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American Journal of Speech-language Pathology

Erinn H Finke, Jennifer M Davis, Morgan Benedict, Lauren Goga, Jennifer Kelly, Lauren Palumbo, Tanika Peart, Samantha Waters
Purpose: In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a least-to-most (LTM) prompting procedure (Ault & Griffen, 2013; MacDuff, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2001; Neitzel & Wolery, 2009) for increasing use of multisymbol messages in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) during a storybook reading activity. Method: In the study, we used a single-subject, multiple-probe research design across participants (Kazdin, 1982) with 6 children (ages 8-12) with ASD and who used AAC systems for communication...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Courtney T Byrd, Megann McGill, Zoi Gkalitsiou, Colleen Cappellini
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-disclosure on observers' perceptions of persons who stutter. Method: Participants (N = 173) were randomly assigned to view 2 of 4 possible videos (i.e., male self-disclosure, male no self-disclosure, female self-disclosure, and female no self-disclosure). After viewing both videos, participants completed a survey assessing their perceptions of the speakers. Results: Controlling for observer and speaker gender, listeners were more likely to select speakers who self-disclosed their stuttering as more friendly, outgoing, and confident compared with speakers who did not self-disclose...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Deborah A Hwa-Froelich, Hisako Matsuo, Kristal Jacobs
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among adoption, individual, and family variables on false belief performance of children adopted internationally (CAI). Method: Using a quasiexperimental design, thirty-five 4-year-old children adopted from Asian and Eastern European countries before age 2 years were compared with a U.S. group of 33 nonadopted 4-year-old children on a standardized English-language measure, 3 false belief tasks, and a go/no-go inhibition measure...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Julia Hollister, Amanda Owen Van Horne, Patricia Zebrowski
Purpose: The dual diathesis stressor model indicates that a mismatch between a child's endogenous linguistic abilities and exogenous linguistic contexts is one factor that contributes to stuttering behavior. In the present study, we used a developmental framework to investigate if reducing the gap between endogenous and exogenous linguistics factors would result in less disfluency for typical children, children who recover from stuttering (CWS-R), and children who persist. Method: Children between 28 and 43 months of age participated in this study: 8 typical children, 5 CWS-R, and 8 children who persist...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Laura M Justice, Jessica Logan, Hui Jiang, Mary Beth Schmitt
Background: This study was designed to provide recommended amounts of treatment to achieve the optimal amount of language gain for children with language impairment. Method: The authors retrospectively analyzed treatment outcomes for 233 children for delivered dose, intensity, and cumulative intensity of therapy. The steps of the analytical process they applied to arrive at algorithms for recommended amounts of treatment were (1) multilevel modeling to predict children's language gains from the 3 intensity parameters and (2) extraction of regression weights to create a recommended amount of treatment...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Elizabeth E Galletta, Peggy Conner, Amy Vogel-Eyny, Paola Marangolo
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the behavioral treatments used in aphasia rehabilitation research that have been combined with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Although tDCS in aphasia treatment has shown promise, the results have not been conclusive, and their interpretation is further compounded by the heterogeneity of study characteristics. Because implementing a behavioral task during brain stimulation has been shown to be pivotal to the adjuvant effects of tDCS, we analyze the behavioral treatments that have been paired with tDCS...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Amy Henderson, Heather Harris Wright
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of persons with aphasia (PWA) to resolve different types of ambiguous words (homophones, metaphors, and metonyms) in discourse contexts. Method: Six PWA and 10 controls listened to short discourses that biased either the dominant (more frequent) or subordinate (less frequent) version of an ambiguous word as well as nonsense (filler) discourses. Participants then indicated whether or not the final sentence, which contained the ambiguity, made sense in the discourse...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Bora Eom, Jee Eun Sung
Purpose: This study investigated whether sentence repetition-based working-memory (SR-WM) treatment increased sentence-repetition abilities and the treatment effects generalized to sentence-comprehension abilities, WM-span tasks, and general language-assessment tasks. Method: Six individuals with aphasia participated in the study. The treatment consisted of 12 sessions of approximately 1 hr per day, 3 times per week. The SR-WM treatment protocol followed components including maintenance and computation of linguistic units by facilitating a chunking strategy...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jee Eun Sung, Gayle DeDe, Soo Eun Lee
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine cross-linguistic differences in a picture-description task between Korean- and English-speaking individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia to determine whether a variation exists in the use of verbs and nouns across the language and aphasia groups. Method: Forty-eight individuals (male = 29; female = 19) participated in the study (n = 28 for aphasic group and n = 20 healthy controls). Data for English speakers were obtained from the Aphasia Bank Project...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jacquie Kurland, Edward J Stanek, Polly Stokes, Minming Li, Mary Andrianopoulos
Purpose: Intensive language action therapy (ILAT) can be effective in overcoming learned nonuse in chronic aphasia. It is suggested that all three guiding principles (constraint, communication embedding, massed practice) are essential to ILAT's success. We examined whether one of these, guidance by constraint, is critical. Method: Twenty-four participants with aphasia (PWAs) were assigned to ILAT or a modified version of promoting aphasic communicative effectiveness (PACE) in a randomized block, single-blind, parallel-group treatment study...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jessica D Richardson, Sarah Grace Hudspeth Dalton, Jennifer Shafer, Janet Patterson
Purpose: In aphasia treatment literature, scarce attention is paid to factors that may reduce a study's validity, including adherence to assessment and treatment procedures (i.e., fidelity). Although guidelines have been established for evaluating and reporting treatment fidelity, none exist for assessment fidelity. Method: We reviewed treatment fidelity guidelines and related literature to identify assessment fidelity components. We then examined 88 aphasia treatment studies published between 2010 and 2015 and report the frequency with which researchers provide information regarding the following assessment fidelity components: assessment instruments, assessor qualifications, assessor or rater training, assessment delivery, assessor or rater reliability, and assessor blinding...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Gerasimos Fergadiotis, Kyle Gorman, Steven Bedrick
Purpose: This study was intended to evaluate a series of algorithms developed to perform automatic classification of paraphasic errors (formal, semantic, mixed, neologistic, and unrelated errors). Method: We analyzed 7,111 paraphasias from the Moss Aphasia Psycholinguistics Project Database (Mirman et al., 2010) and evaluated the classification accuracy of 3 automated tools. First, we used frequency norms from the SUBTLEXus database (Brysbaert & New, 2009) to differentiate nonword errors and real-word productions...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Rebecca A Hayes, Michael Walsh Dickey, Tessa Warren
Purpose: This study examined the influence of verb-argument information and event-related plausibility on prediction of upcoming event locations in people with aphasia, as well as older and younger, neurotypical adults. It investigated how these types of information interact during anticipatory processing and how the ability to take advantage of the different types of information is affected by aphasia. Method: This study used a modified visual-world task to examine eye movements and offline photo selection...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Carrie A Des Roches, Sofia Vallila-Rohter, Sarah Villard, Yorghos Tripodis, David Caplan, Swathi Kiran
Purpose: The current study examined treatment outcomes and generalization patterns following 2 sentence comprehension therapies: object manipulation (OM) and sentence-to-picture matching (SPM). Findings were interpreted within the framework of specific deficit and resource reduction accounts, which were extended in order to examine the nature of generalization following treatment of sentence comprehension deficits in aphasia. Method: Forty-eight individuals with aphasia were enrolled in 1 of 8 potential treatment assignments that varied by task (OM, SPM), complexity of trained sentences (complex, simple), and syntactic movement (noun phrase, wh-movement)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Sarah J Wallace, Linda Worrall, Tanya Rose, Guylaine Le Dorze
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to identify outcome constructs that aphasia researchers consider essential to measure in all aphasia treatment research. Method: Purposively sampled researchers were invited to participate in a 3-round e-Delphi exercise. In Round 1, an open-ended question was used to elicit important outcome constructs; responses were analyzed using inductive content analysis. In Rounds 2 and 3, participants rated the importance of each outcome using a 9-point rating scale...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Julie Wambaugh, Linda Shuster, Dallin J Bailey, Shannon Mauszycki, Jacob Kean, Christina Nessler, Sandra Wright, Jessica Brunsvold
Purpose: The ability to recognize one's own speech errors has long been considered a clinical feature of acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) despite limited empirical data supporting this notion. This study was designed to (a) investigate the ability of speakers with AOS to self-judge the accuracy of their own word productions and (b) examine the test-retest stability of a measure to quantify the self-judgments of speakers with AOS. Method: Twenty-four speakers with AOS and aphasia repeated mono- and multisyllabic words...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Shannon C Mauszycki, Sandra Wright, Nicole Dingus, Julie L Wambaugh
Purpose: This investigation was designed to examine the effects of an articulatory-kinematic treatment in conjunction with visual biofeedback (VBFB) via electropalatography (EPG) on the accuracy of articulation for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: A multiple-baseline design across participants and behaviors was used with 4 individuals with chronic AOS and aphasia. Accuracy of target speech sounds in treated and untreated phrases in probe sessions served as the dependent variable...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Katarina L Haley, Jennifer N Shafer, Tyson G Harmon, Adam Jacks
Purpose: This study was intended to document speech recovery for 1 person with acquired apraxia of speech quantitatively and on the basis of her lived experience. Method: The second author sustained a traumatic brain injury that resulted in acquired apraxia of speech. Over a 2-year period, she documented her recovery through 22 video-recorded monologues. We analyzed these monologues using a combination of auditory perceptual, acoustic, and qualitative methods. Results: Recovery was evident for all quantitative variables examined...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Naomi Hashimoto
Purpose: The aims of the study were to investigate the use of semantic associative relationships as primes in treating naming deficits, or anomia, in aphasia and to determine if differential treatment effects would be found if 1 or 3 primes were presented. Method: Ten individuals with varying degrees of anomia participated in the study. A single-subject, A-B treatment design with a cross-over component was used. A 1-PRIME condition (use of 1 prime) was compared with a 3-PRIMES condition (use of 3 primes) for each participant...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Elena Checa, Miguel Galeote, Pilar Soto
Purpose: There are very few studies, and at present none in Spanish, on vocabulary composition in children with Down syndrome (DS). Nor has the topic been widely assessed in Spanish-speaking children with typical development (TD). This study analyzed the composition of early vocabularies in a large sample of Spanish-speaking children with DS and compared it with that of children with TD. Method: We studied 108 children with DS and 108 children with TD with mental ages between 8 and 29 months, matched for size of productive vocabulary and gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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