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Amino Acids

Nayeon Kim, Joon Hee Kang, Won-Kyu Lee, Seul-Gi Kim, Jae-Seon Lee, Seon-Hyeong Lee, Jong Bae Park, Kyung-Hee Kim, Young-Dae Gong, Kwang Yeon Hwang, Soo-Youl Kim
Previously we have demonstrated transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) inhibition abrogated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using GK921 (3-(phenylethynyl)-2-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethoxy)pyrido[3,2-b]pyrazine), although the mechanism of TGase 2 inhibition remains unsolved. Recently, we found that the increase of TGase 2 expression is required for p53 depletion in RCC by transporting the TGase 2 (1-139 a.a)-p53 complex to the autophagosome, through TGase 2 (472-687 a.a) binding p62. In this study, mass analysis revealed that GK921 bound to the N terminus of TGase 2 (81-116 a...
August 14, 2018: Amino Acids
Wesley C Kephart, Taylor D Wachs, R Mac Thompson, C Brooks Mobley, Carlton D Fox, James R McDonald, Brian S Ferguson, Kaelin C Young, Ben Nie, Jeffrey S Martin, Joseph M Company, David D Pascoe, Robert D Arnold, Jordan R Moon, Michael D Roberts
For the author R. Mac Thompson, the first name should be R. Mac and the last name should be Thompson. On SpringerLink the name is listed correctly, but on PubMed he is listed as Mac Thompson R.
August 11, 2018: Amino Acids
Éva Kiss, Gergő Gyulai, Edit Pári, Kata Horváti, Szilvia Bősze
Fluorescent labelling is a common approach to reveal the molecular details of cellular uptake, internalisation, transport, distribution processes in biological systems. The conjugation with a fluorescent moiety might affect relevant physico-chemical and in vitro transport properties of the bioactive component. A representative set of seven cationic peptides-including cell-penetrating peptides as well as antimicrobial peptides and synthetic derivatives-was selected for our comparative study. Membrane affinity of the peptides and their 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (Cf) derivatives was determined quantitatively and compared applying Langmuir monolayer of zwitterionic (DPPC) and negatively charged (DPPC + DPPG) lipids as cell membrane models...
August 11, 2018: Amino Acids
Zohra Benfodda, David Benimélis, Gianna Reginato, Patrick Meffre
The ethynylglycine synthon {(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-4-ethynyl-oxazolidine} is a chiral compound with valuable synthetic interest. An update (covering literature from 2005 to 2017) on the different synthetic utilities is reviewed and discussed.
August 11, 2018: Amino Acids
Qin Mo, Youran Li, Junhua Wang, Guiyang Shi
Bacterial L-aspartate α-decarboxylase (PanD) specifically catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartic acid to β-alanine. It is translated as an inactive pro-protein, then processed by self-cleavage to form two small subunits with catalytic activity. There is a significant difference in the efficiency of this process among the reported PanDs, while the structural basis remains unclear. More PanDs with known sequences and characterized properties are needed to shed light on the molecular basis of the self-cleavage process...
August 2, 2018: Amino Acids
Ying Luo, Ling Wang, Xin-Ying Liu, Xiaolong Chen, Ya-Xiang Song, Xin-Hua Li, Cizong Jiang, Ai Peng, Jun-Yan Liu
Gout and hyperuricemia are highly prevalent metabolic diseases caused by high level of uric acid. Amino acids (AAs) involve in various biochemical processes including the biosynthesis of uric acid. However, the role of AAs in discriminating gout from hyperuricemia remains unknown. Here, we report that the plasma AAs profile can distinguish acute gout (AG) from asymptomatic hyperuricemia (AHU). We established an LC-MS/MS-based method to measure the plasma AAs without derivatization for the AG and AHU patients, and healthy controls...
August 2, 2018: Amino Acids
Lu Huang, Yanxia Li, Qi Lin, Benyong Lou, Yiting Chen
L-Proline-modified gold nanochannel membrane (L-Pro-GNM) was prepared and applied for the enantioselective permeations of amino acid enantiomers including tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe). Experimental results show that L-Pro-GNM has enantioselectivities for Tyr and Phe enantiomers. Furthermore, the chiral recognition mechanism was studied by density functional theory (DFT) and reduced density gradient (RDG). DFT computational results illustrate that the fundamental chiral recognition system contains two chiral selectors and one selectand, which can be used to evaluate the enantioselective efficiencies of other chiral compounds and the enantioselective ability of other potential amino acid-modified GNM...
August 2, 2018: Amino Acids
Jun-Jie Koh, Shuimu Lin, Wendy Wan Ling Sin, Zhi Hao Ng, Do Yun Jung, Roger W Beuerman, Shouping Liu
Multi-drug resistant pathogens have been of increasing concern today. There is an urgent need for the discovery of more potent antibiotics. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are known to be effective antimicrobial agents against resistant pathogens. However, poor activity under physiological conditions is one of the major limitations of CAMPS in clinical applications. In this study, a series of oligo-lipidated arginyl peptide OLAP dimers comprised of a saturated fatty acid chain (with m number of carbon units) and p repeating units of arginyl fatty acid chains (with n number of carbon units) were designed and studied for their antimicrobial activities as well as their physico-chemical property in various physiological conditions, such as in human serum albumin and high salt conditions...
July 31, 2018: Amino Acids
Lei Li, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Niro Inaba, Wataru Yoshioka, Dennis Chang, JianXun Liu, Kimiyoshi Ichida
Plasma homocysteine is elevated in patients with impaired renal function, and markedly so at end-stage renal disease. As chronic kidney disease and hyperhomocysteinemia are also independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the latter is hypothesized to accelerate vascular abnormalities following renal failure. This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of impaired renal function and hyperhomocysteinemia on vascular function. We show that in 5/6-nephrectomized rats, a model of chronic kidney disease, a methionine-rich diet for 8 weeks induces moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, exacerbates hypertension, and attenuates the vascular response to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, 8-bromo-cGMP, and isoprenaline...
July 30, 2018: Amino Acids
Hajar Golshadi Ghalehshahi, Saeed Balalaie, Atousa Aliahmadi, Roya Moghimi
An efficient metal-free approach for the synthesis of N-coumaryl amino acids and the first one-step synthesis of 4-hydrazinocoumarin from 4-hydroxycoumarin was developed. The nucleophilic addition of amino acid methyl esters to 4-tosylcoumarins produced a series of 4-N-α-coumaryl amino acids in good to excellent yields without racemization. The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated using DPPH and FRAP methods. 4-Hydrazinocoumarin and N-coumaryl tyrosine had the best antioxidant activity...
July 25, 2018: Amino Acids
Natalia Drabińska, Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Ewa Ciska, Elżbieta Jarocka-Cyrta
The circulating amino acid (AAs) concentrations are indicators of dietary protein intake and metabolic status. In celiac disease (CD), the AA imbalance is frequently observed. Prebiotics are found to alleviate nutrient deficiencies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the impact of oligrofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1), administered for 3 months as a gluten-free diet (GFD) supplement to children with CD, on the plasma and urine concentrations of AAs. CD children (N = 34) were randomised into two groups, receiving Synergy 1 (10 g/day) or placebo (maltodextrin) for 3 months...
July 24, 2018: Amino Acids
Franziska Striese, Wiebke Sihver, Feng Gao, Ralf Bergmann, Martin Walther, Jens Pietzsch, Jörg Steinbach, Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents an important molecular target for both radiotracer-based diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy of various cancer entities. For the delivery of radionuclides to the tumor, peptides hold great potential as a transport vehicle. With respect to EGFR, the peptide YHWYGYTPQNVI (GE11) has been reported to bind the receptor with high specificity and affinity. In the present study, GE11 with β-alanine (β-Ala-GE11) was conjugated to the chelating agent p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and radiolabeled with 64 Cu for the first radio pharmacological evaluation as a potential probe for positron emission tomography (PET)-based cancer imaging...
July 23, 2018: Amino Acids
Davide Baratella, Emanuela Bonaiuto, Massimiliano Magro, Jessica de Almeida Roger, Yuta Kanamori, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima, Enzo Agostinelli, Fabio Vianello
Polyamines (PAs) are involved in a variety of fundamental physio-pathologic processes. The concentration of these polycations in organs and tissues depends on their endogenous production and oxidation rates, and on their intake from foods. Besides being largely accepted as markers for the progress of several pathologies, PAs may exert themselves different effects on humans, ranging from being positive to be drastically detrimental depending on the organism conditions. Thus, if the determination of polyamines content in tissue samples is of great importance as they could be indicators of several diseases, their quantification in food is fundamental for modulating the diet to respond to a specific human health status...
July 21, 2018: Amino Acids
Luisa Calvanese, Lucia Falcigno, Flavia Squeglia, Rita Berisio, Gabriella D'Auria
PASTA domains are small modules expressed in bacteria and found in one or multiple copies at the C-terminal end of several penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) and Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs) and represent potential targets for a new class of antibiotics. PASTA domains are currently annotated as sensor domains, as they are thought to activate their cognate proteins in response to binding to opportune ligands. However, recent studies have shown that PASTA domains linked to proteins of different classes, STPKs or PBPs, do not share the same binding abilities...
July 21, 2018: Amino Acids
Henry Oppermann, Athanasios Alvanos, Christiane Seidel, Jürgen Meixensberger, Frank Gaunitz
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) affects a plethora of signaling pathways and genes in different biological systems. Although known as a radical scavenger, not all of these effects can simply be ascribed to its chemical nature. As previous experiments pointed towards the possibility that carnosine affects epigenetic regulation via histone acetylation, we investigated this hypothesis using the glioblastoma cell lines U87 and T98G in which carnosine's anti-neoplastic effect is accompanied by increased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4...
July 20, 2018: Amino Acids
Wenjuan Lin, Zerong Liu, Xuewei Zheng, Meng Chen, Dan Gao, Zhongmin Tian
Genetic background and high-salt diet are considered key factors contributing to the development of hypertension and its associated metabolic disorders. Metabolomics is an emerging powerful tool to analyze the low-molecular weight metabolites in plasma and tissue. This study integrated metabolomics and correlation network analysis to investigate the metabolic profiles of plasma and muscle of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats and SS.13BN rats (control) under normal and high-salt diet. The hub metabolites, which could play important roles in the metabolic changes, were identified by correlation network analysis...
July 16, 2018: Amino Acids
Patricia de Paz-Lugo, José Antonio Lupiáñez, Enrique Meléndez-Hevia
Collagen synthesis is severely diminished in osteoarthritis; thus, enhancing it may help the regeneration of cartilage. This requires large amounts of glycine, proline and lysine. Previous works of our group have shown that glycine is an essential amino acid, which must be present in the diet in large amounts to satisfy the demands for collagen synthesis. Other authors have shown that proline is conditionally essential. In this work we studied the effect of these amino acids on type II collagen synthesis. Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured under a wide range of different concentrations of glycine, proline and lysine...
July 13, 2018: Amino Acids
Alyssa N Varanoske, Jay R Hoffman, David D Church, Nicholas A Coker, Kayla M Baker, Sarah J Dodd, Roger C Harris, Leonardo P Oliveira, Virgil L Dawson, Ran Wang, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
β-alanine supplementation increases muscle carnosine content and improves anaerobic exercise performance by enhancing intracellular buffering capacity. β-alanine ingestion in its traditional rapid-release formulation (RR) is associated with the symptoms of paresthesia. A sustained-release formulation (SR) of β-alanine has been shown to circumvent paresthesia and extend the period of supply to muscle for carnosine synthesis. The purpose of this investigation was to compare 28 days of SR and RR formulations of β-alanine (6 g day-1 ) on changes in carnosine content of the vastus lateralis and muscle fatigue...
July 12, 2018: Amino Acids
Erik Hanff, Patricia Hafner, Alexander Bollenbach, Ulrike Bonati, Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi, Dirk Fischer, Dimitrios Tsikas
The L-arginine/nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway is considered to be altered in muscular dystrophy such as Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). We investigated two pharmacological options aimed to increase nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in 20 male BMD patients (age range 21-44 years): (1) supplementation with L-citrulline (3 × 5 g/d), the precursor of L-arginine which is the substrate of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS); and (2) treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin (3 × 500 mg/d) which activates nNOS in human skeletal muscle...
July 12, 2018: Amino Acids
Jens Martens-Lobenhoffer, Insa E Emrich, Adam M Zawada, Danilo Fliser, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Gunnar H Heine, Stefanie M Bode-Böger
Plasma concentrations of L-homoarginine (hArg) are an emerging marker for clinical status and prognosis in renal and cardiovascular disease. Lowered hArg concentrations are associated with higher risk for these conditions, although a clear pathophysiological explanation for this association has not been established. Baseline plasma samples of patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 527) were obtained from the CARE FOR HOMe study and were analyzed for hArg and, for the first time, its metabolite 6-guanidino-2-oxocaproic acid (GOCA) by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS methods...
July 7, 2018: Amino Acids
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