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Amino Acids

Jong-Kook Lee, Yoonkyung Park
Drug-resistant microorganism infections cause serious disease and can lead to mortality and morbidity. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus induces pyrogenic and toxigenic infections, and drug-resistance occurs rapidly. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, can also cause immunodeficiency and immune deficiency syndrome from lipoteichoic acid. However, antimicrobial peptides, such as KW4, have strong antimicrobial activity, low cytotoxicity, and high neutralization activity against endotoxin substances from Gram-negative bacteria...
December 13, 2017: Amino Acids
Brendan J Main, Carly J Italiano, Kenneth J Rodgers
There is a strong body of evidence linking the non-protein amino acid (NPAA) β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) to the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has been found globally, is produced by a number of organisms including cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates; and has been shown to biomagnify through trophic levels. The role of BMAA in neurodegenerative disease is highlighted by its presence in the brains of a number of neurodegenerative disease patients, where it was found in a protein-bound form...
December 12, 2017: Amino Acids
Dimitrios Tsikas, Alexander Bollenbach, Makrina D Savvidou
L-Arginine (Arg) is the enzymatic precursor of nitric oxide (NO) which has multiple biological functions. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are endogenous inhibitors of NO. We hypothesized that the ADMA and SDMA have additional biological functions in pregnancy, beyond NO synthesis, and may play a role in the regulation of birthweight (BW). To investigate this issue, we measured the plasma concentration of ADMA, SDMA, Arg and the NO metabolites nitrite and nitrate, at 23-25 weeks of gestation in women with normal placental function (Group 1) and in women with impaired placental perfusion; 19 of these women had normal outcome (Group 2), 14 had a fetus that was growth restricted (Group 3), and 10 women eventually developed preeclampsia (Group 4)...
December 12, 2017: Amino Acids
Joana D Campeiro, Marcelo P Marinovic, Fernando Cintra Carapeto, Caroline Dal Mas, Gabriela Guilherme Monte, Lucas Carvalho Porta, Marcela B Nering, Eduardo B Oliveira, Mirian A F Hayashi
The efficacy of crotamine as antitumoral was first demonstrated by daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of low doses of this toxin in an animal model bearing melanoma tumors. Significant inhibition of tumor growth and increased lifespan of mice bearing tumor was also noticed after 21 consecutive days of this daily IP administration of crotamine. However, due to the limited acceptance of treatments by IP route in clinical conditions, herein, we evaluated the antitumor effect of this native polypeptide employing the oral route...
December 12, 2017: Amino Acids
Giada Rossignoli, Robert S Phillips, Alessandra Astegno, Marta Menegazzi, Carla Borri Voltattorni, Mariarita Bertoldi
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes catalyze a wide range of reactions of amino acids and amines, with the exception of glycogen phosphorylase which exhibits peculiar both substrate preference and chemical mechanism. They represent about 4% of the gene products in eukaryotic cells. Although structure-function investigations regarding these enzymes are copious, their regulation by post-translational modifications is largely unknown. Protein phosphorylation is the most common post-translational modification fundamental in mediating diverse cellular functions...
December 4, 2017: Amino Acids
Zhen Wang, Yan-Jiang Han, Shun Huang, Meng Wang, Wen-Lan Zhou, Hong-Sheng Li, Quan-Shi Wang, Hu-Bing Wu
The glypican-3 (GPC3) receptor is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target. GPC3-targeted molecular imaging will be helpful to differentiate diagnosis and guide therapy. In the present study, we will develop a novel PET probe for imaging the expression of GPC-3. L5 (sequence: RLNVGGTYFLTTRQ), a GPC3 targeting peptide, was labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and 18F-fluoride. Cell binding tests were performed to identify the binding specificity of FAM-L5 and 18F radiolabeled peptide...
December 4, 2017: Amino Acids
Luisa Calvanese, Andrea Caporale, Giuseppina Focà, Emanuela Iaccarino, Annamaria Sandomenico, Nunzianna Doti, Ivana Apicella, Giuseppina Maria Incisivo, Sandro De Falco, Lucia Falcigno, Gabriella D'Auria, Menotti Ruvo
Pharmacological strategies aimed at preventing cancer growth are in most cases paralleled by diagnostic investigations for monitoring and prognosticating therapeutic efficacy. A relevant approach in cancer is the suppression of pathological angiogenesis, which is principally driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or closely related factors and by activation of specific receptors, prevailingly VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, set on the surface of endothelial cells. Monitoring the presence of these receptors in vivo is henceforth a way to predict therapy outcome...
December 2, 2017: Amino Acids
Zhao Yu, Wang Lin, Zhang Rui, Pan Jihong
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), activated synovial fibroblasts have the ability to invade joint cartilage, actively contributing to joint destruction in RA. The mechanisms underlying this cell migration and invasion remain unclear. Our previous results and data from the GEO profile indicate that the L-type amino acid transporter gene, LAT1, is overexpressed in the synovium of RA. To identify its potential role in RA, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with RA were used to determine the effects of suppressing the LAT1 genes using RNA interference and the LAT inhibitor, BCH...
December 2, 2017: Amino Acids
Yasser Y Lenis, Mohammed A Elmetwally, Wanjin Tang, Carey Satterfield, Kathrin Dunlap, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
This study investigated the effect of agmatine (Agm) in proliferation of ovine trophecdoderm cells (oTr1) as well as the importance of the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT) alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were used to inhibit translation of mRNAs for ODC1 alone, AGMAT alone, and their combination. Rambouillet ewes (N = 50) were assigned randomly to the following treatments on Day 8 of pregnancy: MAO control (n = 10); MAO-ODC1 (n = 8); MAO-ADC (n = 6); MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (n = 9); or MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (n = 9)...
December 2, 2017: Amino Acids
Katarzyna M Romek, Maxime Julien, Marine Frasquet-Darrieux, Illa Tea, Ingrid Antheaume, Régis Hankard, Richard J Robins
In the article (Romek et al. 2013) we reported the values of δ15N (‰) and δ13C (‰) obtained by.
November 29, 2017: Amino Acids
Da'san M M Jaradat
A historical overview of peptide chemistry from T. Curtius to E. Fischer to M. Bergmann and L. Zervas is first presented. Next, the fundamentals of peptide synthesis with a focus on solid phase peptide synthesis by R. B. Merrifield are described. Immobilization strategies to attach the first amino acid to the resin, coupling strategies in stepwise peptide chain elongation, and approaches to synthesize difficult peptide sequences are also shown. A brief comparison between tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc)/benzyl (Bzl) strategy and 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)/tert-butyl (t -Bu) strategy utilized in solid phase peptide synthesis is given with an emphasis on the latter...
November 28, 2017: Amino Acids
Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Elena G Geromichalou, Nisar Sayyad, Eirinaios I Vrettos, Antigoni Katsikoudi, Evgenios Stylos, Sofia Bellou, George D Geromichalos, Andreas G Tzakos
Quercetin is a flavonoid presenting cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. We hypothesized that its core could serve as a scaffold for generating more potent compounds. A quercetin-alanine bioconjugate was synthesized, its cellular internalization was monitored through confocal microscopy and its cytotoxic activity was explored against ten different cell lines. The bioconjugate consistently illustrated enhanced cytotoxic activity with respect to the parent compound. A threefold enhancement in its cytotoxicity was revealed for HeLa, A549, MCF-7 and LNCaP cells...
November 28, 2017: Amino Acids
Man Li, Cheng Ling, Qi Xu, Jingyang Gao
Sequence classification is crucial in predicting the function of newly discovered sequences. In recent years, the prediction of the incremental large-scale and diversity of sequences has heavily relied on the involvement of machine-learning algorithms. To improve prediction accuracy, these algorithms must confront the key challenge of extracting valuable features. In this work, we propose a feature-enhanced protein classification approach, considering the rich generation of multiple sequence alignment algorithms, N-gram probabilistic language model and the deep learning technique...
November 18, 2017: Amino Acids
Simone König, Heather Marco, Gerd Gäde
An excellent 2017 review in this journal about D-amino acids by Genchi aims for a comprehensive representation of the current state of knowledge. Unfortunately, information about both D-proline and proline racemase is almost entirely missing. In our investigations into D/L-Pro-containing neuropeptides in cicadas, we have performed literature surveys in this context. Proline racemases in bacteria are known since 1957; their function has been studied mostly in prokaryotes and, more recently, proline racemase was identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma cruzi...
November 11, 2017: Amino Acids
Artyom Karlovich Osmanyan, Shahab Ghazi Harsini, Reza Mahdavi, Vladimir Ivanovich Fisinin, Anna Leonidovna Arkhipova, Tatiana Teodorovna Glazko, Svetlana Nikolaevna Kovalchuk, Gleb Yurievich Kosovsky
This study evaluated the effect of three levels of digestible amino acids (DAA; 100, 107 and 114% of Cobb recommendations) on mRNA abundance of peptide (PepT1) and amino acid (AA) transporters in 480-day-old broilers during prestarter period. Jejunal mRNA levels of the PepT1 and b(0,+)AT increased as DAA level increased from 100 to 114%. The expression of CAT1 mRNA in the jejunum was higher in birds fed 100% DAA diet. The transport systems B(0)AT and y(+)LAT1 were not affected by the dietary treatments. These results demonstrated that dietary content of protein and DAA differentially affected the expression of intestinal peptide and AA transporters to modulate absorption of peptide and AA in broilers...
November 8, 2017: Amino Acids
Fengjing Jia, Jiayi Wang, Jinxiu Peng, Ping Zhao, Ziqing Kong, Kairong Wang, Wenjin Yan, Rui Wang
Recently, the mortality of life-threatening fungal infections increased dramatically. However, there are few antifungals existed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as promising antifungal candidates have attracted much attention. Here, we present a small antimicrobial peptide Jelleine-I that had potent in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity. Negligible hemolytic activity and in vivo toxicity were observed. Selectivity index (SI) of Jelleine-I is at least 4.6 times higher than amphotericin B. Jelleine-I could increase the production of cellular ROS and bind with genome DNA...
November 3, 2017: Amino Acids
Xin Peng, Chang Zhou, Xuan Hou, Yao Liu, Zhengming Wang, Xiaolin Peng, Zhe Zhang, Ran Wang, Dexin Kong
Following the exploration of biochemicals in amphibian defensive skin secretion, great attention has been focused on the novel bioactive peptides with unique molecular structures and complicated features and functions. In this study, the skin secretion of Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis, was acquired to search peptides with therapeutic potential. Using "shotgun" cloning technique, a full-length peptide precursor co-encoding two novel bombinin peptides was cloned from the skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B...
November 2, 2017: Amino Acids
M Adeva-Andany, G Souto-Adeva, E Ameneiros-Rodríguez, C Fernández-Fernández, C Donapetry-García, A Domínguez-Montero
Plasma glycine level is low in patients with obesity or diabetes and the improvement of insulin resistance increases plasma glycine concentration. In prospective studies, hypoglycinemia at baseline predicts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and higher serum glycine level is associated with decreased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Consistently, plasma glycine concentration is lower in the lean offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, hypoglycinemia occurs before clinical manifestations of the disease, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying glycine deficit and its potential clinical repercussions are unclear...
November 1, 2017: Amino Acids
Flávia G De Carvalho, Ricardo A Barbieri, Milena B Carvalho, Carla C Dato, Eduardo Z Campos, Ronaldo B Gobbi, Marcelo Papoti, Adelino S R Silva, Ellen Cristini de Freitas
Taurine can affect the energy system metabolism, specifically the lipid metabolism, since an increase in lipid oxidation may promote carbohydrate savings. We hypothesized that taurine supplementation associated with high-intensity exercise could increase levels of lipolysis, benefiting swimmer performance. Nine male competitive swimmers performed two 400-m front crawl maximal efforts with a 1-week washout, and the athletes received 6 g of taurine (TAU) or placebo (PLA) supplementation 120 min before performing the effort...
October 29, 2017: Amino Acids
Gurpreet Kaur, Kunchur Guruprasad, Brenda R S Temple, David G Shirvanyants, Nikolay V Dokholyan, Pratap Kumar Pati
Plant NADPH oxidases also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are a family of membrane-bound enzymes that play diverse roles in the defense response and morphogenetic processes via regulated generation of reactive oxygen species. Rbohs are associated with a variety of functions, although the reason for this is not clear. To evaluate using bioinformatics, the possible mechanisms for the observed functional diversity within the plant kingdom, 127 Rboh protein sequences representing 26 plant species were analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Amino Acids
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