Read by QxMD icon Read


Santi M Mandal, Jahangir Khan, Denial Mahata, Suman Saha, Jayangshu Sengupta, Osmar N Silva, Subhayan Das, Mahitosh Mandal, Octavio L Franco
Amniotic membrane (AM) is frequently used in ophthalmologic surgery for rapid ocular surface reconstruction. Sometimes it may create a major problem with associated infections after biofilm formation over the membrane. To overcome this problem, AM was coated with the antimicrobial peptide clavanin A. The antifungal activity of clavanin A in the native and self-assembled form was determined against the common ocular surface pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. Biofilm formation over the coated surface was significantly reduced in comparison with the uncoated membrane...
October 19, 2017: Biofouling
Erica B Ricker, Eric Nuxoll
Upon formation of a biofilm, bacteria undergo several changes that prevent eradication with antimicrobials alone. Due to this resistance, the standard of care for infected medical implants is explantation of the infected implant and surrounding tissue, followed by eventual reimplantation of a replacement device. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of heat shock for biofilm eradication. To minimize the heat required for in situ biofilm eradication, this study investigated the hypothesis that antibiotics, while ineffective by themselves, may substantially increase heat shock efficacy...
October 17, 2017: Biofouling
Chi Guan, Delphine Parrot, Jutta Wiese, Frank D Sönnichsen, Mahasweta Saha, Deniz Tasdemir, Florian Weinberger
A bioassay-guided approach was used to identify defense compounds that are present on the surface of Zostera marina and which inhibit settlement of microfoulers at natural concentrations. Moderately polar eelgrass surface extracts inhibited the settlement of seven marine bacteria and one yeast that originated from non-living substrata. In contrast, five other bacterial strains that had been directly isolated from eelgrass surfaces were all insensitive, which suggested a selective effect of surface metabolites on the microbial communities present on eelgrass...
October 16, 2017: Biofouling
Karina Sampaio Caiaffa, Loiane Massunari, Marcelle Danelon, Gabriel Flores Abuna, Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran, Norival Alves Santos-Filho, Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio, Natalia Leal Vizoto, Eduardo Maffud Cilli, Cristiane Duque
This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of analogs of cationic peptides against microorganisms associated with endodontic infections. L-929 fibroblasts were exposed to LL-37, KR-12-a5 and hBD-3-1C(V) and chlorhexidine (CHX, control), and cell metabolism was evaluated with MTT. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) of the peptides and CHX were determined against oral pathogens associated with endodontic infections. Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans biofilms were cultivated in bovine dentin blocks, exposed to different concentrations of the most efficient antimicrobial peptide and analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy...
October 12, 2017: Biofouling
Noe T Alvarez, Ryan Noga, So-Ryong Chae, George A Sorial, Hodon Ryu, Vesselin Shanov
Membrane filtration is one of the most reliable methods for water treatment. However, wider application is limited due to biofouling caused by accumulation of microorganisms on the membrane surface. This report details a heatable carbon nanotube composite membrane with self-cleaning properties for sustainable recovery from biofouling. Microfiltration polycarbonate/carbon-nanotubes hybrid membranes were fabricated using drawable nanotubes that maintained the porosity and provided electrical conductivity to the membrane...
October 10, 2017: Biofouling
L Di Gregorio, V Tandoi, R Congestri, S Rossetti, F Di Pippo
In this study, next generation sequencing and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, combined with confocal microscopy, were used to provide insights into the biodiversity and structure of biofilms collected from four full-scale European cooling systems. Water samples were also analyzed to evaluate the impact of suspended microbes on biofilm formation. A common core microbiome, containing members of the families Sphingomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae and Hyphomicrobiaceae, was found in all four biofilms, despite the water of each coming from different sources (river and groundwater)...
October 10, 2017: Biofouling
Yigit Kemal Demirel, Dogancan Uzun, Yansheng Zhang, Ho-Chun Fang, Alexander H Day, Osman Turan
Predictions of added resistance and the effective power of ships were made for varying barnacle fouling conditions. A series of towing tests was carried out using flat plates covered with artificial barnacles. The tests were designed to allow the examination of the effects of barnacle height and percentage coverage on the resistance and effective power of ships. The drag coefficients and roughness function values were evaluated for the flat plates. The roughness effects of the fouling conditions on the ships' frictional resistances were predicted...
October 5, 2017: Biofouling
B R da Silva, A J S Conrado, A L Pereira, F F V Evaristo, F V S Arruda, M A Vasconcelos, E N Lorenzón, E M Cilli, E H Teixeira
The aims of this study were to describe the synthesis of a novel synthetic peptide based on the primary structure of the KR-12 peptide and to evaluate its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus mutans. The antimicrobial effect of KR-12 and [W(7)]KR12-KAEK was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. The evaluation of anti-biofilm activity was assessed through total biomass quantification, colony forming unit counting and scanning electron microscopy...
October 2, 2017: Biofouling
Barry I Cayford, Guangming Jiang, Jurg Keller, Gene Tyson, Philip L Bond
This study investigated the variation in microbially induced concrete corrosion communities at different circumferential locations of a real sewer pipe and the effects of a wastewater flooding event on the community. Three distinct microbial community groups were found in different corrosion samples. The physico-chemical properties of the corrosion layers and the microbial communities were distinct for the cross-sectional positions within the pipe, ie ceiling, wall and tidal zones. The microbial communities detected from the same positions in the pipe were consistent over the length of the pipe, as well as being consistent between the replicate pipes...
September 28, 2017: Biofouling
Farazul Haque, Mohammad Sajid, Swaranjit Singh Cameotra, Mani Shankar Battacharyya
Sophorolipids (SLs) have gained interest in the pharmaceutical industries due to their anti-microbial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm properties. In the present study, the production of SL was increased by using low-cost media components. The potential of a SL-based niosomal formulation of amphotericin B (AmB) was determined against biofilm of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. In-house prepared SL-AmB niosomes were characterized by different microscopic techniques. The mean entrapment efficiency of AmB within SL-AmB niosome was 63...
September 26, 2017: Biofouling
Midian C Castillo Pedraza, Tatiana F Novais, Roberta C Faustoferri, Robert G Quivey, Anton Terekhov, Bruce R Hamaker, Marlise I Klein
Streptococcus mutans-derived exopolysaccharides are virulence determinants in the matrix of biofilms that cause caries. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are found in cariogenic biofilms, but their functions are unclear. Therefore, strains of S. mutans carrying single deletions that would modulate matrix components were used: eDNA - ∆lytS and ∆lytT; LTA - ∆dltA and ∆dltD; and insoluble exopolysaccharide - ΔgtfB. Single-species (parental strain S. mutans UA159 or individual mutant strains) and mixed-species (UA159 or mutant strain, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii) biofilms were evaluated...
September 25, 2017: Biofouling
Andrew M Smith, Cassandra Papaleo, Christopher W Reid, Joseph M Bliss
The tough, hydrogel glue produced by the slug Arion subfuscus achieves impressive performance through metal-based, protein cross-links. The primary sequence of these proteins was determined through transcriptome sequencing and proteome analysis by tandem mass spectrometry. The main proteins that correlate with adhesive function are a group of 11 small, highly abundant lectin-like proteins. These proteins matched the ligand-binding C-lectin, C1q or H-lectin domains. The variety of different lectin-like proteins and their potential for oligomerization suggests that they function as versatile and potent cross-linkers...
September 13, 2017: Biofouling
Michael Sievers, Isla Fitridge, Samantha Bui, Tim Dempster
The global growth of farmed shellfish production has resulted in considerable research investigating how biofouling compromises farm productivity. Shellfish fitness can be compared between fouled stock and stock which has undergone treatment. As treatment options are often harsh, they may deleteriously affect stock. The projected impact of biofouling may therefore be confounded by the impact of treatments. Given the substantial cost of fouling removal, some have questioned the necessity of biofouling mitigation strategies...
September 6, 2017: Biofouling
Mark Menesses, Jesse Belden, Natasha Dickenson, James Bird
When cleaning the hull of a ship, significant shear stresses are needed to remove established biofouling organisms. Given that there exists a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. Yet, it is unclear if there is a minimum stress needed to prevent the growth of macrofouling in the limit of continuous grooming. This manuscript shows that single bubble stream aeration provides continuous grooming and prevents biofouling accumulation in regions where the average wall stress exceeds ~0...
September 4, 2017: Biofouling
Niar Gusnaniar, Jelmer Sjollema, Titik Nuryastuti, Brandon W Peterson, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Ed D de Jong, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
Transmission is a main route for bacterial contamination, involving bacterial detachment from a donor and adhesion to receiver surfaces. This work aimed to compare transmission of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) producing and a non-EPS producing Staphylococcus epidermidis strain from biofilms on stainless steel. After transmission, donor surfaces remained fully covered with biofilm, indicating transmission through cohesive failure in the biofilm. Counter to the numbers of biofilm bacteria, the donor and receiver biofilm thicknesses did not add up to the pre-transmission donor biofilm thickness, suggesting more compact biofilms after transmission, especially for non-EPS producing staphylococci...
September 4, 2017: Biofouling
Christian Pansch, Per R Jonsson, Mattias Berglin, Emiliano Pinori, Anna-Lisa Wrange
Current antifouling (AF) technologies are based on the continuous release of biocides into the water, and consequently discharge into the environment. Major efforts to develop more environmentally friendly coatings require efficient testing in laboratory assays, followed by field studies. Barnacles are important fouling organisms worldwide, increasing hydrodynamic drag on ships and damaging coatings on underwater surfaces, and thus are extensively used as models in AF research, mostly in static, laboratory-based systems...
August 9, 2017: Biofouling
T T Maske, F H van de Sande, R A Arthur, M C D N J M Huysmans, M S Cenci
The aim of this systematic review is to characterize and discuss key methodological aspects of in vitro biofilm models for caries-related research and to verify the reproducibility and dose-response of models considering the response to anti-caries and/or antimicrobial substances. Inclusion criteria were divided into Part I (PI): an in vitro biofilm model that produces a cariogenic biofilm and/or caries-like lesions and allows pH fluctuations; and Part II (PII): models showing an effect of anti-caries and/or antimicrobial substances...
August 9, 2017: Biofouling
Prasanth Rathinam, H S Vijay Kumar, Pragasam Viswanathan
The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the anti-biofilm and anti-virulence properties of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels of eugenol against the standard strain PAO1 and two multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates utilizing quorum sensing inhibition (QSI). Eugenol at 400 μM significantly reduced biofilm formation on urinary catheters and the virulence factors (VF) including extracellular polysaccharides, rhamnolipid, elastase, protease, pyocyanin, and pyoverdine (p < 0...
August 9, 2017: Biofouling
Jasmine Ferrario, Sarah Caronni, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Agnese Marchini
The role of commercial harbours as sink and source habitats for non-indigenous species (NIS) and the role of recreational boating for their secondary spread were investigated by analysing the fouling community of five Italian harbours and five marinas in the western Mediterranean Sea. It was first hypothesised that NIS assemblages in the recreational marinas were subsets of those occurring in commercial harbours. However, the data did not consistently support this hypothesis: the NIS pools of some marinas significantly diverged from harbours even belonging to the same coastal stretches, including NIS occurring only in marinas...
August 8, 2017: Biofouling
F Romero-Gavilan, A M Sánchez-Pérez, N Araújo-Gomes, M Azkargorta, I Iloro, F Elortza, M Gurruchaga, I Goñi, J Suay
The interactions of implanted biomaterials with the host organism determine the success or failure of an implantation. Normally, their biocompatibility is assessed using in vitro tests. Unfortunately, in vitro and in vivo results are not always concordant; new, effective methods of biomaterial characterisation are urgently needed to predict the in vivo outcome. As the first layer of proteins adsorbed onto the biomaterial surfaces might condition the host response, mass spectrometry analysis was performed to characterise these proteins...
September 2017: Biofouling
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"