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Amino Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644438/comparative-phosphoproteomic-analysis-reveals-differentially-phosphorylated-proteins-regulate-anther-and-pollen-development-in-kenaf-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-line
#1
Peng Chen, Ru Li, Ruiyang Zhou
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used in plant breeding and represents a perfect model to understand cyto-nuclear interactions and pollen development research. Protein phosphorylation is ubiquitous and is involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes. To reveal the possible mechanism of CMS and pollen development in kenaf, we performed an iTRAQ-based comparative phosphoproteome analysis in the anthers of a CMS line and wild-type plant (Wt). Whole transcriptome unigenes of kenaf as the reference genome, we identified a total of 3045 phosphorylated sites on 1640 peptides corresponding to 974 unique proteins...
April 11, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627904/site-specific-derivatization-of-human-interferon-%C3%AE-1a-at-lysine-residues-using-microbial-transglutaminase
#2
Barbara Spolaore, Giacomo Forzato, Angelo Fontana
Microbial transglutaminase (TGase) has been successfully used to produce site-specific protein conjugates derivatized at the level of glutamine (Gln) or lysine (Lys) residues with diverse applications. Here, we study the drug human interferon β-1a (IFN) as a substrate of TGase. The derivatization reaction was performed using carbobenzoxy-L-glutaminyl-glycine to modify Lys residues and dansylcadaverine for Gln residues. The 166 amino acids polypeptide chain of IFN β-1a contains 11 Lys and 11 Gln residues potential sites of TGase derivatization...
April 7, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626301/nucleoprotein-from-the-unique-human-infecting-orthobunyavirus-of-simbu-serogroup-oropouche-virus-forms-higher-order-oligomers-in-complex-with-nucleic-acids-in-vitro
#3
Juliana Londoño Murillo, Aline Diniz Cabral, Mabel Uehara, Viviam Moura da Silva, Juliete Vitorino Dos Santos, João Renato Carvalho Muniz, Leandro Farias Estrozi, Daphna Fenel, Wanius Garcia, Márcia Aparecida Sperança
Oropouche virus (OROV) is the unique known human pathogen belonging to serogroup Simbu of Orthobunyavirus genus and Bunyaviridae family. OROV is transmitted by wild mosquitoes species to sloths, rodents, monkeys and birds in sylvatic environment, and by midges (Culicoides paraensis and Culex quinquefasciatus) to man causing explosive outbreaks in urban locations. OROV infection causes dengue fever-like symptoms and in few cases, can cause clinical symptoms of aseptic meningitis. OROV contains a tripartite negative RNA genome encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein (NP), which is essential for viral genome encapsidation, transcription and replication...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626300/taurine-prevents-ethanol-induced-apoptosis-mediated-by-mitochondrial-or-death-receptor-pathways-in-liver-cells
#4
Gaofeng Wu, Jiancheng Yang, Hao Lv, Wenying Jing, Jiaqi Zhou, Ying Feng, Shumei Lin, Qunhui Yang, Jianmin Hu
One pathogenic mechanism of ethanol-induced liver injury is the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may result in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) characterized by cell death due to necrosis and apoptosis. Taurine was proved to protect against liver damage. However, whether taurine attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic apoptosis remains unknown. The present study aims to elucidate this effect and its underlying mechanism. Taurine was administered to ALD rats and an in vitro experiment in which taurine was added to primary rat hepatocytes cultured with ethanol was conducted...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626299/short-chain-consensus-alpha-neurotoxin-a-synthetic-60-mer-peptide-with-generic-traits-and-enhanced-immunogenic-properties
#5
Guillermo de la Rosa, Ligia L Corrales-García, Ximena Rodriguez-Ruiz, Estuardo López-Vera, Gerardo Corzo
The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626298/l-cysteine-in-vitro-can-restore-cellular-glutathione-and-inhibits-the-expression-of-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-g6pd-deficient-monocytes
#6
Rajesh Parsanathan, Sushil K Jain
L-Cysteine is a precursor of glutathione (GSH), a potent physiological antioxidant. Excess glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in African Americans and low levels of L-cysteine diet in Hispanics can contributes to GSH deficiency and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion was considered to be an initial event in the progression of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, no previous study has investigated the contribution of GSH/G6PD deficiency to the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572574/polymorphism-at-donkey-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-ii-locus-identification-and-characterization-of-a-new-genetic-variant-with-a-very-low-expression
#7
Andrea Criscione, Vincenzo Cunsolo, Serena Tumino, Antonella Di Francesco, Salvatore Bordonaro, Vera Muccilli, Rosaria Saletti, Donata Marletta
In the last years, donkey milk had evidenced a renewed interest as a potential functional food and a breast milk substitute. In this light, the study of the protein composition assumes an important role. In particular, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), which is considered as one of the main allergenic milk protein, in donkey species consists of two molecular forms, namely β-LG I and β-LG II. In the present research, a genetic analysis coupled with a proteomic approach showed the presence of a new allele, here named F, which is apparently associated with a null or a severely reduced expression of β-LG II protein...
March 23, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556780/taurine-supplementation-induces-long-term-beneficial-effects-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-ob-ob-mice
#8
Patricia Cristine Borck, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Renato Chaves Souto Branco, Thiago Martins Batista, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Vanessa Yumi Nakanishi, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
The sulfur-containing amino acid, taurine (Tau), regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis under normal, pre- and diabetic conditions. Here, we aimed to verify whether Tau supplementation exerts its beneficial effects against obesity, hyperglycemia and alterations in islet functions, in leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob), over a long period of treatment. From weaning until 12 months of age, female ob/ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (obTau group). After this period, a reduction in hypertriglyceridemia and an improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were observed in obTau mice...
March 19, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549523/the-effects-of-taurine-on-repeat-sprint-cycling-after-low-or-high-cadence-exhaustive-exercise-in-females
#9
Mark Waldron, Francesca Knight, Jamie Tallent, Stephen Patterson, Owen Jeffries
This study investigated the effects of taurine on repeated sprint exercise, performed after fixed incremental ramp exercise to exhaustion at isokinetic high (90 r/min) or low (50 r/min) cadences. In a double-blind, repeated measures design, nine females completed an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion, followed by 2 min active recovery and 6 × 10 s sprints on a cycle ergometer, in one of four conditions: high cadence (90 r/min) + taurine (50 mg/kg body mass); high cadence + placebo (3 mg/kg body mass maltodextrin); low cadence (50 r/min) + taurine; low cadence + placebo...
March 17, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549522/insulinotropic-glucose-lowering-and-beta-cell-anti-apoptotic-actions-of-peptides-related-to-esculentin-1a-1-21-nh-2
#10
Vishal Musale, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Long-standing Type 2 diabetes is associated with loss of both β-cell function and β-cell mass. Peptides derived from the frog-skin host-defense peptide esculentin-1 have been shown to exhibit potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study is to determine whether such peptides also show insulinotropic and β-cell protective activities. Esculentin-1a(1-21).NH2 , esculentin-1b(1-18).NH2 , and esculentin-1a(1-14).NH2 produced concentration-dependent stimulations of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells, 1...
March 17, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536267/leucine-pd-loaded-5-5-single-walled-carbon-nanotube-matrix-as-a-novel-nanobiosensors-for-in-silico-detection-of-protein
#11
Mehdi Yoosefian, Nazanin Etminan
We have designed a novel nanobiosensor for in silico detecting proteins based on leucine/Pd-loaded single-walled carbon nanotube matrix. Density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d) level of theory was realized to analyze the geometrical and electronic structure of the proposed nanobiosensor. The solvent effects were investigated using the Tomasi's polarized continuum model. Atoms-in-molecules theory was used to study the nature of interactions by calculating the electron density ρ(r) and Laplacian at the bond critical points...
March 14, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527634/novel-alanines-bearing-a-heteroaromatic-side-chain-synthesis-and-studies-on-fluorescent-chemosensing-of-metal-cations-with-biological-relevance
#12
Rosa Cristina M Ferreira, Maria Manuela M Raposo, Susana P G Costa
A family of novel thienylbenzoxazol-5-yl-L-alanines, consisting of an alanine core bearing a benzoxazole at the side chain with a thiophene ring at position 2, substituted with different (hetero)aryl substituents, was synthesised to study the tuning of the photophysical and chemosensory properties of the resulting compounds. These novel heterocyclic alanines 3a-f and a series of structurally related bis-thienylbenzoxazolyl-alanines 3g-j were evaluated for the first time in the recognition of selected metal cations with environmental, medicinal and analytical interest such as Co2+ , Cu2+ , Zn2+ and Ni2+ , in acetonitrile solution, with the heterocycles at the side chain acting simultaneously as the coordinating and reporting units, via fluorescence changes...
March 12, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523960/taurine-is-an-amino-acid-with-the-ability-to-activate-autophagy-in-adipocytes
#13
Hiroki Kaneko, Masaki Kobayashi, Yuhei Mizunoe, Maho Yoshida, Hiromine Yasukawa, Shunsuke Hoshino, Rei Itagawa, Takuma Furuichi, Naoyuki Okita, Yuka Sudo, Masato Imae, Yoshikazu Higami
Alterations in adipocyte characteristics are highly implicated in the pathology of obesity. In a recent article, we demonstrated that high-fat diet-induced obesity impairs lysosomal function, thereby suppressing autophagy in mice white adipose tissue. Taurine, an amino acid naturally contained in the normal diet and existing ubiquitously in tissues, has been reported to improve insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in animal models, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. From these findings, we hypothesized that improvement of obese pathology by taurine may be mediated through recovery of autophagy...
March 9, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508062/analysis-of-fumarate-sensitive-proteins-and-sites-by-exploiting-residue-interaction-networks
#14
Gianluca Miglio
Fumarate adduction to cysteines has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders. Its role, however, still remains elusive, and the need of predictive methods has not yet been met. The reactivity of cysteines found in fumarate-sensitive proteins was predicted when the collected data for eight network-type features were analyzed using classification models. Therefore, methods for evaluating the likelihood of a cysteine site to be modified by fumarate could be developed by combining concepts of network theory and machine learning...
March 5, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508061/new-aspects-of-antiproliferative-activity-of-4-hydroxybenzyl-isothiocyanate-a-natural-h-2-s-donor
#15
Halina Jurkowska, Maria Wróbel, Dominika Szlęzak, Ewa Jasek-Gajda
The effect of 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (HBITC), a natural H2 S-donor from white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba), on the proliferation of human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells was studied and some aspects of the mechanism of its activity were suggested. The inhibition of both SH-SY5Y and U87MG cell proliferation was associated with an increase in the thiosulfate level, the number of cells with the inactive form of Bcl-2 protein, and with a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential...
March 5, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508060/taurine-protects-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-neurons-in-a-mouse-parkinson-s-disease-model-by-inhibiting-microglial-m1-polarization
#16
Liyan Hou, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Qingshan Wang
Beyond nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC/NE) neurons are also degenerated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We previously reported that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation contributes to LC/NE neurodegeneration. The purpose of this study is aimed to test whether taurine, an endogenous amino acid, could be able to protect LC/NE neurons through inhibition of microglial activation using paraquat and maneb-induced mouse PD model...
March 5, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492671/ameliorative-effects-of-taurine-against-diabetes-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Inam-U-Llah, Fengyuan Piao, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Raheel Suleman, Kaixin Li, Mengren Zhang, Pingan Wu, Muhammad Shahbaz, Zulfiqar Ahmed
Diets in rats and humans have shown promising results. Taurine improved glucagon activity, promoted glycemic stability, modified glucose levels, successfully addressed hyperglycemia via advanced glycation end-product control, improved insulin secretion and had a beneficial effect on insulin resistance. Taurine treatment performed well against oxidative stress in brain, increased the secretion of required hormones and protected against neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes compared with the control...
February 28, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480334/demethylation-of-methionine-and-keratin-damage-in-human-hair
#18
Kamila Borowczyk, Joanna Suliburska, Hieronim Jakubowski
Growing human head hair contains a history of keratin and provides a unique model for studies of protein damage. Here, we examined mechanism of homocysteine (Hcy) accumulation and keratin damage in human hair. We found that the content of Hcy-keratin increased along the hair fiber, with levels 5-10-fold higher levels in older sections at the hair's tip than in younger sections at hair's base. The accumulation of Hcy led to a complete loss of keratin solubility in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The increase in Hcy-keratin was accompanied by a decrease in methionine-keratin...
February 26, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480333/characterization-of-structural-and-functional-role-of-selenocysteine-in-selenoprotein-h-and-its-impact-on-dna-binding
#19
Sagar H Barage, Deepti D Deobagkar, Vijay B Baladhye
Selenoproteins are a group of proteins which contain selenocysteine (Sec or U) in their primary structure. Selenoproteins play a critical role in antioxidant defense, hormone metabolism, immune responses and muscle development. The selenoprotein H (SELENOH) is essential in the regulation of gene expression in response to redox status and antioxidant defense. It has Sec residue located in conserved CXXU motif similar to other selenoproteins. However, exact biological function of Sec residue in SELENOH is not known in detail...
February 26, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468307/understanding-the-antimicrobial-properties-activity-of-an-11-residue-lys-homopeptide-by-alanine-and-proline-scan
#20
P Carvajal-Rondanelli, M Aróstica, C A Álvarez, C Ojeda, F Albericio, L F Aguilar, S H Marshall, F Guzmán
Previous work demonstrated that lysine homopeptides adopt a polyproline II (PPII) structure. Lysine homopeptides with odd number of residues, especially with 11 residues (K11), were capable of inhibiting the growth of a broader spectrum of bacteria than those with an even number. Confocal studies also determined that K11 was able to localize exclusively in the bacterial membrane, leading to cell death. In this work, the mechanism of action of this peptide was further analyzed focused on examining the structural changes in bacterial membrane induced by K11, and in K11 itself when interacting with bacterial membrane lipids...
February 21, 2018: Amino Acids
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