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Amino Acids

Qingquan Ma, Shengdi Hu, Makoto Bannai, Guoyao Wu
Milk is an important food for mammalian neonates, but its insufficient production is a nutritional problem for humans and other animals. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) increases milk production in mammals, including sows, rabbits, and cows. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study was conducted with porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMECs) to test the hypothesis that Arg enhances milk protein synthesis via activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling...
February 12, 2018: Amino Acids
Xiaomin Liu, Jingwen Peng, Jie He, Qiaoran Li, Jianbin Zhou, Xiaoqiu Liang, Shengsong Tang
Cervical cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths among females in underdeveloped countries. This study aimed to identify several novel cervical cancer-specific targeting peptides (CSPs) to provide new methods for the effective diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Peptide library screening in vivo was performed on human cervical cancer xenografts with Ph.D.™-12 and C7C phage display peptide libraries. Two specific peptide sequences (GDALFSVPLEVY and KQNLAEG), which were enriched in tumors, were screened, and respectively, named CSP-GD and CSP-KQ through three rounds of biopanning...
February 12, 2018: Amino Acids
J Huang, Y Jia, Q Li, W R Burris, P J Bridges, J C Matthews
Hepatic glutamate uptake and conversion to glutamine is critical for whole-body N metabolism, but how this process is regulated during growth is poorly described. The hepatic glutamate uptake activities, protein content of system [Formula: see text] transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1) and regulatory proteins (GTRAP3-18, ARL6IP1), glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and content, and glutathione (GSH) content, were compared in liver tissue of weaned Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 8) to predominantly lean (growing) or predominantly lipid (finished) growth regimens...
February 1, 2018: Amino Acids
Roberto Carlos Burini, Maria Doroteia Borges-Santos, Fernando Moreto, Yong- Ming Yu
In this study, an acute overloading of methionine (MetLo) was used to investigate the trassulfuration pathway response comparing healthy controls and HIV+ patients under their usual diet and dietary N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) supplementation. MetLo (0.1 g Met/kg mass weight) was given after overnight fasting to 20 non-HIV+ control subjects (Co) and 12 HIV+ HAART-treated patients. Blood samples were taken before and after the MetLo in two different 7-day dietary situations, with NAC (1 g/day) or with their usual diet (UD)...
February 1, 2018: Amino Acids
Jingqing Chen, Xiaoshi Ma, Ying Yang, Zhaolai Dai, Zhenlong Wu, Guoyao Wu
Glycine supplementation has been reported to enhance white-fat loss and improve sensitivity to insulin in animals with obesity or type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of glycine remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that glycine regulates adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis, and lipolysis, therefore, contributing to white-fat reduction. 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were induced to differentiate into adipocytes in the presence of glycine (0, 0...
January 22, 2018: Amino Acids
Linda Minotti, Federica Baldassari, Marco Galasso, Stefano Volinia, Carlo M Bergamini, Nicoletta Bianchi
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are matter of intense investigation as potential regulators of gene expression. In the case of the transglutaminase 2 gene (TGM2) the databases of genome sequence indicate location of a lncRNA (LOC107987281) within the first intron. This lncRNA is 1000 bp long, arises from 2 exons and starts few nucleotides 3' of the first splicing site of translated TGM2. We have analysed correlations between expression of LOC107987281 lncRNA and TGM2 mRNA by real-time PCR in K562 cell line untreated or treated with the anticancer drugs TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), Docetaxel and Doxorubicin...
January 8, 2018: Amino Acids
Karol Sikora, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Damian Neubauer, Marta Bauer, Sylwia Bartoszewska, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak, Wojciech Kamysz
In view of an appreciable increase in resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to the conventional antibiotics, it is desired to develop new effective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seem to be attractive candidates. In general, AMPs samples used for in vitro studies consist of a peptide, counter-ion, and water. The presence of the counter-ion could be significant as it affects peptide secondary structure and biological activity. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of counter-ion on antistaphylococcal activity of selected AMPs (CAMEL, citropin 1...
January 6, 2018: Amino Acids
Alicja K Antonczak, Kedric Milholland, Eric M Tippmann
The target protein, Hcp1, was first described as part of the bacterial Type VI secretion system from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The protein first self-assembles into a hexamer and then the hexamers further stack into a nanotubular structure. Hcp1 monomers were targeted for mutagenesis with two widely used photoactivatable amino acids: para-benzoyl phenylalanine or para-azidophenylalanine. The ability of these amino acids to form covalent adducts within the Hcp1 self-assembled system was investigated. Multiple residues, putatively of equal distance between the monomer-monomer interface were targeted...
January 6, 2018: Amino Acids
M C R Miranda, F A Borges, N R Barros, N A Santos Filho, R J Mendonça, R D Herculano, E M Cilli
The biomembrane natural (NRL-Natural Rubber Latex), manipulated from the latex obtained from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for application in biomedicine and biomaterials. Reflecting the biocompatibility and low bounce rate of this material, NRL has been used as a physical barrier to infectious agents and for the controlled release of drugs and extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation and release of peptides using a latex biomembrane carrier. After incorporation, the release of material from the membrane was observed using spectrophotometry...
January 5, 2018: Amino Acids
Ellen Lldicho Closs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Amino Acids
Roberta de Souza Santos, Rafael L Camargo, Emerielle C Vanzela, Thiago M Batista, Priscila N Morato, Nayara C Leite, Juliana C Rovani, Marta García-Arévalo, Deborah J Clegg, Everardo M Carneiro
Low levels of estrogens are associated with obesity-related comorbidities. Mice with lower levels of estrogens are thereby more sensitive to the effects of a high-fat-diet (HFD) for the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Studies in vivo have demonstrated that taurine (TAU) supplementation prevents glucose and insulin resistance. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of TAU supplementation on glucose homeostasis of mice with low levels of estrogens fed with a HFD...
December 27, 2017: Amino Acids
N Dong, X R Li, X Y Xu, Y F Lv, Z Y Li, A S Shan, J L Wang
Facing rising global antibiotics resistance, physical membrane-damaging antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising antimicrobial agents. Various strategies to design effective hybrid peptides offer many advantages in overcoming the adverse effects of natural AMPs. In this study, hybrid peptides from different species were investigated, and three hybrid antimicrobial peptides, LI, LN, and LC, were designed by combining the typical fragment of human cathelicidin-derived LL37 with either indolicidin, pig nematode cecropin P1 (CP-1) or rat neutrophil peptide-1 (NP-1)...
December 27, 2017: Amino Acids
Katarzyna E Greber, Krzesimir Ciura, Mariusz Belka, Piotr Kawczak, Joanna Nowakowska, Tomasz Bączek, Wiesław Sawicki
In this study, we investigated the influence of molecular descriptors of cationic lipopeptides on their antimicrobial activity and hemolytic properties. The quantitative structure-activity relationship and quantitative structure-property relationship models were constructed. The antimicrobial, hemolytic and retention data were used as dependent variable and structural parameters as the independent ones. The obtained results suggest that the chromatographic indexes can be employed for prediction of antibacterial activity and that lipopeptides present nonspecific interaction between erythrocytes and bacterial membranes...
December 20, 2017: Amino Acids
Srinidi Mohan, Ian Greenstein, Cathy Ng, Kelly Frazier, Giang Nguyen, Lisa Harding, David Barlow
In our prior study we identified N w-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA) as a simple, yet sensitive indicator for estrogen negative (ER-) breast cancer early-prognosis, but not estrogen positive (ER+), and to offer ethnic selectivity for ER- detection. However, the ability of NOHA to assess ER- breast tumor based on disease progression, and tumor severity needs further delineation. Also, the overall NOHA storage stability needs to be validated. To assess the NOHA predictive capability based on disease progression, ER-/ER+ 3D-spheroids (from breast tumor cell lines of human origin) were cultured for 10 weeks...
December 19, 2017: Amino Acids
Hengli Zhao, Jie Qu, Qiang Li, Mengchu Cui, Jie Wang, Kaiyuan Zhang, Xin Liu, Hua Feng, Yujie Chen
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade that contributes to substantial neuronal damage and neurological deterioration. Taurine, an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, is reported to reduce inflammatory injury in various central nervous system diseases, but its role and the possible underlying mechanisms in the pathology following ICH remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of taurine supplementation on neurological deficits, acute inflammatory responses and white matter injury in a model of ICH in rats...
December 18, 2017: Amino Acids
Olga Golubnitschaja, Nora Filep, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Henricus Johannes Blom, Martin Hofmann-Apitius, Walther Kuhn
Breast cancer epidemic in the early twenty-first century results in around two million new cases and half-a-million of the disease-related deaths registered annually worldwide. A particularly dramatic situation is attributed to some specific patient subgroups such as the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is a particularly aggressive type of breast cancer lacking clear diagnostic approach and targeted therapies. Consequently, more than 50% of the TNBC patients die of the metastatic BC within the first 6 months of the diagnosis...
December 16, 2017: Amino Acids
Kazuei Igarashi, Takeshi Uemura, Keiko Kashiwagi
It is thought that tissue damage at advanced age is mainly caused by ROS (reactive oxygen species, O2-, H2O2, and ·OH). However, it was found that acrolein (CH2=CH-CHO) is more toxic than ROS, and is mainly produced from spermine (SPM), one of the polyamines, rather than from unsaturated fatty acids. Significant amounts of SPM are present normally as SPM-ribosome complexes, and contribute to protein synthesis. However, SPM was released from ribosomes due to the degradation of ribosomal RNA by ·OH or the binding of Ca2+ to ribosomes, and acrolein was produced from free SPM by polyamine oxidases, particularly by SPM oxidase...
December 16, 2017: Amino Acids
Hao Fu, Hua Wu, Xianzhong Zhang, Jinxiong Huang, Xiaojiang He, Lichun Chen, Wei Guo, Xiuyu Guo, Bing Hao, Yesen Li
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) is overexpressed in several varieties of carcinoma, including breast cancer. WH701 (Ala-Thr-Ala-Gln-Ser-Ala-Tyr-Gly), which was identified by phage display, can specifically bind to TNFR1. In this study, we labeled WH701 with 18F and investigated its tumor diagnostic value. WH701 was synthesized by standard Fmoc-solid phase synthetic protocols and conjugated by NOTA-NHS. NOTA-WH701 was radiolabeled with 18F using NOTA-AlF chelation reaction. The tumor target properties were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using MCF-7 xenografts and inflammation models...
December 14, 2017: Amino Acids
Jong-Kook Lee, Yoonkyung Park
Drug-resistant microorganism infections cause serious disease and can lead to mortality and morbidity. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus induces pyrogenic and toxigenic infections, and drug-resistance occurs rapidly. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, can also cause immunodeficiency and immune deficiency syndrome from lipoteichoic acid. However, antimicrobial peptides, such as KW4, have strong antimicrobial activity, low cytotoxicity, and high neutralization activity against endotoxin substances from Gram-negative bacteria...
December 13, 2017: Amino Acids
Brendan J Main, Carly J Italiano, Kenneth J Rodgers
There is a strong body of evidence linking the non-protein amino acid (NPAA) β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) to the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has been found globally, is produced by a number of organisms including cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates; and has been shown to biomagnify through trophic levels. The role of BMAA in neurodegenerative disease is highlighted by its presence in the brains of a number of neurodegenerative disease patients, where it was found in a protein-bound form...
December 12, 2017: Amino Acids
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