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Physiological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937259/cardiac-morphofunctional-characteristics-of-transgenic-rats-with-overexpression-of-the-bradykinin-b1-receptor-in-the-endothelium
#1
R F Levy, A J Serra, E L Antonio, L Dos Santos, D S Bocalini, J B Pesquero, M Bader, V F Merino, H A de Oliveira, E C de Arruda Veiga, J A Silva, P Jf Tucci
Evaluate whether endothelial overexpressing of the bradykinin B1 receptor could be associated with altered left ventricular and myocardial performance. Echocardiography and hemodynamic were employed to assess left ventricular morphology and function in Sprague-Dawley transgenic rats overexpressing the endothelial bradykinin B1 receptor (Tie2B1 rats). The myocardial inotropism was evaluated on papillary muscles contradicting in vitro. In Tie2B1 animals, an enlarged left ventricular cavity and lower fractional shortening coupled with a lower rate of pressure change values indicated depressed left ventricular performance...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937258/sensitivity-to-perioperative-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-male-and-female-donor-myocardium
#2
M Smetana, J Besik, I Netuka, J Maly, J Maluskova, A Lodererova, L Hoskova, J Franeková, E Pokorna, J Pirk, O Szarszoi
Many functions of the cardiovascular apparatus are affected by gender. The aim of our study was find out whether markers of cell death present in the donor myocardium differ in male and female hearts. The study involved 81 patients undergoing heart transplantation from September 2010 to January 2013. Patients were divided into two groups: male allograft (n=49), and female allograft (n=32). Two types of myocardial cell death were analyzed. High-sensitive cardiac troponin T as a necrosis marker and protein bcl-2, caspase 3 and TUNEL as apoptosis markers were measured...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937257/uric-acid-contributes-greatly-to-hepatic-antioxidant-capacity-besides-protein
#3
T Mikami, M Sorimachi
Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60% of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937256/evaluation-of-left-and-right-ventricular-systolic-and-diastolic-electromechanical-synchrony-in-older-people-a-population-based-observational-study
#4
R Laszlo, H Konz, K Kunz, D Dallmeier, J Klenk, M Denkinger, W Koenig, D Rothenbacher, J M Steinacker
It is unknown whether physiological ageing also goes along with electromechanical asynchrony of contraction. Aim of the study was to evaluate synchrony of contraction in older people with ("non-healthy") or without ("healthy") evidence for structural cardiac disease. In 547 persons (age 76.7+/-5.5 years, 306 male, 241 female) recruited from a population-based cohort of the ActiFE-Um study including a random sample of people >/= 65 years old living in the region of Ulm, Germany, various PW- and TDI-Doppler based markers for asynchrony were obtained by echocardiography...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937255/the-assessment-of-the-serum-c-peptide-and-plasma-glucose-levels-by-orally-administered-whey-proteins-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
E Wildová, P Kraml, J Potočková, P Dlouhý, M Anděl
A personalized antidiabetic therapy is not yet part of the official guidelines of professional societies for clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum C-peptide and plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after oral administration of whey proteins. Sixteen overweight T2DM Caucasians with good glycaemic control and with preserved fasting serum C-peptide levels (> 200 nmol/l) were enrolled in this study. Two oral stimulation tests - one with 75 g of glucose (OGTT) and the other with 75 g of whey proteins (OWIST) - were administered for assessing serum C-peptide and plasma glucose levels in each participant...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937254/assessing-muscular-oxygenation-during-incremental-exercise-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-comparison-of-three-different-methods
#6
N F Agbangla, M Audiffren, C T Albinet
Using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), this study compared three different methods, namely the slope method (SM), the amplitude method (AM), and the area under the curve (AUC) method to determine the variations of intramuscular oxygenation level as a function of workload. Ten right-handed subjects (22+/-4 years) performed one isometric contraction at each of three different workloads (30%, 50% and 90% of maximal voluntary strength) during a period of twenty seconds. Changes in oxyhemoglobin (delta[HbO(2)]) and deoxyhemoglobin (delta[HHb]) concentrations in the superficial flexor of fingers were recorded using continuous-wave NIRS...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937253/sirt1-mediates-improvement-in-cognitive-defects-induced-by-focal-cerebral-ischemia-following-hyperbaric-oxygen-preconditioning-in-rats
#7
P Ding, D Ren, S He, M He, G Zhang, Y Chen, H Sang, Z Peng, W Yan
Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) has been proposed as a safe and practical approach for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. However, it is not known whether HPO-PC can improve cognitive deficits induced by cerebral ischemia, and the mechanistic basis for any beneficial effects remains unclear. We addressed this in the present study using rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) as an ischemic stroke model following HBO-PC. Cognitive function and expression of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy polypeptide (pNF-H) and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were evaluated 14 days after reperfusion and after short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of sirtuin1 (Sirt1)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937252/animal-models-in-the-research-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-development
#8
N Patelis, D Moris, D Schizas, C Damaskos, D Perrea, C Bakoyiannis, T Liakakos, S Georgopoulos
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent and potentially life threatening disease. Many animal models have been developed to simulate the natural history of the disease or test preclinical endovascular devices and surgical procedures. The aim of this review is to describe different methods of AAA induction in animal models and report on the effectiveness of the methods described in inducing an analogue of a human AAA. The PubMed database was searched for publications with titles containing the following terms "animal" or ''animal model(s)'' and keywords "research", ''aneurysm(s)'', "aorta", ''pancreatic elastase'', "Angiotensin", "AngII" "Calcium Chloride" or "CaCl(2)"...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937251/roles-of-mir-31-and-endothelin-1-in-psoriasis-vulgaris-pathophysiological-functions-and-potential-biomarkers
#9
L Borska, C Andrys, M Chmelarova, H Kovarikova, J Krejsek, K Hamakova, M Beranek, V Palicka, J Kremlacek, P Borsky, Z Fiala
Psoriatic lesions are characterized by hyperproliferation, aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes resistant to apoptosis and inflammation. miR-31 plays pro-proliferative, pro-differentiative and pro-inflammatory roles and modulates apoptosis in psoriatic keratinocytes. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is produced by psoriatic keratinocytes and suppresses apoptosis. Inflammation increases the production of ET-1, which in turn leads to the chronic stimulation of keratinocyte proliferation. The aim of this study was to identify the putative link between two potential biomarkers (miR-31 and ET-1) in patients with psoriasis...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937250/role-of-exercise-induced-calmodulin-protein-kinase-camk-ii-activation-in-the-regulation-of-omega-6-fatty-acids-and-lipid-metabolism-genes-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#10
J S Joseph, A O Ayeleso, E Mukwevho
Activation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II by exercise is beneficial in controlling membrane lipids associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial in the improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity associated symptoms. The role of CaMKII in membrane associated lipid metabolism was the focus of this study. Five to six weeks old male Wistar rats were used in this study. GC×GC-TOFMS technique was used to determine the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and 11,14-eicosadienoic acid)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937249/vagotomy-decreases-the-neuronal-activities-of-medulla-oblongata-and-alleviates-neurogenic-inflammation-of-airways-induced-by-repeated-intra-esophageal-instillation-of-hcl-in-guinea-pigs
#11
Z Chen, H Chen, F Chen, D Gu, L Sun, W Zhang, L Fan, Y Lin, R Dong, K Lai
Neuronal activity in the medulla oblongata and neurogenic inflammation of airways were investigated in a guinea pig model induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) after vagotomy. Unilateral vagotomy was performed in the vagotomy group, while a sham-operation was performed in the sham group. Operation was not conducted in sham control group. Airway inflammation was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. C-fos protein was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937248/theta-burst-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-orofacial-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
B Kohútová, J Fricová, M Klírová, T Novák, R Rokyta
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a modified form of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with promising effect in chronic pain. The aim of our double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group, randomized study was to assess an efficacy of intermittent TBS (iTBS) in the treatment of patients with chronic orofacial pain. Nineteen patients (twelve females) with chronic orofacial pain were prospectively included and randomly assigned to single session of an active (iTBS) or sham (intermediate TBS; imTBS) stimulation delivered to the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to painful side...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937247/amino-acid-concentrations-and-protein-metabolism-of-two-types-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-in-postprandial-state-and-after-brief-starvation
#13
M Holeček, S Mičuda
We have investigated amino acid concentrations and protein metabolism in musculus extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch, white muscle) and musculus soleus (SOL, slow-twitch, red muscle) of rats sacrificed in the fed state or after one day of starvation. Fractional protein synthesis rates (FRPS) were measured using the flooding dose method (L-[3,4,5-3H]phenylalanine). Activities of two major proteolytic systems in muscle (the ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal) were examined by measurement of chymotrypsin like activity of proteasome (CTLA), expression of ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle-ring-finger-1 (MuRF-1), and cathepsin B and L activities...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937246/acrylamide-induced-changes-in-femoral-bone-microstructure-of-mice
#14
A Sarocka, R Babosova, V Kovacova, R Omelka, M Semla, E Kapusta, Z Goc, G Formicki, M Martiniakova
Acrylamide (AA) is one of the most common toxins in foods. Its effect on bone microstructure has not been investigated. The aim of our study was to analyse the impact of acute exposure to AA on femoral bone microstructure in mice. Adult animals were treated perorally with 2 doses of AA (E1 group, 1 mg/kg b.w.) in a 24-hour period and with 3 doses of AA (E2 group, 1 mg/kg b.w.) in a 48 hour period. Mice exposed to AA had smaller sizes of primary osteon's vascular canals. Secondary osteons were significantly smaller in mice from E2 group; however their increased number (from 38 % to 77 %) was identified in both E1 and E2 groups...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937245/dextran-sodium-sulphate-dss-induced-colitis-alters-the-expression-of-neurotrophins-in-smooth-muscle-cells-of-rat-colon
#15
M Al-Qudah, D A Shammala, A Al-Dwairi, O Al-Shboul, A G Mustafa
Neurotrophins are present in the gastrointestinal tract where they participate in the survival and growth of enteric neurons, augmentation of enteric circuits, elevation of colonic myoelectrical activity and also in different aspects of colitis. Previous studies largely focused on the role of neural and mucosal neurotrophins in gut inflammation. The expression of neurotrophins in colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the interactions of this potential source with colitis has not been studied in the gut. The expression of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and TN-4 in SMCs from longitudinal and circular muscle layers of rat colon from normal and Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis rats was measured by ELISA...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937244/cardiac-at1-receptor-dependent-and-igf1-receptor-independent-signaling-is-activated-by-a-single-bout-of-resistance-exercise
#16
S Fs Melo, V G Barauna, T Fernandes, E C Carmo, C Ro Carvalho, E M Oliveira
AT1 receptor (AT1R) blockade prevents physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced by resistance training. Also, our group showed that a single bout of resistance exercise (RE) activates the AKT/mTOR which was also inhibited by AT1R blocker. Here, we investigated whether IGF1-receptor (IGF1-R) and MAPKs were also activated after a single bout of RE. Wistar rats were divided into Sedentary (SED); Sedentary treated with losartan (SED+LOS); Exercise (EX); and Exercise treated with losartan (EX+LOS). Cardiac tissue was obtained 5 and 30 minutes after 4 sets of 12 repetitions of squat exercise (80%1RM)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937243/relation-of-plasma-selenium-and-lipid-peroxidation-end-products-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Z Chmatalova, M Vyhnalek, J Laczo, J Hort, R Pospisilova, M Pechova, A Skoumalova
Increased oxidative stress in the brain during the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to an imbalance of antioxidants and formation of free radical reaction end-products which may be detected in blood as fluorescent lipofuscin-like pigments (LFPs). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare LFPs with plasma selenium concentrations representing an integral part of the antioxidant system. Plasma samples from subjects with AD dementia (ADD; n=11), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=17) and controls (n=12), were collected...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787171/the-contribution-of-skin-glycosaminoglycans-to-the-regulation-of-sodium-homeostasis-in-rats
#18
D Sugár, R Agócs, E Tatár, G Tóth, P Horváth, E Sulyok, A J Szabó
The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) molecules are a group of high molecular weight, negatively charged polysaccharides present abundantly in the mammalian organism. By their virtue of ion and water binding capacity, they may affect the redistribution of body fluids and ultimately the blood pressure. Data from the literature suggests that the mitogens Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-C are able to regulate the amount and charge density of GAGs and their detachment from the cell surface. Based on these findings we investigated the relationship between the level of dietary sodium intake, the expression levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-C, and the amount of the skin GAGs hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate in an in vivo rat model...
August 7, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730836/effects-of-rapid-or-slow-body-weight-reduction-on-intramuscular-protein-degradation-pathways-during-equivalent-weight-loss-on-rats
#19
Y Nonaka, S Urashima, M Inai, S Nishimura, K Higashida, S Terada
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (p<0...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730835/the-effect-of-very-low-calorie-diet-on-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-peripheral-monocytes-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
M Urbanová, M Mráz, V Ďurovcová, P Trachta, J Kloučková, P Kaválková, D Haluzíková, Z Lacinová, H Hansíková, L Wenchich, M Kršek, M Haluzík
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a potentially important player in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the changes of mRNA expression of genes encoding main enzymatic complexes of mitochondrial respiratory chain in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and peripheral monocytes (PM) of 11 subjects with simple obesity (OB), 16 obese patients with T2DM and 17 healthy lean subjects (C) before and after very low-calorie diet (VLCD) using quantitative real time PCR...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
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