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J Santiago Pozo-Antonio, Patricia Sanmartín
This study evaluated whether exposing samples of granite colonized by a natural biofilm to artificial daylight or UV-A/B/C irradiation for 48 h enhanced removal of the biofilm with a chemical product previously approved for conservation of monuments by the European Biocide Directive. Rodas granite, which is commonly found in stone-built heritage monuments in Galicia (NW Spain), was naturally colonized by a sub-aerial biofilm. The efficacy of the cleaning method was evaluated relative to uncolonized surfaces and colonized control samples without previous irradiation, treated by dry-brushing or with benzalkonium chloride...
November 4, 2018: Biofouling
Kibaek Lee, Jun-Seong Park, Tahir Iqbal, Chang Hyun Nahm, Pyung-Kyu Park, Kwang-Ho Choo
In this study, the seasonality of the biofouling behavior of pilot-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) run in parallel with vacant sheets and quorum quenching (QQ) sheets using real municipal wastewater was investigated. QQ media delayed fouling, but low temperatures caused severe biofouling. The greater amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) produced in cold weather was responsible for the faster biofouling of a membrane, even with QQ media. There were significant negative relationships between EPS levels and water temperature...
October 29, 2018: Biofouling
Luís Roque, Noélia Duarte, Maria Rosário Bronze, Catarina Garcia, Julia Alopaeus, Jesus Molpeceres, Ellen Hagesaether, Ingunn Tho, Patrícia Rijo, Catarina Reis
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is considered an important source of bioactive compounds. This study aimed at the development of an efficient solution for the treatment of oral candidiasis. Several extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. were prepared using different solvents and their potential in vitro antifungal activity was assessed. Ethanolic extracts showed the most promising results against C. albicans. This extract was incorporated into mucoadhesive nanoparticles (PLA, PLGA and alginate), which were further included in an oral gel, an oral film and a toothpaste, respectively...
October 26, 2018: Biofouling
Allan Guan, Yi Wang, K Scott Phillips
Biological contamination of surfaces in industry and healthcare is an important vector of disease transmission. Current assays for detecting surface-adherent contamination require extraction of biological soil. However, physical inaccessibility or poor solubility may limit recovery. Here, how the o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) protein assay can be modified to measure residual protein (modeled with bovine serum albumin) or biofilm on a surface without extraction is described. The assay limit of detection (LOD) for protein was 1...
October 26, 2018: Biofouling
Jean-Charles Leclerc, Frédérique Viard, Elizabeth González Sepúlveda, Christian Díaz, José Neira Hinojosa, Karla Pérez Araneda, Francisco Silva, Antonio Brante
Growing coastal urbanization together with the intensification of maritime traffic are major processes explaining the increasing rate of biological introductions in marine environments. To investigate the link between international maritime traffic and the establishment of non-indigenous species (NIS) in coastal areas, biofouling communities in three international and three nearby local ports along 100 km of coastline in south-central Chile were compared using settlement panels and rapid assessment surveys...
October 24, 2018: Biofouling
Thaís P Mello, Simone S C Oliveira, Susana Frasés, Marta H Branquinha, André L S Santos
In the present work, some surface properties of the fungi Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum, and Lomentospora prolificans and their capability to adhere to and form a biofilm on diverse surfaces were evaluated. All four species had high conidial surface hydrophobicity and elevated electronegative zeta potentials. Abundant quantities of melanin were detected at the conidial surface, whereas sialic acid was absent. The numbers of non-germinated and germinated conidia adhered to poly-L-lysine-covered slides was higher than on glass after 4 h of fungi-surface contact...
October 24, 2018: Biofouling
Sawsen Zouaghi, Mikayla E Barry, Séverine Bellayer, Joël Lyskawa, Christophe André, Guillaume Delaplace, Melissa A Grunlan, Maude Jimenez
Pasteurization of dairy products is plagued by fouling, which induces significant economic, environmental and microbiological safety concerns. Herein, an amphiphilic silicone coating was evaluated for its efficacy against fouling by a model dairy fluid in a pilot pasteurizer and against foodborne bacterial adhesion. The coating was formed by modifying an RTV silicone with a PEO-silane amphiphile comprised of a PEO segment and flexible siloxane tether ([(EtO)3 Si-(CH2 )2 -oligodimethylsiloxanem -block-(OCH2 CH2 )n -OCH3 ])...
October 17, 2018: Biofouling
Juzwa Wojciech, Myszka Kamila, Białas Wojciech
In this study a flow based biofilm model system was used to simulate the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on a stainless steel surface. To investigate the complexity of biofilm-associated P. aeruginosa populations a combination of microscopic observations and flow cytometric analysis (FCM) was adopted. Biofilm-associated P. aeruginosa cells were evaluated (1) under optimal vs reduced nutrient-availability at the initial adhesion stage, and (2) irrespective of nutrient-availability within a mature biofilm...
October 17, 2018: Biofouling
Lijia Huang, Jinfeng Zeng, Caroline Bosch-Tijhof, Junqi Ling, Xi Wei, Cor van Loveren, Wim Crielaard, Dong Mei Deng
This study investigated how the physiological states of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Streptococcus mitis affect their intracellular invasion capabilities and the resulting host cell responses. The physiological states included two forms of planktonic states, floating or sedimented (by centrifugation) and the biofilm state (with centrifugation). Confluent epithelial Ca9-22 cells were challenged with floating or sedimented planktonic cultures, or with 24-h biofilms for 3 h. The results show that intracellular invasion efficiencies were clearly affected by the bacterial physiological states...
October 16, 2018: Biofouling
Ester Alves Ferreira Bordini, Caroline Coradi Tonon, Renata Serignoli Francisconi, Fernando Augusto Cintra Magalhães, Patrícia Milagros Maquera Huacho, Telma Lombardo Bedran, Sebastião Pratavieira, Luis Carlos Spolidorio, Denise Palomari Spolidorio
This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of terpinen-4-ol against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus and its influence on gbpA (S. mutans) and slpA (L. acidophilus) gene expression. As measured by XTT assay, the concentrations of terpinen-4-ol that effectively inhibited the biofilm were 0.24% and 0.95% for S. mutans and L. acidophilus, respectively. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of a biofilm attached to the enamel and dentin block surfaces with significant terpinen-4-ol effects against these microorganisms...
October 16, 2018: Biofouling
Mahadurage Sachintha Wijesinghe, Jianchuan Wen, Jung-Min Oh, Kwok-Fan Chow, Yuyu Sun
This article describes an electrochemical method to remove bacterial biofilm from a stainless steel (SS) surface using a potential pulse/reverse pulse technique. This technique employs a periodic waveform that consists of anodic and cathodic pulses. The pulses can effectively strip a thin layer of metal off the SS surface, along with the adherent biofilm, in a saline solution. Not only can the pulses effectively remove biofilm from the SS surface, but they also regenerate the original mirror-like shiny surface...
October 15, 2018: Biofouling
Evgenya S Shelobolina, Diane K Walker, Albert E Parker, Dorian V Lust, Johanna M Schultz, Grace E Dickerman
The inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown on glass under high shear stress and exposed to a range of dissolved ozone concentrations (2, 5 and 7 ppm) at 10 and 20 min was investigated. The regression equation, log reduction (biofilm) = 0.64 + 0.59×(C - 2) + 0.33×(T - 10), described the dependence of biofilm inactivation on the dissolved ozone concentration (C, ppm) and contact time (T, min). The predicted D-values were 11.1, 5.7 and 2.2 min at 2, 5 and 7 ppm, respectively...
October 12, 2018: Biofouling
Cristian Guarise, Carlo Barbera, Mauro Pavan, Stefano Pluda, Micol Celestre, Devis Galesso
A series of new hyaluronan derivatives was synthesized and tested as an antibiotic release system by antibacterial and osseointegration assays. Specifically, partially sulphated hyaluronic acid (sHA) was functionalized with dopamine (DA). The DA moiety guarantees good performance as a binding agent for coating a titanium alloy surface; furthermore, the negatively charged sHA has bone regenerative effects and a high binding affinity for positively charged antibiotics. A sHA scaffold with a defined degree of sulphation (DS =2) was selected as a good compromise between a high negative charge density and poor heparin-like anticoagulant activity, while the degree of DA derivatization (17...
September 30, 2018: Biofouling
Catarina Milho, Maria Daniela Silva, Luís Melo, Sílvio Santos, Joana Azeredo, Sanna Sillankorva
Salmonella is one of the worldwide leading foodborne pathogens responsible for illnesses and hospitalizations, and its capacity to form biofilms is one of its many virulence factors. This work evaluated (bacterio)phage control of adhered and biofilm cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on three different substrata at refrigerated and room temperatures, and also a preventive approach in poultry skin. PVP-SE2 phage was efficient in reducing both 24- and 48-h old Salmonella biofilms from polystyrene and stainless steel causing 2 to 5 log CFU cm-2 reductions with a higher killing efficiency at room temperature...
September 30, 2018: Biofouling
Stephen D Markwardt, Nirmala Ronnie, Anne K Camper
This study determined economic non-destructive methods to assess biofouling in point of use reverse osmosis (RO) membrane treatment systems. Three parallel household RO membrane units were operated under controlled feed water conditions to promote biofouling, inorganic fouling and a combination of both. Operational and biological parameters were monitored throughout the systems' lifespan. Membrane autopsies assessed the degree and type of fouling. Statistical models determined statistically relevant parameters for fouling types that were validated with membrane autopsies...
September 30, 2018: Biofouling
Patricia Milagros Maquera-Huacho, Caroline Coradi Tonon, Marilia Ferreira Correia, Renata Serignoli Francisconi, Ester Alves Ferreira Bordini, Élcio Marcantonio, Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio
This study evaluated the antibacterial properties of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum and its cytotoxic effects on fibroblast cells. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were examined. The minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (MBIC) was evaluated by XTT assay. Biofilm decontamination on titanium surfaces was quantified (CFU ml-1 ), evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and cytotoxic activity by MTT...
September 6, 2018: Biofouling
Hye Won Kim, Min Suk Rhee
A response surface methodology was used to build a model to predict reductions in uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms in response to three compounds: cranberry extract [CB] at 3.0-9.0%, and caprylic acid [CAR] and thymol [TM] at 0.01%-0.05%. The predictive model for microbial reduction had a high regression coefficient (R2  = 0.9988), and the accuracy of the model was verified (R2  = 0.9527). Values of CAR, TM, and the quadratic term CAR2 were the most significant (P < 0.0001) for bacterial reduction...
September 6, 2018: Biofouling
Magdalena Pezzoni, Ramón A Pizarro, Cristina S Costa
The establishment of bacterial biofilms on abiotic surfaces is a complex process regulated by multiple genetic regulators and environmental factors which are able to modulate the passage of planktonic cells to a sessile state. Solar ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA, 315-400) is one of the main environmental stress factors that bacteria must face at the Earth´s surface. The deleterious effects of UVA are mainly due to oxidative damage. This paper reports that exposure to low UVA doses promotes biofilm formation in three prototypical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a relevant opportunistic human pathogen...
September 6, 2018: Biofouling
Jean-François Briand, Xavier Pochon, Susanna A Wood, Christine Bressy, Cédric Garnier, Karine Réhel, Félix Urvois, Gérald Culioli, Anastasija Zaiko
Metabarcoding and metabolomics were used to explore the taxonomic composition and functional diversity of eukaryotic biofouling communities on plates with antifouling paints at two French coastal sites: Lorient (North Eastern Atlantic Ocean; temperate and eutrophic) and Toulon (North-Western Mediterranean Sea; mesotrophic but highly contaminated). Four distinct coatings were tested at each site and season for one month. Metabarcoding showed biocidal coatings had less impact on eukaryotic assemblages compared to spatial and temporal effects...
September 6, 2018: Biofouling
Mohita Sharma, Priyesh Menon, Johanna Voordouw, Yin Shen, Gerrit Voordouw
Samples of (I) produced waters, (II) central processing facility (CPF) waters and (III) pipeline solids were collected from a light oil-producing field. The biocide, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS) was routinely used in the CPF. Samples monitoring indicated that THPS was effective in microbial control but also increased concentrations of sulfate and phosphate in transitioning from Type I to Type II waters. Type II waters had high concentrations (up to 60 mM) of acetate but low most probable numbers (MPNs) of acid-producing and sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating the presence of active biocide, as high MPNs were found in Type I waters...
August 27, 2018: Biofouling
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