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Nutrition Research Reviews

Julie A Lovegrove, D Ian Givens
Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasingly and is a key risk for CVD development, now recognised as the leading cause of death globally. Dietary strategies to reduce CVD development include reduction of saturated fat intake. Milk and dairy products are the largest contributors to dietary saturated fats in the UK and reduced consumption is often recommended as a strategy for risk reduction. However, overall evidence from prospective cohort studies does not confirm a detrimental association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk...
September 26, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Magdalena Muc, Anabela Mota-Pinto, Cristina Padez
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, and obese asthmatics have lower disease control and increased symptom severity. Several putative links have been proposed, including genetics, mechanical restriction of the chest and the intake of corticosteroids. The most consistent evidence, however, comes from studies of cytokines produced by the adipose tissue called adipokines. Adipokine imbalance is associated with both proinflammatory status and asthma. Although reverse causation has been proposed, it is now acknowledged that obesity precedes asthma symptoms...
August 12, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Sofía Moran-Ramos, Adrian Baez-Ruiz, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
As obesity and metabolic diseases rise, there is need to investigate physiological and behavioural aspects associated with their development. Circadian rhythms have a profound influence on metabolic processes, as they prepare the body to optimise energy use and storage. Moreover, food-related signals confer temporal order to organs involved in metabolic regulation. Therefore food intake should be synchronised with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to elaborate efficient responses to environmental challenges...
July 1, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Christine Heberden
Three areas in the brain continuously generate new neurons throughout life: the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the median eminence in the hypothalamus. These areas harbour neural stem cells, which contribute to neural repair by generating daughter cells that then become functional neurons or glia. Impaired neurogenesis leads to detrimental consequences, such as depression, decline of cognitive abilities and obesity. Adult neurogenesis is a versatile process that can be modulated either positively or negatively by many effectors, external or endogenous...
July 1, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Leslie M Klevay
The theory, in brief outline here, implicating deficiency of Cu in the aetiology and pathophysiology of IHD explains more attributes of the disease than any other theory. This theory satisfies several of Hill's criteria of a half-century ago for deducing association between an environmental feature and presence of an illness. Most important is the temporal association between the rise of IHD and the decrease in dietary Cu since the 1930s along with a parallel increase in the supplementation of pregnant women with Fe, a Cu antagonist...
June 28, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
J V Seale, R Fallaize, J A Lovegrove
Homelessness is present in most societies and represents a situation in which the basic needs for survival including food are often limited. It is logical to surmise that the homeless person's diet is likely to be nutritionally deficient and yet there is a relative paucity in research regarding this issue with studies varying in both their methodology and homeless population. Despite these differences, diets of the homeless are frequently characterised as high in saturated fat and deficient in fibre and certain micronutrients, all of which can have negative implications for the homeless individual's health and/or mental state...
June 28, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
S Salazar-Villanea, W H Hendriks, E M A M Bruininx, H Gruppen, A F B van der Poel
Protein structure influences the accessibility of enzymes for digestion. The proportion of intramolecular β-sheets in the secondary structure of native proteins has been related to a decrease in protein digestibility. Changes to proteins that can be considered positive (for example, denaturation and random coil formation) or negative (for example, aggregation and Maillard reactions) for protein digestibility can occur simultaneously during processing. The final result of these changes on digestibility seems to be a counterbalance of the occurrence of each phenomenon...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Eugeni Roura, Sietse-Jan Koopmans, Jean-Paul Lallès, Isabelle Le Huerou-Luron, Nadia de Jager, Teun Schuurman, David Val-Laillet
The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Simona Serini, Renata Ottes Vasconcelos, Elena Fasano, Gabriella Calviello
Considerable debate exists regarding the potential antineoplastic effect of dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA contained in fatty fishes. Since the majority of published data has proven that their intake does not induce toxic or carcinogenic effects in humans, their possible preventive use against cancer has been suggested. On the other hand, it is unlikely that they could be effective in cancer patients as a single therapy. Nevertheless, a considerable effort has been put forth in recent years to evaluate the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA might improve the antineoplastic efficiency of currently used anticancer agents...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Katy Horner, Elaine Drummond, Lorraine Brennan
Milk protein-derived peptides have been reported to have potential benefits for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, what the active components are and whether intact peptides exert this bioactivity has received little investigation in human subjects. Furthermore, potentially useful bioactive peptides can be limited by low bioavailability. Various peptides have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream after milk-protein ingestion, providing valuable insights into their potential bioavailability...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Warren M Miner-Williams, Paul J Moughan
The intestinal epithelium of adult humans acts as a differentially permeable barrier that separates the potentially harmful contents of the lumen from the underlying tissues. Any dysfunction of this boundary layer that disturbs the homeostatic equilibrium between the internal and external environments may initiate and sustain a biochemical cascade that results in inflammation of the intestine. Key to such dysfunction are genetic, microbial and other environmental factors that, singularly or in combination, result in chronic inflammation that is symptomatic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Marko Kreft
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, F. tataricum Gaertner) groats and flour have been established globally as nutritional foods because of their high levels of proteins, polyphenols and minerals. In some regions, buckwheat herb is used as a functional food. In the present study, reports of in vitro studies, preclinical and clinical trials dealing with the effect of buckwheat and its metabolites were reviewed. There are numerous reports of potential health benefits of consuming buckwheat, which may be in the form of food, dietary supplements, home remedies or possibly pharmaceutical drugs; however, adverse effects, including those resulting from contamination, must be considered...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
E Aparicio, J Canals, V Arija, S De Henauw, N Michels
Stress and negative emotions pose a major threat to public health, by increasing the risk of obesity. Since the management process for emotions (emotion regulation; ER) is developed in childhood, we present a novel conceptual framework model for the role of ER in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. A narrative review of the literature by electronic database search (MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Scopus) was conducted of observational and interventional/experimental literature on ER and obesity and the underlying concepts...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Aishwarya Kumar, Sarabjit S Mastana, Martin R Lindley
Asthma is one of the most common and prevalent problems worldwide affecting over 300 million individuals. There is some evidence from observational and intervention studies to suggest a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA in inflammatory diseases, specifically asthma. Marine-based n-3 PUFA have therefore been proposed as a possible complementary/alternative therapy for asthma. The proposed anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 fatty acids may be linked to a change in cell membrane composition. This altered membrane composition following n-3 fatty acid supplementation (primarily EPA and DHA) can modify lipid mediator generation via the production of eicosanoids with a reduced inflammatory potential/impact...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Jim M Monti, Christopher J Moulton, Neal J Cohen
Animal experiments and cross-sectional or prospective longitudinal research in human subjects suggest a role for nutrition in cognitive ageing. However, data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that seek causal evidence for the impact of nutrients on cognitive ageing in humans often produce null results. Given that RCT test hypotheses in a rigorous fashion, one conclusion could be that the positive effects of nutrition on the aged brain observed in other study designs are spurious. On the other hand, it may be that the design of many clinical trials conducted thus far has been less than optimal...
December 2015: Nutrition Research Reviews
Fiona M Nea, John Kearney, M Barbara E Livingstone, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, Clare A Corish
Traditionally only a small proportion of the workforce was engaged in shift work. Changing economic pressures have resulted in increased engagement in shift work, with approximately 17 % of the workforce in Europe engaged in this work pattern. The present narrative review aimed to summarise the data on the effects of shift work on the diet, lifestyle and health of employees, while addressing the barriers to, and opportunities for, improving health among shift workers. Shift work can result in low-quality diet and irregular eating patterns...
December 2015: Nutrition Research Reviews
Monise Viana Abranches, Fernanda Cristina Esteves de Oliveira, Lisiane Lopes da Conceição, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) epidemics, which have already spread, imply the possibility of both conditions being closely related. Thus, the goal of the present review was to draw a parallel between obesity, adipose tissue (AT) changes, and T2DM development. To this end, a search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE and SciELO databases, using the following key words and their combinations: obesity; diabetes; insulin resistance; diet; weight loss; adipocin; inflammation markers; and interleukins...
December 2015: Nutrition Research Reviews
Sibylle Nikolai, Kathrin Pallauf, Patricia Huebbe, Gerald Rimbach
Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed...
December 2015: Nutrition Research Reviews
D T Reid, B Eksteen
Associated with the obesity epidemic, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading liver disease in North America. Approximately 30 % of patients with NAFLD may develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Frequently animal models are used to help identify underlying factors contributing to NAFLD including insulin resistance, dysregulated lipid metabolism and mitochondrial stress. However, studying the inflammatory, progressive nature of NASH in the context of obesity has proven to be a challenge in mice...
October 23, 2015: Nutrition Research Reviews
Vanessa Areco, María Angélica Rivoira, Valeria Rodriguez, Ana María Marchionatti, Agata Carpentieri, Nori Tolosa de Talamoni
The intestine is the only gate for the entry of Ca to the body in humans and mammals. The entrance of Ca occurs via paracellular and intracellular pathways. All steps of the latter pathway are regulated by calcitriol and by other hormones. Dietary and pharmacological compounds also modulate the intestinal Ca absorption process. Among them, dietary Ca and P are known to alter the lipid and protein composition of the brush-border and basolateral membranes and, consequently, Ca transport. Ca intakes are below the requirements recommended by health professionals in most countries, triggering important health problems...
October 15, 2015: Nutrition Research Reviews
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