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Amino Acids

Zhuqing Leslie Li, Yonghui Shi, Yinyi Ding, Yumei Ran, Guowei Le
Oxidized tyrosine (O-Tyr) products have been detected in commercial food and have been demonstrated to induce liver injury in our previous study, but the precise mechanisms of the impact induced by dietary O-Tyr are still unclear. Kidney plays an important role in the metabolism of protein. Accumulation of O-Tyr products, especially the dityrosine (Dityr) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), in vivo was shown to be associated with many kidney diseases. Therefore, this study determined whether chronic exposure to dietary O-Tyr impaired renal function in rats...
October 21, 2016: Amino Acids
Éva Sivadó, Sabrina Lareure, Valérie Attuil-Audenis, Saïd El Alaoui, Vincent Thomas
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) belongs to the multigene transglutaminase family of Ca(2+)-dependent protein cross-linking enzymes. There is a strong evidence that tTG is involved in pathology, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and celiac disease. To study physiopathological implication of tTG, a sandwich immunoassay has been developed with a new monoclonal antibody for the capture and polyclonal antibody both generated in house. Using this ready to use assay, the tTG protein level can be measured in human tissue homogenates and cells extracts easily in about 4 h...
October 19, 2016: Amino Acids
Carmine Carbone, Elena Di Gennaro, Geny Piro, Maria Rita Milone, Biagio Pucci, Michele Caraglia, Alfredo Budillon
Vorinostat demonstrated preclinical and clinical efficacy in human cancers and is the first histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) approved for cancer treatment. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a Ca(2+) dependent transamidating reaction resulting in covalent cross-links between proteins. TG2 acts also as G-protein in trans-membrane signaling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator. TG2 up-regulation has been demonstrated in several cancers and its expression levels correlate with resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic potential...
October 19, 2016: Amino Acids
Dan Yi, Yongqing Hou, Huimin Mei, Lei Wang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guoyao Wu
β-Conglycinin (β-CG) is well known for inducing intestinal allergies and dysfunction in neonates and young pigs. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, to clarify the role of autophagy in β-CG-induced cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of β-CG on cell viability and autophagy activity in porcine enterocytes (IPEC-1 cells). The results indicated that the cell viability was decreased with the increasing levels of β-CG. β-CG treatment enhanced the eGFP-LC3 puncta per cells and LC3-II/LC3-I, and the latter was further increased in IPEC-1 cells cultured with bafilomycin A1...
October 19, 2016: Amino Acids
Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common type of primary brain tumor. It has a devastating prognosis with a 2-year-overall survival rate of only 26 % after standard treatment, which includes surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Also lower grade gliomas are difficult to treat, because they diffusely spread into the brain, where extensive removal of tissue is critical. Better understanding of the cancer's biology is a key for the development of more effective therapy approaches...
October 17, 2016: Amino Acids
Christoph Tondera, Markus Laube, Jens Pietzsch
The EF-hand type calcium-binding protein S100A12 exerts numerous intra- and extracellular functions of (patho)physiological relevance. Therefore, receptors of S100A12 are of high interest for research and clinical applications. Beside the extensively studied receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), G-protein coupled receptors and more recently, scavenger receptors are suggested to be putative S100A12 receptors. Own findings and further information from the literature predestined CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, as promising candidate...
October 12, 2016: Amino Acids
Barbara Biondi, Bruno Casciaro, Antonio Di Grazia, Floriana Cappiello, Vincenzo Luca, Marco Crisma, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a key role in the defence mechanism of living organisms against microbial pathogens, displaying both bactericidal and immunomodulatory properties. They are considered as a promising alternative to the conventional antibiotics towards which bacteria are becoming highly resistant. Recently, a derivative of the frog skin AMP esculentin-1a, esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 [Esc(1-21)], showed a strong and fast membranolytic activity against Gram-negative bacteria but with a lower efficacy against Gram-positive ones...
October 11, 2016: Amino Acids
Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Pathise Souto Oliveira, Gabriela Nogueira Debom, Bruna da Silveira Mattos, Carla Roberta Polachini, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Rejane Giacomelli Tavares, Francieli Moro Stefanello, Roselia Maria Spanevello
High levels of methionine (Met) and methionine sulfoxide (MetO) are found in several genetic abnormalities. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of many inborn errors of metabolism. However, little is known about the role of oxidative damage in hepatic and renal changes in hypermethioninemia. We investigated the effect of chronic treatment with Met and/or MetO on oxidative stress parameters in liver and kidney, as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total sulfhydryl content (SH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enzymes activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and delta aminolevulinic dehydratase (ALA-D)...
October 7, 2016: Amino Acids
Daisuke Asai, Masaharu Murata, Riki Toita, Takahito Kawano, Hideki Nakashima, Jeong-Hun Kang
A series of amino acid substitutions was made in a previously identified β-tubulin-derived GRK2 substrate peptide ((404)DEMEFTEAESNMN(416)) to examine the role of amino acid residues surrounding the phosphorylation site. Anionic amino acid residues surrounding the phosphorylation site played an important role in the affinity for GRK2. Compared to the original peptide, a modified peptide (Ac-EEMEFSEAEANMN-NH2) exhibited markedly higher affinity for GRK2, but very low affinity for GRK5, suggesting that it can be a sensitive and selective peptide for GRK2...
October 6, 2016: Amino Acids
Evelien P J G Neis, S Sabrkhany, I Hundscheid, D Schellekens, K Lenaerts, S W Olde Damink, E E Blaak, C H C Dejong, Sander S Rensen
Plasma levels of several amino acids are correlated with metabolic dysregulation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. To increase our understanding of human amino-acid metabolism, we aimed to determine splanchnic interorgan amino-acid handling. Twenty patients planned to undergo a pylorus preserving pancreatico-duodenectomy were included in this study. Blood was sampled from the portal vein, hepatic vein, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein, splenic vein, renal vein, and the radial artery during surgery...
October 6, 2016: Amino Acids
Birgit Rössner, Maximilian Klingler, Tanja Bulat, Ajinkya Sase, Andrea Zeilinger, Melanie Spitzwieser, Jana Aradska, Margit Cichna-Markl, Gert Lubec
AMPA receptors mediate most fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Highly dynamic AMPA receptors are subjected to trafficking, recycling, and/or degradation and replacement. Changes in AMPA receptor abundance is an important mechanism involved in learning and memory formation. Results obtained with the Morris water maze (MWM), a paradigm for testing spatial memory in rodent, correlate with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA function. Different phases of spatial learning like acquisition and retrieval involve AMPA receptors...
October 6, 2016: Amino Acids
William G McCormack, John P Cooke, William T O'Connor, Philip M Jakeman
Nutrient stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is regulated by the change in extracellular essential amino acid (EAA) concentration. In vivo microdialysis (MD) is a minimally invasive sampling technique, capable of sampling solute in the interstitial space of a target tissue. In a contralateral limb design (REST vs. EX), this study utilised in vivo MD to examine the change in skeletal muscle dialysate amino acid concentration following ingestion of whey protein isolate (WPI) and flavoured water (CON)...
October 4, 2016: Amino Acids
G Feriotto, R Calza, C M Bergamini, M Griffin, Z Wang, S Beninati, V Ferretti, E Marzola, R Guerrini, A Pagnoni, A Cavazzini, F Casciano, C Mischiati
Gluten-induced aggregation of K562 cells represents an in vitro model reproducing the early steps occurring in the small bowel of celiac patients exposed to gliadin. Despite the clear involvement of TG2 in the activation of the antigen-presenting cells, it is not yet clear in which compartment it occurs. Herein we study the calcium-dependent aggregation of these cells, using either cell-permeable or cell-impermeable TG2 inhibitors. Gluten induces efficient aggregation when calcium is absent in the extracellular environment, while TG2 inhibitors do not restore the full aggregating potential of gluten in the presence of calcium...
October 3, 2016: Amino Acids
Alysha G Elliott, Bastian Franke, David A Armstrong, David J Craik, Joshua S Mylne, K Johan Rosengren
We recently isolated and described the evolutionary origin of a diverse class of small single-disulfide bonded peptides derived from Preproalbumin with SFTI-1 (PawS1) proteins in the seeds of flowering plants (Asteraceae). The founding member of the PawS derived peptide (PDP) family is the potent trypsin inhibitor SFTI-1 (sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1) from Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower. Here we provide additional structures and describe the structural diversity of this new class of small peptides, derived from solution NMR studies, in detail...
October 1, 2016: Amino Acids
Hui-Fei Zheng, Wen-Qiang Wang, Xin-Min Li, Gail Rauw, Glen B Baker
A review of studies on the body fluid levels of neuroactive amino acids, including glutamate, glutamine, taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, tryptophan, D-serine, and others, in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is given. The results reported in the literature are generally inconclusive and contradictory, but there has been considerable variation among the previous studies in terms of factors such as age, gender, number of subjects, intelligence quotient, and psychoactive medication being taken...
September 29, 2016: Amino Acids
Ryan M Clanton, Guoyao Wu, Gamal Akabani, Rodolfo Aramayo
Epilepsy is too complex to be considered as a disease; it is more of a syndrome, characterized by seizures, which can be caused by a diverse array of afflictions. As such, drug interventions that target a single biological pathway will only help the specific individuals where that drug's mechanism of action is relevant to their disorder. Most likely, this will not alleviate all forms of epilepsy nor the potential biological pathways causing the seizures, such as glucose/amino acid transport, mitochondrial dysfunction, or neuronal myelination...
September 28, 2016: Amino Acids
Yutaka Furutani, Mariko Toguchi, Rajan Shrestha, Soichi Kojima
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) localizes to the nucleus and induces apoptosis through a crosslinking inactivation of Sp1 in JHH-7 cells treated with acyclic retinoid. We screened an inhibitor suppressing transamidase activity in the nucleus without affecting transamidase activity itself. Phenosafranin was found to inhibit nuclear localization of EGFP-tagged TG2 and dose-dependently reduce nuclear transamidase activity without affecting the activity in a tube. We concluded that phenosafranin was a novel TG2 inhibitor capable of suppressing its nuclear localization...
September 24, 2016: Amino Acids
Navina L Chrobok, Claudia Sestito, Micha M M Wilhelmus, Benjamin Drukarch, Anne-Marie van Dam
Monocytes and macrophages are key players in inflammatory processes following an infection or tissue damage. Monocytes adhere and extravasate into the inflamed tissue, differentiate into macrophages, and produce inflammatory mediators to combat the pathogens. In addition, they take up dead cells and debris and, therefore, take part in the resolution of inflammation. The multifunctional enzyme tissue Transglutaminase (TG2, tTG) is known to participate in most of those monocyte- and macrophage-mediated processes...
September 22, 2016: Amino Acids
Babak Bakhshinejad, Hesam Motaleb Zade, Hosna Sadat Zahed Shekarabi, Sara Neman
Phage display is known as a powerful methodology for the identification of targeting ligands that specifically bind to a variety of targets. The high-throughput screening of phage display combinatorial peptide libraries is performed through the affinity selection method of biopanning. Although phage display selection has proven very successful in the discovery of numerous high-affinity target-binding peptides with potential application in drug discovery and delivery, the enrichment of false-positive target-unrelated peptides (TUPs) without any actual affinity towards the target remains a major problem of library screening...
September 20, 2016: Amino Acids
Yue Qiu, Qianwen Yu, Kairong Shi, Mengmeng Zhang, Xianyang Zhou, Yuting Yang, Yayuan Liu, Jiajing Tang, Xuhui Wang, Qin He
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are widely used in the development of various drug delivery systems because of their ability of penetrating plasma membrane. However, the safety of their application remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the incubation of two main kinds of CPPs with human normal liver cells could cause the occurrence of apoptosis and necrosis, then the detailed apoptosis-related protein were detected out. To discover the specific way which leads to these results, several methods were used in this study...
September 19, 2016: Amino Acids
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