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Physiological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137486/the-arteriolar-glycocalyx-plays-a-role-in-the-regulation-of-blood-flow-in-the-iliac-of-the-anaesthetised-pig
#1
T Ruane-O'Hora, F Markos
The role of the glycocalyx of arterial resistance vessels in regulating blood flow in vivo is not fully understood. Therefore, the effect of glycocalyx damage using two separate compounds, hyaluronidase and N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), was evaluated in the iliac artery vascular bed of the anaesthetised pig. Blood flow and pressure were measured in the iliac, an adjustable snare was applied to the iliac above the pressure and flow measurement site to induce step decreases (3 occlusions at 3-4 min intervals were performed for each infusion) in blood flow, and hence iliac pressure, and vascular conductance (flow / pressure) was calculated...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137485/heat-stress-prevents-the-decrease-in-succinate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-the-extensor-digitorum-longus-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#2
K Nonaka, S Une, M Komatsu, R Yamaji, J Akiyama
This study aimed to investigate whether heat stress (HS) prevents a decrease in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) contents in the extensor digitorum longus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the four groups (n=6/group): control (Con), HS, diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus and heat stress (DM+HS). Diabetes was induced by the administration of STZ (50 mg/kg)...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137484/the-role-of-endogenous-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cardiac-myocyte-autophagy
#3
J-P Wang, R-F Chi, J Liu, Y-Z Deng, X-B Han, F-Z Qin, B Li
Autophagy is implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Autophagy is activated in heart failure, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased. Exogenous ROS have been shown to induce cardiomyocyte autophagy alterations. However, little is known about the influences of physiological levels of endogenous ROS on cardiomyocyte autophagy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous ROS in cardiomyocytes play an important role in inducing autophagy. Cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes or Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or the superoxide dismutase mimic tempol under the basal or nutrient deprivation conditions...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137483/molecular-profiling-in-iga-nephropathy-and-focal-and-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#4
I Tycová, P Hrubá, D Maixnerová, E Girmanová, P Mrázová, L Straňavová, R Zachoval, M Merta, J Slatinská, M Kollár, E Honsová, V Tesař, O Viklický
The aim of the study was to characterize by molecular profiling two glomerular diseases: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and to identify potential molecular markers of IgAN and FSGS progression. The expressions of 90 immune-related genes were compared in biopsies of patients with IgAN (n=33), FSGS (n=17) and in controls (n=11) using RT-qPCR. To identify markers of disease progression, gene expression was compared between progressors and non-progressors in 1 year follow-up...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137482/uphill-running-excessive-training-increases-gastrocnemius-glycogen-content-in-c57bl-6-mice
#5
G P Morais, A da Rocha, A P Pinto, L da C Oliveira, L G de Vicente, G N Ferreira, E C de Freitas, A Sr da Silva
The main aim of the present investigation was to verify the effects of three overtraining (OT) protocols performed in downhill (OTR/down), uphill (OTR/up) and without inclination (OTR) on the protein levels of Akt (Ser473), AMPKalpha (Thr172), PGC-1alpha, plasma membrane GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 as well as on the glycogen contents in mice gastrocnemius. A trained (TR) protocol was used as positive control. Rodents were divided into naive (N, sedentary mice), control (CT, sedentary mice submitted to the performance evaluations), TR, OTR/down, OTR/up and OTR groups...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137481/effects-of-pioglitazone-on-ventricular-myocyte-shortening-and-ca-2-transport-in-the-goto-kakizaki-type-2-diabetic-rat
#6
K A Salem, V Sydorenko, M Qureshi, M Oz, F C Howarth
Pioglitazone (PIO) is a thiazolidindione antidiabetic agent which improves insulin sensitivity and reduces blood glucose in experimental animals and treated patients. At the cellular level the actions of PIO in diabetic heart are poorly understood. A previous study has demonstrated shortened action potential duration and inhibition of a variety of transmembrane currents including L-type Ca(2+) current in normal canine ventricular myocytes. The effects of PIO on shortening and calcium transport in ventricular myocytes from the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rat have been investigated...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137480/akt-substrate-of-160-kda-dephosphorylation-rate-is-reduced-in-insulin-stimulated-rat-skeletal-muscle-after-acute-exercise
#7
E B Arias, H Wang, G D Cartee
Because greater Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation has been reported in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscles without improved Akt activation several hours post-exercise, we hypothesized that prior exercise would result in attenuated AS160 dephosphorylation in insulin-stimulated rat skeletal muscle. Epitrochlearis muscles were isolated from rats that were sedentary (SED) or exercised 3 h earlier (3 h post-exercise; 3hPEX). Paired muscles were incubated with [(3)H]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) without insulin or with insulin...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137479/the-role-of-the-carbohydrates-in-plasmatic-membrane
#8
P Sprovieri, G Martino
In the following paper, authors describe glycans present on cell membranes as they affect the folding, the spatial arrangement, the behavior and the interaction with the substrate of some membrane proteins. Authors describe the synthesis and assembly of a glycan on a protein, the formation of N-glycans, the maturation of an N-glycan in different cellular compartments, the structure of the glycocalyx and how it interacts with any pathogens. The study of the E-cadherin and the potassium channel to demonstrate how glycans affect the spatial arrangement, the stability and activity of the glycoproteins on the membranes...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137478/effects-of-increased-myocardial-tissue-concentration-of-myristic-palmitic-and-palmitoleic-acids-on-the-course-of-cardiac-atrophy-of-the-failing-heart-unloaded-by-heterotopic-transplantation
#9
M Pokorný, I Mrázová, J Malý, J Pirk, I Netuka, Z Vaňourková, Š DoleŽelová, L Červenková, H Maxová, V Melenovský, J Šochman, J Sadowski, L Červenka
The present experiments were performed to evaluate if increased heart tissue concentration of fatty acids, specifically myristic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids that are believed to promote physiological heart growth, can attenuate the progression of unloading-induced cardiac atrophy in rats with healthy and failing hearts. Heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation (HT(x)) was used as a model for heart unloading. Cardiac atrophy was assessed from the ratio of the native- to-transplanted heart weight (HW)...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137477/circulating-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#10
I Trojova, M Kozarova, D Petrasova, Z Malachovska, I Paranicova, P Joppa, R Tkacova
Circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a metabolic endotoxemia marker, was identified as an independent predictor of atherosclerosis. Although increases in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were repeatedly reported in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), neither the role of OSA in metabolic endotoxemia nor of LBP in early atherosclerosis were explored in patients with OSA. At a tertiary university hospital we investigated the relationships between OSA, LBP and CIMT in 117 men who underwent full polysomnography and CIMT assessment by B-mode ultrasound...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137476/acute-glycemic-changes-in-brain-and-subcutaneous-tissue-measured-by-continuous-glucose-monitoring-system-in-hereditary-hypertriglyceridemic-rat
#11
M Žourek, P Kyselová, D Čechurová, Z Rušavý
Parallel glucose measurements in blood and other different tissues give us knowledge about dynamics of glycemia changes, which depend on vascularisation, distribution space and local utilization by tissues. Such information is important for the understanding of glucose homeostasis and regulation. The aim of our study was to determine the time-lag between blood, brain, and adipose tissue during rapid glucose changes in a male hHTG rat (n=15). The CGMS sensor Guardian RT (Minimed/Medtronic, USA) was inserted into the brain and into the abdominal subcutaneous tissue...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137475/metformin-attenuates-myocardium-dicarbonyl-stress-induced-by-chronic-hypertriglyceridemia
#12
H Malinska, V Škop, J Trnovska, I Markova, P Svoboda, L Kazdova, M Haluzik
Reactive dicarbonyls stimulate production of advanced glycation endproducts, increase oxidative stress and inflammation and contribute to the development of vascular complications. We measured concentrations of dicarbonyls - methylglyoxal (MG), glyoxal (GL) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) - in the heart and kidney of a model of metabolic syndrome - hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats (HHTg) and explored its modulation by metformin. Adult HHTg rats were fed a standard diet with or without metformin (300 mg/kg b...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137474/ontogenetic-development-of-sensitivity-of-the-cerebral-cortex-to-an-antagonist-of-gaba-a-receptor-bicuculline
#13
P Mareš, K Bernášková, H Kubová
Local application of four concentrations of bicuculline methiodide (a specific antagonist of GABA(A) receptors) was used to study a sensitivity of somatosensory cortex in four age groups of immature rats with implanted electrodes. Presence and latencies of two epileptic phenomena (focal discharges and seizures) were evaluated. Focal discharges exhibited moderate tendency to a decrease of sensitivity to bicuculline methiodide with maturation. Concentration-effect relation of incidence of focal discharges was observed only in 7- and 12-day-old but not in older animals...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137473/effect-of-short-and-long-term-administration-of-baclofen-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#14
M Holajova, M Franek
Baclofen is the only clinically available metabotropic GABAB receptor agonist. In our experiment, we tested the hypothesis that long-term baclofen administration can impair learning and memory in rats. The experiment consisted of three parts. In the first part of the study the drug was administered simultaneously with the beginning of the behavioral tests. In the second and third part of the experiment baclofen was administered daily for 14 days and for one month before the tests. In each part of the experiment, adult rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137472/changes-in-transcription-pattern-lead-to-a-marked-decrease-in-cox-cs-and-sqr-activity-after-the-developmental-point-of-the-22-nd-gestational-week
#15
H Kolarova, J Krizova, M Hulkova, H Hansikova, H Hulkova, V Smid, J Zeman, T Honzik, M Tesarova
Tissue differentiation and proliferation throughout fetal development interconnect with changes in the Oxidative Phosphorylation System (OXPHOS) on the cellular level. Reevaluation of the expression data revealed a significant increase in COX4 and MTATP6 liver transcription levels after the 22(nd) gestational week (GW) which inspired us to characterize its functional impact. Specific activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), citrate synthase (CS), succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) and mtDNA determined by spectrophotometry and RT-PCR were studied in a set of 25 liver and 18 skeletal muscle samples at 13(th) to 29(th) GW...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137471/serum-levels-of-spexin-and-kisspeptin-negatively-correlate-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-women
#16
P A Kołodziejskii, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, E Korek, M Sassek, D Szczepankiewicz, P Kaczmarek, L Nogowski, P Maćkowiak, K W Nowak, H Krauss, M Z Strowski
Spexin (SPX) and kisspeptin (KISS) are novel peptides relevant in the context of regulation of metabolism, food intake, puberty and reproduction. Here, we studied changes of serum SPX and KISS levels in female non-obese volunteers (BMI<25 kg/m2) and obese patients (BMI>35 kg/m2). Correlations between SPX or KISS with BMI, McAuley index, QUICKI, HOMA IR, serum levels of insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, orexin-A, obestatin, ghrelin and GLP-1 were assessed. Obese patients had lower SPX and KISS levels as compared to non-obese volunteers (SPX: 4...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020454/the-absence-of-brain-specific-link-protein-bral2-in-perineuronal-nets-hampers-auditory-temporal-resolution-and-neural-adaptation-in-mice
#17
J Popelář, M Díaz Gómez, J Lindovský, N Rybalko, J Burianová, T Oohashi, J Syka
Brain-specific link protein Bral2 represents a substantial component of perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping neurons in the central nervous system. To elucidate the role of Bral2 in auditory signal processing, the hearing function in knockout Bral2(-/-) (KO) mice was investigated using behavioral and electrophysiological methods and compared with wild type Bral2(+/+) (WT) mice. The amplitudes of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and the efficiency of the prepulse inhibition of ASR (PPI of ASR), produced by prepulse noise stimulus or gap in continuous noise, was similar in 2-week-old WT and KO mice...
October 11, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937259/cardiac-morphofunctional-characteristics-of-transgenic-rats-with-overexpression-of-the-bradykinin-b1-receptor-in-the-endothelium
#18
R F Levy, A J Serra, E L Antonio, L Dos Santos, D S Bocalini, J B Pesquero, M Bader, V F Merino, H A de Oliveira, E C de Arruda Veiga, J A Silva, P Jf Tucci
Evaluate whether endothelial overexpressing of the bradykinin B1 receptor could be associated with altered left ventricular and myocardial performance. Echocardiography and hemodynamic were employed to assess left ventricular morphology and function in Sprague-Dawley transgenic rats overexpressing the endothelial bradykinin B1 receptor (Tie2B1 rats). The myocardial inotropism was evaluated on papillary muscles contradicting in vitro. In Tie2B1 animals, an enlarged left ventricular cavity and lower fractional shortening coupled with a lower rate of pressure change values indicated depressed left ventricular performance...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937258/sensitivity-to-perioperative-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-male-and-female-donor-myocardium
#19
M Smetana, J Besik, I Netuka, J Maly, J Maluskova, A Lodererova, L Hoskova, J Franeková, E Pokorna, J Pirk, O Szarszoi
Many functions of the cardiovascular apparatus are affected by gender. The aim of our study was find out whether markers of cell death present in the donor myocardium differ in male and female hearts. The study involved 81 patients undergoing heart transplantation from September 2010 to January 2013. Patients were divided into two groups: male allograft (n=49), and female allograft (n=32). Two types of myocardial cell death were analyzed. High-sensitive cardiac troponin T as a necrosis marker and protein bcl-2, caspase 3 and TUNEL as apoptosis markers were measured...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937257/uric-acid-contributes-greatly-to-hepatic-antioxidant-capacity-besides-protein
#20
T Mikami, M Sorimachi
Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60% of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
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