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Amino Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044206/collapsin-response-mediator-protein-2-high-resolution-crystal-structure-sheds-light-on-small-molecule-binding-post-translational-modifications-and-conformational-flexibility
#1
Matti Myllykoski, Anne Baumann, Kenneth Hensley, Petri Kursula
Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is a neuronal protein involved in axonal pathfinding. Intense research is focusing on its role in various neurological diseases. Despite a wealth of studies, not much is known about the molecular mechanisms of CRMP-2 function in vivo. The detailed structure-function relationships of CRMP-2 have also largely remained unknown, in part due to the fact that the available crystal structures lack the C-terminal tail, which is known to be a target for many post-translational modifications and protein interactions...
January 2, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039518/polyamine-catabolism-adds-fuel-to-leaf-senescence
#2
REVIEW
E Sobieszczuk-Nowicka
Leaf senescence is a terminal step in plant growth and development. Considerable information on processes and signals involved in this process has been obtained, although comparatively little is known about leaf senescence in monocotyledonous plants. In particular, little is known about players involved in leaf senescence imposed by a prolonged dark treatment. New information has now been unveiled on dark-induced leaf senescence in a monocot, barley. A close association has been found between ubiquitous polyamines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and senescence of barley leaves during prolonged darkness...
December 30, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995330/piceatannol-attenuates-homocysteine-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-endothelial-cell-damage-via-heme-oxygenase-1-expression
#3
Jin-Sang Kil, Sun-Oh Jeong, Hun-Taeg Chung, Hyun-Ock Pae
A growing body of evidence implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced cellular dysfunction and apoptosis as important factors to a variety of diseases. In endothelial cells (ECs), the sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) causes EC apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through induction of ER stress. Here, we have investigated whether piceatannol (Pic), a resveratrol analog, could protect ECs against Hcy-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and ER stress, with specific emphasis on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
December 20, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990559/prevention-of-hypoglycemia-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-death-by-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-nac
#4
A Ra Kho, Bo Young Choi, Jin Hee Kim, Song Hee Lee, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Hwon Lee, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Min Sohn, Sang Won Suh
Type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients who are treated with insulin or other blood glucose reducing agents for tight control of blood glucose levels are frequently at risk of experiencing severe hypoglycemia which can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness and death. Hypoglycemic neuronal cell death is not a simple result of low glucose supply to the brain, but, instead, results from a cell death signaling pathway that is started by the re-administration of glucose after glucose deprivation. Zinc is a biologically important element for physiological function of central nervous system...
December 19, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990558/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-hemolymph-from-uninfected-and-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-infected-diaphorina-citri
#5
T A Gill, C Chu, K S Pelz-Stelinski
Hemolymph was characterized from Diaphorina citri adults infected with the phytopathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), and compared with that from uninfected psyllids. This study identified 5531 and 3220 peptides within infected and uninfected hemolymph using nano-LC-MS/MS. A reduced number of proteins were detected for D. citri and all known endosymbionts within infected hemolymph as compared to uninfected hemolymph. A large number of immune defense proteins were absent from D. citri hemolymph; however, a single recognition protein (PGRP), two serine protease inhibitors, three prophenoloxidase (proPO) enzymes, and a single serine protease in an uninfected D...
December 19, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981415/na-h-exchanger-3-inhibitor-diminishes-the-amino-acid-enhanced-transepithelial-calcium-transport-across-the-rat-duodenum
#6
Nithipak Thammayon, Kannikar Wongdee, Kornkamon Lertsuwan, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Jirawan Thongbunchoo, Nateetip Krishnamra, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)-3 is important for intestinal absorption of nutrients and minerals, including calcium. The previous investigations have shown that the intestinal calcium absorption is also dependent on luminal nutrients, but whether aliphatic amino acids and glucose, which are abundant in the luminal fluid during a meal, similarly enhance calcium transport remains elusive. Herein, we used the in vitro Ussing chamber technique to determine epithelial electrical parameters, i.e., potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), and transepithelial resistance, as well as (45)Ca flux in the rat duodenum directly exposed on the mucosal side to glucose or various amino acids...
December 15, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913993/antifreeze-glycopeptides-from-structure-and-activity-studies-to-current-approaches-in-chemical-synthesis
#7
REVIEW
Małgorzata Urbańczyk, Jerzy Góra, Rafał Latajka, Norbert Sewald
Antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGPs) are a class of biological antifreeze agents found predominantly in Arctic and Antarctic species of fish. They possess the ability to regulate ice nucleation and ice crystal growth, thus creating viable life conditions at temperatures below the freezing point of body fluids. AFGPs usually consist of 4-55 repetitions of the tripeptide unit Ala-Ala-Thr that is O-glycosylated at the threonine side chains with β-D-galactosyl-(1 → 3)-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Due to their interesting properties and high antifreeze activity, they have many potential applications, e...
December 2, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913992/c-type-natriuretic-peptide-prevents-kidney-injury-and-attenuates-oxidative-and-inflammatory-responses-in-hemorrhagic-shock
#8
Gan Chen, Xiang Song, Yujing Yin, Sha Xia, Qingjun Liu, Guoxing You, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
Oxidative stress induced by hemorrhagic shock (HS) initiates a systemic inflammatory response, which leads to subsequent kidney injury. This study assessed the efficacy of c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in attenuating kidney injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R). Sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats underwent HS induced by the withdrawal of blood to a mean arterial pressure of 30-35 mmHg for 50 min. Then, the animals received CNP (25 μg/kg) or vehicle (saline) intravenously, followed byresuscitation with 1...
December 2, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896447/novel-extended-sequons-of-human-n-glycosylation-sites-improve-the-precision-of-qualitative-predictions-an-alignment-free-study-of-pattern-recognition-using-protdcal-protein-features
#9
Yasser B Ruiz-Blanco, Yovani Marrero-Ponce, Enrique García-Hernández, James Green
N-Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification that plays an important role in the proper folding and function of many proteins. This modification is largely dependent on the presence of a sequence motif called a "sequon" defined as Asn-Xxx-Ser/Thr. However, evidence has shown that the presence of such a "sequon" is insufficient to determine the occurrence of N-glycosylation with high precision. This study aims to elucidate patterns that can more accurately predict N-glycosylation sites in human proteins...
November 28, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896446/biocompatible-silver-nanoparticles-prepared-with-amino-acids-and-a-green-method
#10
Ricardo Almeida de Matos, Lilia Coronato Courrol
The synthesis of nanoparticles is usually carried out by chemical reduction, which is effective but uses many toxic substances, making the process potentially harmful to the environment. Hence, as part of the search for environmentally friendly or green synthetic methods, this study aimed to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using only AgNO3, Milli-Q water, white light from a xenon lamp (Xe) and amino acids. Nanoparticles were synthetized using 21 amino acids, and the shapes and sizes of the resultant nanoparticles were evaluated...
November 28, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888346/methionine-and-cysteine-deficiencies-altered-proliferation-rate-and-time-course-differentiation-of-porcine-preadipose-cells
#11
Rosa Castellano, Marie-Hélène Perruchot, Sophie Tesseraud, Sonia Métayer-Coustard, Elizabeth Baeza, Yves Mercier, Florence Gondret
Methionine (Met) is an essential sulfur amino acid (AA) limiting growth and is the precursor of cysteine (Cys), the rate-limiting factor in the synthesis of glutathione, and the main intracellular non-enzymatic antioxidant. This study aimed at determining the effects of limited supplies in Met and(or) Cys in early aspects of adipose tissue development and oxidative stress in differentiated adipocytes. Incremental reductions in Met (70, 40, and 0 µM) were compared with Met 100 µM (control dose) in porcine preadipocytes cultured in media without or with Cys (250 µM)...
November 25, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885528/a-network-biology-approach-to-understanding-the-importance-of-chameleon-proteins-in-human-physiology-and-pathology
#12
Golnaz Bahramali, Bahram Goliaei, Zarrin Minuchehr, Sayed-Amir Marashi
Chameleon proteins are proteins which include sequences that can adopt α-helix-β-strand (HE-chameleon) or α-helix-coil (HC-chameleon) or β-strand-coil (CE-chameleon) structures to operate their crucial biological functions. In this study, using a network-based approach, we examined the chameleon proteins to give a better knowledge on these proteins. We focused on proteins with identical chameleon sequences with more than or equal to seven residues long in different PDB entries, which adopt HE-chameleon, HC-chameleon, and CE-chameleon structures in the same protein...
November 24, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873013/neonatal-l-glutamine-modulates-anxiety-like-behavior-cortical-spreading-depression-and-microglial-immunoreactivity-analysis-in-developing-rats-suckled-on-normal-size-and-large-size-litters
#13
Denise Sandrelly Cavalcanti de Lima, Elian da Silva Francisco, Cássia Borges Lima, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
In mammals, L-glutamine (Gln) can alter the glutamate-Gln cycle and consequently brain excitability. Here, we investigated in developing rats the effect of treatment with different doses of Gln on anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and microglial activation expressed as Iba1-immunoreactivity. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15; respectively, normal size- and large size litters). From postnatal days (P) 7-27, the animals received Gln per gavage (250, 500 or 750 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (water), or no treatment (naive)...
November 21, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866290/efficient-oxidation-of-n-protected-tryptophan-and-tryptophanyl-dipeptides-by-in-situ-generated-dimethyldioxirane-provides-hexahydropyrroloindoline-containing-synthons-suitable-for-peptide-synthesis-and-subsequent-tryptathionylation
#14
Antoine Blanc, Fan Xia, Mihajlo Todorovic, David M Perrin
A series of hydroxypyrroloindoline (Hpi) containing dipeptides along with the corresponding monomeric Hpi-α-amino acid (Hpi-2-carboxylate), were prepared by reacting a series of N (α)-protected-tryptophans in aqueous or biphasic [water/cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME)] solutions containing Oxone(®) (potassium peroxymonosulfate) and acetone. This procedure avoids the tedious distillation of unstable dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), which is commonly used to oxidize indoles. Monomers N (α)-Boc-Hpi-OH and N (α)-Fmoc-Hpi-OH were readily incorporated by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) into a peptide containing a cysteine; in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), the Hpi underwent intramolecular dehydrative condensation with the cysteine thiol to afford the anticipated tryptathionine crosslink...
November 19, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864693/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-novel-amadori-compound
#15
Giovanni N Roviello, Roberta Iannitti, Valentina Roviello, Rosanna Palumbo, Hayarpi Simonyan, Caterina Vicidomini
Here, we report the synthesis, purification, ESI MS and NMR characterization, as well as the SEM analysis of a fructosyl thiophenyl-substituted triazolyl-thione L-alanine (denominated Fru-L-TTA). This novel fructosyl derivative was obtained by solution synthesis using the Amadori reaction, in analogy to other natural fructosyl-amino acids, and fully characterized. In particular, we report an accurate NMR/MS/SEM characterization of Fru-L-TTA alongside some biological properties, and investigated to compare the properties of the artificial derivative of this work with the natural counterparts...
November 18, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864692/transglutaminase-2-is-involved-in-amyloid-beta1-42-induced-pro-inflammatory-activation-via-ap1-jnk-signalling-pathways-in-thp-1-monocytes
#16
Monica Currò, Chiara Gangemi, Maria Laura Giunta, Nadia Ferlazzo, Michele Navarra, Riccardo Ientile, Daniela Caccamo
Deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides has been shown to induce the release of inflammatory factors by activated microglia and brain infiltrating monocytes/macrophages. Interestingly, the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been shown to play a key role in neuroinflammation and regulation of transcription factors involved in immunomodulation. In this study, we aimed to better elucidate the mechanisms underlying TG2 involvement in the pro-inflammatory signaling pathway activated by fibrillar Aβ1-42 in THP-1 monocytes...
November 18, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864691/characterization-of-tg2-and-tg1-tg2-double-knock-out-mouse-epidermis
#17
Consuelo Pitolli, Valentina Pietroni, Lyuben Marekov, Alessandro Terrinoni, Kiyofumi Yamanishi, Cinzia Mazzanti, Gerry Melino, Eleonora Candi
Transglutaminases (TGs) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the formation of isopeptide bonds between the γ-carboxamide groups of glutamine residues and the ε-amino groups of lysine residues leading to cross-linking reactions among proteins. Four members, TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG5, of the nine mammalian enzymes are expressed in the skin. TG1, TG3 and TG5 crosslinking properties are fundamental for cornified envelope assembly. In contrast, the role of TG2 in keratinization has never been studied at biochemical level in vivo...
November 18, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830380/recovery-of-pan-genotypic-and-genotype-specific-amino-acid-alterations-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-viral-clearance-transition-at-the-crossroad-of-metabolism-and-immunity
#18
Ming-Ling Chang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Su-Wei Chang, Hsiang-Yu Tang, Cheng-Tang Chiu, Chau-Ting Yeh, Ming-Shi Shiao
Recovery of amino acid (AA) metabolism and the associated clinical implications in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with sustained virological response (SVR) following anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy remains elusive. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 222 CHC patients with SVR. Eighty-two age-matched male genotype 1 (G1) and G2 patients underwent paired serum metabolomics analyses with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine AAs before and 24 weeks after anti-HCV therapy. Before anti-HCV therapy, G1 patients had a higher HCV RNA level than G2 patients...
November 10, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826792/monocyte-behaviour-and-tissue-transglutaminase-expression-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-transgenic-cx3cr1-gfp-gfp-mice
#19
Navina L Chrobok, Alexandre Jaouen, Keith K Fenrich, John G J M Bol, Micha M M Wilhelmus, Benjamin Drukarch, Franck Debarbieux, Anne-Marie van Dam
Leukocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) is a key pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, preventing leukocyte influx into the CNS of MS patients is the main target of MS therapies and insight into cell behaviour in the circulation is needed for further elucidation of such therapies. In this study, we aimed at in vivo visualization of monocytes in a time-dependent manner during EAE. Using intravital two-photon microscopy (IVM), we imaged CX3CR1(gfp/gfp) mice during EAE, visualizing CX3CR1-GFP(+) monocytes and their dynamics in the spinal cord vasculature...
November 9, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826791/rational-derivation-extension-and-cyclization-of-self-inhibitory-peptides-to-target-tgf-%C3%AE-bmp-signaling-in-onfh
#20
Zhenhong Zhu, Chi Zhang, Wenqi Song
The human transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has been recognized as an attractive target to suppress fibroblast activation in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Here, we reported successful derivation of a self-inhibitory peptide from the crystal complex interface of TGF-β with its cognate receptor TβRI using rational molecular design and in vitro binding assay. Computational modeling suggested that the peptide possesses a large flexibility and would incur considerable entropy penalty...
November 9, 2016: Amino Acids
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