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Amino Acids

F I Tade, W G Wiles, G Lu, B Bilir, O Akin-Akintayo, J S Lee, D Patil, W Yu, C Ormenisan Gherasim, B Fei, C S Moreno, A O Osunkoya, E J Teoh, S Oka, H Okudaira, M M Goodman, D M Schuster
We investigated if previously demonstrated inhibition of fluciclovine (18 F) in vitro could be replicated in a PC3-Luc xenograft mouse model. Following intratumoral injection of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB) or saline, fluciclovine PET tumor-to-background activity was 43.6 (± 5.4)% and 25.3 (± 5.2)% lower in BCH (n = 6) and MeAIB (n = 5) injected PC3 Luc xenografts, respectively, compared to saline-injected controls (n = 2)...
June 15, 2018: Amino Acids
Diogo Bassinello, Vitor de Salles Painelli, Eimear Dolan, Manoel Lixandrão, Monique Cajueiro, Mariana de Capitani, Bryan Saunders, Craig Sale, Guilherme G Artioli, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel
β-Alanine (BA) supplementation may be ergogenic during high-intensity exercise, primarily due to the buffering of hydrogen cations, although the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on strength endurance are equivocal. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle endurance using a battery of performance tests. This study employed a parallel group, repeated measures, randomised, double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Twenty recreationally strength-trained healthy males completed tests of isotonic strength endurance (repeated bench and leg press), along with tests of isometric and isokinetic endurance conducted using an isokinetic dynamometer...
June 15, 2018: Amino Acids
Reza Akbari, Mojdeh Hakemi Vala, Ali Hashemi, Hossein Aghazadeh, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
The emergence and dissemination of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are major challenges for antimicrobial chemotherapy of bacterial infections. In this critical condition, cationic antimicrobial peptides are 'novel' promising candidate antibiotics to overcome the issue. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism of new melittin-derived peptides (i.e., MDP1 and MDP2) against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MDP1 was designed with deletion of three amino acid residues, i...
June 15, 2018: Amino Acids
Cristiano Bolchi, Francesco Bavo, Luca Regazzoni, Marco Pallavicini
The simplest way to prepare the tosylate salts of amino acid benzyl esters, whose enantiomers are very important synthetic intermediates, is treatment of amino acid with benzyl alcohol and p-toluenesulfonic acid in a refluxing water-azeotroping solvent (Fischer-Speier esterification). However, to this day, the literature proposes only hazardous solvents, such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, which must be absolutely avoided, or solvents, such as toluene and benzyl alcohol, which cause racemization because of too high boiling water azeotropes...
June 6, 2018: Amino Acids
Catherine J McNeal, Cynthia J Meininger, Colin D Wilborn, Carmen D Tekwe, Guoyao Wu
Previous studies with animals and humans have shown beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) on reducing white fat and improving health. At present, a long-term safe level of Arg administration to adult humans is unknown. The objective of this study was to conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to evaluate the safety and tolerability of oral Arg in overweight or obese but otherwise healthy adults with a body mass index of ≥ 25 kg/m2 . A total of 142 subjects completed a 7-day wash-in period using a 12 g Arg/day dose...
June 1, 2018: Amino Acids
Ramin Ghodsi, Sorayya Kheirouri
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a cluster of heterogeneous molecules that are generated in a non-enzymatic reaction by the binding of sugars with amino groups of DNA, lipids and proteins. Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide with antioxidant activity, which inhibits protein carbonylation and glycoxidation. This systematic review searched international sources for all published and unpublished original research in English from any year up to the end of April 2018. An electronic search of PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar was conducted...
June 1, 2018: Amino Acids
Maia Blomhoff Holm, Oddrun Kristiansen, Ane Moe Holme, Nasser Ezzatkhah Bastani, Hildegunn Horne, Rune Blomhoff, Guttorm Haugen, Tore Henriksen, Trond Melbye Michelsen
Taurine is regarded as an essential amino acid in utero, and fetal taurine supply is believed to rely solely on placental transfer from maternal plasma. Despite its potential role in intrauterine growth restriction and other developmental disturbances, human in vivo studies of taurine transfer between the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments are scarce. We studied placental transfer of taurine in uncomplicated human term pregnancies in vivo in a cross-sectional study of 179 mother-fetus pairs. During cesarean section, we obtained placental tissue and plasma from incoming and outgoing vessels on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta...
June 1, 2018: Amino Acids
Arthur Goron, Christophe Moinard
Among a plethora of dietary supplements, amino acids are very popular with athletes for several reasons (e.g., to prevent nutritional deficiency, improve muscle function, and decrease muscle damages) whose purpose is to improve performance. However, it is difficult to get a clear idea of which amino acids have real ergogenic impact. Here, we review and analyze the clinical studies evaluating specific amino acids (glutamine, arginine, leucine, etc.) in athletes. Only english-language clinical studies evaluating a specific effect of one amino acid were considered...
May 31, 2018: Amino Acids
Yifeng Xu, Xu Qiang, Lijun Xing, Hong Wang, Juan Zhang, Fang Zhang, Bilgen Caliskan, Min Wang, Zheng Qiu
The present research has been carried out to elicit the mechanism of antiangiogenic activity of a fusion peptide P2. Peptide P2 was designed by the connection of a heptapeptide MMP inhibitor to ES-2, a fragment of Endostatin. In a previous study, P2 demonstrated strong antiangiogenic and antitumor effect, and the current work explains the antiangiogenic mechanism of P2 through endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. In our study, it was shown that P2 inhibited HUVECs proliferation at a low serum concentration and this effect might be achieved through arresting cell cycle by decreasing the expression level of Cyclin D1...
May 23, 2018: Amino Acids
Bing Cao, Dongfang Wang, Elisa Brietzke, Roger S McIntyre, Zihang Pan, Danielle Cha, Joshua D Rosenblat, Hannah Zuckerman, Yaqiong Liu, Qing Xie, Jingyu Wang
Amino acids and derivatives participate in the biosynthesis and downstream effects of numerous neurotransmitters. Variations in specific amino acids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Herein, we sought to compare levels of amino acids and derivatives between subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls (HC). Two hundred and eight subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria (DSM-IV)-defined schizophrenia and 175 age- and sex-matched HC were enrolled...
May 23, 2018: Amino Acids
Tingting Liu, Zhihua Wan, Songxu Peng, Yanni Wang, Hongyan Chen, Xiu Li, Yukai Du
Intrauterine infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been suggested to accounting for most cases of chronic HBV infection, which cannot be blocked by combined immunoprophylaxis. The fact that the genetic background might impact the susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV has been identified by recent researches. A case-control study included sixty-nine HBsAg-positive mother-newborn pairs with intrauterine infection as cases compared to 138 mother-newborn pairs without intrauterine infection as controls...
May 21, 2018: Amino Acids
Radoslav L Chayrov, Evgenios K Stylos, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Kiril N Chuchkov, Aleksandra I Tencheva, Androniki D Kostagianni, Tsenka S Milkova, Assia L Angelova, Angel S Galabov, Stoyan A Shishkov, Daniel G Todorov, Andreas G Tzakos, Ivanka G Stankova
Bile acid prodrugs have served as a viable strategy for refining the pharmaceutical profile of parent drugs through utilizing bile acid transporters. A series of three ester prodrugs of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir (ACV) with the bile acids cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic were synthesized and evaluated along with valacyclovir for their in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2). The in vitro antiviral activity of the three bile acid prodrugs was also evaluated against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)...
May 19, 2018: Amino Acids
Mark Waldron, Cameron Ralph, Owen Jeffries, Jamie Tallent, Nicola Theis, Stephen David Patterson
This study investigated the effects of leucine or leucine + glutamine supplementation on recovery from eccentric exercise. In a double-blind independent groups design, 23 men were randomly assigned to a leucine (0.087 g/kg; n = 8), leucine + glutamine (0.087 g/kg + glutamine 0.3 g/kg; n = 8) or placebo (0.3 g/kg maltodextrin; n = 7) group. Participants performed 5 sets of drop jumps, with each set comprising 20 repetitions. Isometric knee-extensor strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) height, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured at baseline, 1, 24, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
Meng-Jun Hu, Xiao-Xia Shao, Hao-Zheng Li, Wei-Han Nie, Jia-Hui Wang, Ya-Li Liu, Zeng-Guang Xu, Zhan-Yun Guo
Relaxin family peptides perform a variety of biological functions by binding and activating relaxin family peptide receptor 1-4 (RXFP1-4), four A-class G protein-coupled receptors. In the present work, we developed a novel ligand binding assay for RXFP3 and RXFP4 based on NanoLuc complementation technology (NanoBiT). A synthetic ligation version of the low-affinity small complementation tag (SmBiT) was efficiently ligated to the A-chain N terminus of recombinant chimeric agonist R3/I5 using recombinant circular sortase A...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
Ajda Coker-Gurkan, Merve Celik, Merve Ugur, Elif-Damla Arisan, Pinar Obakan-Yerlikaya, Zeynep Begum Durdu, Narcin Palavan-Unsal
Curcumin is assumed to be a plant-derived therapeutic drug that triggers apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo by affecting different molecular targets such as NF-κB. Phase I/II trial of curcumin alone or with chemotherapeutic drugs has been accomplished in pancreatic, colon, prostate and breast cancer cases. Recently, autocrine growth hormone (GH) signaling-induced cell growth, metastasis and drug resistance have been demonstrated in breast cancer. In this study, our aim was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of curcumin by evaluating the molecular machinery of curcumin-triggered apoptotic cell death via focusing on NF-κB signaling and polyamine (PA) metabolism in autocrine GH-expressing MCF-7, MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
Elaheh Jamasbi, Sasidharan S Lucky, Wenyi Li, Mohammed Akhter Hossain, Ponnampalam Gopalakrishnakone, Frances Separovic
Melittin is the peptide toxin found in bee venom and is effective against cancer cells. To enhance its activity, a branched dimeric form of melittin was designed. The monomeric form of the peptide was more cytotoxic against gastric cancer cells at low concentrations (1-5 μM) than the dimer form, while the cytotoxic effect was comparable at higher concentrations (10 μM). Confocal microscopy showed that both the monomer and dimer forms of melittin with fluorescent label at the C terminus penetrated the cytoplasm and localized at the cell nucleus and disrupted the cell membrane...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
Bin Gao, Julie Dalziel, Simone Tanzi, Shunyi Zhu
Besides key roles in prey capture and predator defense, scorpion venom also functions as internal immune agents protecting the venom gland from infection and external immune agents cleaning saprophytic microbes from their own body surfaces. However, antimicrobials (typically antimicrobial peptides, AMPs) in the venom often exist in low abundance that might exclude their immune role alone, leaving an open question with regard to their in vivo biological function. Here, we report the bactericidal activity of seven peptides isolated from the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus venom, including one classical α-helical AMP and five ion channel-targeted neurotoxins...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
Giovanni N Roviello
This article deals with the synthesis in solid phase and characterization of a nucleoamino amide, based on a phenylalaninamide moiety which was N-conjugated to a thymine nucleobase. In analogy to the natural nucleobase-amino acid conjugates, endowed with a wide range of biological properties, the nucleoamino amide interacts with single-stranded nucleic acids as verified in DNA- and RNA-binding assays conducted by CD and UV spectroscopies. These technologies were used to show also that this conjugate binds serum proteins altering significantly their secondary structure, as evidenced by CD and UV using BSA as a model...
May 15, 2018: Amino Acids
Małgorzata Sobocińska, Artur Giełdoń, Jakub Fichna, Elżbieta Kamysz
Enkephalins are involved in a number of physiological processes. However, these peptides are quickly degraded by peptidases, e.g. the neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Inhibition of the enzymatic degradation of enkephalins is one of the possible approaches to prolong their activity. Selective inhibitor of NEP, sialorphin, is the attractive lead compound for enkephalins degradation studies. In this work, an alanine scan of sialorphin and a series of its hybrids with opiorphin, synthesised by the solid phase method, were performed...
May 12, 2018: Amino Acids
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