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Amino Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043510/taurine-as-a-water-structure-breaker-and-protein-stabilizer
#1
P Bruździak, A Panuszko, E Kaczkowska, B Piotrowski, A Daghir, S Demkowicz, J Stangret
The enhancing effect on the water structure has been confirmed for most of the osmolytes exhibiting both stabilizing and destabilizing properties in regard to proteins. The presented work concerns osmolytes, which should be classified as "structure breaking" solutes: taurine and N,N,N-trimethyltaurine (TMT). Here, we combine FTIR spectroscopy, DSC calorimetry and DFT calculations to gain an insight into the interactions between osmolytes and two proteins: lysozyme and ubiquitin. Despite high structural similarity, both osmolytes exert different influence on protein stability: taurine is a stabilizer, TMT is a denaturant...
October 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030729/long-photoperiod-affects-the-maize-transition-from-vegetative-to-reproductive-stages-a-proteomic-comparison-between-photoperiod-sensitive-inbred-line-and-its-recurrent-parent
#2
Lei Tian, Shunxi Wang, Xiaoheng Song, Jun Zhang, Ping Liu, Zan Chen, Yanhui Chen, Liuji Wu
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a typical short-day plant that is produced as an important food product and industrial material. The photoperiod is one of the most important evolutionary mechanisms enabling the adaptation of plant developmental phases to changes in climate conditions. There are differences in the photoperiod sensitivity of maize inbred lines from tropical to temperate regions. In this study, to identify the maize proteins responsive to a long photoperiod (LP), the photoperiod-insensitive inbred line HZ4 and its near-isogenic line H496, which is sensitive to LP conditions, were analyzed under long-day conditions using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation...
October 13, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027024/studies-on-the-constituents-of-helleborus-purpurascens-analysis-and-biological-activity-of-the-aqueous-and-organic-extracts
#3
M Heiko Franz, Roxana Birzoi, Catalin-Vasile Maftei, Elena Maftei, Gerhard Kelter, Heinz-Herbert Fiebig, Ion Neda
In Southeast Europe, the ethnomedicinal use of Helleborus species has a very long tradition. Cardiac steroids (Hellebrin), cysteine-rich proteins (Hellethionins) and several steroidal saponins have been identified in these plants. Aim of the present work was to investigate the amino acid composition of native extracts from the root and rootstock of Helleborus purpurascens. The amino acids have been identified by the GC-MS technique on the previously derivatised (Phenomenex Faast Kit) extract samples by comparison with the mass spectra and retention-time of the standards...
October 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026918/correction-to-4-chloro-3-nitro-n-butylbenzenesulfonamide-acts-on-kv3-1-channels-by-an-open-channel-blocker-mechanism
#4
Carlos Alberto Zanutto Bassetto Junior, Wamberto Antonio Varanda, Eduardo René Pérez González
Unfortunately, grey trace on Figure 2c was missing in the original publication of the article.
October 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019072/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-to-identify-taurine-modified-metabolites-in-heart
#5
Takashi Ito, Koei Okazaki, Daisuke Nakajima, Daisuke Shibata, Shigeru Murakami, Stephen Schaffer
Taurine is an abundant beta-amino acid found in high concentration in mammalian tissues. Taurine possesses many beneficial functions in mammalian cells. There are also a variety of taurine-conjugated products formed between taurine and bile acids, fatty acids, chloramine, mitochondrial tRNA, etc., and some of these have been identified as functional compounds. In the present study, we identified taurine-conjugated metabolites using LC-MS-based metabolome analysis of heart extracts prepared from hearts of wild-type and taurine transporter-knockout (TauTKO) mice, the latter being severely taurine deficient...
October 10, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018979/hyperhomocysteinemia-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-animal-model
#6
REVIEW
Md Abul Kalam Azad, Pan Huang, Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Tsegay Teklebrh, Wenxin Yan, Xihong Zhou, Yulong Yin
Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with primary causes of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the effects of a diet inducing cystathionine-β-synthase, methyltetrafolate, folic acid, and vitamin B supplemented with methionine on the homocysteine metabolism and in lowering the plasma total homocysteine levels. A large number of molecular and biomedical studies in numerous animals, such as mice, rabbits, and pigs, have sought to elevate the plasma total homocysteine levels and to identify a disease model for human hyperhomocysteinemia...
October 10, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988398/synthetic-green-fluorescent-protein-chromophore-analogues-with-a-positive-charge-at-the-phenyl-like-group
#7
Zhao-Yi Zhang, Robert Sung, Kuangsen Sung
Synthetic green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore analogues with a positive charge at the phenyl-like group have the highly electrophilic amidine carbon, smaller LUMO-HOMO energy gap, red-shifted electronic absorptions and fluorescent emissions, and accelerated E-Z thermoisomerization rates. They are water-labile and their hydrolysis results in ring-opening of the imidazolinone moiety with a half life around 25-37 h in D2O at 25 °C.
October 7, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986749/pig-models-on-intestinal-development-and-therapeutics
#8
REVIEW
Lanmei Yin, Huansheng Yang, Jianzhong Li, Yali Li, Xueqing Ding, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
The gastrointestinal tract plays a vital role in nutrient supply, digestion, and absorption, and has a crucial impact on the entire organism. Much attention is being paid to utilize animal models to study the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases in response to intestinal development and health. The piglet has a body size similar to that of the human and is an omnivorous animal with comparable anatomy, nutritional requirements, and digestive and associated inflammatory processes, and displays similarities to the human intestinal microbial ecosystem, which make piglets more appropriate as an animal model for human than other non-primate animals...
October 6, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983783/mtorc1-signaling-associated-protein-synthesis-in-porcine-mammary-glands-was-regulated-by-the-local-available-methionine-depending-on-methionine-sources
#9
Yalin Zhang, Peng Wang, Sen Lin, Yves Mercier, Huajun Yin, Yumo Song, Xiaoling Zhang, Lianqiang Che, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, De Wu, Zhengfeng Fang
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1) activation and protein synthesis varied with methionine sources; however, the related mechanisms are largely unknown. Porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) and mammary tissue slices (MTS) were used to test whether methionine precursors differ in providing the available methionine and thus differ in mTORC1 signaling-associated protein synthesis. PMEC with methionine deprivation for 8 h and MTS from lactating sows were cultured for 24 and 2 h, respectively, with treatment media without methionine (negative control, NC) or supplemented with 0...
October 5, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936709/taurine-counteracts-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#10
Greice Caletti, Ana P Herrmann, Rianne Remus Pulcinelli, Luiza Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Priscila Vianna, José Artur Bogo Chies, Dinara Jaqueline Moura, Helena Maria Tanhauser Barros, Rosane Gomez
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease associated with oxidative stress, damage to biomolecules such as DNA, and neuroinflammation. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid widespread in the brain, has neuroprotective properties that might prevent tissue injury and DNA damage induced by chronic hyperglycemia. We evaluated the effects of chronic taurine treatment on oxidative stress parameters, DNA damage and inflammatory markers in the frontal cortex, and hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
September 21, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932911/a-review-of-the-relationship-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-amino-acid-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Rui Lin, Wentian Liu, Meiyu Piao, Hong Zhu
New evidence has emerged in recent years to suggest a strong link between the human gut microbiota, its metabolites, and various physiological aspects of hosts along with important pathophysiological dimensions of diseases. The research indicates that the gut microbiota can facilitate metabolite production in two ways: first, the resident species of the gut microbiota use the amino acids produced from food or the host as elements for protein synthesis, and second, conversion or fermentation are used to drive nutrient metabolism...
September 20, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929384/roles-of-dietary-glycine-proline-and-hydroxyproline-in-collagen-synthesis-and-animal-growth
#12
REVIEW
Peng Li, Guoyao Wu
Glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline (Hyp) contribute to 57% of total amino acids (AAs) in collagen, which accounts for one-third of proteins in animals. As the most abundant protein in the body, collagen is essential to maintain the normal structure and strength of connective tissue, such as bones, skin, cartilage, and blood vessels. Mammals, birds, and fish can synthesize: (1) glycine from threonine, serine, choline, and Hyp; (2) proline from arginine; and (3) Hyp from proline residues in collagen, in a cell- and tissue-specific manner...
September 20, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929442/the-role-of-methionine-on-metabolism-oxidative-stress-and-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Yordan Martínez, Xue Li, Gang Liu, Peng Bin, Wenxin Yan, Dairon Más, Manuel Valdivié, Chien-An Andy Hu, Wenkai Ren, Yulong Yin
Methionine is an aliphatic, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid, and a precursor of succinyl-CoA, homocysteine, cysteine, creatine, and carnitine. Recent research has demonstrated that methionine can regulate metabolic processes, the innate immune system, and digestive functioning in mammals. It also intervenes in lipid metabolism, activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as methionine sulfoxide reductase A, and the biosynthesis of glutathione to counteract oxidative stress. In addition, methionine restriction prevents altered methionine/transmethylation metabolism, thereby decreasing DNA damage and carcinogenic processes and possibly preventing arterial, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases...
September 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929337/escherichia-coli-aggravates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-triggers-chop-dependent-apoptosis-in-weaned-pigs
#14
Qian Jiang, Shuai Chen, Wenkai Ren, Gang Liu, Kang Yao, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
Intestinal cells can sense the presence of pathogens and trigger many important signaling pathways to maintain tissue homeostasis and normal function. Escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the main pathogenic factors of intestinal disease in pigs. However, the roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and its mediated apoptosis in intestinal malfunction induced by E. coli or LPS remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether ERS could be activated by E. coli fed to piglets and whether the underlying mechanisms of this disease process could be exploited...
September 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929336/melatonin-alters-amino-acid-metabolism-and-inflammatory-responses-in-colitis-mice
#15
Gang Liu, Qian Jiang, Shuai Chen, Jun Fang, Wenkai Ren, Jie Yin, Kang Yao, Yulong Yin
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. This study explored the hypothesis that melatonin has beneficial functions in the mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), with a specific focus on the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines and the serum levels of amino acids. The results revealed that mice with melatonin supplementation had a reduction in weight loss and disease index induced by DSS treatment. Melatonin stifled the expression of colonic IL-17 in mice with DSS-induced colitis...
September 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900735/4-chloro-3-nitro-n-butylbenzenesulfonamide-acts-on-kv3-1-channels-by-an-open-channel-blocker-mechanism
#16
Carlos Alberto Zanutto Bassetto Junior, Wamberto Antonio Varanda, Eduardo René Pérez González
The effects of 4-chloro-3-nitro-N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (SMD2) on KV3.1 channels, heterologous expressed in L-929 cells, were studied with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. SMD2 blocks KV3.1 in a reversible and use-dependent manner, with IC50 around 10 µM, and a Hill coefficient around 2. Although the conductance vs. voltage relationship in control condition can be described by a single Boltzmann function, two terms are necessary to describe the data in the presence of SMD2. The activation and deactivation time constants are weakly voltage dependent both for control and in the presence of SMD2...
September 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894966/targeting-cancer-specific-glycans-by-cyclic-peptide-lectinomimics
#17
Maria C Rodriguez, Austin B Yongye, Mihael Cudic, Karina Martinez Mayorga, Enbo Liu, Barbara M Mueller, Jon Ainsley, Tatyana Karabencheva-Christova, Christo Z Christov, Mare Cudic, Predrag Cudic
The transformation from normal to malignant phenotype in human cancers is associated with aberrant cell-surface glycosylation. Thus, targeting glycosylation changes in cancer is likely to provide not only better insight into the roles of carbohydrates in biological systems, but also facilitate the development of new molecular probes for bioanalytical and biomedical applications. In the reported study, we have synthesized lectinomimics based on odorranalectin 1; the smallest lectin-like cyclic peptide isolated from the frog Odorrana grahami skin, and assessed the ability of these peptides to bind specific carbohydrates on molecular and cellular levels...
September 11, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894939/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-broad-spectrum-amino-acid-racemases-from-escherichia-coli-and-bacillus-subtilis
#18
Tetsuya Miyamoto, Masumi Katane, Yasuaki Saitoh, Masae Sekine, Hiroshi Homma
The peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall typically contains D-alanine (D-Ala) and D-glutamic acid (D-Glu), and also various non-canonical D-amino acids that have been linked to peptidoglycan remodeling, inhibition of biofilm formation, and triggering of biofilm disassembly. Bacteria produce D-amino acids when adapting to environmental changes as a common survival strategy. In our previous study, we detected non-canonical D-amino acids in Escherichia coli grown in minimal medium. However, the biosynthetic pathways of non-canonical D-amino acids remain poorly understood...
September 11, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861626/alanyl-glutamine-but-not-glycyl-glutamine-improved-the-proliferation-of-enterocytes-as-glutamine-substitution-in-vitro
#19
Bie Tan, Honglan Liu, Guangzu He, Hao Xiao, Dingfu Xiao, Yanhong Liu, Jianping Wu, Jun Fang, Yulong Yin
The synthetic dipeptides alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) and glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) are used as Gln substitution to provide energy source in the gastrointestinal tract due to their high solubility and stability. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Gln, Ala-Gln and Gly-Gln on mitochondrial respiration and protein turnover of enterocytes. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were cultured for 2 days in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12) containing 2.5 mM Gln, Ala-Gln or Gly-Gln...
August 31, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852876/a-possible-mechanism-of-inhibition-of-u87mg-and-sh-sy5y-cancer-cell-proliferation-by-diallyl-trisulfide-and-other-aspects-of-its-activity
#20
Halina Jurkowska, Maria Wróbel, Marta Kaczor-Kamińska, Ewa Jasek-Gajda
The study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of antiproliferative and antioxidative action of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic-derived organosulfur compound. Changes in the L-cysteine desulfuration, and the levels of cystathionine and non-protein thiols in DATS-treated human glioblastoma (U87MG) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were investigated. The inhibition of proliferation of the investigated cells by DATS was correlated with an increase in the inactivated form of Bcl-2. In U87MG cells, an increased level of sulfane sulfur and an increased activity of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) and rhodanese, the enzymes involved in sulfane sulfur generation and transfer, suggest that DATS can function as a donor of sulfane sulfur atom, transferred by sulfurtransferases, to sulfhydryl groups of cysteine residues of Bcl-2 and in this way lower the level of active form of Bcl-2 by S-sulfuration...
August 29, 2017: Amino Acids
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