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Physiological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248544/effect-of-exogenous-melatonin-treatment-on-the-reproductive-characteristics-and-progeny-of-male-rats-exposed-to-different-periods-from-light-and-darkness
#1
K Aa Majrashi, I Ah Barakat, A R Al-Himaidi, K Ag Adham
Light is an important environmental factor that controls the regulation of physiological functions of organisms. Melatonin is considered as one of the major hormones that play an important role in protecting body from many harmful effects and acts as a powerful anti-oxidant source to controlling the levels of antioxidant enzymes within the body. The main objectives of this work were to study the effect of 1) photoperiod changes and 2) exogenous melatonin hormone treatment on the sperm properties, body and testis weight, embryo characteristics, and concentration level of melatonin and testosterone in treated rat serum...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248543/biliary-system-architecture-experimental-models-and-visualization-techniques
#2
L Sarnova, M Gregor
The complex architecture of the liver biliary network represents a structural prerequisite for the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of toxic substances through bile ducts. Disorders of the biliary tract affect a significant portion of the worldwide population, often leading to cholestatic liver diseases. Cholestatic liver disease is a condition that results from an impairment of bile formation or bile flow to the gallbladder and duodenum. Cholestasis leads to dramatic changes in biliary tree architecture, worsening liver disease and systemic illness...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248542/two-photon-laser-scanning-microscopy-for-single-and-repetitive-imaging-of-dorsal-and-lateral-spinal-white-matter-in-vivo
#3
F Nadrigny, K Le Meur, H Steffens, E D Schomburg, S Safavi-Abbasi, P Dibaj
We developed appropriate surgical procedures for single and repetitive multi-photon imaging of spinal cord in vivo. By intravenous anesthesia, artificial ventilation and laminectomy, acute experiments were performed in the dorsal and lateral white matter. By volatile anesthesia and minimal-invasive surgery, chronic repetitive imaging up to 8 months were performed in the dorsal column through the window between two adjacent spines. Transgenic mouse technology enabled simultaneous imaging of labeled axons, astrocytes and microglia...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248541/cooling-evoked-hemodynamic-perturbations-facilitate-sympathetic-activity-with-subsequent-myogenic-vascular-oscillations-via-alpha2-adrenergic-receptors
#4
Y-H Lin, Y-P Liu, Y-C Lin, P-L Lee, C-S Tung
This study extends our previous work by examining the effects of alpha2-adrenoceptors under cold stimulation involving the increase of myogenic vascular oscillations as increases of very-low-frequency and low-frequency of the blood pressure variability. Forty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: vehicle; yohimbine; hexamethonium+yohimbine; guanethidine+yohimbine. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, power spectral analysis of spontaneous blood pressure and heart rate variability and spectral coherence at very-low-frequency (0...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248540/comparison-of-morphological-changes-of-muscle-fibers-in-response-to-dynamic-electrical-muscle-contraction-and-dynamic-hydraulic-stimulation-in-a-rat-hindlimb-disuse-model
#5
Minyi Hu, Hoyan Lam, Robbin Yeh, Morgan Teeratananon, Yi-Xian Qin
This study attempted to compare the muscle fiber morphological responses to dynamic electrical muscle stimulation (DEMS) and dynamic hydraulic stimulation (DHS) in rats under hindlimb suspension (HLS). DEMS at 1 Hz, 50 Hz and 100 Hz for 10 min/day, 5 days/week were introduced to the animals' right quadriceps. Static and 2 Hz DHS were introduced to the right tibiae of other animal groups on a "10 min on - 5 min off - 10 min on" loading regime for 5 days/week. In the end of the 4-week experiments, histological changes in the corresponding soleus, gastrocnemius and quadriceps of the stimulated sites were examined...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248539/in-vivo-recording-of-nerve-conduction-velocity-of-spinal-cns-fibers-in-the-mouse
#6
P Dibaj, E D Schomburg
Anesthetic and surgical procedures and an electrophysiological method were developed for recording nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of CNS fibers in the murine spinal cord. Under intravenous anesthesia and artificial ventilation the lumbar spinal cord segments L1 to L4 and dorsal roots L3 to L5 on the left side were exposed by laminectomy. After stimulation of the dorsal root L4, a compound action potential (CAP) was recorded at the ipsilateral left fasciculus gracilis at the spinal cord level L1. The latency from stimulation to the CAP together with the measured distance between the electrodes was used for the determination of the NCV...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248538/possible-pathogenetic-mechanisms-and-new-therapeutic-approaches-of-pes-equinovarus
#7
M Ošťádal, J Lišková, D Hadraba, A Eckhardt
Idiopathic pes equinovarus (clubfoot) is a congenital deformity of the foot and lower leg defined as a fixation of the foot in plantar flexion, adduction, supination and varus. The deformity does not affect only the foot position, which is usually investigated by radiography, CT, micro-CT, MRI or ultrasound but logically influence the whole gait biomechanics. It is supposed, that clubfoot belongs to a group of fibroproliferative disorders whose origin and multi-hierarchical effect remain unknown. It has been suggested that fibroblasts and growth factors may be involved...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248537/effects-of-bepridil-on-stretch-activated-bkca-channels-and-stretch-induced-extrasystoles-in-isolated-chick-hearts
#8
Honghua Jin, Gentaro Iribe, Keiji Naruse
Various types of mechanosensitive ion channels, including cationic stretch-activated channels (SAC(NS)) and stretch-activated BKca (SAKca) channels, modulate heart rhythm. Bepridil has been used as an antiarrhythmic drug with multiple pharmacological effects; however, whether it is effective for mechanically induced arrhythmia has not been well investigated. To test the effects of Bepridil on SAKca channels activity, cultured chick embryonic ventricular myocytes were used for single-channel recordings. Bepridil significantly reduced the open probability of the SAKca channel (P(O))...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248536/cardiovascular-diseases-depression-disorders-and-potential-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#9
J Trebatická, A Dukát, Z Ďuračková, J Muchová
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depressive disorders (DD) are two of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Although CVD and depression have different origin, they share some common pathophysiological characteristics and risk factors, such as the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, blood flow abnormalities, decreased glucose metabolism, elevated plasma homocysteine levels, oxidative stress and disorder in vitamin D metabolism. Current findings confirm the common underlying factors for both pathologies, which are related to dramatic dietary changes in the mid-19th century...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248535/bis-3-tacrine-inhibits-the-sustained-potassium-current-in-cultured-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#10
D Huang, R-J Wen, Y Zhang, Y-W Liu
Bis(3)-tacrine is a dimeric AChE inhibitor derived from tacrine with a potential to treat Alzheimer's disease. It was recently been reported to act as a fast off-rate antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether bis(3)-tacrine could modulate the function of native sustained potassium current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that bis(3)-tacrine inhibited the amplitude of sustained potassium current in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner, with a potency two orders of magnitude higher than that of tacrine...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248534/sirtuin-activating-compounds-stacs-alleviate-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats-involvement-of-sirtuin-1-and-heme-oxygenase-1
#11
M K Kemelo, N Kutinová Canová, A Horinek, H Farghali
Sirtuin activating compounds (STACs) attenuate various type of liver insults through mechanisms which are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the ameliorative potential of quercetin (natural polyphenol) and SRT1720 (synthetic SIRT1 activator) against D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity (an experimental model of acute liver failure). Moreover, we compared and contrasted the roles of stress responsive enzymes, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in hepatoprotection/ hepatotoxicity...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248533/the-effect-of-apelin-on-the-functions-of-peritoneal-macrophages
#12
V N Izgüt-Uysal, B Gemici, I Birsen, N Acar, I Üstünel
Apelin, the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor (APJ), plays an important role in the physiological response to homeostatic perturbations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of apelin on the functions of peritoneal macrophages. A double staining immunofluorescence technique was used to determine the expression of APJ in peritoneal macrophages. Rat peritoneal macrophages were randomly divided into three groups: control, apelin and apelin+F13A. A significant decrease in phagocytic and chemotactic activity of peritoneal macrophages resulted when the macrophages were incubated with [Pry(1)]-Apelin-13 (10 ng/ml)...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248532/trace-elements-have-beneficial-as-well-as-detrimental-effects-on-bone-homeostasis
#13
I Zofkova, M Davis, J Blahos
The protective role of nutrition factors such as calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for the integrity of the skeleton is well understood. In addition, integrity of the skeleton is positively influenced by certain trace elements (e.g. zinc, copper, manganese, magnesium, iron, selenium, boron and fluoride) and negatively by others (lead, cadmium, cobalt). Deficiency or excess of these elements influence bone mass and bone quality in adulthood as well as in childhood and adolescence. However, some protective elements may become toxic under certain conditions, depending on dosage (serum concentration), duration of treatment and interactions among individual elements...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248531/baseline-values-of-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-parameters-predict-response-to-acute-hypoxia-in-young-healthy-men
#14
V N Melnikov, S G Krivoschekov, V E Divert, T G Komlyagina, N S Consedine
The majority of the available works have studied distinct hypoxic responses of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This study examines how these systems interact while responding to hypoxia and whether baseline metrics moderate reactions to a hypoxic challenge. Central hemodynamic, aortic wave reflection, and gas exchange parameters were measured in 27 trained young men before and after 10-min normobaric isocapnic hypoxia (10 % O2). Associations were assessed by correlation and multiple regression analyses...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248530/correlation-of-uric-acid-levels-and-parameters-of-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Ľ Cibičková, K Langová, H Vaverková, V Kubíčková, D Karásek
Hyperuricemia has been described as associated with the risk of development metabolic syndrome; however the relationship between the uric acid level and particular parameters of metabolic syndrome remained unclear. We performed a cross-sectional study on a cohort of 833 dyslipidemic patients and correlated their levels of uric acid with parameters of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, C-reactive protein, anthropometric parameters. We also defined patients with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and compered their uric acid levels with those without this phenotype...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248529/neuronal-circuits-involved-in-osmotic-challenges
#16
M C Dos Santos Moreira, L M Naves, S M Marques, E F Silva, E Colombari, G R Pedrino
The maintenance of plasma sodium concentration within a narrow limit is crucial to life. When it differs from normal physiological patterns, several mechanisms are activated in order to restore body fluid homeostasis. Such mechanisms may be vegetative and/or behavioral, and several regions of the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in their triggering. Some of these are responsible for sensory pathways that perceive a disturbance of the body fluid homeostasis and transmit information to other regions...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006949/autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-autonomic-underarousal
#17
I Bujnakova, I Ondrejka, M Mestanik, Z Visnovcova, A Mestanikova, I Hrtanek, D Fleskova, A Calkovska, I Tonhajzerova
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with autonomic dysregulation. However, the pathomechanism leading to autonomic abnormalities is still unclear. The aim of this study was to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during baseline in homogenous group of autistic children using electrodermal activity (EDA), as an index of sympathetic activity and short-term heart rate variability (HRV) reflecting predominantly cardiac vagal control. Fifteen ASD boys and 15 healthy age-matched boys at the age of 7-15 years were examined...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006948/intravenous-dexamethasone-attenuated-inflammation-and-influenced-apoptosis-of-lung-cells-in-an-experimental-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#18
P Kosutova, P Mikolka, S Balentova, M Adamkov, M Kolomaznik, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, inflammation, and transmigration and activation of inflammatory cells. This study evaluated if intravenous dexamethasone can influence lung inflammation and apoptosis in lavage-induced ALI. ALI was induced in rabbits by repetitive saline lung lavage (30 ml/kg, 9+/-3-times). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALI without therapy (ALI), ALI treated with dexamethasone i.v. (0.5 mg/kg, Dexamed; ALI+DEX), and healthy non-ventilated controls (Control)...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006947/lung-inflammatory-and-oxidative-alterations-after-exogenous-surfactant-therapy-fortified-with-budesonide-in-rabbit-model-of-meconium-aspiration-syndrome
#19
P Mikolka, J Kopincová, P Košútová, D Čierny, A Čalkovská, D Mokrá
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) triggers inflammatory and oxidative pathways which can inactivate both pulmonary surfactant and therapeutically given exogenous surfactant. Glucocorticoid budesonide added to exogenous surfactant can inhibit inflammation and thereby enhance treatment efficacy. Neonatal meconium (25 mg/ml, 4 ml/kg) was administered intratracheally (i.t.) to rabbits. When the MAS model was prepared, animals were treated with budesonide i.t. (Pulmicort, 0.25 mg/kg, M+B); with surfactant lung lavage (Curosurf®, 10 ml/kg, 5 mg phospholipids/ml, M+S) followed by undiluted Curosurf® i...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006946/a-novel-experimental-model-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-pig
#20
M Otáhal, M Mlček, I Vítková, O Kittnar
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is severe medical condition occurring in critically ill patients and with mortality of 33-52 % is one of the leading causes of death in critically ill patients. To better understand pathophysiology of ARDS and to verify novel therapeutical approaches a reliable animal model is needed. Therefore we have developed modified lavage model of ARDS in the pig. After premedication (ketamine and midazolam) 35 healthy pigs were anesthetized (propofol, midazolam, morphin, pipecuronium) and orotracheally intubated and ventilated...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
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