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Nutrition Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718396/a-structured-literature-review-on-the-role-of-mindfulness-mindful-eating-and-intuitive-eating-in-changing-eating-behaviours-effectiveness-and-associated-potential-mechanisms
#1
Janet M Warren, Nicola Smith, Margaret Ashwell
The role of mindfulness, mindful eating and a newer concept of intuitive eating in modulating eating habits is an area of increasing interest. In this structured literature review, a summary of the current evidence is presented, together with details of interventions undertaken and the tools to measure outcomes. It is broad in scope given the emerging evidence base in this area. The review yielded sixty-eight publications: twenty-three interventions in obese/overweight populations; twenty-nine interventions in normal-weight populations; sixteen observational studies, three of which were carried out in overweight/obese populations...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676135/dietary-fibre-in-europe-current-state-of-knowledge-on-definitions-sources-recommendations-intakes-and-relationships-to-health
#2
Alison M Stephen, Martine M-J Champ, Susan J Cloran, Mathilde Fleith, Lilou van Lieshout, Heddie Mejborn, Victoria J Burley
Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world...
July 5, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625227/a-brief-review-of-salient-factors-influencing-adult-eating-behaviour
#3
Christine Emilien, James H Hollis
A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals...
June 19, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606220/current-and-future-strategies-for-the-nutritional-management-of-cardiometabolic-complications-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#4
Lauren Turner, Karen Poole, Sara Faithfull, Bruce A Griffin
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used widely as part of a combined modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, ADT has also been associated with the development of cardiometabolic complications that can increase mortality from cardiovascular events. There is emerging evidence to suggest that ADT-related cardiometabolic risk can be mitigated by diet and lifestyle modification. While the clinical focus for a nutritional approach for achieving this effect is unclear, it may depend upon the timely assessment and targeting of dietary changes to the specific risk phenotype of the patient...
June 13, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587698/folate-status-in-women-of-childbearing-age-with-obesity-a-review
#5
Silvia Maffoni, Rachele De Giuseppe, Fatima Cody Stanford, Hellas Cena
Several studies have described a positive association between elevated BMI and birth defects risk. Data on plasma concentration of folate in pregnant women with obesity have shown values far below those recommended, regardless of diet, while folate levels should increase before pregnancy to reduce neural tube defects. We report a descriptive review of the most recent studies (from 2005 to 2015) to evaluate folate status through a population of women of childbearing age affected by obesity. The literature contains few studies, which present conflicting results regarding folate status in non-pregnant women of childbearing age affected by obesity, and it appears that there is a modification in folate metabolism, with a reduction in plasma folate levels and an increase in erythrocyte folate uptake...
June 7, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583217/denis-burkitt-and-the-origins-of-the-dietary-fibre-hypothesis
#6
John H Cummings, Amanda Engineer
For more than 200 years the fibre in plant foods has been known by animal nutritionists to have significant effects on digestion. Its role in human nutrition began to be investigated towards the end of the 19th century. However, between 1966 and 1972, Denis Burkitt, a surgeon who had recently returned from Africa, brought together ideas from a range of disciplines together with observations from his own experience to propose a radical view of the role of fibre in human health. Burkitt came late to the fibre story but built on the work of three physicians (Peter Cleave, G...
June 6, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566109/the-role-of-inorganic-nitrate-and-nitrite-in-cvd
#7
Jacklyn Jackson, Amanda J Patterson, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Mark McEvoy
CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide, a consequence of mostly poor lifestyle and dietary behaviours. Although whole fruit and vegetable consumption has been consistently shown to reduce CVD risk, the exact protective constituents of these foods are yet to be clearly identified. A recent and biologically plausible hypothesis supporting the cardioprotective effects of vegetables has been linked to their inorganic nitrate content. Approximately 60-80 % inorganic nitrate exposure in the human diet is contributed by vegetable consumption...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294082/genetics-of-fat-intake-in-the-determination-of-body-mass
#8
Agata Chmurzynska, Monika A Mlodzik
Body mass and fat intake are multifactorial traits that have genetic and environmental components. The gene with the greatest effect on body mass is FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated), but several studies have shown that the effect of FTO (and of other genes) on body mass can be modified by the intake of nutrients. The so-called gene-environment interactions may also be important for the effectiveness of weight-loss strategies. Food choices, and thus fat intake, depend to some extent on individual preferences...
June 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222828/metabolic-consequences-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-diagnostic-and-methodological-challenges
#9
Yvonne M Jeanes, Sue Reeves
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a considerable risk of metabolic dysfunction. This review aims to present contemporary knowledge on obesity, insulin resistance and PCOS with emphasis on the diagnostic and methodological challenges encountered in research and clinical practice. Variable diagnostic criteria for PCOS and associated phenotypes are frequently published. Targeted searches were conducted to identify all available data concerning the association of obesity and insulin resistance with PCOS up to September 2016...
June 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222814/milk-kefir-nutritional-microbiological-and-health-benefits
#10
Damiana D Rosa, Manoela M S Dias, Łukasz M Grześkowiak, Sandra A Reis, Lisiane L Conceição, Maria do Carmo G Peluzio
Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home...
June 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202104/improving-selection-of-markers-in-nutrition-research-evaluation-of-the-criteria-proposed-by-the-ilsi-europe-marker-validation-initiative
#11
Philip C Calder, Alan Boobis, Deborah Braun, Claire L Champ, Louise Dye, Suzanne Einöther, Arno Greyling, Christophe Matthys, Peter Putz, Suzan Wopereis, Jayne V Woodside, Jean-Michel Antoine
The conduct of high-quality nutrition research requires the selection of appropriate markers as outcomes, for example as indicators of food or nutrient intake, nutritional status, health status or disease risk. Such selection requires detailed knowledge of the markers, and consideration of the factors that may influence their measurement, other than the effects of nutritional change. A framework to guide selection of markers within nutrition research studies would be a valuable tool for researchers. A multidisciplinary Expert Group set out to test criteria designed to aid the evaluation of candidate markers for their usefulness in nutrition research and subsequently to develop a scoring system for markers...
June 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115036/traditional-low-alcoholic-and-non-alcoholic-fermented-beverages-consumed-in-european-countries-a-neglected-food-group
#12
Aristea Baschali, Effie Tsakalidou, Adamantini Kyriacou, Nena Karavasiloglou, Antonia-Leda Matalas
Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies...
June 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112064/nutrition-infection-and-stunting-the-roles-of-deficiencies-of-individual-nutrients-and-foods-and-of-inflammation-as-determinants-of-reduced-linear-growth-of-children
#13
D Joe Millward
The regulation of linear growth by nutritional and inflammatory influences is examined in terms of growth-plate endochondral ossification, in order to better understand stunted growth in children. Linear growth is controlled by complex genetic, physiological, and nutrient-sensitive endocrine/paracrine/autocrine mediated molecular signalling mechanisms, possibly including sleep adequacy through its influence on growth hormone secretion. Inflammation, which accompanies most infections and environmental enteric dysfunction, inhibits endochondral ossification through the action of mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, the activin A-follistatin system, glucocorticoids and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
June 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511733/similarities-and-interactions-between-the-ageing-process-and-high-chronic-intake-of-added-sugars
#14
Eva Gatineau, Sergio Polakof, Dominique Dardevet, Laurent Mosoni
In our societies, the proportions of elderly people and of obese individuals are increasing. Both factors are associated with high health-related costs. During obesity, many authors suggest that it is a high chronic intake of added sugars (HCIAS) that triggers the shift towards pathology. However, the majority of studies were performed in young subjects and only a few were interested in the interaction with the ageing process. Our purpose was to discuss the metabolic effects of HCIAS, compare with the effects of ageing, and evaluate how deleterious the combined action of HCIAS and ageing could be...
May 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511731/dietary-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-evolution-of-a-new-nutrient
#15
Ann Ashworth, Raul Bescos
Dietary nitrate is mainly obtained from vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables and beetroot. As a result of early research, dietary nitrate is currently viewed as a contaminant linked to increased risks of stomach cancer and methaemoglobinaemia. Consequently, nitrate levels are restricted in certain vegetables and in water supplies to ensure exposure levels remain below an acceptable daily intake of 3·7 mg/kg per d. The average nitrate intake in the UK is approximately 70 mg/d, although some population groups, such as vegetarians, may consume three times that amount...
May 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462729/nutritional-aspects-of-commercially-prepared-infant-foods-in-developed-countries-a-narrative-review
#16
Kate Maslin, Carina Venter
Nutritional intake during infancy is a critical aspect of child development and health that is of significant public health concern. Although there is extensive research on breast-feeding and timing of solid food introduction, there is less evidence on types of solid foods fed to infants, specifically commercially prepared infant foods. The consumption of commercially prepared infant foods is very prevalent in many developed countries, exceeding the consumption of homemade foods in some situations. Although these food products may have practical advantages, there are concerns about their nutritional composition, sweet taste, bioavailability of micronutrients, diversity of ingredients and long-term health effects...
May 2, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294088/an-update-on-diet-and-nutritional-factors-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-management
#17
Marina Aparicio-Soto, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease characterised by multiple organ involvement and a large number of complications. SLE management remains complicated owing to the biological heterogeneity between patients and the lack of safe and specific targeted therapies. There is evidence that dietary factors can contribute to the geoepidemiology of autoimmune diseases such as SLE. Thus, diet therapy could be a promising approach in SLE owing to both its potential prophylactic effects, without the side effects of classical pharmacology, and its contribution to reducing co-morbidities and improving quality of life in patients with SLE...
March 15, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995830/mechanisms-responsible-for-the-hypocholesterolaemic-effect-of-regular-consumption-of-probiotics
#18
S A Reis, L L Conceição, D D Rosa, N P Siqueira, M C G Peluzio
CVD affect a large proportion of the world's population, with dyslipidaemia as the major risk factor. The regular consumption of both probiotic bacteria and yeast has been associated with improvement in the serum lipid profile. Thus, the present review aims to describe and discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of regular consumption of probiotic bacteria and yeast. Regarding the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic bacteria, the potential mechanisms responsible include: deconjugation of bile salts; modulation of lipid metabolism; and decreased absorption of intestinal cholesterol through co-precipitation of intestinal cholesterol with the deconjugated bile salts, incorporation and assimilation of cholesterol in the cell membrane of the probiotics, intestinal conversion of cholesterol in coprostanol, and inhibition of the expression of the intestinal cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) in the enterocytes...
December 20, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976606/the-progression-of-coeliac-disease-its-neurological-and-psychiatric-implications
#19
Giovanna Campagna, Mirko Pesce, Raffaella Tatangelo, Alessia Rizzuto, Irene La Fratta, Alfredo Grilli
The aim of the paper is to show the various neurological and psychiatric symptoms in coeliac disease (CD). CD is a T cell-mediated, tissue-specific autoimmune disease which affects genetically susceptible individuals after dietary exposure to proline- and glutamine-rich proteins contained in certain cereal grains. Genetics, environmental factors and different immune systems, together with the presence of auto-antigens, are taken into account when identifying the pathogenesis of CD. CD pathogenesis is related to immune dysregulation, which involves the gastrointestinal system, and the extra-intestinal systems such as the nervous system, whose neurological symptoms are evidenced in CD patients...
December 15, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955721/a-review-of-the-design-and-validation-of-web-and-computer-based-24-h-dietary-recall-tools
#20
Claire M Timon, Rinske van den Barg, Richard J Blain, Laura Kehoe, Katie Evans, Janette Walton, Albert Flynn, Eileen R Gibney
Technology-based dietary assessment offers solutions to many of the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methodologies including cost, participation rates and the accuracy of data collected. The 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) method is currently the most utilised method for the collection of dietary intake data at a national level. Recently there have been many developments using web-based platforms to collect food intake data using the principles of the 24HDR method. This review identifies web- and computer-based 24HDR tools that have been developed for both children and adult population groups, and examines common design features and the methods used to investigate the performance and validity of these tools...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
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