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Neuropsychological Rehabilitation

Aris R Terzopoulos, Georgia Z Niolaki, Jackie Masterson
An intervention study was carried out with two nine-year-old Greek-speaking dyslexic children. Both children were slow in reading single words and text and had difficulty in spelling irregularly spelled words. One child was also poor in non-word reading. Intervention focused on spelling in a whole-word training using a flashcard technique that had previously been found to be effective with English-speaking children. Post-intervention assessments conducted immediately at the end of the intervention, one month later and then five months later showed a significant improvement in spelling of treated words that was sustained over time...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Sophie A Perry, Rudi Coetzer, Christopher W N Saville
Alongside the obvious health benefits, physical exercise has been shown to have a modest anti-depressant effect for people in the general population. To the authors' knowledge, there are no current literature reviews or meta-analyses available exploring this effect for people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). A systematic review of intervention studies utilising physical exercise and mood outcome measures for a TBI population was performed in November 2016. Baseline and outcome data were extracted for the nine studies which met the inclusion criteria...
May 13, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
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May 11, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Lauren Libeson, Marina Downing, Pamela Ross, Jennie Ponsford
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability in young people, with return to work (RTW) a major goal of recovery. This qualitative study aimed to understand the RTW experience of individuals with TBI who received comprehensive vocational rehabilitation, and to identify facilitating and limiting factors in the RTW process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 individuals (mean age = 47.33 years) approximately 4.5 years post-injury, of whom 14 had moderate to severe TBI. Twelve individuals had successfully returned to work...
May 10, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Elizabeth Jane Beadle, Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, David H K Shum
Although changes to self-identity or self-discrepancy are common after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the influence of personality characteristics and cognitive appraisals on self-discrepancy. Participants were 51 adults (74% male) with severe TBI (M age = 36.22 years; SD = 12.65) who were on average 34 months (SD = 40.29) post-injury. They completed self-report measures of personality style (optimism and defensiveness), cognitive appraisals (threat appraisals, rumination and reflection and perceived coping resources), and self-discrepancy (Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale - III)...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
David W K Man
Non-pharmacological means are being developed to enhance cognitive abilities in drug abusers. This study evaluated virtual reality (VR) as an intervention tool for enhancing cognitive and vocational outcomes in 90 young ketamine users (KU) randomly assigned to a treatment group (virtual reality group, VRG; tutor-administered group, TAG) or wait-listed control group (CG). Two training programmes with similar content but different delivery modes (VR-based and manual-based) were applied using a virtual boutique as a training scenario...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Joseph A Mole, Nele Demeyere
This systematic review examined whether early cognitive impairment after stroke is predictive of outcome within the "activity" and "participation" domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) at 6-12 months post-injury. Studies were included if cognitive functioning was assessed within 6 weeks of injury and outcome was measured at least 6 months post-injury. PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE databases were searched and 14 studies were identified...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Ruth MacQueen, Paul Fisher, Deirdre Williams
Men are twice as likely as women to experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that aspects of masculine identity contribute to how people acquire their brain injuries. Research also suggests that masculine identity impacts on how people manage their health experiences. The current study aimed to explore the experience of masculine identity following TBI. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 men aged 21-67 years who had experienced a TBI. All were living in the community. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to consider lived experiences and to explore the meaning of the TBI experience in relation to masculine identity...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Sharon Zlotnik, Aharon Schiff, Sarit Ravid, Eli Shahar, Joan Toglia
Studies have characterised relationships between cognitive status and a variety of clinical epilepsy factors. The aim of this study was to describe a new approach for assessing executive functions in everyday life and its unique expression in adolescents with Genetic Generalised Epilepsies (GGEs) compared with typical peers. Twenty adolescents with a diagnosis of GGEs and 20 typical healthy peers, matched by age and gender, were studied. Assessment of everyday executive function was carried out using: (1) the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA), a direct performance based and outcome measure of strategy use and cognitive performance; and (2) Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) parental report...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Gianfranco Dalla Barba, Marta Brazzarola, Sara Marangoni, Valentina La Corte
The objective of this work is to devise and validate a sensitive and specific test for confabulatory impairment. We conceived a screening test for confabulation, the Confabulation Screen (CS), a brief test using 10 questions of episodic memory (EM), where confabulators most frequently confabulate. It was postulated that the CS would predict confabulations not only in EM, but also in the other subordinate structures of personal temporality, namely the present and the future. Thirty confabulating amnesic patients of various aetiologies and 97 normal controls entered the study...
April 24, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Katrina J Luzinat, Penelope Analytis, Amelia J Hicks, Narelle Warren, Jennie L Ponsford
The Heads Together organisation provides a weekend camping programme for children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Utilising a qualitative approach, this study explored family experiences of the Heads Together Camp (HTC) from the perspective of parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parents who had attended the camp. Thematic analysis identified six themes: ABI and the family; Apprehension and discomfort; Connections and community; Hope and perspective; Fun, relaxation and respite; and Family functioning...
April 22, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Jaime B Lee, Masha Kocherginsky, Leora R Cherney
Studies suggest that individuals with aphasia present with impairments in attention. However, most research has been conducted with small sample sizes using experimental protocols that lack established psychometric properties. We examined the attention performance of 114 individuals with chronic post-stroke aphasia using a standardised, norm-referenced assessment of attention, the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II; Conners, C. K. (2000). Conner s' Continuous Performance Test II. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems Inc)...
April 18, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Solrun Sigurdardottir, Nada Andelic, Eike Wehling, Audny Anke, Toril Skandsen, Oyvor Oistensen Holthe, Unn Sollid Manskow, Cecilie Roe
The objectives were to investigate the frequency of return-to-work (RTW) one year after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI: Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS 3-8) and to identify which demographic and injury-related characteristics and neurocognitive factors are associated with RTW. This study is part of a prospective national study on sTBI conducted in all four Norwegian Trauma Referral Centres, including patients aged >15 years over a period of three years (n = 378). For the purpose of this study, only pre-employed individuals of working age (16 to 67 years) were investigated for RTW (n = 143), and of these, 104 participants underwent neuropsychological testing...
April 18, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Janette A Hamilton, Paul B Perrin, Thomas A Campbell, Steven J Danish, Alissa L Goldstein
This study explored the utility of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) in predicting emergence from a disorder of consciousness, using a sample of veterans who were treated at one of the five Veterans Affairs (VA) polytrauma rehabilitation centre sites in an Emerging Consciousness programme. Participants (N = 70) included both combat and non-combat active duty military personnel and veterans who sustained either a severe traumatic brain injury, or anoxic brain injury and were considered to have a disorder of consciousness at the time of admission...
April 16, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Jared F Benge, Kara L Dinh, Erin Logue, Richard Phenis, Michelle N Dasse, Michael K Scullin
Smartphones have potential as cognitive aids for adults with cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how patients and their care partners utilise smartphones in their day-to-day lives. We collected self-reported smartphone utilisation data from patients referred for neuropsychological evaluations (N = 53), their care partners (N = 44), and an Amazon Mechanical Turk control sample (N = 204). Patient participants were less likely to own a smartphone than controls, with increasing age associated with less utilisation of smartphone features in all groups...
April 16, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Richard C Playford, E Diane Playford
This article identifies the dilemma faced by clinical staff when asked to support the withdrawal of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration in a patient in a vegetative state. On the one hand, they are expected to treat the patient as a person in their daily interactions; on the other, they are asked to withdraw treatment on the grounds that it is futile, which may seem to run counter to treating people as persons. The article highlights that similar debates exist within the philosophical community about the nature of personhood and describes two philosophical accounts of personhood...
April 10, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Nadine Akbar, Brian M Sandroff, Glenn R Wylie, Lauren B Strober, Angela Smith, Yael Goverover, Robert W Motl, John DeLuca, Helen Genova
Fatigue is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). While progressive resistance training (PRT) has been shown to reduce fatigue in persons with MS, it is not clear why these reductions occur. One hypothesis is that PRT may induce functional changes to the caudate, a region highly implicated in MS fatigue. The aim of the current study was to study the effects of PRT on overall fatigue impact and resting-state functional connectivity of the caudate in persons with MS reporting severe fatigue...
April 4, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Tatiana Ogourtsova, Philippe S Archambault, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN), a highly prevalent and disabling post-stroke deficit, severely affects functional mobility. Visual perceptual abilities (VPAs) are essential in activities involving mobility. However, whether and to what extent post-stroke USN affects VPAs and how they contribute to mobility impairments remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent to which VPAs in left and right visual hemispaces are (1) affected in post-stroke USN; and (2) contribute to goal-directed locomotion...
April 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Lesley Murphy
Instruments for assessing people with disorders of consciousness have been developed over the last 15 years, but there remains a dearth of suitable assessment paradigms for those who have emerged from disorders of consciousness. This paper presents a pilot study for the development of the Cognitive Assessment by Visual Election (CAVE), a short assessment designed to investigate a number of cognitive domains in very severely brain injured patients who are in or have emerged from minimally conscious states (EMCS)...
April 2, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Jennie Ponsford, Marina Downing, Helen Pechlivanidis
Most traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome studies have been conducted in developed countries involving individuals from the dominant culture. The present study compared outcomes following TBI in individuals from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) backgrounds with those from non-CALD backgrounds. 103 CALD and 103 non-CALD participants with predominantly moderate to severe TBI completed a series of questionnaires an average of 22 months post-injury. Groups were comparable in most demographic and injury-related variables, but CALD participants had lower pre-injury employment rates...
April 2, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
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