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Biofouling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054493/epilithic-and-endolithic-microorganisms-and-deterioration-on-stone-church-facades-subject-to-urban-pollution-in-a-sub-tropical-climate
#1
Christine Gaylarde, Jose Antônio Baptista-Neto, Akiko Ogawa, Matthew Kowalski, Sukriye Celikkol-Aydin, Iwona Beech
Weathering of two church facades in Rio de Janeiro was caused substantially by salts, mainly halite and gypsum, detected by SEM and chemical analyses, which cause physical stresses by deposition within the rock. Biofilm populations, determined by SEM and as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), degraded stone by penetration, solubilization and redeposition of minerals on their surfaces. Endolithic cyanobacteria were associated with gypsum deposits. Microbiomes were typical for high-stress environments, high salt, intense insolation, low water and low nutrients (eg halophilic Rubrobacter, Salinicola, Sterigmatomyces)...
January 5, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005415/proteome-analysis-of-human-serum-proteins-adsorbed-onto-different-titanium-surfaces-used-in-dental-implants
#2
Francisco Romero-Gavilán, N C Gomes, Joaquin Ródenas, Ana Sánchez, Mikel Azkargorta, Ibon Iloro, Felix Elortza, Iñaki García Arnáez, Mariló Gurruchaga, Isabel Goñi, Julio Suay
Titanium dental implants are commonly used due to their biocompatibility and biochemical properties; blasted acid-etched Ti is used more frequently than smooth Ti surfaces. In this study, physico-chemical characterisation revealed important differences in roughness, chemical composition and hydrophilicity, but no differences were found in cellular in vitro studies (proliferation and mineralization). However, the deposition of proteins onto the implant surface might affect in vivo osseointegration. To test that hypothesis, protein layers formed on discs of both surface type after incubation with human serum were analysed...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936915/promethazine-improves-antibiotic-efficacy-and-disrupts-biofilms-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#3
José Júlio Costa Sidrim, David Caldas Vasconcelos, Giovanna Barbosa Riello, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Rosana Serpa, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes Bandeira, André Jalles Monteiro, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante
Efflux pumps are important defense mechanisms against antimicrobial drugs and maintenance of Burkholderia pseudomallei biofilms. This study evaluated the effect of the efflux pump inhibitor promethazine on the structure and antimicrobial susceptibility of B. pseudomallei biofilms. Susceptibility of planktonic cells and biofilms to promethazine alone and combined with antimicrobials was assessed by the broth microdilution test and biofilm metabolic activity was determined with resazurin. The effect of promethazine on 48 h-grown biofilms was also evaluated through confocal and electronic microscopy...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928939/developing-an-ecologically-relevant-heterogeneous-biofilm-model-for-dental-unit-waterlines
#4
Sham Lal, Mark Pearce, Undine E M Achilles-Day, John G Day, L H Glyn Morton, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
This study monitored the biodiversity of microbes cultured from a heterogeneous biofilm which had formed on the lumen of a section of dental waterline tubing over a period of 910 days. By day 2 bacterial counts on the outlet-water showed that contamination of the system had occurred. After 14 days, a biofilm comparable to that of clinical waterlines, consisting of bacteria, fungi and amoebae had formed. This showed that the proprietary silver coating applied to the luminal surface of the commercial waterline tubing failed to prevent biofilm formation...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927017/assessments-of-quaternary-ammonium-compounds-qac-for-in-water-treatment-of-mussel-fouling-in-vessel-internals-and-sea-chests-using-an-experimental-seawater-pipework-system
#5
Richard Piola, Clare Grandison
The primary in-water emergency treatment method for mussel fouling of internal seawater systems of Royal Australian Navy vessels is to flush with a 1% detergent solution containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC). Parameters for application of this treatment are based on previous research; however, much of the research has been conducted at small-scales under controlled laboratory conditions. This study examined the efficacy of QAC solutions for treating mussel biofouling under realistic field conditions using experimental seawater piping systems...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918204/removal-of-listeria-monocytogenes-dual-species-biofilms-using-combined-enzyme-benzalkonium-chloride-treatments
#6
Pedro Rodríguez-López, Alba Carballo-Justo, Lorraine A Draper, Marta L Cabo
The effects of pronase (PRN), cellulase (CEL) or DNaseI alone or combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) against Listeria monocytogenes-carrying biofilms were assayed. The best removal activity against L. monocytogenes-Escherichia coli biofilms was obtained using DNaseI followed by PRN and CEL. Subsequently, a modified logistic model was used to quantify the combined effects of PRN or DNaseI with BAC. A better BAC performance after PRN compared to DNaseI eradicating L. monocytogenes was observed. In E. coli the effects were the opposite...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911097/performance-of-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-in-which-granular-sludge-and-dynamic-filtration-are-integrated
#7
Jixiang Yang, Xin Ji, Lunhui Lu, Hua Ma, Youpeng Chen, Jinsong Guo, Fang Fang
To alleviate the fouling of a filter, simple substrates, dynamic filtration, and granular sludge were applied in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The results showed that under a transmembrane pressure < 20 kPa, the filter flux ranged between 15 and 20 l (m(-2) h)(-1) for a period of 30 days. The flux was higher than the typical flux of AnMBRs with conventional membranes and most current dynamic filters. In addition, the low cost of the filter avoided the need for a higher flux. Moreover, a stable granular sludge bed, which consumed all volatile fatty acids, was maintained...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911078/laboratory-grown-subaerial-biofilms-on-granite-application-to-the-study-of-bioreceptivity
#8
Daniel Vázquez-Nion, Benita Silva, Federica Troiano, Beatriz Prieto
Simulated environmental colonisation of granite was induced under laboratory conditions in order to develop an experimental protocol for studying bioreceptivity. The experimental set-up proved suitable for producing subaerial biofilms by inoculating granite blocks with planktonic multi-species phototrophic cultures derived from natural biofilms. The ability of four different cultures to form biofilms was monitored over a three-month growth period via colour measurements, quantification of photosynthetic pigments and EPS, and CLSM observations...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892689/biofilm-inhibitors-targeting-the-outer-membrane-protein-a-of-pasteurella-multocida-in-swine
#9
Anchanee Kubera, Arinthip Thamchaipenet, Menachem Shoham
Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is the causative agent of atrophic rhinitis in swine. This study aimed to discover biofilm inhibitors against swine Pm to counteract antibiotic resistance and decrease virulence. The virulence factor outer membrane protein A (OmpA) was targeted. A library of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was used to perform virtual screening against PmOmpA. The top-scoring compounds had no effect on the growth of Pm serotype A or D. Mycophenolate mofetil showed the highest efficacy in inhibiting biofilm formation by Pm serotype A, with an IC50 of 7...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882771/functional-marine-metagenomic-screening-for-anti-quorum-sensing-and-anti-biofilm-activity
#10
Karin Yaniv, Karina Golberg, Esti Kramarsky-Winter, Robert Marks, Alina Pushkarev, Oded Béjà, Ariel Kushmaro
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication process, entails the production of signaling molecules that enable synchronized gene expression in microbial communities to regulate myriad microbial functions, including biofilm formation. QS disruption may constitute an innovative approach to the design of novel antifouling and anti-biofilm agents. To identify novel quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI), 2,500 environmental bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from uncultured marine planktonic bacteria were screened for QSI activity using soft agar overlaid with wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841027/development-and-characterisation-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-inter-kingdom-wound-biofilm-model
#11
Eleanor M Townsend, Leighann Sherry, Ranjith Rajendran, Donald Hansom, John Butcher, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Chronic diabetic foot ulcers are frequently colonised and infected by polymicrobial biofilms that ultimately prevent healing. This study aimed to create a novel in vitro inter-kingdom wound biofilm model on complex hydrogel-based cellulose substrata to test commonly used topical wound treatments. Inter-kingdom triadic biofilms composed of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were shown to be quantitatively greater in this model compared to a simple substratum when assessed by conventional culture, metabolic dye and live dead qPCR...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834106/probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-uco-979c-biofilm-formation-on-ags-and-caco-2-cells-and-helicobacter-pylori-inhibition
#12
M J Salas-Jara, E A Sanhueza, A Retamal-Díaz, C González, H Urrutia, A García
The ability of the human isolate Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C to form biofilm and synthesize exopolysaccharide on abiotic and biotic models is described. These properties were compared with the well-known Lactobacillus casei Shirota to better understand their anti-Helicobacter pylori probiotic activities. The two strains of lactobacilli synthesized exopolysaccharide as detected by the Dubois method and formed biofilm on abiotic and biotic surfaces visualized by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827532/development-and-evaluation-of-an-experimental-protocol-for-3-d-visualization-and-characterization-of-the-structure-of-bacterial-biofilms-in-porous-media-using-laboratory-x-ray-tomography
#13
Tomislav Ivankovic, Sabine Rolland du Roscoat, Christian Geindreau, Philipe Séchet, Zhujun Huang, Jean M F Martins
The development of a reliable model allowing accurate predictions of biofilm growth in porous media relies on a good knowledge of the temporal evolution of biofilm structure within the porous network. Since little is known about the real 3-D structure of biofilms in porous media, this work was aimed at developing a new experimental protocol to visualize the 3-D microstructure of the inside of a porous medium using laboratory X-ray microtomography. A reliable and reproducible methodology is proposed for (1) growing a biofilm inside a porous medium, and (2) X-ray tomography-based characterization of the temporal development of the biofilm at the inlet of the biofilter...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762637/dextranase-from-arthrobacter-oxydans-kq11-1-inhibits-biofilm-formation-by-polysaccharide-hydrolysis
#14
Xiaobei Wang, Huaixu Cheng, Mingsheng Lu, Yaowei Fang, Yuliang Jiao, Weijuan Li, Gengmao Zhao, Shujun Wang
Dental plaque is a biofilm of water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharides, produced primarily by Streptococcus mutans. Dextranase can inhibit biofilm formation. Here, a dextranase gene from the marine microorganism Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11-1 is described, and cloned and expressed using E. coli DH5α competent cells. The recombinant enzyme was then purified and its properties were characterized. The optimal temperature and pH were determined to be 60°C and 6.5, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography data show that the final hydrolysis products were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744722/influence-of-hydrodynamic-stress-on-the-frictional-drag-of-biofouling-communities
#15
J Travis Hunsucker, Kelli Z Hunsucker, Harrison Gardner, Geoffrey Swain
The role of hydrodynamic wall shear stresses on the development of the fouling community structure and resulting frictional drag were examined using a commercially available fouling release coating. Immersed test panels were exposed to three different hydrodynamic treatments, one static and two dynamic (corresponding to an estimated wall shear stress of 7.0  and 25.5 Pa). The drag of the panels was measured in a hydrodynamic test chamber at discrete time intervals over 35 days. The fouling community composition on the static panels was significantly different from the organisms observed on the dynamic panels...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744710/in-vitro-test-systems-supporting-the-development-of-improved-pest-control-methods-a-case-study-with-chemical-mixtures-and-bivalve-biofoulers
#16
Carlos Silva, Bruno Nunes, António Ja Nogueira, Fernando Gonçalves, Joana L Pereira
Using the bivalve macrofouler Corbicula fluminea, the suitability of in vitro testing as a stepping stone towards the improvement of control methods based on chemical mixtures was addressed in this study. In vitro cholinesterase (ChE) activity inhibition following single exposure of C. fluminea tissue to four model chemicals (the organophosphates dimethoate and dichlorvos, copper and sodium dodecyl phosphate [SDS]) was first assessed. Consequently, mixtures of dimethoate with copper and dichlorvos with SDS were tested and modelled; mixtures with ChE revealed synergistic interactions for both chemical pairs...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744709/impact-of-the-surface-roughness-of-aisi-316l-stainless-steel-on-biofilm-adhesion-in-a-seawater-cooled-tubular-heat-exchanger-condenser
#17
Sergio García, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M Vega, Ernesto Madariaga
The present study evaluated biofilm growth in AISI 316L stainless steel tubes for seawater-cooled exchanger-condensers that had four different arithmetic mean surface roughness values ranging from 0.14 μm to 1.2 μm. The results of fluid frictional resistance and heat transfer resistance regarding biofilm formation in the roughest surface showed increases of 28.2% and 19.1% respectively, compared with the smoothest surface. The biofilm thickness taken at the end of the experiment showed variations of up to 74% between the smoothest and roughest surfaces...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739324/in-vitro%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-in-vivo%C3%A2-efficacy-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-quorum-sensing-mediated-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-factor-production-in-aeromonas-hydrophila
#18
Kannan Rama Devi, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Arunachalam Kannappan, Sivasubramanian Santhakumari, Murugan Bhuvaneswari, Periyannan Rajasekar, Narayanan Marimuthu Prabhu, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Rosmarinic acid (RA) was assessed for its quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential against Aeromonas hydrophila strains AH 1, AH 12 and MTCC 1739. The pathogenic strains of A. hydrophila were isolated from infected zebrafish and identified through biochemical analysis and amplification of a species-specific gene (rpsL). The biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) of RA against A. hydrophila strains was found to be 750 μg ml(-1). At this concentration, RA reduced the QS mediated hemolysin, lipase and elastase production in A...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718644/use-of-bacteriophage-to-prevent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-contamination-and-fouling-in-jet-a-aviation-fuel
#19
Caitlin L Bojanowski, Wendy J Crookes-Goodson, Jayne B Robinson
In the present study, the use of bacteriophages to prevent growth and/or biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was investigated in microcosms containing Jet A aviation fuel as the carbon source. Bacteriophages were found to be effective at preventing biofilm formation but did not always prevent planktonic growth in the microcosms. This result was at odds with experiments conducted in nutrient-rich medium, demonstrating the necessity to test antimicrobial and antifouling strategies under conditions as near as possible to the 'real world'...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669827/bioemulsifier-be-am1-produced-by-solibacillus-silvestris-am1-is-a-functional-amyloid-that-modulates-bacterial-cell-surface-properties
#20
A R Markande, A S Nerurkar
A novel estuarine bacterial strain, Solibacillus silvestris AM1, produces an extracellular, thermostable and fibrous, glycoprotein bioemulsifier (BE-AM1). The amyloid nature of the bioemulsifier (BE-AM1) was confirmed by biophysical techniques (Congo red based polarization microscopy, ThioflavinS based fluorescent microscopy, fibrous arrangement in transmission electron microscopy and secondary structure measurement by FTIR and CD spectrum analysis). Cell-bound BE-AM1 production by S. silvestris AM1 during the mid-logarithmic phase of growth coincided with a decrease in cell surface hydrophobicity, and an increase in cell autoaggregation and biofilm formation...
November 2016: Biofouling
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