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Biofouling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918204/removal-of-listeria-monocytogenes-dual-species-biofilms-using-combined-enzyme-benzalkonium-chloride-treatments
#1
Pedro Rodríguez-López, Alba Carballo-Justo, Lorraine A Draper, Marta L Cabo
The effects of pronase (PRN), cellulase (CEL) or DNaseI alone or combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) against Listeria monocytogenes-carrying biofilms were assayed. The best removal activity against L. monocytogenes-Escherichia coli biofilms was obtained using DNaseI followed by PRN and CEL. Subsequently, a modified logistic model was used to quantify the combined effects of PRN or DNaseI with BAC. A better BAC performance after PRN compared to DNaseI eradicating L. monocytogenes was observed. In E. coli the effects were the opposite...
December 5, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911097/performance-of-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-in-which-granular-sludge-and-dynamic-filtration-are-integrated
#2
Jixiang Yang, Xin Ji, Lunhui Lu, Hua Ma, Youpeng Chen, Jinsong Guo, Fang Fang
To alleviate the fouling of a filter, simple substrates, dynamic filtration, and granular sludge were applied in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The results showed that under a transmembrane pressure < 20 kPa, the filter flux ranged between 15 and 20 l (m(-2) h)(-1) for a period of 30 days. The flux was higher than the typical flux of AnMBRs with conventional membranes and most current dynamic filters. In addition, the low cost of the filter avoided the need for a higher flux. Moreover, a stable granular sludge bed, which consumed all volatile fatty acids, was maintained...
December 2, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911078/laboratory-grown-subaerial-biofilms-on-granite-application-to-the-study-of-bioreceptivity
#3
Daniel Vázquez-Nion, Benita Silva, Federica Troiano, Beatriz Prieto
Simulated environmental colonisation of granite was induced under laboratory conditions in order to develop an experimental protocol for studying bioreceptivity. The experimental set-up proved suitable for producing subaerial biofilms by inoculating granite blocks with planktonic multi-species phototrophic cultures derived from natural biofilms. The ability of four different cultures to form biofilms was monitored over a three-month growth period via colour measurements, quantification of photosynthetic pigments and EPS, and CLSM observations...
December 2, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892689/biofilm-inhibitors-targeting-the-outer-membrane-protein-a-of-pasteurella-multocida-in-swine
#4
Anchanee Kubera, Arinthip Thamchaipenet, Menachem Shoham
Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is the causative agent of atrophic rhinitis in swine. This study aimed to discover biofilm inhibitors against swine Pm to counteract antibiotic resistance and decrease virulence. The virulence factor outer membrane protein A (OmpA) was targeted. A library of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was used to perform virtual screening against PmOmpA. The top-scoring compounds had no effect on the growth of Pm serotype A or D. Mycophenolate mofetil showed the highest efficacy in inhibiting biofilm formation by Pm serotype A, with an IC50 of 7...
November 28, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882771/functional-marine-metagenomic-screening-for-anti-quorum-sensing-and-anti-biofilm-activity
#5
Karin Yaniv, Karina Golberg, Esti Kramarsky-Winter, Robert Marks, Alina Pushkarev, Oded Béjà, Ariel Kushmaro
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication process, entails the production of signaling molecules that enable synchronized gene expression in microbial communities to regulate myriad microbial functions, including biofilm formation. QS disruption may constitute an innovative approach to the design of novel antifouling and anti-biofilm agents. To identify novel quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI), 2,500 environmental bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from uncultured marine planktonic bacteria were screened for QSI activity using soft agar overlaid with wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator...
November 24, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841027/development-and-characterisation-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-inter-kingdom-wound-biofilm-model
#6
Eleanor M Townsend, Leighann Sherry, Ranjith Rajendran, Donald Hansom, John Butcher, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Chronic diabetic foot ulcers are frequently colonised and infected by polymicrobial biofilms that ultimately prevent healing. This study aimed to create a novel in vitro inter-kingdom wound biofilm model on complex hydrogel-based cellulose substrata to test commonly used topical wound treatments. Inter-kingdom triadic biofilms composed of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were shown to be quantitatively greater in this model compared to a simple substratum when assessed by conventional culture, metabolic dye and live dead qPCR...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834106/probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-uco-979c-biofilm-formation-on-ags-and-caco-2-cells-and-helicobacter-pylori-inhibition
#7
M J Salas-Jara, E A Sanhueza, A Retamal-Díaz, C González, H Urrutia, A García
The ability of the human isolate Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C to form biofilm and synthesize exopolysaccharide on abiotic and biotic models is described. These properties were compared with the well-known Lactobacillus casei Shirota to better understand their anti-Helicobacter pylori probiotic activities. The two strains of lactobacilli synthesized exopolysaccharide as detected by the Dubois method and formed biofilm on abiotic and biotic surfaces visualized by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827532/development-and-evaluation-of-an-experimental-protocol-for-3-d-visualization-and-characterization-of-the-structure-of-bacterial-biofilms-in-porous-media-using-laboratory-x-ray-tomography
#8
Tomislav Ivankovic, Sabine Rolland du Roscoat, Christian Geindreau, Philipe Séchet, Zhujun Huang, Jean M F Martins
The development of a reliable model allowing accurate predictions of biofilm growth in porous media relies on a good knowledge of the temporal evolution of biofilm structure within the porous network. Since little is known about the real 3-D structure of biofilms in porous media, this work was aimed at developing a new experimental protocol to visualize the 3-D microstructure of the inside of a porous medium using laboratory X-ray microtomography. A reliable and reproducible methodology is proposed for (1) growing a biofilm inside a porous medium, and (2) X-ray tomography-based characterization of the temporal development of the biofilm at the inlet of the biofilter...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762637/dextranase-from-arthrobacter-oxydans-kq11-1-inhibits-biofilm-formation-by-polysaccharide-hydrolysis
#9
Xiaobei Wang, Huaixu Cheng, Mingsheng Lu, Yaowei Fang, Yuliang Jiao, Weijuan Li, Gengmao Zhao, Shujun Wang
Dental plaque is a biofilm of water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharides, produced primarily by Streptococcus mutans. Dextranase can inhibit biofilm formation. Here, a dextranase gene from the marine microorganism Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11-1 is described, and cloned and expressed using E. coli DH5α competent cells. The recombinant enzyme was then purified and its properties were characterized. The optimal temperature and pH were determined to be 60°C and 6.5, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography data show that the final hydrolysis products were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744722/influence-of-hydrodynamic-stress-on-the-frictional-drag-of-biofouling-communities
#10
J Travis Hunsucker, Kelli Z Hunsucker, Harrison Gardner, Geoffrey Swain
The role of hydrodynamic wall shear stresses on the development of the fouling community structure and resulting frictional drag were examined using a commercially available fouling release coating. Immersed test panels were exposed to three different hydrodynamic treatments, one static and two dynamic (corresponding to an estimated wall shear stress of 7.0  and 25.5 Pa). The drag of the panels was measured in a hydrodynamic test chamber at discrete time intervals over 35 days. The fouling community composition on the static panels was significantly different from the organisms observed on the dynamic panels...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744710/in-vitro-test-systems-supporting-the-development-of-improved-pest-control-methods-a-case-study-with-chemical-mixtures-and-bivalve-biofoulers
#11
Carlos Silva, Bruno Nunes, António Ja Nogueira, Fernando Gonçalves, Joana L Pereira
Using the bivalve macrofouler Corbicula fluminea, the suitability of in vitro testing as a stepping stone towards the improvement of control methods based on chemical mixtures was addressed in this study. In vitro cholinesterase (ChE) activity inhibition following single exposure of C. fluminea tissue to four model chemicals (the organophosphates dimethoate and dichlorvos, copper and sodium dodecyl phosphate [SDS]) was first assessed. Consequently, mixtures of dimethoate with copper and dichlorvos with SDS were tested and modelled; mixtures with ChE revealed synergistic interactions for both chemical pairs...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744709/impact-of-the-surface-roughness-of-aisi-316l-stainless-steel-on-biofilm-adhesion-in-a-seawater-cooled-tubular-heat-exchanger-condenser
#12
Sergio García, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M Vega, Ernesto Madariaga
The present study evaluated biofilm growth in AISI 316L stainless steel tubes for seawater-cooled exchanger-condensers that had four different arithmetic mean surface roughness values ranging from 0.14 μm to 1.2 μm. The results of fluid frictional resistance and heat transfer resistance regarding biofilm formation in the roughest surface showed increases of 28.2% and 19.1% respectively, compared with the smoothest surface. The biofilm thickness taken at the end of the experiment showed variations of up to 74% between the smoothest and roughest surfaces...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739324/in-vitro%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-in-vivo%C3%A2-efficacy-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-quorum-sensing-mediated-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-factor-production-in-aeromonas-hydrophila
#13
Kannan Rama Devi, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Arunachalam Kannappan, Sivasubramanian Santhakumari, Murugan Bhuvaneswari, Periyannan Rajasekar, Narayanan Marimuthu Prabhu, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Rosmarinic acid (RA) was assessed for its quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential against Aeromonas hydrophila strains AH 1, AH 12 and MTCC 1739. The pathogenic strains of A. hydrophila were isolated from infected zebrafish and identified through biochemical analysis and amplification of a species-specific gene (rpsL). The biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) of RA against A. hydrophila strains was found to be 750 μg ml(-1). At this concentration, RA reduced the QS mediated hemolysin, lipase and elastase production in A...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718644/use-of-bacteriophage-to-prevent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-contamination-and-fouling-in-jet-a-aviation-fuel
#14
Caitlin L Bojanowski, Wendy J Crookes-Goodson, Jayne B Robinson
In the present study, the use of bacteriophages to prevent growth and/or biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was investigated in microcosms containing Jet A aviation fuel as the carbon source. Bacteriophages were found to be effective at preventing biofilm formation but did not always prevent planktonic growth in the microcosms. This result was at odds with experiments conducted in nutrient-rich medium, demonstrating the necessity to test antimicrobial and antifouling strategies under conditions as near as possible to the 'real world'...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669827/bioemulsifier-be-am1-produced-by-solibacillus-silvestris-am1-is-a-functional-amyloid-that-modulates-bacterial-cell-surface-properties
#15
A R Markande, A S Nerurkar
A novel estuarine bacterial strain, Solibacillus silvestris AM1, produces an extracellular, thermostable and fibrous, glycoprotein bioemulsifier (BE-AM1). The amyloid nature of the bioemulsifier (BE-AM1) was confirmed by biophysical techniques (Congo red based polarization microscopy, ThioflavinS based fluorescent microscopy, fibrous arrangement in transmission electron microscopy and secondary structure measurement by FTIR and CD spectrum analysis). Cell-bound BE-AM1 production by S. silvestris AM1 during the mid-logarithmic phase of growth coincided with a decrease in cell surface hydrophobicity, and an increase in cell autoaggregation and biofilm formation...
November 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669900/biofilm-forming-potential-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-newly-emerged-western-australian-bordetella-pertussis-clinical-isolates
#16
Dorji Dorji, Ross M Graham, Peter Richmond, Anthony Keil, Trilochan K Mukkur
Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is increasing in several countries despite high vaccine coverage. One potential reason for the resurgence is the emergence of genetic variants of the bacterium. Biofilm formation has recently been associated with the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. Biofilm formation of 21 Western Australian B. pertussis clinical isolates was investigated. All isolates formed thicker biofilms than the reference vaccine strain Tohama I while retaining susceptibility to ampicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin and streptomycin...
October 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669899/developing-an-antibacterial-super-hydrophilic-barrier-between-bacteria-and-membranes-to-mitigate-the-severe-impacts-of-biofouling
#17
Hassan Younas, Yuhuan Fei, Jiahui Shao, Yiliang He
Biofouling produces concentrated microbial populations with highly resistive biofilms and is considered to be a serious obstacle for a wide range of membrane technology applications. An antibacterial super-hydrophilic barrier could help to reduce biofouling by preventing direct contact between membranes and bacteria. In this study, an antibacterial super-hydrophilic barrier consisting of a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was developed on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based membrane via a facile technique...
October 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667095/polysorbates-prevent-biofilm-formation-and-pathogenesis-of-escherichia-coli-o104-h4
#18
Rudolph E Sloup, Roberto J Cieza, David B Needle, Robert B Abramovitch, Alfredo G Torres, Christopher M Waters
Escherichia coli biotype O104:H4 recently caused the deadliest E. coli outbreak ever reported. Based on prior results, it was hypothesized that compounds inhibiting biofilm formation by O104:H4 would reduce its pathogenesis. The nonionic surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80) and polysorbate 20 (PS20) were found to reduce biofilms by ≥ 90% at submicromolar concentrations and elicited nearly complete dispersal of preformed biofilms. PS80 did not significantly impact in vivo colonization in a mouse infection model; however, mice treated with PS80 exhibited almost no intestinal inflammation or tissue damage while untreated mice exhibited robust pathology...
October 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661452/profiling-of-adhesive-related-genes-in-the-freshwater-cnidarian-hydra-magnipapillata-by-transcriptomics-and-proteomics
#19
Marcelo Rodrigues, Thomas Ostermann, Leopold Kremeser, Herbert Lindner, Christian Beisel, Eugene Berezikov, Bert Hobmayer, Peter Ladurner
The differentiated ectodermal basal disc cells of the freshwater cnidarian Hydra secrete proteinaceous glue to temporarily attach themselves to underwater surfaces. Using transcriptome sequencing and a basal disc-specific RNA-seq combined with in situ hybridisation a highly specific set of candidate adhesive genes was identified. A de novo transcriptome assembly of 55,849 transcripts (>200 bp) was generated using paired-end and single reads from Illumina libraries constructed from different polyp conditions...
October 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643959/the-quorum-sensing-molecule-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone-produced-by-acinetobacter-baumannii-displays-antibacterial-and-anticancer-properties
#20
James John, Rajagopalan Saranathan, Lakshmi Narayana Adigopula, Vasanth Thamodharan, Satya Prakash Singh, T Pragna Lakshmi, Mallu Abhiram CharanTej, R Srinivasa Rao, R Krishna, H Surya Prakash Rao, K Prashanth
Secretory N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) mediate quorum sensing (QS) in bacteria. AHLs are shown to be inhibitory for an unrelated group of bacteria and might mimic host signalling elements, thereby subverting the regulatory events in host cells. This study investigated the AHL produced by Acinetobacter baumannii and analysed its effect on other bacterial species and mammalian cells. Chemically characterized AHL had an m/z value of 325 with a molecular formula C18H31NO4 and showed its inhibitory potential against Staphylococcus aureus...
October 2016: Biofouling
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