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Physiological Research

N Honzíková, E Závodná
The increased prevalence of obesity in children and its complications have led to a greater interest in studying baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in children. This review of BRS in children and adolescents includes subtopics on: 1. Resting values of BRS and their reproducibility, 2. Genetics of BRS, 3. The role of a primarily low BRS and obesity in the development of hypertension, and 4. Association of diabetes mellitus, BRS, and obesity. The conclusions specific to this age follow from this review: 1. The mean heart rate (HR) influences the measurement of BRS...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
I Douvas, D Moris, G Karaolanis, C Bakoyiannis, S Georgopoulos
Cerebrovascular reserve capacity [CVRC] is a hemodynamic parameter indicating the brain's capacity to overcome ischemia. Transcranial Doppler [TCD] is a useful device to measure CVRC, with high availability and low cost. The aim of the study is to investigate asymptomatic patients with affected CVRC, who could benefit from CEA. One hundred and forty five consecutive patients (60 symptomatic and 65 asymptomatic), with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis >70% and 20 healthy individuals without internal carotid stenosis underwent TCD-inhalation CO2 tests in order to measure the CVRC in both hemispheres of each patient...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
N N Lasheen, G F Mohamed
Metabolic acidosis could occur due to either endogenous acids accumulation or bicarbonate loss from the gastrointestinal tract or commonly from the kidney. This study aimed to investigate the possible underlying mechanism(s) of chronic acidosis-induced cardiac contractile and electrical changes in rats. Twenty four adult Wistar rats, of both sexes, were randomly divided into control group and chronic metabolic acidosis group, which received orally 0.28 M NH(4)Cl in the drinking water for 2 weeks. At the end of experimental period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
M Brúsik, Z Štrbová, D Petrášová, P Pobeha, Z Kuklišová, R Tkáčová, P Joppa
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been associated with disturbances in energy metabolism and insulin resistance, nevertheless, the links between OSA severity, resting energy expenditure (REE) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA-IR) remained unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of OSA severity on REE, and relationships between REE and HOMA-IR in patients with OSA. Forty men [mean (SD) age 49.4 (11.4) years] underwent overnight polysomnography; REE was assessed using indirect calorimetry...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
A Baumlova, J Gregor, E Boura
PI4K IIalpha is a critical enzyme for the maintenance of Golgi and is also known to function in the synaptic vesicles. The product of its catalytical function, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), is an important lipid molecule because it is a hallmark of the Golgi and TGN, is directly recognized by many proteins and also serves as a precursor molecule for synthesis of higher phosphoinositides. Here, we report crystal structures of PI4K IIalpha enzyme in the apo-state and inhibited by calcium. The apo-structure reveals a surprising rigidity of the active site residues important for catalytic activity...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
J Šochman, M Bürgelová, J H Peregrin
The aim of our observation was to establish whether or not renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) may help control blood pressure (BP) levels in patients with severe hypertension refractory to pharmacological therapy. Out of a group of 12 patients, candidates for RSD, with uncontrolled hypertension and a systolic BP over 190 mm Hg on repeated measurements despite optimal medication, four patients were excluded for multiple renal arteries and one for hyperaldosteronism. Seven patients had RSD using a Symplicity device (5M, 2 F) with a mean age of 64...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
C T Ng, L Y Fong, Y Y Low, J Ban, M N Hakim, Z Ahmad
The endothelial barrier function is tightly controlled by a broad range of signaling cascades including nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway. It has been proposed that disturbances in NO and cGMP production could interfere with proper endothelial barrier function. In this study, we assessed the effect of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, on NO and cGMP levels and examined the mechanisms by which NO and cGMP regulate the IFN-gamma-mediated HUVECs hyperpermeability...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
D I Patel, L J White, V A Lira, D S Criswell
We aimed to determine whether 10 days of treadmill exercise can increase skeletal muscle mass and intramuscular concentrations of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Forty female Lewis rats were randomly assigned to either EAE sedentary (EAE(Sed)), EAE exercise (EAE(Ex)), Control sedentary (Con(Sed)) and Control exercise (Con(Ex)). Exercising animals completed a 10 day forced exercising training program. Hind limb skeletal muscles were excised and weighed with soleus muscle used for BDNF and NGF quantification...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
T Blahová, L Peterková, M Leníček, M Vlachová, K Zemánková, V Adámková, L Vítek, J Kovář
The treatment of hypercholesterolemia with bile acid (BA) sequestrants results in upregulation of BA synthesis through the classical pathway initiated by cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). To characterize the detailed dynamics of serum lipid and BA concentrations and the BA synthesis rate in response to treatment with BA sequestrants and to determine whether the -203A/C promoter polymorphism of the CYP7A1 encoding gene (CYP7A1) affects such a response, this pilot study was carried out in healthy men (8 homozygous for the -203A allele and 8 homozygous for the -203C allele of CYP7A1)...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
V Stránecký, M Neřoldová, K Hodaňová, H Hartmannová, L Piherová, P Zemánková, A Přistoupilová, M Vrablík, V Adámková, S Kmoch, M Jirsa
Some patients are susceptible to statin-associated myopathy (SAM) either because of genetic variations affecting statin uptake and metabolism, or because they predispose their carriers to muscular diseases. Among the frequent variants examined using the genome-wide association study approach, SLCO1B1 c.521T>C represents the only validated predictor of SAM in patients treated with high-dose simvastatin. Our aim was to ascertain the overall contribution of large copy-number variations (CNVs) to SAM diagnosed in 86 patients...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
T Vorlová, O Dlouhá, D Kemlink, K Šonka
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, which is manifested by apnea or hypopnea. Decreased blood oxygen saturation, changes in heart rate, fluctuations in brain perfusion, changes in intracranial pressure, snoring and vibration are factors that may potentially affect hearing in patients with OSA. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that hearing is affected in OSA. 43 males aged 34-74 years (mean 48.2) with suspected sleep-disordered breathing without other comorbidity or medication that may affect sleep or hearing were included...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
T Čermák, V MuŽáková, J Matějka, J Skalický, P Laštovička, M Líbalová, R Kanďár, V Novotný, A Čegan
In coronary heart disease, the treatment of significant stenosis by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation elicits local and systemic inflammatory responses. This study was aimed at evaluation of the dynamics of inflammatory response and elucidation of the relationship between the fatty acid profile of red blood cell (RBC) membranes or plasma phospholipids and inflammation after PCI. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum amyloid A (SAA), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the fatty acid profiles were determined in patients with advanced coronary artery disease undergoing PCI before, 24 and 48 hours after drug-eluting stent implantation (n=36)...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
T Grus, L Lambert, J Matecha, G Grusova, M Špaček, M Mlček
Hemodynamics in the distal end-to-side anastomosis is related to early development of intimal hyperplasia and bypass failure. In this study we investigated the effect of diameter ratios between the target artery and the bypass at three different angles of the connection. The pulsatile flow field was visualized using particle image velocimetry in transparent models with three different angles of the connection (25°, 45°, 60°) and the diameter ratio between the bypass and the target artery was 4.6mm:6mm, 6mm:6mm, and 7...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
S Algul, Y Ozkan, O Ozcelik
The aim of this study was to compare the levels of nesfatin-1 in healthy subjects with those in prediabetic and diabetic patients who have different glucose tolerance levels. Overall, 100 subjects were divided into 5 groups healthy control (C), impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, (Type 2 DM). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assessed the glycemic control. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined using computer analyses...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
V Škop, J Trnovská, O Oliyarnyk, I Marková, H Malínská, L Kazdová, V Zídek, V Landa, P Mlejnek, M Šimáková, M Kůdela, M Pravenec, J Šilhavý
Dyslipidemia and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and liver disease. Fenofibrate has a well-known efficacy to reduce cholesterol and triglycerides. Combination with statins can ameliorate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of fibrates. In the current study, we tested the anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects of fenofibrate alone and in combination with rosuvastatin in a model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats expressing the human C-reactive protein transgene (SHR-CRP transgenic rats)...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
H Mrazkova, R Lischke, J Herget
As with other organ transplants even lung transplantation raises the question of the possibility of the influence of gender on ischemia-reperfusion injury. This is a current topic especially for increasingly utilized method of lung transplantation from a non-heart-beating donors, where reperfusion preceded by a period of warm and cold ischemia with subsequent treatment options for lung graft reperfusion. For measurements we used our laboratory previously created and validated animal model for ex vivo lung transplantation...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Z Hirjaková, H Šingliarová, D Bzdúšková, J Kimijanová, K Bučková, P Valkovič, F Hlavačka
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of surgical reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on postural stability and responses to lower limb (LL) muscles vibrations. Centre of pressure (CoP) was measured in 17 subjects during stance on firm/foam surface with eyes open/closed and during unilateral vibrations of LL muscles (m. triceps surae - TS, m. quadriceps femoris - Q, m. quadriceps femoris and hamstrings simultaneously - QH). The measurements were performed: 1) preoperatively, 2) six weeks and 3) three months after the reconstruction...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
R Rehakova, J Klimentova, M Cebova, A Barta, Z Matuskova, P Labas, O Pechanova
Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) has a lower concentration of deuterium than occurs naturally (less than 145 ppm). While effects of DDW on cancer started to be intensively studied, the effects on cardiovascular system are completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to analyze the effects of DDW (55+/-5 ppm) administration to 12-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with 15 % fructose for 6 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) and selected biochemical parameters were measured together with determination of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and iNOS and eNOS protein expressions in the left ventricle (LV) and aorta...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
J Török, A Zemančíková, Z Kocianová
The inhibitory action of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in modulation of arterial contraction has been recently recognized and contrasted with the prohypertensive effect of obesity in humans. In this study we demonstrated that PVAT might have opposing effect on sympatho-adrenergic contractions in different rat conduit arteries. In superior mesenteric artery isolated from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), PVAT exhibited inhibitory influence on the contractions to exogenous noradrenaline as well as to endogenous noradrenaline released from arterial sympathetic nerves during transmural electrical stimulation or after application of tyramine...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
I Bernátová, P Bališ, R Goga, M Behuliak, J Zicha, I Sekaj
This study investigated the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to blood pressure regulation in conscious adult male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress. Role of ROS was investigated in rats with temporally impaired principal blood pressure regulation systems using ganglionic blocker pentolinium (P, 5 mg/kg), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (C, 10 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (L, 30 mg/kg) and superoxide dismutase mimeticum tempol (T, 25 mg/kg). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured by the carotid artery catheter and inhibitors were administered intravenously...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
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