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Biofouling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587519/inactivation-of-a-putative-efflux-pump-lmrb-in-streptococcus-mutans-results-in-altered-biofilm-structure-and-increased-exopolysaccharide-synthesis-implications-for-biofilm-resistance
#1
Jia Liu, Jianying Zhang, Lihong Guo, Wei Zhao, Xiaoli Hu, Xi Wei
Efflux pumps are a mechanism associated with biofilm formation and resistance. There is limited information regarding efflux pumps in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate potential roles of a putative efflux pump (LmrB) in S. mutans biofilm formation and susceptibility. Upon lmrB inactivation and antimicrobial exposure, the biofilm structure and expression of other efflux pumps were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and qRT-PCR...
June 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524724/antibacterial-effect-of-hydrogen-peroxide-titanium-dioxide-suspensions-in-the-decontamination-of-rough-titanium-surfaces
#2
David Wiedmer, Fernanda Cristina Petersen, Jessica Lönn-Stensrud, Hanna Tiainen
The chemical decontamination of infected dental implants is essential for the successful treatment of peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial effect of a hydrogen peroxide-titanium dioxide (H2O2-TiO2) suspension against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Titanium (Ti) coins were inoculated with a bioluminescent S. epidermidis strain for 8 h and subsequently exposed to H2O2 with and without TiO2 nanoparticles or chlorhexidine (CHX). Bacterial regrowth, bacterial load and viability after decontamination were analyzed by continuous luminescence monitoring, live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521545/silver-oxynitrate-an-efficacious-compound-for-the-prevention-and-eradication-of-dual-species-biofilms
#3
Joe A Lemire, Lindsay Kalan, Natalie Gugala, Alexandru Bradu, Raymond J Turner
Preventing and eradicating biofilms remains a challenge in clinical and industrial settings. Recently, the present authors demonstrated that silver oxynitrate (Ag7NO11) prevented and eradicated single-species planktonic and biofilm populations of numerous microbes at lower concentrations than other silver (Ag) compounds. Here, the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm efficacy of Ag7NO11 is elaborated by testing its in vitro activity against combinations of dual-species, planktonic and biofilm populations of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
May 19, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521511/effects-of-adaptation-to-carvacrol-on-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-planktonic-and-biofilm-phases
#4
Antonia Nostro, Andreana Marino, Giovanna Ginestra, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio, Giuseppe Bisignano
The effect of exposure to sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of carvacrol, for either 3-10 days, on direct (carvacrol) or cross-protection (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, antibiotics) and the influence on planktonic and biofilm growth of four Staphylococcus aureus strains were reported. The sequential exposure to carvacrol resulted in a direct protection that was more evident in two of the four strains after 10 days. No significant cross-protection against cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and antibiotics was detected...
May 18, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468513/biofouling-of-reverse-osmosis-membranes-effects-of-cleaning-on-biofilm-microbial-communities-membrane-performance-and-adherence-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances
#5
Ashraf Al Ashhab, Amer Sweity, Bihter Bayramoglu, Moshe Herzberg, Osnat Gillor
Laboratory-scale reverse osmosis (RO) flat-sheet systems were used with two parallel flow cells, one treated with cleaning agents and a control (ie undisturbed). The cleaning efforts increased the affinity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to the RO membrane and altered the biofilm surface structure. Analysis of the membrane biofilm community composition revealed the dominance of Proteobacteria. However, within the phylum Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria dominated the cleaned membrane biofilm, while β-Proteobacteria dominated the control biofilm...
May 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452235/molecular-characteristics-biofilm-forming-abilities-and-quorum-sensing-molecules-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-strains-isolated-from-marine-and-clinical-environments-in-korea
#6
Md Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Hyeon-Jo Bang, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Nari Lee, Tae-Jo Kim, Sang-Do Ha
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an inhabitant of marine and estuarine environments and causes seafood-borne gastroenteritis in humans. In this study, an UltraFast LabChip Real-Time PCR assay was evaluated for rapid detection and quantification of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Escherichia coli and Vibrio harveyi were used as negative controls. Twenty-six tdh-positive, biofilm-producing V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR). REP-PCR analysis showed that the majority of the V...
April 28, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604168/dynamics-of-silver-elution-from-functionalised-antimicrobial-nanofiltration-membranes
#7
S Choudhari, O Habimana, J Hannon, A Allen, E Cummins, E Casey
In an effort to mitigate biofouling on thin film composite membranes such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, a myriad of different surface modification strategies has been published. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has emerged as being particularly promising. Nevertheless, the stability of these surface modifications is still poorly understood, particularly under permeate flux conditions. Leaching or elution of Ag-NPs from the membrane surface can not only affect the antimicrobial characteristics of the membrane, but could also potentially present an environmental liability when applied in industrial-scale systems...
July 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604167/adaptation-to-copper-stress-influences-biofilm-formation-in-alteromonas-macleodii
#8
Kathleen D Cusick, Jason R Dale, Lisa A Fitzgerald, Brenda J Little, Justin C Biffinger
An Alteromonas macleodii strain was isolated from copper-containing coupons incubated in surface seawater (Key West, FL, USA). In addition to the original isolate, a copper-adapted mutant was created and maintained with 0.78 mM Cu(2+). Biofilm formation was compared between the two strains under copper-amended and low-nutrient conditions. Biofilm formation was significantly increased in the original isolate under copper amendment, while biofilm formation was significantly higher in the mutant under low-nutrient conditions...
July 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604166/the-effects-of-grooming-on-a-copper-ablative-coating-a-six-year-study
#9
Melissa Tribou, Geoffrey Swain
More than 90% of US Navy Ships are coated with copper ablative paint. These ships may spend long periods of time pier-side, which makes them vulnerable to fouling. Hull grooming has been proposed as a means of maintaining the coatings in an operational condition. This study investigated the effect of grooming on a copper ablative coating exposed statically for six years. Grooming was performed weekly or monthly with controls left ungroomed. The fouling community was visually assessed, dry film thickness measurements were taken to monitor coating loss, and the copper leaching rates were measured...
July 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508711/surface-sensing-and-stress-signalling-in-ulva-and-fouling-diatoms-potential-targets-for-antifouling-a-review
#10
Stephanie E M Thompson, Juliet C Coates
Understanding the underlying signalling pathways that enable fouling algae to sense and respond to surfaces is essential in the design of environmentally friendly coatings. Both the green alga Ulva and diverse diatoms are important ecologically and economically as they are persistent biofoulers. Ulva spores exhibit rapid secretion, allowing them to adhere quickly and permanently to a ship, whilst diatoms secrete an abundance of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are highly adaptable to different environmental conditions...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508710/transported-biofilms-and-their-influence-on-subsequent-macrofouling-colonization
#11
L Holly Sweat, Geoffrey W Swain, Kelli Z Hunsucker, Kevin B Johnson
Biofilm organisms such as diatoms are potential regulators of global macrofouling dispersal because they ubiquitously colonize submerged surfaces, resist antifouling efforts and frequently alter larval recruitment. Although ships continually deliver biofilms to foreign ports, it is unclear how transport shapes biofilm microbial structure and subsequent macrofouling colonization. This study demonstrates that different ship hull coatings and transport methods change diatom assemblage composition in transported coastal marine biofilms...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508709/characterisation-of-the-biofouling-community-on-a-floating-wave-energy-device
#12
Christopher R Nall, Marie-Lise Schläppy, Andrew J Guerin
Wave energy devices are novel structures in the marine environment and, as such, provide a unique habitat for biofouling organisms. In this study, destructive scrape samples and photoquadrats were used to characterise the temperate epibenthic community present on prototypes of the Pelamis wave energy converter. The biofouling observed was extensive and diverse with 115 taxa recorded including four non-native species. Vertical zonation was identified on the sides of the device, with an algae-dominated shallow subtidal area and a deeper area characterised by a high proportion of suspension-feeding invertebrates...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508708/erratum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426246/biofilm-characteristics-and-evaluation-of-the-sanitation-procedures-of-thermophilic-aeribacillus-pallidus-e334-biofilms
#14
Tugba Kilic, Basar Karaca, Beste Piril Ozel, Birgul Ozcan, Cumhur Cokmus, Arzu Coleri Cihan
The ability of Aeribacillus pallidus E334 to produce pellicle and form a biofilm was studied. Optimal biofilm formation occurred at 60 °C, pH 7.5 and 1.5% NaCl. Extra polymeric substances (EPS) were composed of proteins and eDNA (21.4 kb). E334 formed biofilm on many surfaces, but mostly preferred polypropylene and glass. Using CLSM analysis, the network-like structure of the EPS was observed. The A. pallidus biofilm had a novel eDNA content. DNaseI susceptibility (86.8% removal) of eDNA revealed its importance in mature biofilms, but the purified eDNA was resistant to DNaseI, probably due to its extended folding outside the matrix...
April 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403635/one-domain-approach-for-studying-multiphase-transport-phenomena-in-biofilm-growing-systems
#15
Juan Manuel Oliveros-Muñoz, Martha Patricia Calderón-Alvarado, Gloria María Martínez-González, José Luis Navarrete-Bolaños, Hugo Jiménez-Islas
The one-domain approach (ODA) was used as an alternative to solve fluid-biofilm interfacial behavior in a 2-D model for diffusion-reaction-convection coupled with prediction of irregular growth of biofilms via a cellular automaton strategy. The simulations exhibited errors of <7% compared with the porosity of a previously reported capillary experimental system. Additionally, biofilm surface geometrical aspects were satisfactorily compared with reports of experimental and similar rigorously simulated benchmark systems...
April 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402176/identification-of-bacterial-contaminants-from-calcium-carbonate-filler-production-lines-and-an-evaluation-of-biocide-based-decontamination-procedures
#16
Duško Odić, Jana Prah, Gorazd Avguštin
The aim of this study was to analyze the bacterial community in the production line of a calcium carbonate filler production company and to investigate possible causes for bacterial presence. Throughout 2012, 24 carbonate slurry and six groundwater samples were analyzed. Pseudomonas and Microbacterium were the most frequent contaminants in the slurry, whereas Pseudomonas and Brevundimonas dominated the groundwater samples. Of the 43 different bacterial strains isolated, only five were found both in the slurry and the groundwater, indicating that the latter was not a major source of contamination...
April 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349700/fast-corroding-thin-magnesium-coating-displays-antibacterial-effects-and-low-cytotoxicity
#17
Sarah Zaatreh, David Haffner, Madlen Strauß, Katharina Wegner, Mareike Warkentin, Claudia Lurtz, Christiane Zamponi, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Regine Willumeit-Römer, Eckhard Quandt, Rainer Bader
Bacterial colonisation and biofilm formation are characteristics of implant-associated infections. In search of candidates for improved prosthetic materials, fast corroding Mg-based coatings on titanium surfaces were examined for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. Human osteoblasts and Staphylococcus epidermidis were each cultured on cylindrical Ti samples coated with a thin layer of Mg/Mg45Zn5Ca, applied via magnetron sputtering. Uncoated titanium samples served as controls. S. epidermidis was quantified by counting colony forming units...
April 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347177/new-mechanistic-insights-into-the-motile-to-sessile-switch-in-various-bacteria-with-particular-emphasis-on-bacillus-subtilis-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-review
#18
Faizan A Sadiq, Steve Flint, Yun Li, TongJie Liu, Yuan Lei, Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, GuoQing He
A biofilm is a complex assemblage of microbial communities adhered to a biotic or an abiotic surface which is embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Many transcriptional regulators play a role in triggering a motile-sessile switch and in consequently producing the biofilm matrix. This review is aimed at highlighting the role of two nucleotide signaling molecules (c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP), toxin antitoxin modules and a novel transcriptional regulator BolA in biofilm formation in various bacteria...
April 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317391/in-vitro-inhibitory-effects-of-farnesol-and-interactions-between-farnesol-and-antifungals-against-biofilms-of-candida-albicans-resistant-strains
#19
Jinping Xia, Fang Qian, Wenqian Xu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Xin Wei
Antifungal resistance is a serious problem in clinical infections. Farnesol, which is a potential antifungal agent against biofilms formed by Candida albicans resistant strains (a fluconazole-resistant isolate derived from SC5314 and two clinical Candida resistant isolates), was investigated in this study. The inhibitory effects of farnesol on biofilms were examined by XTT assay. The morphological changes and biofilm thicknesses were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively...
April 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270055/the-response-of-escherichia-coli-biofilm-to-salicylic-acid
#20
Cristina Cattò, Giovanni Grazioso, Silvia Dell'Orto, Arianna Gelain, Stefania Villa, Valeria Marzano, Alberto Vitali, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli, Fabio Forlani
In this research, salicylic acid is proposed as an alternative biocide-free agent suitable for a preventive or integrative anti-biofilm approach. Salicylic acid has been proved to: (1) reduce bacterial adhesion up to 68.1 ± 5.6%; (2) affect biofilm structural development, reducing viable biomass by 97.0 ± 0.7% and extracellular proteins and polysaccharides by 83.9 ± 2.5% and 49.5 ± 5.5% respectively; and (3) promote biofilm detachment 3.4 ± 0.6-fold. Moreover, salicylic acid treated biofilm showed an increased amount of intracellular (2...
March 2017: Biofouling
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