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Reviews in Medical Virology

Jason T Blackard, Kenneth E Sherman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in patients with HBV/HCV coinfection. Reactivation of HBV in patients treated for HCV with direct-acting agents (DAAs) has emerged recently as an important clinical consideration. A growing number of case reports and case series support the association between new HCV treatments and HBV reactivation. Yet, very little is known about the specific viral characteristics that facilitate reactivation as functional characterization of the reactivated HBV has been conducted only rarely...
May 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Nia Robinson, Evangelina E Mayorquin Galvan, Isidro G Zavala Trujillo, Maria G Zavala-Cerna
Much progress with respect to congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis has been achieved after the 2015 outbreak in Brazil. It is now accepted that ZIKV is vertically transmitted, infects cells of the developing central nervous system and the placenta, yet it is unclear to what extent placental affection contributes to the development of congenital ZIKV. The association between fulminant villitis and severe fetal involvement emerges as a possibility. ZIKV is unique among the Flaviviruses in its ability to be sexually transmitted, possibly responsible for its teratogenicity...
May 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Marcial García, María J Buzón, José M Benito, Norma Rallón
The main obstacle to HIV eradication is the establishment of a long-term persistent HIV reservoir. Although several therapeutic approaches have been developed to reduce and eventually eliminate the HIV reservoir, only a few have achieved promising results. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoir is of utmost relevance for the design of new therapeutic strategies aimed at purging it with the ultimate goal of achieving HIV eradication or alternatively a functional cure...
May 9, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Asghar Abdoli, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Faezeh Forouzanfar
Autophagy signaling pathway is involved in cellular homeostasis, developmental processes, cellular stress responses, and immune pathways. The aim of this review is to summarize the relationship between autophagy and viruses. It is not possible to be fully comprehensive, or to provide a complete "overview of all viruses". In this review, we will focus on the interaction of autophagy and viruses and survey how human viruses exploit multiple steps in the autophagy pathway to help viral propagation and escape immune response...
April 30, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Brandon Tan, Shou-Jiang Gao
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) was discovered 4 decades ago. However, the functions of m6 A and the cellular machinery that regulates its changes have just been revealed in the last few years. m6 A is an abundant internal mRNA modification on cellular RNA and is implicated in diverse cellular functions. Recent works have demonstrated the presence of m6 A in the genomes of RNA viruses and transcripts of a DNA virus with either a proviral or antiviral role. Here, we first summarize what is known about the m6 A "writers," "erasers," "readers," and "antireaders" as well as the role of m6 A in mRNA metabolism...
April 26, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Mostafa Ebraheem Morra, Ahmed M A Altibi, Somia Iqtadar, Le Huu Nhat Minh, Sameh Samir Elawady, Asma Hallab, Abdelrahman Elshafay, Omer Abedlbagi Omer, Ahmed Iraqi, Purushottam Adhikari, Jonair Hussein Labib, Khaled Mosaad Elhusseiny, Ahmed Elgebaly, Sophie Yacoub, Le Thi Minh Huong, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
Since warning signs and signs of severe dengue are defined differently between studies, we conducted a systematic review on how researchers defined these signs. We conducted an electronic search in Scopus to identify relevant articles, using key words including dengue, "warning signs," "severe dengue," and "classification." A total of 491 articles were identified through this search strategy and were subsequently screened by 2 independent reviewers for definitions of any of the warning or severe signs in the 2009 WHO dengue classification...
April 24, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Ravi Mehta, Patrick Gerardin, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Cristiane Nascimento Soares, Maria Lucia Brito Ferreira, Tom Solomon
We performed a systematic review on the neurological complications of chikungunya virus. Such complications are being reported increasingly, owing primarily to the scale of recent epidemics but also to a growing understanding of the virus' neurovirulence. We performed a thorough literature search using PubMed and Scopus databases, summating the data on all published reports of neurological disease associated with chikungunya virus. We appraised the data for each major condition in adults, children, and neonates, as well as evaluating the latest evidence on disease pathogenesis and management strategies...
April 19, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Mostafa Ebraheem Morra, Le Van Thanh, Mohamed Gomaa Kamel, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb Ghazy, Ahmed M A Altibi, Lu Minh Dat, Tran Ngoc Xuan Thy, Nguyen Lam Vuong, Mostafa Reda Mostafa, Sarah Ibrahim Ahmed, Sahar Samy Elabd, Samreen Fathima, Tran Le Huy Vu, Ali S Omrani, Ziad A Memish, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus. Because of lack of vaccination, various studies investigated the therapeutic efficacy of antiviral drugs and supportive remedies. A systematic literature search from 10 databases was conducted and screened for relevant articles. Studies reporting information about the treatment of MERS coronavirus infection were extracted and analyzed. Despite receiving treatment with ribavirin plus IFN, the case fatality rate was as high as 71% in the IFN-treatment group and exactly the same in patients who received supportive treatment only...
April 17, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Prashant Hiwarkar, Karin Kosulin, Simone Cesaro, Malgorzata Mikulska, Jan Styczynski, Robert Wynn, Thomas Lion
The important insights gained over the past years in diagnosis and treatment of invasive adenoviral infections provide new paradigms for the monitoring and clinical management of these life-threatening complications. A meeting was held to discuss and subsequently disseminate the current advances in our understanding of the aetiology/pathogenesis and future treatment options facilitating effective control or prevention of adenovirus-related diseases in the allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant setting...
April 16, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Abid Qureshi, Vaqar Gani Tantray, Altaf Rehman Kirmani, Abdul Ghani Ahangar
Viral diseases like influenza, AIDS, hepatitis, and Ebola cause severe epidemics worldwide. Along with their resistant strains, new pathogenic viruses continue to be discovered so creating an ongoing need for new antiviral treatments. RNA interference is a cellular gene-silencing phenomenon in which sequence-specific degradation of target mRNA is achieved by means of complementary short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Short interfering RNA technology affords a potential tractable strategy to combat viral pathogenesis because siRNAs are specific, easy to design, and can be directed against multiple strains of a virus by targeting their conserved gene regions...
April 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Detlev H Kruger, Thomas Mertens
As early as 1943, the German physician Helmut Ruska visualized the virus of varicella and zoster (at that time, he was not completely certain whether the virus was the same) by the newly developed electron microscope; he is regarded as the discoverer of this virus. Here, we present a translation of his classical paper into the English language. In our introduction and commentary to his paper, we discuss the significance of Helmut Ruska's work for the development of virology, his distinction between the varicella, zoster, and herpes virus group on one hand and poxviruses on the other, as well as the development of imaging techniques which have refined or substituted for electron microscopy of viruses and virus-infected cells...
April 6, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Ellyn M Kornfeind, Robert J Visalli
Herpesviruses (Herpesvirales) and tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) package their dsDNA genomes through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. Much is known about the biochemistry and structural biology of phage portal proteins and the DNA encapsidation (viral genome cleavage and packaging) process. Although not at the same level of detail, studies on HSV-1, CMV, VZV, and HHV-8 have revealed important information on the function and structure of herpesvirus portal proteins. During dsDNA phage and herpesviral genome replication, concatamers of viral dsDNA are cleaved into single length units by a virus-encoded terminase and packaged into preformed procapsids through a channel located at a single capsid vertex (portal)...
March 24, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Digby W Allen, Ki Wook Kim, William D Rawlinson, Maria E Craig
Virus infections are implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes based on epidemiological, clinical, in vitro cell-based and molecular studies, and animal models. We reviewed the association between virus infections in pregnant women and development of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes in their offspring. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, analysed using random effects models, of human studies from Medline and EMBASE without language restriction. Inclusion criteria were as follows: cohort and case-control studies measuring viral nucleic acid in blood, stool, urine, or tissue, or serological tests for viruses, in pregnant women whose offspring developed islet autoimmunity and/or type 1 diabetes...
March 22, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
P D Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Harsha A Dissanayake, Suranjith L Seneviratne
Dengue fever is the commonest viral haemorrhagic fever worldwide and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Dengue viral infections are frequently associated with varying degrees of liver injury. Liver injury is more severe in dengue haemorrhagic fever or severe dengue. We review the current knowledge on liver involvement following dengue viral infections and explore the links between clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and their impact on management.
March 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Philip P Mortimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Graham P Taylor
HTLV infection appears to be more common among renal transplant candidates than in the related general population. HTLV-1-associated diseases may occur in carriers who are transplanted but there is insufficient evidence to confirm whether these occur more frequently as a result of the associated immunosuppression. Consequently, pre-existing HTLV-1 infection should not be considered a contra-indication to transplantation. The risk of transmission of HTLV-1 through solid organ transplantation from a confirmed infected donor is unknown...
March 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Krisna N A Pangesti, Moataz Abd El Ghany, Michael G Walsh, Alison M Kesson, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of viral acute respiratory tract infections in young children. The virus is characterised by distinct seasonality that is dependent upon the latitude and its ability to cause reinfection. Respiratory syncytial virus demonstrates a complex molecular epidemiology pattern as multiple strains and/or genotypes cocirculate during a single epidemic. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between RSV genetic diversity, reinfection, and clinical features...
March 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
March 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Muhammad Abubakar, Shumaila Manzoor, Afshan Ahmed
Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a communicable disease of cloven hoofed animals, resulting in major economic losses during disease outbreaks. Like other members of the Picornaviridae FMDV has a relatively short infectious cycle; initiation of infection and dissemination, with production of infectious virions occurs in less than a week. The components of innate immunity as well as cell-mediated and humoral immunity play a crucial role in control of FMDV. However, it has been shown in vitro using a mouse model that FMDV has evolved certain mechanisms to counteract host immune responses ensuring its survival and spread...
March 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
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