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Amino Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324173/effect-of-oaz1-overexpression-on-goose-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#1
Bo Kang, Dongmei Jiang, Hui He, Rong Ma, Ziyu Chen, Zhixin Yi
Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1) regulates both polyamine biosynthesis and transport and acts as a tumor suppressor because of its functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and growth. However, the roles of OAZ1 in the regulation of polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone receptor expression in granulosa cells (GCs) from geese have not been determined. To define the roles of OAZ1 in primary GCs, we constructed and transfected an Oaz1 overexpression vector with a thymidine deletion into primary GCs...
March 21, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324172/enzymes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-in-humans
#2
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Laura López-Maside, Cristóbal Donapetry-García, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Cristina Sixto-Leal
Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids...
March 21, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316028/improved-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glioblastoma-cancer-using-novel-68-ga-labeled-peptides-targeting-the-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-upar
#3
Mathias Dyrberg Loft, Yao Sun, Changhao Liu, Camilla Christensen, Daijuan Huang, Andreas Kjaer, Zhen Cheng
The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in several cancers including glioblastoma (GBM) and is an established biomarker for metastatic potential. The uPAR-targeting peptide AE105-NH2 (Ac-Asp-Cha-Phe-(D)Ser-(D)Arg-Tyr-Leu-Trp-Ser-CONH2) is a promising candidate for non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of uPAR. Despite the optimal physical properties of (68)Ga for peptide-based PET imaging, low tumor uptakes have previously been reported using (68)Ga-labeled AE105-NH2-based tracers...
March 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316027/validation-of-dopamine-receptor-drd1-and-drd2-antibodies-using-receptor-deficient-mice
#4
Tamara Stojanovic, Michaela Orlova, Fernando J Sialana, Harald Höger, Stanislav Stuchlik, Ivan Milenkovic, Jana Aradska, Gert Lubec
Dopamine receptors 1 and 2 (DRD1, DRD2) are essential for signaling in the brain for a multitude of brain functions. Previous work using several antibodies against these receptors is abundant but only the minority of antibodies used have been validated and, therefore, the results of these studies remain uncertain. Herein, antibodies against DRD1 (Merck Millipore AB1765P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-14001, Sigma Aldrich D2944, Alomone Labs ADR-001) and DRD2 (Abcam ab21218, Merck Millipore AB5084P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-5303) have been tested using western blotting and immunohistochemistry on mouse striatum (wild type and corresponding knock-out mice) and when specific, they were further evaluated on rat and human striatum...
March 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316026/zebrafish-as-a-model-to-evaluate-peptide-related-cancer-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Austin Y Shull, Chien-An A Hu, Yong Teng
Peptide-derived drug discovery has experienced a remarkable resurgence in the past decade since the failure of small-molecule modulators to effectively access the large binding surfaces of intracellular protein-protein interactions as well as "undruggable" residues of certain disease-driving proteins. However, the effectiveness of peptide-based cancer therapies is being questioned in light of declines in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency. As a model of whole organism, zebrafish provide a means to develop promising peptide and protein anticancer agents in an informative, cost-effective and time-efficient manner, which also allows for surveying mechanisms of drug action and optimization of drug delivery system...
March 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314994/amino-acids-intake-and-physical-fitness-among-adolescents
#6
Luis Gracia-Marco, Silvia Bel-Serrat, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, Yannis Manios, Ascensión Marcos, Denes Molnar, Kurt Widhalm, Angela Polito, Jeremy Vanhelst, Maria Hagströmer, Michael Sjöström, Anthony Kafatos, Stefaan de Henauw, Ángel Gutierrez, Manuel J Castillo, Luis A Moreno
The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test...
March 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314993/comparative-analysis-of-internalisation-haemolytic-cytotoxic-and-antibacterial-effect-of-membrane-active-cationic-peptides-aspects-of-experimental-setup
#7
Kata Horváti, Bernadett Bacsa, Tamás Mlinkó, Nóra Szabó, Ferenc Hudecz, Ferenc Zsila, Szilvia Bősze
Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised...
March 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299479/l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-protect-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection-via-intestinal-innate-immunity-in-mice
#8
Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Jun Fang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guiping Guan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jie Yin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Shuai Chen, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299478/differential-distribution-of-amino-acids-in-plants
#9
REVIEW
Vinod Kumar, Anket Sharma, Ravdeep Kaur, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285332/the-role-of-l-arginine-l-homoarginine-nitric-oxide-pathway-for-aortic-distensibility-and-intima-media-thickness-in-stroke-patients
#10
Arash Haghikia, Georgi Radoslavov Yanchev, Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi, Erik Hanff, Nils Bledau, Christian Widera, Kristina Sonnenschein, Aiden Haghikia, Karin Weissenborn, Johann Bauersachs, Udo Bavendiek, Dimitrios Tsikas
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and L-homoarginine (hArg) are L-arginine (Arg) metabolites derived from different pathways. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) and subsequent proteolysis of proteins containing methylarginine residues release ADMA. Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) converts Arg to hArg and guanidinoacetate (GAA). While high concentrations of ADMA and low concentrations of hArg in the blood have been established as cardiovascular risk markers, the cardiovascular relevance of GAA is still unexplored...
March 11, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283909/map-kinase-p38-is-a-novel-target-of-cacybp-sip-phosphatase
#11
Agnieszka M Topolska-Woś, Sara Rosińska, Anna Filipek
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important players in cellular signaling pathways. Recently, it has been shown that CacyBP/SIP serves as a phosphatase for one of the MAP kinases, ERK1/2. Through dephosphorylation of this kinase CacyBP/SIP modulates the transcriptional activity of Elk-1 and the activity of the CREB-BDNF pathway. In this work, using NB2a cell lysate and recombinant proteins, we show that CacyBP/SIP binds and dephosphorylates another member of the MAP kinase family, p38. Analysis of recombinant full-length CacyBP/SIP and its three major domains, N-terminal, middle CS and C-terminal SGS, indicates that the middle CS domain is responsible for p38 dephosphorylation...
March 10, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283908/phototriggered-release-of-tetrapeptide-aapv-from-coumarinyl-and-pyrenyl-cages
#12
Filipa C Santos, Ana M S Soares, M Sameiro T Gonçalves, Susana P G Costa
Ala-Ala-Pro-Val (AAPV) is a bioactive tetrapeptide that inhibits human neutrophil elastase, an enzyme involved in skin chronic inflammatory diseases like psoriasis. Caged derivatives of this peptide were prepared by proper N- and C-terminal derivatisation through a carbamate or ester linkage, respectively, with two photoactive moieties, namely 7-methoxycoumarin-2-ylmethyl and pyren-2-ylmethyl groups. These groups were chosen to assess the influence of the photosensitive group and the type of linkage in the controlled photo release of the active molecule...
March 10, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283907/nanoparticles-generated-from-a-tryptophan-derivative-physical-characterization-and-anti-cancer-drug-delivery
#13
Taru Dube, Saurabh Mandal, Jiban Jyoti Panda
Surging reports of peptide-based nanosystems and their growing potency in terms of biological utility demand for the search of newer and simpler peptide-based systems that could serve as smart templates for the development of self-assembled nanostructures. Use of simple amino acids as monomeric building blocks for synthesizing ensembles of nanostructures have gained momentum in this direction with some reports focusing on the development of nanosystems from single or modified single amino acids. In this work, we have demonstrated self-assembly and nanoparticle formation ability of a single amino acid derivative, N-alpha-(9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl)-N(in)-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-tryptophan [Fmoc-Trp(Boc)-OH]...
March 10, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283906/dual-effect-of-chloramphenicol-peptides-on-ribosome-inhibition
#14
Anthony Bougas, Ioannis A Vlachogiannis, Dimitrios Gatos, Stefan Arenz, George P Dinos
Chloramphenicol peptides were recently established as useful tools for probing nascent polypeptide chain interaction with the ribosome, either biochemically, or structurally. Here, we present a new 10mer chloramphenicol peptide, which exerts a dual inhibition effect on the ribosome function affecting two distinct areas of the ribosome, namely the peptidyl transferase center and the polypeptide exit tunnel. According to our data, the chloramphenicol peptide bound on the chloramphenicol binding site inhibits the formation of both acetyl-phenylalanine-puromycin and acetyl-lysine-puromycin, showing, however, a decreased peptidyl transferase inhibition compared to chloramphenicol-mediated inhibition per se...
March 10, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271166/n-acetylcysteine-improves-intestinal-function-in-lipopolysaccharides-challenged-piglets-through-multiple-signaling-pathways
#15
Dan Yi, Yongqing Hou, Hang Xiao, Lei Wang, Yue Zhang, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Binying Ding, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guoyao Wu
This study determined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could improve intestinal function through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in a piglet model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two piglets (24-day-old) were randomly allocated to one of four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment and one piglet per replicate...
March 7, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260165/l-arginine-promotes-protein-synthesis-and-cell-growth-in-brown-adipocyte-precursor-cells-via-the-mtor-signal-pathway
#16
Xi Ma, Meng Han, Defa Li, Shengdi Hu, Kyler R Gilbreath, Fuller W Bazer, Guoyao Wu
L-Arginine has been reported to enhance brown adipose tissue developments in fetal lambs of obese ewes, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that L-arginine stimulates growth and development of brown adipocyte precursor cells (BAPCs) through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin cell signaling. BAPCs isolated from fetal lambs at day 90 of gestation were incubated   for 6 h in arginine-free DMEM, and then cultured in DMEM with concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 500 or 1000 μmol L-arginine/L for 24-96 h...
March 4, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258325/n-acetylcysteine-supplementation-alleviates-intestinal-injury-in-piglets-infected-by-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#17
Lei Wang, Jia Zhou, Yongqing Hou, Dan Yi, Binying Ding, Jiaqian Xie, Yue Zhang, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Di Zhao, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guoyao Wu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects the intestine of young pigs, but effective measures for prevention and treatment are lacking. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to reduce endotoxin-induced intestinal dysfunction. This study was conducted with the PEDV-infected neonatal piglet model to determine the effect of NAC supplementation on intestinal function. Thirty-two 7-day-old piglets were randomly allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design consisting of two liquid diets (0 or 50 mg/kg BW NAC supplementation) and oral administration of 0 or 10(4...
March 3, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258324/one-step-preparation-of-enantiopure-l-or-d-amino-acid-benzyl-esters-avoiding-the-use-of-banned-solvents
#18
Cristiano Bolchi, Francesco Bavo, Marco Pallavicini
The enantiomers of amino acid benzyl esters are very important synthetic intermediates. Many of them are currently prepared by treatment with benzyl alcohol and p-toluenesulfonic acid in refluxing benzene or carbon tetrachloride, to azeotropically remove water, and then precipitated as tosylate salt by adding diethyl ether. Here, we report a very efficient preparation of eight L- or D-amino acid benzyl esters (Ala, Phe, Tyr, Phg, Val, Leu, Lys, Ser), in which these highly hazardous solvents are dismissed using cyclohexane as a water azeotroping solvent and ethyl acetate to precipitate the tosylate salt...
March 3, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251354/fascin-phosphorylation-sites-combine-to-regulate-esophageal-squamous-cancer-cell-behavior
#19
Fa-Min Zeng, Xiao-Ning Wang, Hong-Shun Shi, Jian-Jun Xie, Ze-Peng Du, Lian-Di Liao, Ping-Juan Nie, Li-Yan Xu, En-Min Li
Filopodia are dynamic membrane extensions generated by F-actin bundling and are involved in cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Fascin is the crucial actin-bundling protein in filopodia, with phosphorylation at fascin serine 39 being well characterized to regulate fascin-mediated actin bundling in filopodia. However, increasing evidence indicates that fascin is phosphorylated at a number of sites. Whether phosphorylation at other sites also regulates fascin function is unknown. In this study, we show that four potential phosphorylation sites in fascin, specifically tyrosine 23, serine 38, serine 39 and serine 274, regulate cell behavior and filopodia formation in esophageal squamous cancer cells...
March 1, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236246/rgd-and-ngr-modified-trail-protein-exhibited-potent-anti-metastasis-effects-on-trail-insensitive-cancer-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Xiaofei Wang, Xinran Qiao, Yue Shang, Shenghua Zhang, Yi Li, Hongwei He, Shu-Zhen Chen
The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been considered to be a promising anti-tumor agent since the discovery of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis specifically on cancer cells. However, TRAIL resistance of tumor cells and patients remains to be an insurmountable obstacle for its clinical application. Here, we expressed TRAIL-related recombinant protein RGD-TRAIL, TRAIL-NGR, and RGD-TRAIL-NGR by fusing tumor targeting peptides RGD and (or) NGR at the N-terminus and C-terminus, respectively, to not only induce apoptosis of cancer cells but also inhibit metastasis...
February 24, 2017: Amino Acids
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