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Amino Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718066/the-preventive-effects-of-taurine-on-neural-tube-defects-through-the-wnt-pcp-jnk-dependent-pathway
#1
Qinghua Zhang, Yang Liu, Hui Wang, Li Ma, Hechun Xia, Jianguo Niu, Tao Sun, Li Zhang
The aim of this study was to clarify the protective role of taurine in neuronal apoptosis and the role of the Wnt/PCP-Jnk pathway in mediating the preventive effects of taurine on neural tube defects (NTDs). HT-22 cells (a hippocampal neuron cell line) were divided into a control group, a glutamate-induced apoptosis group, and glutamate (4.0 mmol/L) plus low-dose taurine (L; 0.5 mmol/L) and high-dose taurine (H; 2.0 mmol/L) groups. The MTT assay was used to monitor cell proliferation and cell survival. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were used to determine caspase 9 expression...
July 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718065/structure-function-relationships-of-protein-lipopeptide-complexes-and-influence-on-immunogenicity
#2
Acep R Wijayadikusumah, Lucy C Sullivan, David C Jackson, Brendon Y Chua
The lipopeptide, R4Pam2Cys, associates electrostatically with soluble protein antigens and significantly enhances their ability to induce protective humoral and cell-mediated responses. We demonstrate that antibody titers elicited by the antigen ovalbumin (OVA) associated with R4Pam2Cys are higher than those elicited by OVA in the presence of alum and comparable to those elicited by OVA formulated with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The hierarchy of anti-OVA antibody avidities was CFA > R4Pam2Cys = alum...
July 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710553/metabolism-and-distribution-of-pharmacological-homoarginine-in-plasma-and-main-organs-of-the-anesthetized-rat
#3
Duygu Naile Günes, Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi, Erik Hanff, Joel Lundgren, Björn Redfors, Dimitrios Tsikas
L-Homoarginine (hArg) and guanidinoacetate (GAA) are produced from L-arginine (Arg) by the catalytic action of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase methylates GAA on its non-guanidine N atom to produce creatine. Arg and hArg are converted by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to nitric oxide (NO). NO is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate which circulate in the blood and are excreted in the urine. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an NOS inhibitor, is widely accepted to be exclusively produced after asymmetric N (G)-methylation of Arg residues in proteins and their regular proteolysis...
July 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710552/the-african-froghopper-ptyelus-flavescens-suborder-cicadomorpha-contains-two-novel-and-one-known-peptides-of-the-adipokinetic-hormone%C3%A2-akh-family-structure-function-and-comparison-with-aphid-akh-suborder-sternorrhyncha
#4
Gerd Gäde, Petr Šimek, Heather G Marco
The rationale of "green pesticides" in food security is to use information about endogenous hormones of pest insects to make peptide mimetics that will act against the pest insects to alter their behaviour or physiology, while taking care not to harm beneficial insects or other organisms in the food chain. Such "green" insecticides are designed thus, on the basis of neuropeptide ligand-receptor interaction and it is of paramount interest to have finally a mimetic at hand that is harmful only to pest insects...
July 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710551/advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-and-cardiovascular-dysfunction-focus-on-high-molecular-weight-ages
#5
REVIEW
Dorien Deluyker, Lize Evens, Virginie Bito
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a group of proteins and lipids becoming glycated and oxidized after persistent contact with reducing sugars or short-chain aldehydes with amino group and/or high degree of oxidative stress. The accumulation of AGEs in the body is a natural process that occurs with senescence, when the turnover rate of proteins is reduced. However, increased circulating AGEs have been described to arise at early lifetime and are associated with adverse outcome and survival, in particular in settings of cardiovascular diseases...
July 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702701/neighbor-effect-and-local-conformation-in-protein-structures
#6
Mahin Ghadimi, Khosrow Khalifeh, Emran Heshmati
In order to determine the preference or avoidance of the first and second positions of individual dipeptides for adopting different structural conformations, we randomly select defined structural groups of proteins from protein data bank and statistically analyzed the distribution of all 400 possible dipeptides in different secondary structural elements. Considering different combinations of α-helix (α), β strand (β) and coil (c) including αα, αβ, αc, ββ, βα, βc, cc, cα, cβ conformations, we found that some dipeptides are randomly distributed in these conformations, while others have non-random distribution for a given conformation...
July 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681245/an-overview-on-d-amino-acids
#7
REVIEW
Giuseppe Genchi
More than half a century ago researchers thought that D-amino acids had a minor function compared to L-enantiomers in biological processes. Many evidences have shown that D-amino acids are present in high concentration in microorganisms, plants, mammals and humans and fulfil specific biological functions. In the brain of mammals, D-serine (D-Ser) acts as a co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, responsible for learning, memory and behaviour. D-Ser metabolism is relevant for disorders associated with an altered function of the NMDA receptor, such as schizophrenia, ischemia, epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders...
July 5, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674862/recent-approaches-for-asymmetric-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-amino-acids-via-homologation-of-ni-ii-complexes
#8
REVIEW
Yibing Wang, Xiaohan Song, Jiang Wang, Hiroki Moriwaki, Vadim A Soloshonok, Hong Liu
This review article critically discusses examples of asymmetric synthesis of tailor-made α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine and alanine Schiff bases, reported in the literature from 2013 through the end of 2016. Where it is possible, reaction mechanism and origin of the stereochemical outcome is discussed in detail. Special attention is given to various aspects of practicality and scalability of the reported methods. Among the most noticeable developments in this area are novel designs of axially chiral ligands, application of electro- and mechano-chemical (ball-milling) conditions, and development of dynamic kinetic resolution procedures...
July 3, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664270/curcin-c-a-novel-type-i-ribosome-inactivating-protein-from-the-post-germinating-cotyledons-of-jatropha-curcas
#9
Yangxue Zhang, Qian Yang, Chenyang Li, Mengmeng Ding, Xueyan Lv, Chengqiu Tao, Hongwu Yu, Fang Chen, Ying Xu
A novel type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), designated as curcin C, was purified from Jatropha curcas, an important feedback source of bio-fuel. Molecular mass and isoelectric point of curcin C were 31.398 kDa and 7.12 as detected by MALTI-TOF assay and capillary electrophoresis assay, respectively. N-terminal sequence and LC-MS/MS analyses confirmed that curcin C is a type I RIP having high homology, but not the exactly the same with curcin, another type 1 RIP isolated from the endosperm of J. curcas...
June 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664269/pro-apoptotic-cationic-host-defense-peptides-rich-in-lysine-or-arginine-to-reverse-drug-resistance-by-disrupting-tumor-cell-membrane
#10
Yuxuan Dai, Xingguang Cai, Wei Shi, Xinzhou Bi, Xin Su, Miaobo Pan, Huilan Li, Haiyan Lin, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
Host defense peptides have been demonstrated to exhibit prominent advantages in cancer therapy with selective binding ability toward tumor cells via electrostatic attractions, which can overcome the limitations of traditional chemotherapy drugs, such as toxicity on non-malignant cells and the emergence of drug resistance. In this work, we redesigned and constructed a series of cationic peptides by inserting hydrophobic residues into hydrophilic surface or replacing lysine (K) with arginine (R), based on the experience from the preliminary work of host defense peptide B1...
June 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664268/biased-selection-of-propagation-related-tups-from-phage-display-peptide-libraries
#11
REVIEW
Hesam Motaleb Zade, Reihaneh Keshavarz, Hosna Sadat Zahed Shekarabi, Babak Bakhshinejad
Phage display is rapidly advancing as a screening strategy in drug discovery and drug delivery. Phage-encoded combinatorial peptide libraries can be screened through the affinity selection procedure of biopanning to find pharmaceutically relevant cell-specific ligands. However, the unwanted enrichment of target-unrelated peptides (TUPs) with no true affinity for the target presents an important barrier to the successful screening of phage display libraries. Propagation-related TUPs (Pr-TUPs) are an emerging but less-studied category of phage display-derived false-positive hits that are displayed on the surface of clones with faster propagation rates...
June 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664267/transdermally-administered-proline-arginine-rich-host-defense-peptides-show-systemic-efficacy-in-a-lethal-mouse-bacteremia-model
#12
Eszter Ostorhazi, Andrea Horvath, Dora Szabo, Laszlo Otvos
Host defense peptides are preferably administered as topical therapeutic agents. We have investigated whether peptide A3-APO can enter the circulation when applied to the ear skin. Efficacy of peptide monotherapy as transdermal administration option was assessed in a systemic mouse Acinetobacter baumannii model. A3-APO reduced mortality and demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of blood bacterial counts, regardless whether it was administered prior or after bacterial challenge. The peptidic metabolite of A3-APO was efficacious when applied to the ear or tail...
June 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631012/rapid-preparation-of-bioluminescent-tracers-for-relaxin-family-peptides-using-sortase-catalysed-ligation
#13
Jia-Hui Wang, Xiao-Xia Shao, Meng-Jun Hu, Dian Wei, Wei-Han Nie, Ya-Li Liu, Zeng-Guang Xu, Zhan-Yun Guo
Relaxin family is a group of peptide hormones with a variety of biological functions by activating G protein-coupled receptors RXFP1-4. We recently developed bioluminescent tracers for their receptor-binding assays by chemical conjugation with the ultrasensitive NanoLuc reporter. To simplify preparation of the bioluminescent tracers, in the present study, we established a sortase-catalysed ligation approach using the chimeric R3/I5 as a model. Following catalysis by recombinant sortase A, a NanoLuc reporter carrying the LPETG sortase recognition motif at the C-terminus was efficiently ligated to an R3/I5 peptide carrying four successive Gly residues at the A-chain N-terminus, via the formation of a peptide bond between the C-terminal LPET sequence of NanoLuc and the A-chain N-terminal Gly residue of R3/I5...
June 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631011/isoprenyl-carboxyl-methyltransferase-inhibitors-a-brief-review-including-recent-patents
#14
REVIEW
Woo Seok Yang, Seung-Gu Yeo, Sungjae Yang, Kyung-Hee Kim, Byong Chul Yoo, Jae Youl Cho
Among the enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of Ras, isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) has been explored by a number of researchers as a significant enzyme controlling the activation of Ras. Indeed, inhibition of ICMT exhibited promising anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. This paper reviews patents and research articles published between 2009 and 2016 that reported inhibitors of ICMT as potential chemotherapeutic agents targeting Ras-induced growth factor signaling...
June 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624907/dityrosine-administration-induces-dysfunction-of-insulin-secretion-accompanied-by-diminished-thyroid-hormones-t3-function-in-pancreas-of-mice
#15
Yin-Yi Ding, Zhu-Qing Li, Xiang-Rong Cheng, Yu-Mei Ran, Sha-Ji Wu, Yonghui Shi, Guowei Le
Oxidized tyrosine products are commonly found in food with high protein content and have been demonstrated to cause damage of liver and kidney in our previous studies. Dityrosine (Dityr) is a typical oxidized tyrosine product. Due to its structural homology with thyroid hormones T3, we assumed that one of the endocrine systems most likely considered in connection with its disruption by Dityr may be the T3 action. T3 plays important roles in insulin synthesis, and thyroid hormone resistance (RTH) is associated with the impairment of glucose metabolism...
June 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623466/increases-in-circulating-amino-acids-with-in-feed-antibiotics-correlated-with-gene-expression-of-intestinal-amino-acid-transporters-in-piglets
#16
Miao Yu, Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Chuanjian Zhang, Yong Su, Zan Huang, Kaifan Yu, Weiyun Zhu
In-feed antibiotics have been commonly used to promote the growth performance of piglets. The antibiotics can increase protein utilization, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of in-feed antibiotics on intestinal AA transporters and receptors to test the hypothesis that the alteration of circulating AA profiles may be concomitant with the change of intestinal AA transporters and receptors. Sixteen litters of piglets at day 7 started to receive creep feed with (Antibiotic) or without (Control) antibiotic...
June 16, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620737/analysis-of-bmaa-enantiomers-in-cycads-cyanobacteria-and-mammals-in-vivo-formation-and-toxicity-of-d-bmaa
#17
J S Metcalf, Doug Lobner, Sandra Anne Banack, Gregory A Cox, Peter B Nunn, Peter B Wyatt, Paul Alan Cox
Chronic dietary exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) triggers neuropathology in non-human primates, providing support for the theory that BMAA causes a fatal neurodegenerative illness among the indigenous Chamorro people of Guam. However, since there are two stereoisomers of BMAA, it is important to know if both can occur in nature, and if so, what role they might play in disease causation. As a first step, we analysed both BMAA enantiomers in cyanobacteria, cycads, and in mammals orally dosed with L-BMAA, to determine if enantiomeric changes could occur in vivo...
June 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616751/roles-of-amino-acids-in-preventing-and-treating-intestinal-diseases-recent-studies-with-pig-models
#18
REVIEW
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulong Yin, Yinsheng Qiu, Guoyao Wu, Chien-An Andy Hu
Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering...
June 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603803/controlled-release-of-bsa-linked-cisplatin-through-a-pepgel-self-assembling-peptide-nanofiber-hydrogel-scaffold
#19
Jun Liang, Gang Liu, Jing Wang, Xiuzhi Susan Sun
Previously, it has been reported that a novel PepGel (h9e peptide) can be triggered into a solid physical hydrogel by the addition of selected ions and proteins for various biomedical applications. Moreover, PepGel displays shear-thinning and repeatedly reversible sol-gel transfer properties that enable it to be easily transferred via an injector. In this study, PepGel is proposed as a carrier for controlled releases of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-bound or -linked drugs. BSA-linked cisplatin (BSA-CP) is used as a model drug in this study and plays two roles: as a trigger of hydrogel and as a target drug for controlled release...
June 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593346/the-first-identified-cathelicidin-from-tree-frogs-possesses-anti-inflammatory-and-partial-lps-neutralization-activities
#20
Lixian Mu, Lei Zhou, Juanjuan Yang, Li Zhuang, Jing Tang, Tong Liu, Jing Wu, Hailong Yang
As of February 2017, approximately 7639 amphibian species have been described in the AmphibiaWeb database. However, only 20 cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptides have been identified to date from 10 amphibian species. Half of these peptides were identified from genome sequences and have not yet been functionally characterized. In this study, a novel cathelicidin-like peptide designated cathelicidin-PP was purified from the skin of tree frog Polypedates puerensis. Cathelicidin-PP is a 32 residue peptide of sequence ASENGKCNLLCLVKKKLRAVGNVIKTVVGKIA...
June 7, 2017: Amino Acids
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