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Nutrition Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388967/child-and-adolescent-nutrient-intakes-from-current-national-dietary-surveys-of-european-populations
#1
Holly L Rippin, Jayne Hutchinson, Jo Jewell, Joao J Breda, Janet E Cade
The WHO encourages national diet survey (NDS) implementation to obtain relevant data to inform policies addressing all forms of malnutrition, which remains a pressing issue throughout Europe. This paper provides an up-to-date review on energy, macro- and selected micronutrient intakes in children across WHO Europe using the latest available NDS intakes. It assesses these against WHO recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) to highlight vulnerable groups and areas of concern. Dietary survey information was gathered by Internet searches, contacting survey authors and nutrition experts...
November 3, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378509/examining-the-relationship-between-nutrition-and-cerebral-structural-integrity-in-older-adults-without-dementia
#2
J M Reddan, H Macpherson, D J White, A Scholey, A Pipingas
The proportion of adults aged 60 years and over is expected to increase over the coming decades. This ageing of the population represents an important health issue, given that marked reductions to cerebral macro- and microstructural integrity are apparent with increasing age. Reduced cerebral structural integrity in older adults appears to predict poorer cognitive performance, even in the absence of clinical disorders such as dementia. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to identify those factors predicting cerebral structural integrity, especially factors that are modifiable...
October 31, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326975/the-controversial-role-of-vitamin-d-as-an-antioxidant-results-from-randomised-controlled-trials
#3
Sara Tagliaferri, Debora Porri, Rachele De Giuseppe, Matteo Manuelli, Francesco Alessio, Hellas Cena
Increased oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential causal factor in the development of several diseases. In the last decade, an extensive literature has been produced on vitamin D, not limited to its well-known function like a steroid hormone on skeletal tissue, but for its potential pleiotropic role in human health. Several researchers have suggested relationships between vitamin D intake and health outcomes such as cancer prevention and increased immunity, or possible role in preventing diabetes, and in inflammation...
October 17, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284526/optimising-amino-acid-absorption-essential-to-improve-nitrogen-balance-and-metabolic-control-in-phenylketonuria
#4
Anita MacDonald, Rani H Singh, Júlio César Rocha, Francjan J van Spronsen
It has been nearly 70 years since the discovery that strict adherence to a diet low in phenylalanine prevents severe neurological sequelae in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (phenylketonuria; PKU). Today, dietary treatment with restricted phenylalanine intake supplemented with non-phenylalanine amino acids to support growth and maintain a healthy body composition remains the mainstay of therapy. However, a better understanding is needed of the factors that influence N balance in the context of amino acid supplementation...
October 4, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113009/dietary-patterns-and-components-to-prevent-and-treat-heart-failure-a-comprehensive-review-of-human-studies
#5
Conor P Kerley
Growing evidence has emerged about the role of dietary patterns and components in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity. The objective here is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current evidence regarding dietary patterns/components and HF. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using multiple relevant keywords to identify relevant human studies. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity...
August 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984680/a-review-of-micronutrients-in-sepsis-the-role-of-thiamine-l-carnitine-vitamin-c-selenium-and-vitamin-d
#6
Justin B Belsky, Charles R Wira, Vinitha Jacob, John E Sather, Patty J Lee
Sepsis is defined as the dysregulated host response to an infection resulting in life-threatening organ dysfunction. The metabolic demand from inefficiencies in anaerobic metabolism, mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction, increased cellular turnover, and free-radical damage result in the increased focus of micronutrients in sepsis as they play a pivotal role in these processes. In the present review, we will evaluate the potential role of micronutrients in sepsis, specifically, thiamine, l-carnitine, vitamin C, Se and vitamin D...
December 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033906/insects-as-sources-of-iron-and-zinc-in-human-nutrition
#7
Martin N Mwangi, Dennis G A B Oonincx, Tim Stouten, Margot Veenenbos, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon
Dietary deficiencies in Fe and Zn are globally widespread, causing serious health problems such as anaemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, increased risk of morbidity and mortality, stunted growth and impaired physical and cognitive development. Edible insects, of which a diversity of over 2000 species is available, are dietary components for about 2 billion individuals and are a valuable source of animal protein. In the present paper, we review the available information on Fe and Zn in edible insects and their potential as a source of these micronutrients for the rapidly growing human population...
July 23, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033891/source-and-amount-of-carbohydrate-in-the-diet-and-inflammation-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Luigi Barrea, Paolo Marzullo, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Carolina Di Somma, Massimo Scacchi, Francesco Orio, Gianluca Aimaretti, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
High carbohydrate intake and low-grade inflammation cooperate with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism to constitute an interactive continuum acting on the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age characterised by oligo-anovulatory infertility and cardiometabolic disorders. The role of insulin in PCOS is pivotal both in regulating the activity of ovarian and liver enzymes, respectively involved in androgen production and in triggering low-grade inflammation usually reported to be associated with an insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and cardiometabolic diseases...
July 23, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009718/non-coeliac-gluten-sensitivity-and-the-spectrum-of-gluten-related-disorders-an-updated-overview
#9
Hanna Fjeldheim Dale, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Gülen Arslan Lied
The spectrum of gluten-related disorders includes coeliac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA) and the suggested entity of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). An increasing number of the world's population are avoiding gluten due to the assumption of health benefits and self-diagnosed gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms. Unlike CD and WA, NCGS is a relatively new entity with an unknown prevalence and mechanisms, complicated by recent literature suggesting that gluten is not the only food component that may trigger symptoms experienced by this group of patients...
July 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984681/weight-loss-after-pregnancy-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
Michelle C McKinley, Virginia Allen-Walker, Caroline McGirr, Ciara Rooney, Jayne V Woodside
It is important to pay attention to weight management before and between pregnancies, as women have an increased risk of weight gain during the reproductive years. Having a baby is a life-changing event for women and the challenge of weight management amidst this period of major physiological, psychological and social change should not be underestimated. However, the postpartum period offers an opportune time for lifestyle interventions, as women may have heightened awareness of their own and their wider families' health...
July 9, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983125/a-review-of-select-minerals-influencing-the-haematopoietic-process
#11
Dalila Cunha Oliveira, Amanda Nogueira-Pedro, Ed Wilson Santos, Araceli Hastreiter, Graziela Batista Silva, Primavera Borelli, Ricardo Ambrósio Fock
Micronutrients are indispensable for adequate metabolism, such as biochemical function and cell production. The production of blood cells is named haematopoiesis and this process is highly consuming due to the rapid turnover of the haematopoietic system and consequent demand for nutrients. It is well established that micronutrients are relevant to blood cell production, although some of the mechanisms of how micronutrients modulate haematopoiesis remain unknown. The aim of the present review is to summarise the effect of Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Co, iodine, P, Se, Cu, Li and Zn on haematopoiesis...
July 9, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886857/nutrient-sensing-taste-and-feed-intake-in-avian-species
#12
Shahram Niknafs, Eugeni Roura
The anatomical structure and function of beaks, bills and tongue together with the mechanics of deglutition in birds have contributed to the development of a taste system denuded of macrostructures visible to the human naked eye. Studies in chickens and other birds have revealed that the avian taste system consists of taste buds not clustered in papillae and located mainly (60 %) in the upper palate hidden in the crevasses of the salivary ducts. That explains the long delay in the understanding of the avian taste system...
June 11, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871706/dietary-flavonoids-as-a-potential-intervention-to-improve-redox-balance-in-obesity-and-related-co-morbidities-a-review
#13
Daniela Gentile, Matteo Fornai, Carolina Pellegrini, Rocchina Colucci, Corrado Blandizzi, Luca Antonioli
Obesity represents one of major health problems strongly linked to other co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, CVD, gastrointestinal disorders and cognitive impairment. In this context, nutritional stress, such as an excess of fat intake, promotes a systemic oxidative stress, characterised by hyperproduction of reactive oxygen species, leading to cellular alterations that include impaired energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, impaired cell transport mechanisms and overall dysfunctional biological activity...
June 6, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679994/food-pyramid-for-subjects-with-chronic-pain-foods-and-dietary-constituents-as-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-agents
#14
Mariangela Rondanelli, Milena Anna Faliva, Alessandra Miccono, Maurizio Naso, Mara Nichetti, Antonella Riva, Fabio Guerriero, Manuela De Gregori, Gabriella Peroni, Simone Perna
Emerging literature suggests that diet constituents may play a modulatory role in chronic pain (CP) through management of inflammation/oxidative stress, resulting in attenuation of pain. We performed a narrative review to evaluate the existing evidence regarding the optimum diet for the management of CP, and we built a food pyramid on this topic. The present review also describes the activities of various natural compounds contained in foods (i.e. phenolic compounds in extra-virgin olive oil (EVO)) listed on our pyramid, which have comparable effects to drug management therapy...
June 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318982/evidence-for-the-age-specific-relationship-of-food-insecurity-and-key-dietary-outcomes-among-us-children-and-adolescents
#15
Heather A Eicher-Miller, Yanling Zhao
Approximately 6·5 million US children live in food-insecure households, meaning that they have restrained access to the types and amounts of foods they usually eat. The nutrient demands of growth and general sub-par dietary intake of US children by age highlight the importance and difficulty of attaining recommended amounts of critical dietary components to promote health and prevent disease. Evaluation of the evidence for a relationship of food insecurity with key dietary outcomes for the specific stages of child growth at 1-5 years, 6-11 years and 12-19 years has not been previously documented...
June 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318981/magnesium-homeostasis-in-cattle-absorption-and-excretion
#16
Holger Martens, Sabine Leonhard-Marek, Monika Röntgen, Friederike Stumpff
Magnesium (Mg2+) is an essential mineral without known specific regulatory mechanisms. In ruminants, plasma Mg2+ concentration depends primarily on the balance between Mg2+ absorption and Mg2+ excretion. The primary site of Mg2+ absorption is the rumen, where Mg2+ is apically absorbed by both potential-dependent and potential-independent uptake mechanisms, reflecting involvement of ion channels and electroneutral transporters, respectively. Transport is energised in a secondary active manner by a basolateral Na+/Mg2+ exchanger...
June 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191255/resveratrol-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-the-evidence-so-far
#17
Sandra Nunes, Francesca Danesi, Daniele Del Rio, Paula Silva
Despite the fact that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has still no recognised therapy, treatments which have proven at least mildly successful in improving IBD symptoms include anti-inflammatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies targeting pro-inflammatory cytokines. Resveratrol, a natural (poly)phenol found in grapes, red wine, grape juice and several species of berries, has been shown to prevent and ameliorate intestinal inflammation. Here, we discuss the role of resveratrol in the improvement of inflammatory disorders involving the intestinal mucosa...
June 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113618/milk-products-in-the-dietary-management-of-childhood-undernutrition-a-historical-review
#18
Veronika Scherbaum, M Leila Srour
The present narrative review outlines the use of milk products in infant and young child feeding from early history until today and illustrates how research findings and technical innovations contributed to the evolution of milk-based strategies to combat undernutrition in children below the age of 5 years. From the onset of social welfare initiatives, dairy products were provided by maternal and child health services to improve nutrition. During the last century, a number of aetiological theories on oedematous forms of undernutrition were developed and until the 1970s the dogma of protein deficiency was dominant...
June 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037273/determinants-of-takeaway-and-fast-food-consumption-a-narrative-review
#19
Hayley G Janssen, Ian G Davies, Lucinda D Richardson, Leonard Stevenson
Out-of-home foods (takeaway, take-out and fast foods) have become increasingly popular in recent decades and are thought to be a key driver in increasing levels of overweight and obesity due to their unfavourable nutritional content. Individual food choices and eating behaviours are influenced by many interrelated factors which affect the results of nutrition-related public health interventions. While the majority of research based on out-of-home foods comes from Australia, the UK and USA, the same issues (poor dietary habits and increased prevalence of non-communicable disease) are of equal concern for urban centres in developing economies undergoing 'nutrition transition' at a global scale...
June 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037268/probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Y A Kim, J B Keogh, P M Clifton
Animal studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be a promising approach to improve insulin sensitivity by favourably modifying the composition of the gut microbial community, reducing intestinal endotoxin concentrations and decreasing energy harvest. The aim of the present review was to investigate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of probiotics and prebiotics) on insulin resistance in human clinical trials and to discuss the potential mechanisms whereby probiotics and prebiotics improve glucose metabolism...
June 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
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