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American Journal of Speech-language Pathology

Yula C Serpanos, Brittany Renne, Janet R Schoepflin, Diane Davis
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of smartphone sound level meter applications (SLMAs) with calibration features across stimulus levels and for ambient room noise measures in the clinical setting. Method: The accuracy of 3 iOS-based smartphone SLMAs (SLMA1: Analyzer [Version 2.7.2, DSP Mobile], SLMA2: Sound Level Meter Pro [Version 2.2, Mint Muse LLC], and SLMA3: SPL Meter [Version 9.3, Andrew Smith, Studio Six Digital]), using a single smartphone device (iPhone 6S Model A1688, iOS 9...
November 6, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Hayo Terband, Manon Spruit, Ben Maassen
Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a highly prevalent spectrum of patterns of congenital defects resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol. Approximately 90% of the cases involve speech impairment. Yet, to date, no detailed symptom profiles nor dedicated treatment plans are available for this population. Purpose: This study set out to chart the speech and speech motor characteristics in boys with FASD to profile the concomitant speech impairment and identify possible underlying mechanisms...
October 31, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Nicole Rogus-Pulia, Ianessa Humbert, Christine Kolehmainen, Molly Carnes
Purpose: The field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD) faces a critical shortage of the faculty essential to train the future workforce of speech-language pathologists and audiologists. Despite a predominance of women in the field, men receive doctoral degrees, tenure status, academic leadership positions, and American Speech-Language-Hearing Association awards at disproportionately higher rates than women. The purpose of this review is to explore how implicit gender bias may contribute to female faculty advancement, including current and projected faculty workforce shortages, and to propose tangible solutions...
October 31, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Manal Sabri, Leah Fabiano-Smith
Purpose: This longitudinal study examined the phonological development of a bilingual Arabic-English-speaking child with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). The focus of the study was to observe the interaction between her two languages and to observe the effect of CIs on the acquisition of two speech sound systems. Method: This study followed a 3;6-year-old (2;5 hearing age) bilingual Arabic-English-speaking child with bilateral CIs to age 4;4 (3;2 hearing age)...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Mary E Weidner, Kenneth O St Louis, Haley L Glover
Purpose: Negative or uninformed stuttering attitudes proliferate among the general public, and bourgeoning research has shown that such attitudes might emerge as early as the preschool years. Much remains unknown about young children's stuttering attitudes, and conclusive recommendations to improve attitudes toward stuttering have yet to be advanced. This study sought to determine the effect of a new educational program on improving stuttering attitudes among preschool children using objective measures...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Benjamin Ehrlich, Liyu Lin, Jack Jiang
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a program to concatenate acoustic vowel segments that were selected with the moving window technique, a previously developed technique used to segment and select the least perturbed segment from a sustained vowel segment. The concatenated acoustic segments were compared with the nonconcatenated, short, individual acoustic segments for their ability to differentiate normal and pathological voices. The concatenation process sometimes created a clicking noise or beat, which was also analyzed to determine any confounding effects...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jeff Searl, Stephanie Knollhoff
Purpose: Sense of effort and fatigue associated with talking was compared in individuals with and without a total laryngectomy. Method: An online survey of individuals using tracheoesophageal speech (TES; n = 222), electrolaryngeal speech (ELS; n = 132), esophageal speech (n = 41), and laryngeal speech (LS; n = 112) asked about 3 domains of effort when talking: frequency of occurrence, withdrawal from talking, and location in the body. Three aspects of fatigue were explored: frequency of occurrence, fatigue type, and duration of talking before fatigue...
October 2, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jane Mertz Garcia, Edgar Chambers, Emily Groves Russell, Abilene Katt
Purpose: Modifying food texture is an important part of dysphagia management, yet less is known about the day-to-day practices that might impact the nutritional well-being of patients. This study surveyed staff involved in the service delivery of texture-modified foods with the objectives to gain information about roles and responsibilities, instruction and knowledge about modifying foods, and beliefs about the use of texture-modified foods in nutrition care. Method: We created a 21-item survey about texture-modified foods...
September 25, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Yina M Quique, William S Evans, Michael Walsh Dickey
Purpose: This meta-analysis synthesizes results from published studies that used semantic feature analysis (SFA) treatment to improve naming for people with aphasia. It examines how both person- and treatment-related variables affected the likelihood of correct naming responses in individual probe sessions for both acquisition (treated) and generalization (untreated) stimuli. Method: The meta-analysis compiled data from 12 studies analyzing a total of 35 participants with aphasia...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
William S Evans, William D Hula, Jeffrey J Starns
Purpose: After stroke, how well do people with aphasia (PWA) adapt to the altered functioning of their language system? When completing a language-dependent task, how well do PWA balance speed and accuracy when the goal is to respond both as quickly and accurately as possible? The current work investigates adaptation theory (Kolk & Heeschen, 1990) in the context of speed-accuracy trade-offs in a lexical decision task. PWA were predicted to set less beneficial speed-accuracy trade-offs than matched controls, and at least some PWA were predicted to present with adaptation deficits, with impaired accuracy or response times attributable to speed-accuracy trade-offs...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Shauna Berube, Jodi Nonnemacher, Cornelia Demsky, Shenly Glenn, Sadhvi Saxena, Amy Wright, Donna C Tippett, Argye E Hillis
Purpose: Our goal was to evaluate an updated version of the "Cookie Theft" picture by obtaining norms based on picture descriptions by healthy controls for total content units (CUs), syllables per CU, and the ratio of left-right CUs. In addition, we aimed to compare these measures from healthy controls to picture descriptions obtained from individuals with poststroke aphasia and primary progressive aphasia (PPA) to assess whether these measures can capture impairments in content and efficiency of communication...
September 11, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Priya Kucheria, McKay Moore Sohlberg, HyeonJin Yoon, Stephen Fickas, Jason Prideaux
Purpose: There is a lack of quick, reliable, and valid standardized reading comprehension assessments appropriate for postsecondary readers. We attempted to address this gap by designing Read, Understand, Learn, & Excel (RULE), a reading comprehension measure that employs sentence verification and recall tasks to assess reading comprehension. This article describes the exploratory study undertaken to construct RULE and then examines the preliminary concurrent validity and alternate form reliability of this measure...
September 11, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jamie H Azios, Jack S Damico, Nancye Roussel
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of persons with aphasia to access interaction and be included in social encounters in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Method: Four persons with aphasia were the focus of this investigation. A qualitative research approach using ethnographic methods was used to conduct participant observation, semistructured interviews, and artifact analysis. Expanded field notes from observations, transcribed interviews, and artifacts were then coded to identify patterns in the data...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Kelsey B Guyton, Mary J Sandage, Dallin Bailey, Nancy Haak, Lawrence Molt, Allison Plumb
Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical assessment recommendations for acquired velopharyngeal dysfunction (AVPD) and, through a literature review and online survey, summarize current practice patterns for evaluation and treatment pathway determination for this target population. Method: An online survey to query current assessment procedures and treatment pathway recommendations for AVPD was developed. Following survey results, a literature review was completed to determine evidence-based recommendations for assessment procedures and intervention recommendations based on assessment findings...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Sharynne McLeod, Kathryn Crowe
Purpose: The aim of this study was to provide a cross-linguistic review of acquisition of consonant phonemes to inform speech-language pathologists' expectations of children's developmental capacity by (a) identifying characteristics of studies of consonant acquisition, (b) describing general principles of consonant acquisition, and (c) providing case studies for English, Japanese, Korean, and Spanish. Method: A cross-linguistic review was undertaken of 60 articles describing 64 studies of consonant acquisition by 26,007 children from 31 countries in 27 languages: Afrikaans, Arabic, Cantonese, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Haitian Creole, Hebrew, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Jamaican Creole, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Maltese, Mandarin (Putonghua), Portuguese, Setswana (Tswana), Slovenian, Spanish, Swahili, Turkish, and Xhosa...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Anumitha Venkatraman, M Preeti Sivasankar
Purpose: Vocal fry is prevalent in everyday speech. However, whether the use of vocal fry is detrimental to voice production is unclear. This preliminary study assessed the effects of using continuous vocal fry on voice production measures and listener ratings. Method: Ten healthy individuals (equal male and female, mean age = 22.4 years) completed 2 counterbalanced sessions. In each session, participants read in continuous vocal fry or habitual voice quality for 30 min at a comfortable intensity...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Shelley B Brundage, Hannah Rowe
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the typical disfluency rates at 30 months old in a large group of simultaneous bilingual children and also investigate the relationships between disfluency rates and linguistic complexity (mean length of utterance in words [MLU-W]), vocabulary diversity (VocD), and speaking rate (utterances per unit time). Method: Fifty-three typically developing children who had been exposed to Spanish and English from birth participated in this descriptive study...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Rachel A Everard, Peter Howell
Purpose: Qualitative data were obtained from 8 people who stutter about their experiences and changes they perceived following attendance of an intensive group therapy intervention. Measures that related to reductions in stuttering, improved communicative confidence, and impacts on stuttering and quality of life were used to complement the qualitative data. Method: Eight participants attended a group stuttering modification course for adults who stutter. They reported their experiences of therapy and perceived changes in a focus group immediately after therapy and at a semistructured interview 6 months post-therapy...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Sabine Van Eerdenbrugh, Ann Packman, Sue O'Brian, Mark Onslow
Purpose: The Lidcombe program is a treatment for preschool-age children who stutter. Studies indicate that its implementation is not always straightforward. In this study, challenges that parents and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) encounter when implementing the Lidcombe program were identified, and strategies to address them were sought. Method: In Part 1, Lidcombe program treatment challenges were determined from 4 sources. In Part 2, 7 SLPs with 15 to 23 years of Lidcombe program experience were interviewed to develop strategies to respond to the identified treatment challenges...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Charn Nang, Deborah Hersh, Katie Milton, Su Re Lau
Purpose: The experiences of women who stutter have been underresearched. Clinicians have little guidance from the research literature on issues specific to women who stutter and are likely to have less clinical contact with this group than with men who stutter because of the higher prevalence of stuttering in men. This study explored the experiences of a small group of women who stutter with a particular focus on what the main current issues are and how gender may have influenced experiences with stuttering...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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