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Reviews in Medical Virology

Shawn Zheng Kai Tan, Mark Zheng Yi Tan, Mookkan Prabakaran
Saffold virus (SAFV) is an emerging human cardiovirus that has been shown to be ubiquitous. Initial studies of SAFV focused on respiratory and gastrointestinal infection; however, it has also recently been associated with diverse clinical symptoms including the endocrine, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Given the systemic nature of SAFV, and its high prevalence, understanding its pathogenicity and clinical impact is of utmost importance. This comprehensive review highlights and discusses recent developments in epidemiology, human pathogenicity, animal, and molecular studies related to SAFV...
October 10, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Mihnea T Zdrenghea, Heidi Makrinioti, Cristina Bagacean, Andy Bush, Sebastian L Johnston, Luminita A Stanciu
Vitamin D, in addition to its classical functions in bone homeostasis, has a modulatory and regulatory role in multiple processes, including host defense, inflammation, immunity, and epithelial repair. Patients with respiratory disease are frequently deficient in vitamin D, implying that supplementation might provide significant benefit to these patients. Respiratory viral infections are common and are the main trigger of acute exacerbations and hospitalization in children and adults with asthma and other airways diseases...
October 7, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Helene Ladefoged Grønborg, Sanne Jespersen, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Christian Wejse
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. METHODS: Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. RESULTS: High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations...
October 7, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Gábor Reuter, Péter Pankovics, Ákos Boros
The salivirus, first discovered in the year 2009, is a member of the large and growing family Picornaviridae. At present, the genus Salivirus contains 1 species Salivirus A and 2 genotypes, Salivirus A1 and Salivirus A2. Salivirus has been identified in humans and chimpanzees and may cause acute gastroenteritis in humans, having been detected in 0% to 8.7% of fecal samples collected from gastroenteritis in different human populations. Salivirus is ubiquitous in wastewater of human origin and river water specimens worldwide and represents a potential indicator human RNA virus for monitoring of environmental samples...
September 19, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Nazish Bostan, Sundus Javed, Nabgha-E-Amen, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Faheem Tahir, Habib Bokhari
Dengue fever is regarded as one of the most prominent emerging arboviral infections in Pakistan since its first epidemic almost 2 decades ago. Interplay between potential vectors, susceptible host, and lax environmental conditions may promote the infection, leading to an epidemic. These factors may indeed have played a major role in the spread of the disease in the country, which was limited to Karachi till 2006. With recent natural disasters such as the earthquake in 2005 and flooding in 2010, 2011 and 2012, numbers of vector-borne diseases and outbreaks including dengue fever are on the rise in Pakistan...
September 6, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Edgar Simulundu, Aaron S Mweene, Katendi Changula, Mwaka Monze, Elizabeth Chizema, Peter Mwaba, Ayato Takada, Guiseppe Ippolito, Francis Kasolo, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
Lujo virus is a novel Old World arenavirus identified in Southern Africa in 2008 as the cause of a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) characterized by nosocomial transmission with a high case fatality rate of 80% (4/5 cases). Whereas this outbreak was limited, the unprecedented Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, and recent Zika virus disease epidemic in the Americas, has brought into acute focus the need for preparedness to respond to rare but potentially highly pathogenic outbreaks of zoonotic or arthropod-borne viral infections...
September 5, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Jin Gan, Niu Qiao, Roxanne Strahan, Caixia Zhu, Lei Liu, Subhash C Verma, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Post-translational modification of proteins with ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) molecules triggers multiple signaling pathways that are critical for many aspects of cellular physiology. Given that viruses hijack the biosynthetic and degradative systems of their host, it is not surprising that viruses encode proteins to manipulate the host's cellular machinery for ubiquitin/SUMO modification at multiple levels. Infection with a herpesvirus, among the most ubiquitous human DNA viruses, has been linked to many human diseases, including cancers...
August 22, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Koray Ergunay, Nazli Ayhan, Remi N Charrel
Sandfly-transmitted phleboviruses are globally spread agents causing febrile diseases and central nervous system infections. The activity of pathogenic phleboviruses, as well as several novel strains, has been reported from Turkey, a transboundary country connecting Asia, Europe, and Africa with suitable habitats for sandflies. This study overviews all published data on phleboviruses from Turkey and evaluates the impact from the virological, epidemiological, and public health perspectives. A systematic review of Web-based global and local resources was performed...
August 17, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Paul Griffiths
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Magda Rybicka, Piotr Stalke, Krzysztof Piotr Bielawski
Chronic HBV infection affects more than 240 million people worldwide and is associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations including liver cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Because of the lack of an efficient cure for chronic hepatitis B, the main goal of antiviral therapy is the prevention of liver disease progression coupled with prolonged survival of patients. Because HBV viral load has been shown to be a crucial determinant of the progression of liver damage, these goals can be achieved as long as HBV replication can be suppressed...
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Nikhil Sharma, Sunit K Singh
The advances in RNA sequencing have unveiled various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which modulate the gene expression. ncRNAs do not get translated into proteins. These include transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, microRNA (miRNA), short interfering RNA, long non-coding RNA, piwi-interacting RNA and small nuclear RNA. ncRNAs regulate gene expression at various levels and control cellular machinery. miRNAs have been reported in plants, animals, several invertebrates and viruses. The miRNAs regulate the gene expression post-transcriptionally...
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Wendy J van Zuylen, William D Rawlinson, Caroline E Ford
Viruses are obligate parasites dependent on host cells for survival. Viral infection of a cell activates a panel of pattern recognition receptors that mediate antiviral host responses to inhibit viral replication and dissemination. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to evade and subvert this antiviral host response, including encoding proteins that hijack, mimic and/or manipulate cellular processes such as the cell cycle, DNA damage repair, cellular metabolism and the host immune response. Currently, there is an increasing interest whether viral modulation of these cellular processes, including the cell cycle, contributes to cancer development...
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Rui Soares, Graça Rocha, António Meliço-Silvestre, Teresa Gonçalves
Over the last 30 years, research into HIV has advanced the knowledge of virus genetics and the development of efficient therapeutic strategies. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is a specialized and multifunctional protein that plays important roles at multiple stages of the HIV-1 viral life cycle. This protein interacts with a number of cellular and viral proteins and with multiple activities including nuclear transport of the pre-integration complex (PIC) to the nucleus, transcriptional activation, cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition phase and induction of cell death via apoptosis...
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Stephanie Pfaender, Thomas von Hahn, Joerg Steinmann, Sandra Ciesek, Eike Steinmann
Blood-borne viruses, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and the facultative blood-borne hepatitis E virus, are considered a major public health problem given that they are accountable for millions of deaths each year. Treatment options, including effective vaccine design, development of antiviral strategies and the implementation of antiretroviral therapy have improved substantially over the last couple of years and contribute to successful treatment and prevention of these infectious diseases...
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Jiangwen Qu
INTRODUCTION: The 2009 AH1N1 pandemic became a global health concern, although fortunately, its worst anticipated effects were not realised. While the origins of such outbreaks remain poorly understood, it is very important to identify the precipitating factors in their emergence so that future pandemics can be detected as quickly as possible. Methords: Descriptive epidemiology was used to analyse the association between influenza pandemics and possible pandemics and relative number of sunspots...
September 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Lize Cuypers, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Kristel Van Laethem, Guangdi Li, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh
The introduction of highly potent direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has revolutionized hepatitis C virus treatment. Nevertheless, viral eradication worldwide remains a challenge also in the era of DAA treatment, because of the high associated costs, high numbers of undiagnosed patients, high re-infection rates in some risk groups and suboptimal drug efficacies associated with host and viral factors as well as advanced stages of liver disease. A correct determination of the HCV genotype allows administration of the most appropriate antiviral regimen...
July 12, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Alireza Tahamtan, Christopher S Inchley, Mona Marzban, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Majid Teymoori-Rad, Britt Nakstad, Vahid Salimi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of regulatory RNAs in host-pathogen interactions. Aberrant miRNA expression seems to play a central role in the pathology of several respiratory viruses, promoting development and progression of infection. miRNAs may thus serve as therapeutic and prognostic factors for respiratory viral infectious disease caused by a variety of agents. We present a comprehensive review of recent findings related to the role of miRNAs in different respiratory viral infections and discuss possible therapeutic opportunities aiming to attenuate the burden of viral infections...
July 4, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Shelan Liu, Jianping Sha, Zhao Yu, Yan Hu, Ta-Chien Chan, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hao Pan, Wei Cheng, Shenghua Mao, Run Ju Zhang, Enfu Chen
The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare...
July 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
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