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Reviews in Medical Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905444/response-to-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#1
REVIEW
Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Panagiota Davoulou, Christos Konstantakis, Konstantinos Thomopoulos, Christos Triantos
Hepatitis B vaccination is strongly recommended for all infants and children but also for adults who are at risk of HBV infection. Attempts to immunize patients with liver cirrhosis have been proven relatively ineffective, and several strategies have already been used to improve the immune response in this group. The primary aim of this review is to examine, discuss, and summarize the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with liver cirrhosis. MEDLINE search identified 11 studies (n = 961)...
September 14, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876496/seroprevalence-and-incidence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-among-blood-donors-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Duaa W Al-Sadeq, Amin F Majdalawieh, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus with 4 main genotypes. HEV-1 and HEV-2 infect solely humans, while HEV-3 and HEV-4 infect humans and various animals such as pigs, deer, and rabbits. HEV-5 and HEV-6 infect mainly wild boar. Recently, new genotypes, known as HEV-7 and HEV-8, were found to infect camels and humans. HEV is globally distributed into different epidemiological patterns based on socioeconomic factors and ecology. Although HEV is mainly transmitted through the fecal-oral route, it was also recognized as a transfusion-transmitted virus...
September 6, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876493/hearing-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-for-children-with-asymptomatic-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Adam W Bartlett, Brendan McMullan, William D Rawlinson, Pamela Palasanthiran
INTRODUCTION: Congenital CMV is one of the commonest congenital infections and a recognised cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental impairment. Ninety percent are clinically inapparent at birth but are reported to be at risk of developing such abnormalities throughout childhood, the extent of which requires further elucidation. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using Medline and Embase databases, manual citation review, and personal libraries for articles reporting primary data on hearing and neurodevelopmental outcomes for children with asymptomatic congenital CMV...
September 6, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857395/hiv-in-retreat
#4
EDITORIAL
Philip Mortimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857363/impact-of-transmission-cycles-and-vector-competence-on-global-expansion-and-emergence-of-arboviruses
#5
REVIEW
Ankita Agarwal, Manmohan Parida, Paban Kumar Dash
Arboviruses are transmitted between arthropod vectors and vertebrate host. Arboviral infection in mosquitoes is initiated when a mosquito feeds on a viremic host. Following ingestion of a viremic blood meal by mosquitoes, virus enters midgut along with the blood, infects and replicates in midgut epithelial cells, and then escapes to the hemocoel, from where it disseminates to various secondary organs including salivary glands. Subsequently, when mosquito bites another host, a new transmission cycle is initiated...
August 30, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857345/basic-overview-of-method-validation-in-the-clinical-virology-laboratory
#6
REVIEW
Howard Newman, Jean Maritz
Diagnostic virology laboratories are an essential part of the health system and are often relied upon to provide information to clinicians that will inform clinical decision making. It is therefore imperative that diagnostic results produced in the laboratory are reliable. One way of ensuring quality results is by ensuring that all tests are either validated (for tests developed in-house) or verified (for commercial assays that are FDA-approved or CE-labeled). In the diagnostic virology laboratory, these processes can be complex as both qualitative and quantitative measurements for serological and molecular tests are routinely offered...
August 30, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677223/disruption-of-gastrointestinal-integrity-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#7
EDITORIAL
P D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664574/the-human-cytomegalovirus-nuclear-egress-complex-unites-multiple-functions-recruitment-of-effectors-nuclear-envelope-rearrangement-and-docking-to-nuclear-capsids
#8
REVIEW
Manfred Marschall, Yves A Muller, Benedikt Diewald, Heinrich Sticht, Jens Milbradt
BACKGROUND: Nuclear replication represents a common hallmark of herpesviruses achieved by a number of sequentially unrolled regulatory processes. A rate-limiting step is provided by nucleo-cytoplasmic capsid export, for which a defined multiregulatory protein complex, namely, the nuclear egress complex (NEC), is assembled comprising both viral and cellular components. The NEC regulates at least 3 aspects of herpesviral nuclear replication: (1) multimeric recruitment of NEC-associated effector proteins, (2) reorganization of the nuclear lamina and membranes, and (3) the docking to nuclear capsids...
July 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573797/is-salivary-iga-level-a-potential-biomarker-for-immunosuppression-in-hiv-positive-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Fawad Javed, Zohaib Akram, Munerah Saleh Binshabaib, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Fahim Vohra
The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether or not assessment of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels could be a potential biomarker for immunosuppression in HIV-positive children. The Patient, Exposure, Comparative, Outcome question was "Is sIgA level a potential biomarker for immunosuppression in HIV-positive children?" Electronic and manual literature searches were conducted in indexed databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS databases) up to and including June 2017...
July 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480985/orf-virus-infection
#10
REVIEW
Christina Bergqvist, Mazen Kurban, Ossama Abbas
Orf virus (ORFV) is an important pathogen responsible for a highly contagious zoonotic viral infection that threatens those who handle sheep and goats. Orf virus is the prototype of the Parapoxvirus genus, and its resilience in the environment and ability to reinfect its host has contributed to the spread and maintenance of the infection in many species. In healthy humans, the disease usually resolves spontaneously within 3 to 6 weeks. There is no specific treatment and many different approaches such as use of imiquimod, cidofovir, curettage, shave excision, cryotherapy, and electrocautery have all been reported to be successful, without supporting evidence from controlled clinical trials...
July 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444859/roles-of-samhd1-in-antiviral-defense-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Miaomiao Li, Dong Zhang, Mengying Zhu, Yuxian Shen, Wei Wei, Songcheng Ying, Heinrich Korner, Jun Li
The enzyme, sterile α motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) diminishes infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by hydrolyzing intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. This dNTP degradation reduces the dNTP concentration to a level insufficient for viral cDNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting retroviral replication. This antiviral enzymatic activity can be inhibited by viral protein X (Vpx). The HIV-2/SIV Vpx causes degradation of SAMHD1, thus interfering with the SAMHD1-mediated restriction of retroviral replication...
April 25, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318120/virology-in-a-post-truth-world
#12
EDITORIAL
P D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318080/hepatitis-e-and-pregnancy-current-state
#13
REVIEW
María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, Beatriz Suay-García, María Luisa Mateos-Lindemann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis cases in endemic countries. Approximately 2 billion individuals live in hepatitis E-endemic areas and, therefore, are at risk of infection. According to World Health Organization, HEV causes about 20.1 million infections and 70 000 deaths every year. In developing countries with poor sanitation, this disease is transmitted through contaminated water and is associated with large outbreaks, affecting hundreds or thousands of people...
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295832/polyomavirus-micrornas-circulating-in-biological-fluids-during-viral-persistence
#14
REVIEW
Francesco Martelli, Simone Giannecchini
Increasing evidence suggests that microRNA-mediated gene silencing, detected during exosome intercellular communication between cells, may be exploited by persistent human viruses. Recently, it has been reported that human polyomaviruses encode microRNAs that downregulate large T expression and target host factors, helping the virus to escape immune elimination. Consequently, viral microRNAs and their genetic variability may have roles in the induction of polyomavirus reactivation, the success of persistence or replication and the development of diseases...
March 10, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271593/norovirus-infection-in-primary-immune-deficiency
#15
REVIEW
Li-An K Brown, Ian Clark, Julianne R Brown, Judith Breuer, David M Lowe
Norovirus is acknowledged to be a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and its importance as a cause of chronic infection in immune deficient hosts is increasingly recognised. Current evidence suggests that a coordinated response of innate immune mechanisms, CD8+ cytotoxicity and a humoral response, with CD4+ orchestration, is necessary for norovirus clearance. We explain how primary immune deficiency impairs these host defences and predisposes to chronic infection, associated with protracted diarrhoea, weight loss, and requirement for parenteral nutrition...
March 8, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128885/mechanisms-of-hiv-persistence-in-hiv-reservoirs
#16
REVIEW
Mayibongwe L Mzingwane, Caroline T Tiemessen
The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half-life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia...
March 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044388/langerhans-cells-and-sexual-transmission-of-hiv-and-hsv
#17
REVIEW
Rachel A Botting, Hafsa Rana, Kirstie M Bertram, Jake W Rhodes, Heeva Baharlou, Najla Nasr, Anthony L Cunningham, Andrew N Harman
Langerhans cells (LCs) situated in stratified squamous epithelium of the skin and mucosal tissue are amongst the first cells that sexually transmitted pathogens encounter during transmission. They are potent antigen presenting cells and play a key role in the host mounting an appropriate immune response. As such, viruses have evolved complex strategies to manipulate these cells to facilitate successful transmission. One of best studied examples is HIV, which manipulates the natural function of these cells to interact with CD4 T cells, which are the main target cell for HIV in which rapid replication occurs...
March 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008685/maternal-immune-correlates-of-protection-from-human-cytomegalovirus-transmission-to-the-fetus-after-primary-infection-in-pregnancy
#18
REVIEW
Daniele Lilleri, Giuseppe Gerna
Immune control of primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection appears to depend on the interaction of humoral and T-cell responses. In this review, we have separately explored the 2 arms of the immune response to primary HCMV infection in HCMV-seronegative pregnant women transmitting (T) or not transmitting (NT) the infection to the fetus, with the objective of correlating the immune risk factors associated with vertical HCMV transmission. As for the humoral response, the following findings were documented: (i) in competitive binding assays, antibody titers to different antigenic sites of the gH pentamer complex were significantly lower in T compared with NT women; (ii) in addition, the number of neutralization sites recognized by T was significantly lower compared with NT women; (iii) the plaque formation inhibition assay showed a faster kinetics and a higher titer in NT women...
March 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786402/vaccines-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-for-humans-and-camels
#19
REVIEW
Naif Khalaf Alharbi
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is caused by a novel betacoronavirus that was isolated in late 2012 in Saudi Arabia. The viral infections have been reported in more than 1700 humans, ranging from asymptomatic or mild cases to severe pneumonia with a mortality rate of 40%. It is well documented now that dromedary camels contract the infection and shed the virus without notable symptoms, and such animals had been infected by at least the early 1980s. The mechanism of camel to human transmission is still not clear, but several primary cases have been associated with camel contact...
March 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170131/making-dollars-and-sense-out-of-a-screening-programme
#20
EDITORIAL
P D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
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