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Cardiology in the Young

Kothandam Sivakumar, Del-Rossi Sean
Communications between the pulmonary artery and left atrium cause cyanosis. The images document serial haemodynamic changes in such a fistula from fetal life to the postnatal period with a successful transcatheter intervention.
July 18, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Hitesh Agrawal, Carlos M Mery, S Kristen Sexson Tejtel, Charles D Fraser, E Dean McKenzie, Athar M Qureshi, Silvana Molossi
BACKGROUND: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is the second leading cause of sudden cardiac arrest/death in young athletes in the United States of America. Limited data are available regarding family history in this patient population. METHODS: Patients were evaluated prospectively from 12/2012 to 02/2017 in the Coronary Anomalies Program at Texas Children's Hospital. Relevant family history included the presence of CHD, sudden cardiac arrest/death, arrhythmia/pacemaker use, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease before the age of 50 years...
July 13, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Gianfranco Butera, Giuliano Giusti, Giuseppe Pomè
Disconnection of a pulmonary artery needs early surgical treatment in order to support the growth of the vessel. However, owing to the high rate of re-stenosis after traditional surgical reconstruction, we developed a hybrid approach involving the creation of pulmonary artery continuity by using autologous or heterologous tissue supported by stent implantation.
July 12, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Seigo Okada, Jun Muneuchi, Yuki Iwaya
Herein, we present the first case of dilated cardiomyopathy due to premature constriction of the ductus arteriosus. A fetal echocardiography showed narrowing in the ductus arteriosus, and colour Doppler flow mapping could not identify blood flow through the ductus. Neonatal echocardiography revealed a left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy, and the cardiomyopathy had fully resolved at 6 months of age.
July 11, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Takanari Fujii, Hideshi Tomita, Yoshihito Hata, Takeshi Sasaki, Dai Asada, Suguru Tarui, Yoshinori Miyahara, Kozo Ishino, Takashi Soga
Background and purposeStatic balloon atrial septostomy is a widely accepted intervention for children with CHD. Successful surgical palliation is creating increasing numbers of adult CHD patients who need subsequent left heart intervention requiring transseptal access. In these patients, the interatrial septum is usually thick and fibrotic because of a previous open heart surgery or catheter intervention, and conventional transseptal puncture may be unsuccessful. Static balloon atrial septostomy to access the left atrium may facilitate intervention via the interatrial septum in such situations...
July 11, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Ahmed S Said, Mary E McBride, Avihu Z Gazit
Pulmonary hypertension with transposition of the great arteries is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At the worst end of the spectrum are patients who undergo extracorporeal support perioperatively. We describe our experience with three patients who received preoperative extracorporeal support and separated from cardiopulmonary bypass successfully on conventional postoperative care, with no significant deficits on follow-up.
July 11, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Jennifer Sherwin, Elizabeth Thompson, Kevin D Hill, Kevin Watt, Andrew J Lodge, Daniel Gonzalez, Christoph P Hornik
The ventricular assist device is being increasingly used as a "bridge-to-transplant" option in children with heart failure who have failed medical management. Care for this medically complex population must be optimised, including through concomitant pharmacotherapy. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic alterations affecting pharmacotherapy are increasingly discovered in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, another form of mechanical circulatory support. Similarities between extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist devices support the hypothesis that similar alterations may exist in ventricular assist device-supported patients...
July 11, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Ravindra S Pawar, Vimal Raj, Suresh Pujar V
Scimitar or pulmonary venolobar syndrome, a rare pulmonary anomaly, consists basically of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior caval vein, anomalous systemic arterial supply to the right lower lobe from the descending aorta, hypoplasia of the right lung, and dextroposed heart. We present a rare case with constellation of all these findings of scimitar syndrome, but with the aberrant pulmonary vein draining into the left atrium.
July 11, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Dai Asada, Hideshi Tomita, Takanari Fujii
Only few reports have described successful simultaneous transcatheter intervention for CHD in infants. We present an infant with secundum atrial septal defect complicated by valvular pulmonary stenosis. Percutaneous transcatheter pulmonary valvuloplasty was performed first, followed by transcatheter closure of the secundum atrial septal defect uneventfully. Simultaneous transcatheter correction is an effective therapeutic option even in infants.
July 11, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Amy J Lisanti
Parental stress is a universal experience for parents who have children diagnosed with CHD and has been studied within the context of the child's illness, but not through a broader health disparity lens. This paper provides a thorough synthesis of the current literature on parental stress addressing disparities in parents of children with CHD. Several theories and models from within this literature are described and a new comprehensive framework, the Parental Stress and Resilience in CHD Model, is presented...
July 11, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Christian B Poulsen, Mads Damkjær
IntroductionOwing to massive improvements in the diagnostics and surgery of children with CHD, fatality has decreased substantially. As more children with CHD survive from infancy into later childhood, more will need medication for chronic heart failure. However, surprisingly little is actually known about which drugs are being used to treat children with CHD, and whether prescription rates and CHD prevalence have changed over time. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the total prescription of cardiovascular drugs to children during an 18-year period and to assess concomitant CHD prevalence...
July 11, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Joseph W May, Elizabeth L Carter, J Ryan Hitt, Thomas R Burklow
Traditional ambulatory rhythm monitoring in children can have limitations, including cumbersome leads and limited monitoring duration. The ZioTM patch ambulatory monitor is a small, adhesive, single-channel rhythm monitor that can be worn up to 2 weeks. In this study, we present a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the ZioTM monitor's impact in clinical practice. Patients aged 0-18 years were included in the study. A total of 373 studies were reviewed in 332 patients. In all, 28.4% had structural heart disease, and 16...
July 10, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Olivier Villemain, Sophie Malekzadeh-Milani, Fidelio Sitefane, Meriem Mostefa-Kara, Younes Boudjemline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Bibhuti B Das, Frank Scholl, Breanna Vandale, Maryanne Chrisant
The Prospective comparison of angiotensin receptor antagonist Valsartan and neprilysin inhibitor Sacubitril with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) to determine impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure trial has demonstrated that Sacubitril/Valsartan is superior to Enalapril in reducing the risks of both sudden cardiac death and death from worsening heart failure. This novel combination, Sacubitril/Valsartan, is also shown to reduce the risk of hospitalisation and progression of heart failure in adults...
July 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Ronak Sheth, Kothandam Sivakumar
Abernethy malformations manifest as hepatopulmonary syndrome, pulmonary vasculopathy, or encephalopathy. A novel intervention in a child with portosystemic shunt and inferior caval vein hypoplasia led to complete normalisation of hypoxia and relief of obstruction in the inferior caval vein. Embryological explanations of venous anomalies may indicate that inferior caval vein anomalies are frequent but under-recognised in patients with Abernethy malformation.
July 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Sophie C Hofferberth, Jesse J Esch, David Zurakowski, Christopher W Baird, John E Mayer, Sitaram M Emani
IntroductionThe optimal approach to unifocalisation in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (pulmonary artery/ventricular septal defect/major aortopulmonary collaterals) remains controversial. Moreover, the impact of collateral vessel disease burden on surgical decision-making and late outcomes remains poorly defined. We investigated our centre's experience in the surgical management of pulmonary artery/ventricular septal defect/major aortopulmonary collaterals...
July 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Lindyce A Kulik, Jean A Connor, Dionne A Graham, Patricia A Hickey
BACKGROUND: The description of pressure injury development is limited in children with CHD. Children who develop pressure injuries experience pain and suffering and are at risk for additional morbidity. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a standardized clinical assessment and management plan to describe the development of pressure injury in paediatric cardiac surgical patients and evaluate prevention strategies. METHODS: Using a novel quality improvement initiative, postoperative paediatric cardiac surgical patients were started on a nurse-driven pressure injury prevention standardized clinical assessment and management plan on admission...
July 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Antoinette M Cilliers, Paul E Adams, Hopewell Ntsinjana, Udai Kala
IntroductionTakayasu's arteritis is a rare idiopathic arteritis causing stenosis or aneurysms of the aorta, pulmonary arteries, and their branches. It usually occurs in women, but has been described in children. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation, demographic profile, vascular involvement, origins, management, and outcome of children diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis at a Southern African tertiary care centre between 1993 and 2015. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of all children with Takayasu's arteritis captured on a computerised electronic database during the study period...
July 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Jing Wang, Rui-Qi Guo, Jian-Ying Guo, Lei Zuo, Chang-Hui Lei, Hong Shao, Li-Feng Wang, Yan-Min Zhang, Li-Wen Liu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported four heterozygous missense mutations of MYH7, KCNQ1, MYLK2, and TMEM70 in a single three-generation Chinese family with dual Long QT and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotypes for the first time. However, the clinical course among the family members was various, and the potential myocardial dysfunction has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics in a genetic positive Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and further to explore the association between myocardial dysfunction and electric activity, and the identified mutations...
July 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Feifei Si, Yao Wu, Xianmin Wang, Fang Gao, Dan Yang, Ruixi Liu, Qijian Yi
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children from developed countries. The Interleukin-6/ Interleukin-12 cytokine family has many members, including the paradoxical anti- and pro-inflammatory Interleukin-27. Recent studies have demonstrated that Interleukin-27 plays a role in immune diseases. Given this, we sought to evaluate the association between Interleukin-27 genetic polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease in Chinese children.Methods and resultsInterleukin-27 was genotyped in 100 Kawasaki disease children and 98 healthy children (controls), resulting in the direct sequencing of eight Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms: rs17855750, rs40837, rs26528, rs428253, rs4740, rs4905, rs153109, and rs181206)...
July 5, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
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