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Reviews in Medical Virology

Philippe Roingeard, Pierre-Ivan Raynal, Sébastien Eymieux, Emmanuelle Blanchard
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the only imaging technique allowing the direct visualization of viruses, due to its nanometer-scale resolution. Between the 1960s and 1990s, TEM contributed to the discovery of many types of viruses and served as a diagnostic tool for identifying viruses directly in biological samples, either in suspension or in sections of tissues or mammalian cells grown in vitro in contact with clinical samples. The diagnosis of viral infections improved considerably during the 1990s, with the advent of highly sensitive techniques, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR, rendering TEM obsolete for this purpose...
November 9, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Shuonan Pan, Chunxiao Mou, Zhenhai Chen
Emerging porcine pestivirus diseases frequently challenge prevention and control strategies in the swine industry. Over the past decade, a few novel pestiviruses have been identified in pigs. This article focuses on the recently emerging atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) that potentially threatens global swine herd health security. The virus was first identified in 2016, in the United States and thereafter, accumulated evidence shows that it is currently distributed in three continents. The clinical presentation of APPV-infected pigs is characterized by congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets, while adult pigs may become persistent carriers and shedders...
November 9, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Mohsen Keshavarz, Hamed Mirzaei, Maryam Salemi, Fatemeh Momeni, Mohammad Javad Mousavi, Mona Sadeghalvad, Yaser Arjeini, Farid Solaymani-Mohammadi, Javid Sadri Nahand, Haideh Namdari, Talat Mokhtari-Azad, Farhad Rezaei
The alarming rise of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza pandemics and epidemics has drawn attention worldwide since the last few decades. This life-threatening problem necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine to protect against incoming pandemics. The currently available flu vaccines rely on inactivated viral particles, M2e-based vaccine, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and virus like particle (VLP). While inactivated vaccines can only induce systemic humoral responses, LAIV and VLP vaccines stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses...
November 8, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Mojtaba Rasti, Hashem Khanbabaei, Ali Teimoori
Enteroviruses are members of Pichornaviridae family consisting of human enterovirus group A, B, C, and D as well as nonhuman enteroviruses. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious disease which is usually seen in the Asia-Pacific region in children. Enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 are two important viruses responsible for HFMD which are members of group A enterovirus. IFN α and β are two cytokines, which have a major activity in the innate immune system against viral infections. Most of the viruses have some weapons against these cytokines...
October 30, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Ruixue Wang, Yong Wang, Fang Liu, Shuhong Luo
The orf virus (ORFV) is a zoonotic, epitheliotropic, DNA parapoxvirus that infects principally sheep and goats. Exposure of animals to the virus or immunization by an ORFV preparation can accentuate the severity of disease, which has provoked an interest in the underlying cellular, virological, and molecular mechanisms. The identified ORFV virulence genes and the fact that the virus can repeatedly infect a host, owing to its evasive mechanisms, contribute to the development of potent immune modulators in various animal species...
October 28, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
David Navarro, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, José María Aguado, Virginia Sandonís, Pilar Pérez-Romero
Knowledge of donor and recipient (D/R) cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus is critical for risk stratification of CMV infection and disease in transplant recipients, particularly in the solid organ transplantation (SOT) setting. Despite its broad availability and the success of it use, the risk stratification based on the D/R serostatus is not free of limitations since there are a nondepreciable number of patients that are not accurately categorized by this approach. In fact, up to 20% of seropositive SOT recipients, classically considered at intermediate risk, develop episodes of CMV infection and disease after transplantation...
October 25, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Ravi Mehta, Patrick Gerardin, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Cristiane Nascimento Soares, Maria Lucia Brito Ferreira, Tom Solomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Paul D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Qing Yu Zheng, Kim T Huynh, Wendy J van Zuylen, Maria E Craig, William D Rawlinson
Maternofetal transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of congenital malformation in developed countries. Maternal infection often results from close contact with infected children, and this may occur in day care centres (DCCs). A systematic review of observational studies was conducted to examine the prevalence of CMV infection among children attending DCCs. Meta-analysis using the random effect model was performed for studies including controls. Sources included PubMed, EMBASE (until August 2018), and references from identified publications...
October 10, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Saeedeh Ebrahimi, Ali Teimoori, Hashem Khanbabaei, Maryam Tabasi
The recent development of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, a genome editing system, has many potential applications in virology. The possibility of introducing site specific breaks has provided new possibilities to precisely manipulate viral genomics. Here, we provide diagrams to summarize the steps involved in the process. We also systematically review recent applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for manipulation of DNA virus genomics and discuss the therapeutic potential of the system to treat viral diseases...
September 27, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Vikrant Sharma, Sulochana Kaushik, Ramesh Kumar, Jaya Parkash Yadav, Samander Kaushik
Since emergence of the Nipah virus (NiV) in 1998 from Malaysia, the NiV virus has reappeared on different occasions causing severe infections in human population associated with high rate of mortality. NiV has been placed along with Hendra virus in genus Henipavirus of family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit bats (Genus Pteropus) are known to be natural host and reservoir of NiV. During the outbreaks from Malaysia and Singapore, the roles of pigs as intermediate host were confirmed. The infection transmitted from bats to pigs and subsequently from pigs to humans...
September 24, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Olga V Matveeva, Peter M Chumakov
Increased sensitivity of cancer cells to viruses is a prerequisite for the success of oncolytic virotherapy. One of the major causes of such a phenotype is the disruption of innate antiviral defenses associated with dysfunction of type 1 interferons (IFNs) that permits unlimited replication of viruses in cancer cells. Defects in IFN pathways help cancer progression by providing additional advantages to tumor cells. However, while these defects promote the survival and accelerated proliferation of malignant cells, they facilitate viral replication and thus enhance the efficiency of viral oncolysis...
September 13, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Forough Golsaz-Shirazi, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Fazel Shokri
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major health problem, with over 245 million chronic carriers worldwide. This persistent infection is thought to be associated with inefficient innate and adaptive immune responses. Natural killer cells (NK cells) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the major innate immune cells which respond to viral infection at the early phase and are considered major components of the antiviral immune response. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of NK cells, pDCs, and their cross-talk in HBV infection and its chronicity...
September 2, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Asma Sadiq, Nazish Bostan, Kwe Claude Yinda, Saadia Naseem, Sadia Sattar
Since its discovery 40 years ago, rotavirus (RV) is considered to be a major cause of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries. Nearly every child in the world under 5 years of age is at the risk of RV infection. It is estimated that 90% of RV-associated mortalities occur in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Two live oral vaccines, RotaTeq (RV5, Merck) and Rotarix (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline) have been successfully deployed to scale down the disease burden in Europe and America, but they are less effective in Africa and Asia...
August 29, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Ece Egilmezer, Gregory J Walker, Padmavathy Bakthavathsalam, Joshua R Peterson, J Justin Gooding, William Rawlinson, Sacha Stelzer-Braid
Acute respiratory tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant burden on the health care system. Laboratory testing is required to definitively distinguish infecting influenza virus from other pathogens, resulting in prolonged emergency department (ED) visits and unnecessary antibiotic use. Recently available rapid point-of-care tests (POCT) may allow for appropriate use of antiviral and antibiotic treatments and decrease patient lengths of stay. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effect of POCT for influenza on three outcomes: (1) antiviral prescription, (2) antibiotic prescription, and (3) patient length of stay in the ED...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Philip P Mortimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Xiaolin Ma, Tim Conrad, Maren Alchikh, Janine Reiche, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
Studies have shown that the predictive value of "clinical diagnoses" of influenza and other respiratory viral infections is low, especially in children. In routine care, pediatricians often resort to clinical diagnoses, even in the absence of robust evidence-based criteria. We used a dual approach to identify clinical characteristics that may help to differentiate infections with common pathogens including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, bocavirus-1, coronaviruses, or parainfluenza virus: (a) systematic review and meta-analysis of 47 clinical studies published in Medline (June 1996 to March 2017, PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017059557) comprising 49 858 individuals and (b) data-driven analysis of an inception cohort of 6073 children with ILI (aged 0-18 years, 56% male, December 2009 to March 2015) examined at the point of care in addition to blinded PCR testing...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Qiudi Deng, Zisheng Chen, Lei Shi, Huafeng Lin
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been developed as a powerful tool for targeted gene editing. As a result of technical enhancements in recent years, this technology has become the method of choice for efficiently modifying targeted HIV-1 genome efficiently as part of HIV therapy. CRISPR can be modified to target specific sequences that Cas9 then cuts. In this article, we outline the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We also show how this technology can be used for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Munerah Binshabaib, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Danial Salehpoor, Dimitrios Michelogiannakis, Fawad Javed
The aim of this review was to assess the contribution of herpesviruses in the subgingival oral biofilm in the progression of periodontal and peri-implant diseases in systemically healthy individuals. The literature review was customized to summarize the pertinent information for the following reasons: (1) A systematic review regarding the role of herpesviruses in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease has recently been published; and (2) a limited number of studies have assessed the association of herpesviruses with peri-implant diseases...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Elenaé Vázquez-Ulloa, Marcela Lizano, Marika Sjöqvist, Leslie Olmedo-Nieva, Adriana Contreras-Paredes
The Notch pathway is a conserved signaling pathway and a form of direct cell-cell communication related to many biological processes during development and adulthood. Deregulation of the Notch pathway is involved in many diseases, including cancer. Almost 20% of all cancer cases have an infectious etiology, with viruses responsible for at least 1.5 million new cancer cases per year. Seven groups of viruses have been classified as oncogenic: hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV respectively), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
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