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Physiological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982690/mitochondrial-adaptations-in-aged-skeletal-muscle-effect-of-exercise-training
#1
M M Ziaaldini, S Ra Hosseini, M Fathi
The aging process is associated with a decline in mitochondrial functions. Mitochondria dysfunction is involved in initiation and progression of many health problems including neuromuscular, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. It is well known that endurance exercise improves mitochondrial function, especially in the elderly. However, recent studies have demonstrated that resistance training lead also to substantial increases in mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in the skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to exercise training in healthy elderly subjects, can help practitioners to design and prescribe more effective exercise trainings...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982689/the-effect-of-laurus-nobilis-on-the-blood-and-lenses-antioxidant-activity-in-rabbit-under-fat-enriched-diet
#2
D Casamassima, F Chiosi, F Vizzarri, M Palazzo, C Costagliola
Fat-enriched diet is strongly associated with cataract development. Laurus nobilis shows antioxidant activity. Herein we evaluated the effect of Laurus nobilis oral administration on the blood and lenses antioxidant activity in rabbits under fat-enriched-diet. Sixty rabbits divided into 4 groups were used. One group represented the control (N-CTR). The second group (P-CTR) fed a diet supplemented with 2.5% of pig fat; the third group (EXP1) received a diet supplemented with 2.5% of pig fat and 1 g/kg of dried-bay leaves; the fourth group (EXP2) was treated with dried-bay leaves at the rate of 1 g/kg of feed...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982688/aerobic-exercise-of-low-to-moderate-intensity-corrects-unequal-changes-in-bk-ca-subunit-expression-in-the-mesenteric-arteries-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#3
Yanyan Zhang, Yu Chen, Lin Zhang, Ni Lu, Lijun Shi
Accumulating evidence indicates that hypertension is associated with "ion channel remodeling" of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of exercise intensity/volume on hypertension-associated changes in large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels in mesenteric arteries (MAs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHRs were randomly assigned to three groups: a low-intensity aerobic exercise group (SHR-L: 14 m/min), a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group (SHR-M: 20 m/min), and a sedentary group (SHR)...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982687/angiotensinogen-and-interleukin-18-as-markers-of-chronic-kidney-damage-in-children-with-a-history-of-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#4
K Lipiec, P Adamczyk, E Świętochowska, K Ziora, M Szczepańska
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a type of thrombotic microangiopathy, in the course of which some patients may develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is clinically important to investigate the markers of a poor prognosis. The levels of angiotensinogen (AGT) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in serum and urine were evaluated. Study was conducted in 29 children with a history of HUS. Serum and urine AGT concentration was significantly higher in children after HUS as compared to the control group. No differences depending on the type of HUS and gender were noted...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982686/the-expression-levels-of-notch-related-signaling-molecules-in-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-bleomycin-induced-rat-pulmonary-fibrosis
#5
Qian Yin, Weihua Wang, Guangbin Cui, Haiyan Nan, Linfeng Yan, Wenhu Zhang, Song Zhang, Jingguo Wei
Previous studies have suggested that the Notch signaling pathway plays a very important role in the proliferation and differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the expression level of Notch-related signaling molecules in PMVECs in bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to analyze the differences in protein and mRNA expression levels of Notch-related signaling molecules, i...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982685/responses-of-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-in-wistar-rats-to-different-resistance-exercise-models
#6
T F Luciano, S de Oliveira Marques, B L da Silva Pieri, D Roxo de Souza, L V Araújo, R T Nesi, D da Luz Scheffer, V H Comin, R A Pinho, A P Muller, C T de Souza
This study aimed to compare the effects of three different resistance exercise models on the quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area, as well as on mTOR phosphorylation and other pivotal molecules involved in the upstream regulation of mTOR. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into untrained (control), endurance resistance training, strength resistance training, and hypertrophy resistance training (HRT) groups (n = 6). After 12 weeks of training, the red portion of the quadriceps was removed for histological and western blot analyses...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982684/nesfatin-1-influences-the-excitability-of-gastric-distension-responsive-neurons-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-of-rats
#7
Hongzhen Feng, Qiaoling Wang, Feifei Guo, Xiaohua Han, Mingjie Pang, Xiangrong Sun, Yanling Gong, Luo Xu
The present study investigated the effects of nesfatin-1 on gastric distension (GD)- responsive neurons via an interaction with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), and the potential regulation of these effects by hippocampal projections to VMH. Extracellular single-unit discharges were recorded in VHM following administration of nesfatin-1. The projection of nerve fibers and expression of nesfatin-1 were assessed by retrograde tracing and fluoro-immunohistochemical staining, respectively...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982683/the-in-vivo-effects-of-adenine-induced-chronic-kidney-disease-on-some-renal-and-hepatic-function-and-cyp450-metabolizing-enzymes
#8
M Al Za'abi, A Shalaby, P Manoj, B H Ali
Adenine-induced model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widely used model especially in studies testing novel nephroprotective agents. We investigated the effects of adenine-induced CKD in rats on the activities of some xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in liver and kidneys, and on some in vivo indicators of drug metabolism (viz pentobarbitone sleeping time, and plasma concentration of theophylline 90 min post administration). CKD was induced by orally feeding adenine (0.25% w/w) for 35 days. Adenine induced all the characteristics of CKD, which was confirmed by biochemical and histological findings...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982682/acrylamide-a-common-food-toxin-related-to-physiological-functions-and-health
#9
M Semla, Z Goc, M Martinikova, R Omelka, G Formicki
Acrylamide (AA) is a highly reactive organic compound capable of polimeryzation to form polyacrylamide, which is commonly used throughout a variety of industries. Given its toxic effect on humans and animals, the last 20 years have seen an increased interest in research devoted to the AA. One of the main sources of AA is food. AA appears in heated food following the reaction between aminoacids and reduced sugars. Large concentrations of AA can be found in popular staples such as coffee, bread or potato products...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982681/background-levels-of-neomorphic-2-hydroxyglutarate-facilitate-proliferation-of-primary-fibroblasts
#10
A Dvořák, J Zelenka, K Smolková, L Vítek, P JeŽek
Each cell types or tissues contain certain "physiological" levels of R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), as well as enzymes for its synthesis and degradation. 2HG accumulates in certain tumors, possessing heterozygous point mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH1 (cytosolic) or IDH2 (mitochondrial) and contributes to strengthening their malignancy by inhibiting 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. By blocking histone de-methylation and 5-methyl-cytosine hydroxylation, 2HG maintains cancer cells de-differentiated and promotes their proliferation...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982680/distinct-response-of-fat-and-gastrointestinal-tissue-to-glucose-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#11
D Vejrazkova, O Lischkova, M Vankova, S Stanicka, J Vrbikova, P Lukasova, J Vcelak, G Vacinova, B Bendlova
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are distinct pathologies with impaired insulin sensitivity as a common feature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of fat tissue adipokines and gastrointestinal incretins to glucose load in patients diagnosed with one of the two disorders and to compare it with healthy controls. Oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed in 77 lean young women: 22 had positive history of GDM, 19 were PCOS patients, and 36 were healthy controls...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982679/postnatal-alteration-of-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-expression-in-the-rat-corpus-callosum
#12
Fuxing Dong, Yaping Liu, Zhenzhong Zhang, Rui Guo, Li Ma, Xuebin Qu, Hongli Yu, Hongbin Fan, Ruiqin Yao
In the central nervous system (CNS), monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is expressed in astrocytes and endothelial cells but also in oligodendroglia. Oligodendroglia support neurons and axons through lactate transportation by MCT1. Limited information is available on the MCT1 expression changes in candidate cells in the developing rat brain, especially in corpus callosum which is the most vulnerable area in demyelinating diseases. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of MCT1 during postnatal development in the rat corpus callosum using immunofluorescene staining, western blotting analysis and RT-PCR...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982678/disparity-between-two-dimensional-echocardiographic-and-electroanatomic-left-and-right-atrial-volumes-in-patients-undergoing-catheter-ablation-for-long-standing-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#13
L Škňouřil, Š Havránek, V Bulková, M Dorda, T Paleček, J Šimek, Z Fingrová, A Linhart, J Januška, D Wichterle, M Fiala
Left atrial (LA) volume (LAV) is used for the selection of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) to rhythm control strategies. Calculation of LAV from the LA diameters and areas by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography may result in significant error. Accuracy of atrial volume assessment has never been studied in patients with long-standing persistent AF (LSPAF) and significant atrial remodeling. This study investigated correlation and agreement between 2D echocardiographic (Simpson method) and electroanatomic (CARTO, Biosense Webster) left and right atrial (RA) volumes (LAV(ECHO) vs...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982677/pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-calcineurin-inhibitor-induced-nephrotoxicity-and-arterial-hypertension
#14
L Hošková, I Málek, L Kopkan, J Kautzner
Solid organ transplantation is an established treatment modality in patients with end-stage organ damage in cases where other therapeutic options fail. The long-term outcomes of solid organ transplant recipients have improved considerably since the introduction of the first calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) - cyclosporine. In 1984, the potent immunosuppressive properties of another CNI, tacrolimus, were discovered. The immunosuppressive effects of CNIs result from the inhibition of interleukin-2 synthesis and reduced proliferation of T-cells due to calcineurin blockade...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982676/lipasin-betatrophin-is-differentially-expressed-in-liver-and-white-adipose-tissue-without-association-with-insulin-resistance-in-wistar-and-goto-kakizaki-rats
#15
M Cahová, D Habart, T Olejár, Z Berková, Z Papáčková, H Daňková, A Lodererova, M Heczková, F Saudek
Lipasin is a recently identified lipokine expressed predominantly in liver and in adipose tissue. It was linked to insulin resistance in mice and to type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D) in humans. No metabolic studies concerning lipasin were performed yet in rats. Therefore, we used rat model of T2D and insulin resistance, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, to determine changes of lipasin expression in liver and in white adipose tissue (WAT) over 52 weeks in the relation to glucose tolerance, peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity and adiposity...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982675/differential-responsiveness-in-vegf-receptor-subtypes-to-hypoxic-stress-in-various-tissues-of-plateau-animals
#16
Hui-Chun Xie, Jin-Gang Li, Jian-Ping He
With hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are elevated and their responses are altered in skeletal muscles of plateau animals [China Qinghai-Tibetan plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae)] as compared with control animals [normal lowland Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats]. The results indicate that HIF-1alpha and VEGF are engaged in physiological functions under hypoxic environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the protein levels of VEGF receptor subtypes (VEGFRs: VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3) in the end organs, namely skeletal muscle, heart and lung in response to hypoxic stress...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982674/blood-pressure-and-hemodynamics-mayer-waves-in-different-phases-of-ovarian-and-menstrual-cycle-in-women
#17
O I Lutsenko, S O Kovalenko
The goal of the research is to investigate the special effect of ovarian-menstrual cycle phases on the level of women's blood pressure and characteristics of Mayer waves. 77 women aged 18-19 were tested under condition close to the state of basal metabolism in follicular phase (I), ovulation (II) and luteal phase (III) of ovarian-menstrual cycle. In phases II and III, the increase of mean and diastolic blood pressure level, in comparison with phase I in the prone position at rest and with psycho-emotional loading, were observed...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824480/the-molecular-genetic-background-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-data-from-the-slovak-nation-wide-survey
#18
D Gabčová, B Vohnout, D Staníková, M Hučkova, M Kadurová, M Debreová, M Kozárová, Ľ Fábryová, J Staník, I Klimeš, K Rašlová, D Gašperiková
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is most frequently caused by LDLR or APOB mutations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the genetic background of Slovak patients suspected of FH. Patients with clinical suspicion of FH (235 unrelated probands and 124 family relatives) were recruited throughout Slovakia during the years 2011-2015. The order of DNA analyses in probands was as follows: 1. APOB mutation p.Arg3527Gln by real-time PCR method, 2. direct sequencing of the LDLR gene 3. MLPA analysis of the LDLR gene...
November 8, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782749/lower-physical-fitness-in-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism-is-linked-to-the-severity-of-hypertension-and-kalaemia
#19
V Tuka, M Matoulek, T Zelinka, J Rosa, O Petrák, O Mikeš, Z Krátká, B Štrauch, R Holaj, J Widimský
Hypokalaemia as a typical feature of primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with muscle weakness and could contribute to lower cardiopulmonary fitness. The aim of this study was to describe cardiopulmonary fitness and exercise blood pressure and their determinants during a symptom-limited exercise stress test in patients with PA. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with confirmed PA who were included before adrenal vein sampling on whom a symptom-limited exercise stress test with expired gas analysis was performed...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782748/connexin-50-mutation-lowers-blood-pressure-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#20
O Šeda, F Liška, M Pravenec, Z Vernerová, L Kazdová, D Křenová, V Zídek, L Šedová, M Krupková, V Křen
We assessed the effect of the previously uncovered gap junction protein alpha 8 (Gja8) mutation present in spontaneously hypertensive rat - dominant cataract (SHR-Dca) strain on blood pressure, metabolic profile, and heart and renal transcriptomes. Adult, standard chow-fed male rats of SHR and SHR-Dca strains were used. We found a significant, consistent 10-15 mmHg decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in SHR-Dca compared with SHR (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively; repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA))...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
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