella-multocida-in-swine
#15
Anchanee Kubera, Arinthip Thamchaipenet, Menachem Shoham
Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is the causative agent of atrophic rhinitis in swine. This study aimed to discover biofilm inhibitors against swine Pm to counteract antibiotic resistance and decrease virulence. The virulence factor outer membrane protein A (OmpA) was targeted. A library of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was used to perform virtual screening against PmOmpA. The top-scoring compounds had no effect on the growth of Pm serotype A or D. Mycophenolate mofetil showed the highest efficacy in inhibiting biofilm formation by Pm serotype A, with an IC50 of 7...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882771/functional-marine-metagenomic-screening-for-anti-quorum-sensing-and-anti-biofilm-activity
#16
Karin Yaniv, Karina Golberg, Esti Kramarsky-Winter, Robert Marks, Alina Pushkarev, Oded Béjà, Ariel Kushmaro
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication process, entails the production of signaling molecules that enable synchronized gene expression in microbial communities to regulate myriad microbial functions, including biofilm formation. QS disruption may constitute an innovative approach to the design of novel antifouling and anti-biofilm agents. To identify novel quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI), 2,500 environmental bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from uncultured marine planktonic bacteria were screened for QSI activity using soft agar overlaid with wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841027/development-and-characterisation-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-inter-kingdom-wound-biofilm-model
#17
Eleanor M Townsend, Leighann Sherry, Ranjith Rajendran, Donald Hansom, John Butcher, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Chronic diabetic foot ulcers are frequently colonised and infected by polymicrobial biofilms that ultimately prevent healing. This study aimed to create a novel in vitro inter-kingdom wound biofilm model on complex hydrogel-based cellulose substrata to test commonly used topical wound treatments. Inter-kingdom triadic biofilms composed of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were shown to be quantitatively greater in this model compared to a simple substratum when assessed by conventional culture, metabolic dye and live dead qPCR...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834106/probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-uco-979c-biofilm-formation-on-ags-and-caco-2-cells-and-helicobacter-pylori-inhibition
#18
M J Salas-Jara, E A Sanhueza, A Retamal-Díaz, C González, H Urrutia, A García
The ability of the human isolate Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C to form biofilm and synthesize exopolysaccharide on abiotic and biotic models is described. These properties were compared with the well-known Lactobacillus casei Shirota to better understand their anti-Helicobacter pylori probiotic activities. The two strains of lactobacilli synthesized exopolysaccharide as detected by the Dubois method and formed biofilm on abiotic and biotic surfaces visualized by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827532/development-and-evaluation-of-an-experimental-protocol-for-3-d-visualization-and-characterization-of-the-structure-of-bacterial-biofilms-in-porous-media-using-laboratory-x-ray-tomography
#19
Tomislav Ivankovic, Sabine Rolland du Roscoat, Christian Geindreau, Philipe Séchet, Zhujun Huang, Jean M F Martins
The development of a reliable model allowing accurate predictions of biofilm growth in porous media relies on a good knowledge of the temporal evolution of biofilm structure within the porous network. Since little is known about the real 3-D structure of biofilms in porous media, this work was aimed at developing a new experimental protocol to visualize the 3-D microstructure of the inside of a porous medium using laboratory X-ray microtomography. A reliable and reproducible methodology is proposed for (1) growing a biofilm inside a porous medium, and (2) X-ray tomography-based characterization of the temporal development of the biofilm at the inlet of the biofilter...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762637/dextranase-from-arthrobacter-oxydans-kq11-1-inhibits-biofilm-formation-by-polysaccharide-hydrolysis
#20
Xiaobei Wang, Huaixu Cheng, Mingsheng Lu, Yaowei Fang, Yuliang Jiao, Weijuan Li, Gengmao Zhao, Shujun Wang
Dental plaque is a biofilm of water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharides, produced primarily by Streptococcus mutans. Dextranase can inhibit biofilm formation. Here, a dextranase gene from the marine microorganism Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11-1 is described, and cloned and expressed using E. coli DH5α competent cells. The recombinant enzyme was then purified and its properties were characterized. The optimal temperature and pH were determined to be 60°C and 6.5, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography data show that the final hydrolysis products were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose...
November 2016: Biofouling
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