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American Journal of Speech-language Pathology

Elena Checa, Miguel Galeote, Pilar Soto
Purpose: There are very few studies, and at present none in Spanish, on vocabulary composition in children with Down syndrome (DS). Nor has the topic been widely assessed in Spanish-speaking children with typical development (TD). This study analyzed the composition of early vocabularies in a large sample of Spanish-speaking children with DS and compared it with that of children with TD. Method: We studied 108 children with DS and 108 children with TD with mental ages between 8 and 29 months, matched for size of productive vocabulary and gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Amber D Franklin, Kara A Oksanen, Kaitlyn E Gilfert
Purpose: This study compares goodness and accentedness ratings of speech tokens rated by listeners who are naive to and aware of speakers' native language backgrounds. Listener responses to open-ended questions regarding goodness and accentedness ratings are also examined. Method: Twenty-eight monolingual speakers of U.S. English served as listeners. Listeners were presented with 5 blocks of /hVt/ tokens. Each block represented a different vowel target and comprised correct and incorrect productions from English, Spanish, Korean, and Japanese speakers...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Stephanie R C Zacharias, Susan Baker Brehm, Barbara Weinrich, Lisa Kelchner, Meredith Tabangin, Alessandro de Alarcon
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of flexible and rigid endoscopy and stroboscopy for the identification of anatomical and physiological features in children with bilateral vocal fold lesions. The secondary purpose was to describe the age distribution of patients who could tolerate use of the different types of endoscopes. Method: This cross-sectional clinic-based study included 38 children (ages 5 to 12 years) diagnosed with bilateral vocal fold lesions via videoendoscopy...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
John C Thorne, Truman E Coggins
Purpose: Previous evidence suggests that cohesive referencing errors made during narratives may be a behavior that is revealing of underlying central nervous system abnormality in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current research extends this evidence. Method: Retrospective analysis of narrative and clinical data from 152 children (ages 6 to 14), 72 of whom had confirmed FASD, was used. Narrative analysis was conducted blind to diagnostic status, age, or gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jennifer Horner, Maria Modayil, Laura Roche Chapman, An Dinh
Purpose: When patients refuse medical or rehabilitation procedures, waivers of liability have been used to bar future lawsuits. The purpose of this tutorial is to review the myriad issues surrounding consent, refusal, and waivers. The larger goal is to invigorate clinical practice by providing clinicians with knowledge of ethics and law. This tutorial is for educational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. Method: The authors use a hypothetical case of a "noncompliant" individual under the care of an interdisciplinary neurorehabilitation team to illuminate the ethical and legal features of the patient-practitioner relationship; the elements of clinical decision-making capacity; the duty of disclosure and the right of informed consent or informed refusal; and the relationship among noncompliance, defensive practices, and iatrogenic harm...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Daryush D Mehta, Harold A Cheyne, Asa Wehner, James T Heaton, Robert E Hillman
Purpose: Accurate estimation of daily patterns of vocal behavior is essential to understanding the role of voice use in voice disorders. Given that clinicians currently rely on patient self-report to assess daily vocal behaviors, this study sought to assess the accuracy with which adults with and without voice disorders can estimate their amount of daily voice use in terms of phonation time. Method: Eighteen subjects (6 patients, 6 matched members of a control group without voice disorders, 6 low voice users) wore the accelerometer-based Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM; model 3200, KayPENTAX, Montvale, NJ) for at least 5 workdays...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Min Kyung Han, Holly L Storkel, Jaehoon Lee, Casey Cox
Purpose: Noisy conditions make auditory processing difficult. This study explores whether noisy conditions influence the effects of phonotactic probability (the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence) and neighborhood density (phonological similarity among words) on adults' word learning. Method: Fifty-eight adults learned nonwords varying in phonotactic probability and neighborhood density in either an unfavorable (0-dB signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]) or a favorable (+8-dB SNR) listening condition...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Tijana Simic, Carol Leonard, Laura Laird, Jennifer Cupit, Fiona Höbler, Elizabeth Rochon
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the usability of delivering the Phonological Components Analysis treatment for anomia (Leonard, Rochon, & Laird, 2008) remotely via the Internet to individuals with chronic poststroke aphasia. A secondary aim was to probe the experiences and satisfaction of clinicians in administering treatment at a distance. Method: Six individuals with mild-moderate aphasia and 2 trained clinicians participated in this usability study. Participants and clinicians underwent approximately 6 hr of treatment under observation by an independent observer...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Paul M Evitts, Heather Starmer, Kristine Teets, Christen Montgomery, Lauren Calhoun, Allison Schulze, Jenna MacKenzie, Lauren Adams
Purpose: There is currently minimal information on the impact of dysphonia secondary to phonotrauma on listeners. Considering the high incidence of voice disorders with professional voice users, it is important to understand the impact of a dysphonic voice on their audiences. Methods: Ninety-one healthy listeners (39 men, 52 women; mean age = 23.62 years) were presented with speech stimuli from 5 healthy speakers and 5 speakers diagnosed with dysphonia secondary to phonotrauma...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Erinn H Finke
Purpose: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have social deficits that affect making and maintaining friends. Many empirically tested methods to address these social deficits are available, yet difficulties related to the establishment and maintenance of authentic friendships persist. Method: This viewpoint article (a) briefly reviews the current state of the science relative to social and friendship skills training for individuals with ASD, (b) considers the potential links (or lack thereof) between current social and friendship skill interventions for individuals with ASD and outcomes related to making and maintaining friends, (c) examines how friendship-related outcomes might be maximized, and (d) proposes a framework for intervention planning that may promote these valued outcomes...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Maria E Powell, Dimitar D Deliyski, Robert E Hillman, Steven M Zeitels, James A Burns, Daryush D Mehta
Purpose: Videostroboscopy (VS) uses an indirect physiological signal to predict the phase of the vocal fold vibratory cycle for sampling. Simulated stroboscopy (SS) extracts the phase of the glottal cycle directly from the changing glottal area in the high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) image sequence. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of SS relative to VS for clinical assessment of vocal fold vibratory function in patients with mass lesions. Methods: VS and SS recordings were obtained from 28 patients with vocal fold mass lesions before and after phonomicrosurgery and 17 controls who were vocally healthy...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Sophie E Ambrose
Purpose: This study examined the gesture use of 14-month-old toddlers with hearing loss (HL) and mothers' responses to children's early gesture use. Comparisons were made to symbolic language and to dyads in which the toddler had normal hearing (NH). Method: Participants were 25 mother-toddler dyads in which the child had HL and a socioeconomic-status matched group of 23 mother-toddler dyads in which the child had NH. Thirty-minute mother-child interactions were video-recorded, transcribed for spoken language, sign, and gesture use, and coded for maternal responses to children's gestures...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva, Alex Burdorf
Purpose: We determined the natural course of voice complaints among school workers and established the risk factors associated with incidence and chronic voice complaints. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study with an 11-month follow-up among 682 school workers. Participants filled out a questionnaire on individual and work-related conditions and the nature and severity of voice complaints. All participants who provided baseline data were contacted in the 11-month follow-up, if they were still working in the school...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Angela Hein Ciccia, Jennifer P Lundine, Alyssa Coreno
Purpose: Access to speech-language pathology (SLP) services is a critical variable in the rehabilitation of pediatric brain injury. In this study, we examined patterns of SLP referral and factors affecting referral during the acute period following brain injury in 2 large pediatric specialty hospitals. Method: In a retrospective, cohort chart review study, data collection focused on referrals made during the acute period using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for primary diagnoses of brain injury between 2007 and 2014 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014)...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Anna F Rumbach, Rebecca Cremer, Astra Chatwood, Sari Fink, Sadaf Haider, Michelle Yee
Purpose: Dysphagia is common sequelae of chemical ingestion injury, resulting from damage to critical swallowing structures. From a speech-language pathology perspective, this study outlines the physiological deficits in 2 individuals with severe injury (1 woman, acid; 1 man, alkali) and the pattern of dysphagia rehabilitation and recovery. Method: A retrospective chart review of clinical and instrumental assessments was conducted to examine swallow characteristics and speech-language pathology management (compensatory and rehabilitation strategies) at multiple time points...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Cathy Binger, Jamie Ragsdale, Aimee Bustos
Purpose: The purposes of this investigation were to determine if measures such as mean length of utterance (MLU) and percentage of comprehensible words can be derived reliably from language samples of children with severe speech impairments and if such measures correlate with tools that measure constructs assumed to be related. Method: Language samples of 15 preschoolers with severe speech impairments (but receptive language within normal limits) were transcribed independently by 2 transcribers...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jia-Shiou Liao
Purpose: This study investigated the acoustic properties of 6 Taiwan Southern Min vowels produced by 10 laryngeal speakers (LA), 10 speakers with a pneumatic artificial larynx (PA), and 8 esophageal speakers (ES). Method: Each of the 6 monophthongs of Taiwan Southern Min (/i, e, a, ɔ, u, ə/) was represented by a Taiwan Southern Min character and appeared randomly on a list 3 times (6 Taiwan Southern Min characters × 3 repetitions = 18 tokens). Each Taiwan Southern Min character in this study has the same syllable structure, /V/, and all were read with tone 1 (high and level)...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jeanette E Benigas, Michelle Bourgeois
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether spaced retrieval (SR), when paired with an external memory aid, is an effective technique to teach persons with dementia to use compensatory swallowing strategies. A secondary purpose was to learn whether speech-language pathologists naive to the study aims would judge posttraining sessions as improved, or safer, in comparison to baseline sessions, thereby validating the changes in behavior due to SR training to use external aids during meals...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Ji Young Na, Krista Wilkinson, Meredith Karny, Sarah Blackstone, Cynthia Stifter
PURPOSE: Emotional competence refers to the ability to identify, respond to, and manage one's own and others' emotions. Emotional competence is critical to many functional outcomes, including making and maintaining friends, academic success, and community integration. There appears to be a link between the development of language and the development of emotional competence in children who use speech. Little information is available about these issues in children who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jennifer P Lundine, Rebecca J McCauley
PURPOSE: With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards, expository texts gain prominence at all grade levels and for all disciplines. Although the linguistic and cognitive complexities of exposition pose challenges for all children, they may create additional challenges for children and adolescents with language difficulties. Therefore, this tutorial provides background information for clinicians regarding the structure, development, and specific difficulties associated with exposition across the 4 modalities of listening, speaking, reading, and writing...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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