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Nutrition Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202104/improving-selection-of-markers-in-nutrition-research-evaluation-of-the-criteria-proposed-by-the-ilsi-europe-marker-validation-initiative
#1
Philip C Calder, Alan Boobis, Deborah Braun, Claire L Champ, Louise Dye, Suzanne Einöther, Arno Greyling, Christophe Matthys, Peter Putz, Suzan Wopereis, Jayne V Woodside, Jean-Michel Antoine
The conduct of high-quality nutrition research requires the selection of appropriate markers as outcomes, for example as indicators of food or nutrient intake, nutritional status, health status or disease risk. Such selection requires detailed knowledge of the markers, and consideration of the factors that may influence their measurement, other than the effects of nutritional change. A framework to guide selection of markers within nutrition research studies would be a valuable tool for researchers. A multidisciplinary Expert Group set out to test criteria designed to aid the evaluation of candidate markers for their usefulness in nutrition research and subsequently to develop a scoring system for markers...
February 16, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115036/traditional-low-alcoholic-and-non-alcoholic-fermented-beverages-consumed-in-european-countries-a-neglected-food-group
#2
Aristea Baschali, Effie Tsakalidou, Adamantini Kyriacou, Nena Karavasiloglou, Antonia-Leda Matalas
Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies...
January 24, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112064/nutrition-infection-and-stunting-the-roles-of-deficiencies-of-individual-nutrients-and-foods-and-of-inflammation-as-determinants-of-reduced-linear-growth-of-children
#3
D Joe Millward
The regulation of linear growth by nutritional and inflammatory influences is examined in terms of growth-plate endochondral ossification, in order to better understand stunted growth in children. Linear growth is controlled by complex genetic, physiological, and nutrient-sensitive endocrine/paracrine/autocrine mediated molecular signalling mechanisms, possibly including sleep adequacy through its influence on growth hormone secretion. Inflammation, which accompanies most infections and environmental enteric dysfunction, inhibits endochondral ossification through the action of mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, the activin A-follistatin system, glucocorticoids and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
January 23, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995830/mechanisms-responsible-for-the-hypocholesterolaemic-effect-of-regular-consumption-of-probiotics
#4
S A Reis, L L Conceição, D D Rosa, N P Siqueira, M C G Peluzio
CVD affect a large proportion of the world's population, with dyslipidaemia as the major risk factor. The regular consumption of both probiotic bacteria and yeast has been associated with improvement in the serum lipid profile. Thus, the present review aims to describe and discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of regular consumption of probiotic bacteria and yeast. Regarding the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic bacteria, the potential mechanisms responsible include: deconjugation of bile salts; modulation of lipid metabolism; and decreased absorption of intestinal cholesterol through co-precipitation of intestinal cholesterol with the deconjugated bile salts, incorporation and assimilation of cholesterol in the cell membrane of the probiotics, intestinal conversion of cholesterol in coprostanol, and inhibition of the expression of the intestinal cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) in the enterocytes...
December 20, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976606/the-progression-of-coeliac-disease-its-neurological-and-psychiatric-implications
#5
Giovanna Campagna, Mirko Pesce, Raffaella Tatangelo, Alessia Rizzuto, Irene La Fratta, Alfredo Grilli
The aim of the paper is to show the various neurological and psychiatric symptoms in coeliac disease (CD). CD is a T cell-mediated, tissue-specific autoimmune disease which affects genetically susceptible individuals after dietary exposure to proline- and glutamine-rich proteins contained in certain cereal grains. Genetics, environmental factors and different immune systems, together with the presence of auto-antigens, are taken into account when identifying the pathogenesis of CD. CD pathogenesis is related to immune dysregulation, which involves the gastrointestinal system, and the extra-intestinal systems such as the nervous system, whose neurological symptoms are evidenced in CD patients...
December 15, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955721/a-review-of-the-design-and-validation-of-web-and-computer-based-24-h-dietary-recall-tools
#6
Claire M Timon, Rinske van den Barg, Richard J Blain, Laura Kehoe, Katie Evans, Janette Walton, Albert Flynn, Eileen R Gibney
Technology-based dietary assessment offers solutions to many of the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methodologies including cost, participation rates and the accuracy of data collected. The 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) method is currently the most utilised method for the collection of dietary intake data at a national level. Recently there have been many developments using web-based platforms to collect food intake data using the principles of the 24HDR method. This review identifies web- and computer-based 24HDR tools that have been developed for both children and adult population groups, and examines common design features and the methods used to investigate the performance and validity of these tools...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955720/current-evidence-on-the-association-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-dietary-patterns-in-a-global-perspective
#7
Zeinab Hosseini, Susan J Whiting, Hassan Vatanparast
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a key indicator of two main causes of death worldwide: CVD and diabetes. The present paper aimed to perform a review of the population-based research on the association of dietary patterns and the MetS in terms of methodology and findings. For the purpose of the present study, a scoping literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and hand searching in Google Scholar. Thirty-nine population-based studies were selected. Most of these studies used the factor analysis method and the a priori dietary approach, which had been initially extracted via a posteriori methods such as using the Mediterranean dietary pattern...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866493/dietary-dha-and-health-cognitive-function-ageing
#8
Carlos Cardoso, Cláudia Afonso, Narcisa M Bandarra
DHA is a key nutritional n-3 PUFA and needs to be supplied by the human diet. DHA is found in significant amounts in the retinal and neuronal cell membranes due to its high fluidity. Indeed, DHA is selectively concentrated in the synaptic and retinal membranes. DHA is deemed to display anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce the risk of CVD. Consumption of larger amounts of DHA appears to reduce the risk of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Conversely, it has been shown that loss of DHA from the nerve cell membrane leads to dysfunction of the central nervous system in the form of anxiety, irritability, susceptibility to stress, dyslexia, impaired memory and cognitive functions, and extended reaction times...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841104/effects-of-flavonoids-on-intestinal-inflammation-barrier-integrity-and-changes-in-gut-microbiota-during-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Katherine Gil-Cardoso, Iris Ginés, Montserrat Pinent, Anna Ardévol, Mayte Blay, Ximena Terra
Diet-induced obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, which, in most cases, leads to the development of metabolic disorders, primarily insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although prior studies have implicated the adipose tissue as being primarily responsible for obesity-associated inflammation, the latest discoveries have correlated impairments in intestinal immune homeostasis and the mucosal barrier with increased activation of the inflammatory pathways and the development of insulin resistance...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821191/nutritional-management-of-hyperapob
#10
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666526/dairy-food-products-good-or-bad-for-cardiometabolic-disease
#11
Julie A Lovegrove, D Ian Givens
Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasingly and is a key risk for CVD development, now recognised as the leading cause of death globally. Dietary strategies to reduce CVD development include reduction of saturated fat intake. Milk and dairy products are the largest contributors to dietary saturated fats in the UK and reduced consumption is often recommended as a strategy for risk reduction. However, overall evidence from prospective cohort studies does not confirm a detrimental association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514726/association-between-obesity-and-asthma-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-clinical-profile
#12
Magdalena Muc, Anabela Mota-Pinto, Cristina Padez
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, and obese asthmatics have lower disease control and increased symptom severity. Several putative links have been proposed, including genetics, mechanical restriction of the chest and the intake of corticosteroids. The most consistent evidence, however, comes from studies of cytokines produced by the adipose tissue called adipokines. Adipokine imbalance is associated with both proinflammatory status and asthma. Although reverse causation has been proposed, it is now acknowledged that obesity precedes asthma symptoms...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364352/when-to-eat-the-influence-of-circadian-rhythms-on-metabolic-health-are-animal-studies-providing-the-evidence
#13
Sofía Moran-Ramos, Adrian Baez-Ruiz, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
As obesity and metabolic diseases rise, there is need to investigate physiological and behavioural aspects associated with their development. Circadian rhythms have a profound influence on metabolic processes, as they prepare the body to optimise energy use and storage. Moreover, food-related signals confer temporal order to organs involved in metabolic regulation. Therefore food intake should be synchronised with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to elaborate efficient responses to environmental challenges...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364160/modulating-adult-neurogenesis-through-dietary-interventions
#14
Christine Heberden
Three areas in the brain continuously generate new neurons throughout life: the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the median eminence in the hypothalamus. These areas harbour neural stem cells, which contribute to neural repair by generating daughter cells that then become functional neurons or glia. Impaired neurogenesis leads to detrimental consequences, such as depression, decline of cognitive abilities and obesity. Adult neurogenesis is a versatile process that can be modulated either positively or negatively by many effectors, external or endogenous...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350652/ihd-from-copper-deficiency-a-unified-theory
#15
Leslie M Klevay
The theory, in brief outline here, implicating deficiency of Cu in the aetiology and pathophysiology of IHD explains more attributes of the disease than any other theory. This theory satisfies several of Hill's criteria of a half-century ago for deducing association between an environmental feature and presence of an illness. Most important is the temporal association between the rise of IHD and the decrease in dietary Cu since the 1930s along with a parallel increase in the supplementation of pregnant women with Fe, a Cu antagonist...
June 28, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350560/nutrition-and-the-homeless-the-underestimated-challenge
#16
J V Seale, R Fallaize, J A Lovegrove
Homelessness is present in most societies and represents a situation in which the basic needs for survival including food are often limited. It is logical to surmise that the homeless person's diet is likely to be nutritionally deficient and yet there is a relative paucity in research regarding this issue with studies varying in both their methodology and homeless population. Despite these differences, diets of the homeless are frequently characterised as high in saturated fat and deficient in fibre and certain micronutrients, all of which can have negative implications for the homeless individual's health and/or mental state...
June 28, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356771/protein-structural-changes-during-processing-of-vegetable-feed-ingredients-used-in-swine-diets-implications-for-nutritional-value
#17
S Salazar-Villanea, W H Hendriks, E M A M Bruininx, H Gruppen, A F B van der Poel
Protein structure influences the accessibility of enzymes for digestion. The proportion of intramolecular β-sheets in the secondary structure of native proteins has been related to a decrease in protein digestibility. Changes to proteins that can be considered positive (for example, denaturation and random coil formation) or negative (for example, aggregation and Maillard reactions) for protein digestibility can occur simultaneously during processing. The final result of these changes on digestibility seems to be a counterbalance of the occurrence of each phenomenon...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176552/critical-review-evaluating-the-pig-as-a-model-for-human-nutritional-physiology
#18
Eugeni Roura, Sietse-Jan Koopmans, Jean-Paul Lallès, Isabelle Le Huerou-Luron, Nadia de Jager, Teun Schuurman, David Val-Laillet
The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172872/how-plausible-is-the-use-of-dietary-n-3-pufa-in-the-adjuvant-therapy-of-cancer
#19
Simona Serini, Renata Ottes Vasconcelos, Elena Fasano, Gabriella Calviello
Considerable debate exists regarding the potential antineoplastic effect of dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA contained in fatty fishes. Since the majority of published data has proven that their intake does not induce toxic or carcinogenic effects in humans, their possible preventive use against cancer has been suggested. On the other hand, it is unlikely that they could be effective in cancer patients as a single therapy. Nevertheless, a considerable effort has been put forth in recent years to evaluate the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA might improve the antineoplastic efficiency of currently used anticancer agents...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109024/bioavailability-of-milk-protein-derived-bioactive-peptides-a-glycaemic-management-perspective
#20
Katy Horner, Elaine Drummond, Lorraine Brennan
Milk protein-derived peptides have been reported to have potential benefits for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, what the active components are and whether intact peptides exert this bioactivity has received little investigation in human subjects. Furthermore, potentially useful bioactive peptides can be limited by low bioavailability. Various peptides have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream after milk-protein ingestion, providing valuable insights into their potential bioavailability...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
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