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Reviews in Medical Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209859/defects-in-interferon-pathways-as-potential-biomarkers-of-sensitivity-to-oncolytic-viruses
#1
REVIEW
Olga V Matveeva, Peter M Chumakov
Increased sensitivity of cancer cells to viruses is a prerequisite for the success of oncolytic virotherapy. One of the major causes of such a phenotype is the disruption of innate antiviral defenses associated with dysfunction of type 1 interferons (IFNs) that permits unlimited replication of viruses in cancer cells. Defects in IFN pathways help cancer progression by providing additional advantages to tumor cells. However, while these defects promote the survival and accelerated proliferation of malignant cells, they facilitate viral replication and thus enhance the efficiency of viral oncolysis...
September 13, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175481/immune-function-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-natural-killer-cells-and-their-crosstalk-in-hbv-infection
#2
REVIEW
Forough Golsaz-Shirazi, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Fazel Shokri
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major health problem, with over 245 million chronic carriers worldwide. This persistent infection is thought to be associated with inefficient innate and adaptive immune responses. Natural killer cells (NK cells) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the major innate immune cells which respond to viral infection at the early phase and are considered major components of the antiviral immune response. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of NK cells, pDCs, and their cross-talk in HBV infection and its chronicity...
September 2, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156344/rotavirus-genetics-pathogenesis-and-vaccine-advances
#3
REVIEW
Asma Sadiq, Nazish Bostan, Kwe Claude Yinda, Saadia Naseem, Sadia Sattar
Since its discovery 40 years ago, rotavirus (RV) is considered to be a major cause of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries. Nearly every child in the world under 5 years of age is at the risk of RV infection. It is estimated that 90% of RV-associated mortalities occur in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Two live oral vaccines, RotaTeq (RV5, Merck) and Rotarix (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline) have been successfully deployed to scale down the disease burden in Europe and America, but they are less effective in Africa and Asia...
August 29, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112776/simplified-approach-to-uncertainty-of-measurement-in-the-clinical-virology-laboratory
#4
REVIEW
Howard Newman, Vhudzani Tshisevhe
Medical laboratories are required to ensure the quality of their diagnostic results. Quality assurance procedures include quality assessments (internal and external), quality controls (negative, positive, or internal controls), equipment monitoring, and audits. Quality control data may be used to evaluate the uncertainty of measurement. All clinical virology laboratories require a standard operating procedure detailing their consideration of uncertainty of measurement, as this parameter may impact on the overall quality of diagnostic results as well as the clinical interpretation thereof...
August 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109914/dengue-hemophagocytic-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-epidemiology-clinical-signs-outcomes-and-risk-factors
#5
REVIEW
Hoang Thi Nam Giang, Keita Banno, Le Huu Nhat Minh, Lam Tuyet Trinh, Le Thai Loc, Asmaa Eltobgy, Luu Lam Thang Tai, Adnan Khan, Nguyen Hoang Tuan, Yaser Reda, Maryan Samsom, Nguyen Tran Nam, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama
We systematically searched and meta-analyzed the epidemiological characteristics, frequency of clinical signs, and outcomes of dengue-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Ten electronic databases were searched systematically plus manual search of reference lists to identify relevant articles published until May 2017. The highest number of reported cases were from South-East Asia region (62 cases), followed by Western Pacific region (20 cases), and America (31 cases). The term "dengue hemorrhagic fever" predominated in studies that used the World Health Organization 1997 definition (59...
August 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094875/-therapeutic-applications-of-the-npgp-family-of-viral-2as
#6
REVIEW
Garry A Luke, Martin D Ryan
Oligopeptide "2A" and "2A-like" sequences ("2As"; 18-25aa) are found in a range of RNA virus genomes controlling protein biogenesis through "recoding" of the host-cell translational apparatus. Insertion of multiple 2As within a single open reading frame (ORF) produces multiple proteins; hence, 2As have been used in a very wide range of biotechnological and biomedical applications. During translation, these 2A peptide sequences mediate a eukaryote-specific, self-"cleaving" event, termed "ribosome skipping" with very high efficiency...
August 9, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074289/the-wide-spectrum-of-neurological-consequences-of-chikungunya-disease
#7
LETTER
Fabrice Simon, José-Luis Barnay, Annie Lannuzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074287/untold-stories-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic-in-brazil
#8
REVIEW
Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Esper G Kallas
The Zika virus infection outbreak in Brazil in 2014 to 2015 resulted in the identification of previously unknown consequences of the disease, including the notorious microcephaly among many defects in fetuses born to women infected during pregnancy. A number of individuals were involved in this remarkable discovery, from the detection of viral circulation in the country to the studies on the causal link with congenital abnormalities and the provision of awareness and social support to families affected by the disease...
August 3, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069956/molecular-epidemiology-and-phylogenetics-of-human-enteroviruses-is-there-a-forest-behind-the-trees
#9
REVIEW
Alexander N Lukashev, Yulia A Vakulenko, Natalia A Turbabina, Andrei A Deviatkin, Jan Felix Drexler
Enteroviruses are among the best studied small non-enveloped enteric RNA viruses. Most enteroviruses are easy to isolate in cell culture, and many non-polio enterovirus strains were archived worldwide as a byproduct of the WHO poliovirus surveillance system. Common outbreaks and epidemics, most prominently the epidemic of hand-foot-and-mouth disease with severe neurological complications in East and South-East Asia, justify practical interest of non-polio enteroviruses. As a result, there are over 50 000 enterovirus nucleotide sequences available in GenBank...
August 1, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956408/deregulation-of-the-notch-pathway-as-a-common-road-in-viral-carcinogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Elenaé Vázquez-Ulloa, Marcela Lizano, Marika Sjöqvist, Leslie Olmedo-Nieva, Adriana Contreras-Paredes
The Notch pathway is a conserved signaling pathway and a form of direct cell-cell communication related to many biological processes during development and adulthood. Deregulation of the Notch pathway is involved in many diseases, including cancer. Almost 20% of all cancer cases have an infectious etiology, with viruses responsible for at least 1.5 million new cancer cases per year. Seven groups of viruses have been classified as oncogenic: hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV respectively), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)...
June 28, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101552/systematic-review-of-the-impact-of-point-of-care-testing-for-influenza-on-the-outcomes-of-patients-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infection
#11
REVIEW
Ece Egilmezer, Gregory J Walker, Padmavathy Bakthavathsalam, Joshua R Peterson, J Justin Gooding, William Rawlinson, Sacha Stelzer-Braid
Acute respiratory tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant burden on the health care system. Laboratory testing is required to definitively distinguish infecting influenza virus from other pathogens, resulting in prolonged emergency department (ED) visits and unnecessary antibiotic use. Recently available rapid point-of-care tests (POCT) may allow for appropriate use of antiviral and antibiotic treatments and decrease patient lengths of stay. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effect of POCT for influenza on three outcomes: (1) antiviral prescription, (2) antibiotic prescription, and (3) patient length of stay in the ED...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088307/zooepidemic-thinking-about-the-hiv-pandemic-40-years-on
#12
EDITORIAL
Philip P Mortimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043515/can-we-distinguish-respiratory-viral-infections-based-on-clinical-features-a-prospective-pediatric-cohort-compared-to-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Xiaolin Ma, Tim Conrad, Maren Alchikh, Janine Reiche, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
Studies have shown that the predictive value of "clinical diagnoses" of influenza and other respiratory viral infections is low, especially in children. In routine care, pediatricians often resort to clinical diagnoses, even in the absence of robust evidence-based criteria. We used a dual approach to identify clinical characteristics that may help to differentiate infections with common pathogens including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, bocavirus-1, coronaviruses, or parainfluenza virus: (a) systematic review and meta-analysis of 47 clinical studies published in Medline (June 1996 to March 2017, PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017059557) comprising 49 858 individuals and (b) data-driven analysis of an inception cohort of 6073 children with ILI (aged 0-18 years, 56% male, December 2009 to March 2015) examined at the point of care in addition to blinded PCR testing...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024073/developmental-progress-of-crispr-cas9-and-its-therapeutic-applications-for-hiv-1-infection
#14
REVIEW
Qiudi Deng, Zisheng Chen, Lei Shi, Huafeng Lin
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been developed as a powerful tool for targeted gene editing. As a result of technical enhancements in recent years, this technology has become the method of choice for efficiently modifying targeted HIV-1 genome efficiently as part of HIV therapy. CRISPR can be modified to target specific sequences that Cas9 then cuts. In this article, we outline the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We also show how this technology can be used for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024071/contribution-of-herpesviruses-in-the-progression-of-periodontal-and-peri-implant-diseases-in-systemically-healthy-individuals
#15
REVIEW
Munerah Binshabaib, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Danial Salehpoor, Dimitrios Michelogiannakis, Fawad Javed
The aim of this review was to assess the contribution of herpesviruses in the subgingival oral biofilm in the progression of periodontal and peri-implant diseases in systemically healthy individuals. The literature review was customized to summarize the pertinent information for the following reasons: (1) A systematic review regarding the role of herpesviruses in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease has recently been published; and (2) a limited number of studies have assessed the association of herpesviruses with peri-implant diseases...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939461/diversity-of-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3
#16
REVIEW
Florence Nicot, Nicolas Jeanne, Alain Roulet, Caroline Lefebvre, Romain Carcenac, Maxime Manno, Martine Dubois, Nassim Kamar, Sébastien Lhomme, Florence Abravanel, Jacques Izopet
Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) can lead to chronic infection in immunocompromised patients, and ribavirin is the treatment of choice. Recently, mutations in the polymerase gene have been associated with ribavirin failure but their frequency before treatment according to HEV-3 subtypes has not been studied on a large data set. We used single-molecule real-time sequencing technology to sequence 115 new complete genomes of HEV-3 infecting French patients. We analyzed phylogenetic relationships, the length of the polyproline region, and mutations in the HEV polymerase gene...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761581/congenital-zika-syndrome-pitfalls-in-the-placental-barrier
#17
REVIEW
Nia Robinson, Evangelina E Mayorquin Galvan, Isidro G Zavala Trujillo, Maria G Zavala-Cerna
Much progress with respect to congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis has been achieved after the 2015 outbreak in Brazil. It is now accepted that ZIKV is vertically transmitted, infects cells of the developing central nervous system and the placenta, yet it is unclear to what extent placental affection contributes to the development of congenital ZIKV. The association between fulminant villitis and severe fetal involvement emerges as a possibility. ZIKV is unique among the Flaviviruses in its ability to be sexually transmitted, possibly responsible for its teratogenicity...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921027/cytomegalovirus-vaccine-timing-is-important
#18
EDITORIAL
P D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761585/hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-reactivation-the-potential-role-of-direct-acting-agents-for-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv
#19
REVIEW
Jason T Blackard, Kenneth E Sherman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in patients with HBV/HCV coinfection. Reactivation of HBV in patients treated for HCV with direct-acting agents (DAAs) has emerged recently as an important clinical consideration. A growing number of case reports and case series support the association between new HCV treatments and HBV reactivation. Yet, very little is known about the specific viral characteristics that facilitate reactivation as functional characterization of the reactivated HBV has been conducted only rarely...
July 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744964/peering-into-the-hiv-reservoir
#20
REVIEW
Marcial García, María J Buzón, José M Benito, Norma Rallón
The main obstacle to HIV eradication is the establishment of a long-term persistent HIV reservoir. Although several therapeutic approaches have been developed to reduce and eventually eliminate the HIV reservoir, only a few have achieved promising results. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoir is of utmost relevance for the design of new therapeutic strategies aimed at purging it with the ultimate goal of achieving HIV eradication or alternatively a functional cure...
July 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
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