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Reviews in Medical Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480985/orf-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Christina Bergqvist, Mazen Kurban, Ossama Abbas
Orf virus (ORFV) is an important pathogen responsible for a highly contagious zoonotic viral infection that threatens those who handle sheep and goats. Orf virus is the prototype of the Parapoxvirus genus, and its resilience in the environment and ability to reinfect its host has contributed to the spread and maintenance of the infection in many species. In healthy humans, the disease usually resolves spontaneously within 3 to 6 weeks. There is no specific treatment and many different approaches such as use of imiquimod, cidofovir, curettage, shave excision, cryotherapy, and electrocautery have all been reported to be successful, without supporting evidence from controlled clinical trials...
May 8, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444859/roles-of-samhd1-in-antiviral-defense-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Miaomiao Li, Dong Zhang, Mengying Zhu, Yuxian Shen, Wei Wei, Songcheng Ying, Heinrich Korner, Jun Li
The enzyme, sterile α motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) diminishes infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by hydrolyzing intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. This dNTP degradation reduces the dNTP concentration to a level insufficient for viral cDNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting retroviral replication. This antiviral enzymatic activity can be inhibited by viral protein X (Vpx). The HIV-2/SIV Vpx causes degradation of SAMHD1, thus interfering with the SAMHD1-mediated restriction of retroviral replication...
April 25, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318120/virology-in-a-post-truth-world
#3
EDITORIAL
P D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318080/hepatitis-e-and-pregnancy-current-state
#4
REVIEW
María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, Beatriz Suay-García, María Luisa Mateos-Lindemann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis cases in endemic countries. Approximately 2 billion individuals live in hepatitis E-endemic areas and, therefore, are at risk of infection. According to World Health Organization, HEV causes about 20.1 million infections and 70 000 deaths every year. In developing countries with poor sanitation, this disease is transmitted through contaminated water and is associated with large outbreaks, affecting hundreds or thousands of people...
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295832/polyomavirus-micrornas-circulating-in-biological-fluids-during-viral-persistence
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Martelli, Simone Giannecchini
Increasing evidence suggests that microRNA-mediated gene silencing, detected during exosome intercellular communication between cells, may be exploited by persistent human viruses. Recently, it has been reported that human polyomaviruses encode microRNAs that downregulate large T expression and target host factors, helping the virus to escape immune elimination. Consequently, viral microRNAs and their genetic variability may have roles in the induction of polyomavirus reactivation, the success of persistence or replication and the development of diseases...
March 10, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271593/norovirus-infection-in-primary-immune-deficiency
#6
REVIEW
Li-An K Brown, Ian Clark, Julianne R Brown, Judith Breuer, David M Lowe
Norovirus is acknowledged to be a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and its importance as a cause of chronic infection in immune deficient hosts is increasingly recognised. Current evidence suggests that a coordinated response of innate immune mechanisms, CD8+ cytotoxicity and a humoral response, with CD4+ orchestration, is necessary for norovirus clearance. We explain how primary immune deficiency impairs these host defences and predisposes to chronic infection, associated with protracted diarrhoea, weight loss, and requirement for parenteral nutrition...
March 8, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170131/making-dollars-and-sense-out-of-a-screening-programme
#7
EDITORIAL
P D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128885/mechanisms-of-hiv-persistence-in-hiv-reservoirs
#8
REVIEW
Mayibongwe L Mzingwane, Caroline T Tiemessen
The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half-life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia...
January 27, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044388/langerhans-cells-and-sexual-transmission-of-hiv-and-hsv
#9
REVIEW
Rachel A Botting, Hafsa Rana, Kirstie M Bertram, Jake W Rhodes, Heeva Baharlou, Najla Nasr, Anthony L Cunningham, Andrew N Harman
Langerhans cells (LCs) situated in stratified squamous epithelium of the skin and mucosal tissue are amongst the first cells that sexually transmitted pathogens encounter during transmission. They are potent antigen presenting cells and play a key role in the host mounting an appropriate immune response. As such, viruses have evolved complex strategies to manipulate these cells to facilitate successful transmission. One of best studied examples is HIV, which manipulates the natural function of these cells to interact with CD4 T cells, which are the main target cell for HIV in which rapid replication occurs...
January 3, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723176/saffold-virus-an-emerging-human-cardiovirus
#10
REVIEW
Shawn Zheng Kai Tan, Mark Zheng Yi Tan, Mookkan Prabakaran
Saffold virus (SAFV) is an emerging human cardiovirus that has been shown to be ubiquitous. Initial studies of SAFV focused on respiratory and gastrointestinal infection; however, it has also recently been associated with diverse clinical symptoms including the endocrine, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Given the systemic nature of SAFV, and its high prevalence, understanding its pathogenicity and clinical impact is of utmost importance. This comprehensive review highlights and discusses recent developments in epidemiology, human pathogenicity, animal, and molecular studies related to SAFV...
January 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714929/vitamin-d-modulation-of-innate-immune-responses-to-respiratory-viral-infections
#11
REVIEW
Mihnea T Zdrenghea, Heidi Makrinioti, Cristina Bagacean, Andy Bush, Sebastian L Johnston, Luminita A Stanciu
Vitamin D, in addition to its classical functions in bone homeostasis, has a modulatory and regulatory role in multiple processes, including host defense, inflammation, immunity, and epithelial repair. Patients with respiratory disease are frequently deficient in vitamin D, implying that supplementation might provide significant benefit to these patients. Respiratory viral infections are common and are the main trigger of acute exacerbations and hospitalization in children and adults with asthma and other airways diseases...
January 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714898/review-of-cytomegalovirus-coinfection-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-africa
#12
REVIEW
Helene Ladefoged Grønborg, Sanne Jespersen, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Christian Wejse
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. METHODS: Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. RESULTS: High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations...
January 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641729/saliviruses-the-first-knowledge-about-a-newly-discovered-human-picornavirus
#13
REVIEW
Gábor Reuter, Péter Pankovics, Ákos Boros
The salivirus, first discovered in the year 2009, is a member of the large and growing family Picornaviridae. At present, the genus Salivirus contains 1 species Salivirus A and 2 genotypes, Salivirus A1 and Salivirus A2. Salivirus has been identified in humans and chimpanzees and may cause acute gastroenteritis in humans, having been detected in 0% to 8.7% of fecal samples collected from gastroenteritis in different human populations. Salivirus is ubiquitous in wastewater of human origin and river water specimens worldwide and represents a potential indicator human RNA virus for monitoring of environmental samples...
January 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008685/maternal-immune-correlates-of-protection-from-human-cytomegalovirus-transmission-to-the-fetus-after-primary-infection-in-pregnancy
#14
Daniele Lilleri, Giuseppe Gerna
Immune control of primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection appears to depend on the interaction of humoral and T-cell responses. In this review, we have separately explored the 2 arms of the immune response to primary HCMV infection in HCMV-seronegative pregnant women transmitting (T) or not transmitting (NT) the infection to the fetus, with the objective of correlating the immune risk factors associated with vertical HCMV transmission. As for the humoral response, the following findings were documented: (i) in competitive binding assays, antibody titers to different antigenic sites of the gH pentamer complex were significantly lower in T compared with NT women; (ii) in addition, the number of neutralization sites recognized by T was significantly lower compared with NT women; (iii) the plaque formation inhibition assay showed a faster kinetics and a higher titer in NT women...
December 23, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977042/medical-practice-driven-by-legislators-rather-than-by-regulators
#15
EDITORIAL
P D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870226/standard-abbreviations
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870225/reducing-hiv-incidence-using-anti-retrovirals-imperative-and-achievable
#17
EDITORIAL
Philip P Mortimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593704/lujo-viral-hemorrhagic-fever-considering-diagnostic-capacity-and-preparedness-in-the-wake-of-recent-ebola-and-zika-virus-outbreaks
#18
REVIEW
Edgar Simulundu, Aaron S Mweene, Katendi Changula, Mwaka Monze, Elizabeth Chizema, Peter Mwaba, Ayato Takada, Guiseppe Ippolito, Francis Kasolo, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
Lujo virus is a novel Old World arenavirus identified in Southern Africa in 2008 as the cause of a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) characterized by nosocomial transmission with a high case fatality rate of 80% (4/5 cases). Whereas this outbreak was limited, the unprecedented Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, and recent Zika virus disease epidemic in the Americas, has brought into acute focus the need for preparedness to respond to rare but potentially highly pathogenic outbreaks of zoonotic or arthropod-borne viral infections...
November 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550835/manipulation-of-ubiquitin-sumo-pathways-in-human-herpesviruses-infection
#19
REVIEW
Jin Gan, Niu Qiao, Roxanne Strahan, Caixia Zhu, Lei Liu, Subhash C Verma, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Post-translational modification of proteins with ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) molecules triggers multiple signaling pathways that are critical for many aspects of cellular physiology. Given that viruses hijack the biosynthetic and degradative systems of their host, it is not surprising that viruses encode proteins to manipulate the host's cellular machinery for ubiquitin/SUMO modification at multiple levels. Infection with a herpesvirus, among the most ubiquitous human DNA viruses, has been linked to many human diseases, including cancers...
November 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401933/impact-of-hcv-genotype-on-treatment-regimens-and-drug-resistance-a-snapshot-in-time
#20
REVIEW
Lize Cuypers, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Kristel Van Laethem, Guangdi Li, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh
The introduction of highly potent direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has revolutionized hepatitis C virus treatment. Nevertheless, viral eradication worldwide remains a challenge also in the era of DAA treatment, because of the high associated costs, high numbers of undiagnosed patients, high re-infection rates in some risk groups and suboptimal drug efficacies associated with host and viral factors as well as advanced stages of liver disease. A correct determination of the HCV genotype allows administration of the most appropriate antiviral regimen...
November 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
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