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Endocrine Regulations

L Pecenova, Robert Farkas
Classical non-peptide hormones, such as steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormones, vitamin D3 and their derivatives including prostaglandins, benzoates, oxysterols, and bile acids, are collectively designated as small lipophilic ligands, acting via binding to the nuclear receptors (NRs). The NRs form a large superfamily of transcription factors that participate virtually in every key biological process. They control various aspects of animal development, fertility, gametogenesis, and numerous metabolic pathways, and can be misregulated in many types of cancers...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Dana Macejova, L Toporova, J Brtko
Retinoic acid (RA), an active form of vitamin A, regulates the embryonic development, male and female reproduction and induces important effects on the cell development, proliferation, and differentiation. These effects are mediated by the retinoid (RAR) and rexinoid nuclear receptors (RXR), which are considered to be a ligand-activated, DNA-binding, trans-acting, and transcription-modulating proteins, involved in a general molecular mechanism responsible for the transcriptional responses in target genes. Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine disrupting substances...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Havva Keskin, Y Kaya, K Cadirci, C Kucur, E Ziypak, E Simsek, H Gozcu, S Arikan, A Carlioglu
OBJECTIVE: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), determined from peripheral blood, is accepted as an available and practical indicator of the systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the NLR was higher in euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis (CAT) patients compared to a healthy control group. METHODS: A total of 112 patients were enrolled in this study, including 59 patients with euthyroid CAT on any form of therapy and 53 healthy controls...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Guven Baris Cansu, B Bakar, T Bakar, B P Cengiz
OBJECTIVE: Suture granuloma, the rare complication of thyroidectomy, results from the use of nonabsorbable suture materials. Despite its typical ultrasound images and benign course, it carries utmost importance in the diff erential diagnosis of lymph nodes, recurrent nodules, and recurrence in the case of thyroid cancers. Subject and Results. Fifty four years old female patient, who underwent bilateral thyroidectomy in July 2010, was diagnosed with multinodular goiter and incidentally discovered micropapillary carcinoma (2 mm)...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
P Vargovic, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
OBJECTIVE: Continuous exposure to cold leads to an activation of adaptive thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in the white adipose tissue. Thermogenic response is associated with alternatively activated macrophages producing catecholamines, which subsequently activate the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of cold exposure on catecholamine and immune responses associated with adipocyte browning in the mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT) of rat...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
D O Minchenko, O O Riabovol, D O Tsymbal, O O Ratushna, O H Minchenko
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1), which is a central mediator of the unfolded protein response on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and some related proteins (SGK1, SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, NNT) and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of the glioma growth...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
K Voglova, J Bezakova, Iveta Herichova
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) represent a newly discovered class of regulatory molecules in the human body. miRNA is a short double stranded RNA sequence interfering with mRNA, causing in most cases, inhibition of translation. Synthesis of miRNAs shows an increasing developmental pattern and postnatally miRNAs are synthesized in all cells possessing transcriptional machinery. miRNAs usually target several mRNAs and therefore conclusive evidences proving their functions are not always ease to be acquired. In spite of this difficulty, functions of miRNAs were firmly established in the development, the cardiovascular and neural diseases, and cancer...
April 2016: Endocrine Regulations
K Voglova, J Bezakova, Iveta Herichova
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules of increasing biologists' interest. miRNAs, unlikely mRNA, do not encode proteins. It is a class of small double stranded RNA molecules that via their seed sequence interact with mRNA and inhibit its expression. It has been estimated that 30% of human gene expression is regulated by miRNAs. One miRNA usually targets several mRNAs and one mRNA can be regulated by several miRNAs. miRNA biogenesis is realized by key enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. miRNA/mRNA interaction depends on binding to RNA-induced silencing complex...
April 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Z Lestanova, Z Bacova, Jan Bakos
The present knowledge, regarding the neuronal growth and neurite extension, includes neuropeptide action in the central nervous system. Research reports have brought much information about the multiple intracellular signaling pathways of neuropeptides. However, regardless of the differences in the local responses elicited by neuropeptides, there exist certain functional similarities in the effects of neuropeptides, mediated by their receptors. In the present review, data of the relevant studies, focused on G protein-coupled receptors activated by neuropeptides, are summarized...
April 2016: Endocrine Regulations
M Schiavone, G Putoto, F Laterza, Damiano Pizzol
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance that occurs for the first time or it is first identified during pregnancy. The GDM etiology is multifactorial. It has not completely been established yet and several known risk factors may contribute to its onset. To date, there are no shared guidelines on the management and follow-up, especially regarding the low-income countries. In this paper, we describe the state of art about epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of GDM...
April 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Hakki Yilmaz, M Cakmak, B Ceydilek, C Demir, A Aktas
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-35 (IL-35), an interleukin-12 (IL-12) cytokine family member, is shown to be a potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory cytokine. Inducible regulatory T cells (Tregs) produce IL-35 that mediates the immune inhibitory function of Tregs. Growing evidence revealed that upregulation of IL-35 expression may play a critical role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases in various experimental autoimmunity models and vice versa. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be a Treg cell-related autoimmune disease with loss of self-tolerance...
April 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Dmytro O Minchenko, A P Kharkova, O V Halkin, L L Karbovskyi, O H Minchenko
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2), their receptor (IGF1R), binding protein-4 (IGFBP4), and stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of tumor growth. METHODS: The expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGFBP4, and STC2 genes in U87 glioma cells transfected by empty vector pcDNA3...
April 2016: Endocrine Regulations
S Ogedengbe, I U Ezeani, E Aihanuwa
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by a relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. It is also associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including hyper-tension and dyslipidemia. Although there are many studies that have studied the metabolic abnormalities in T2DM patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), only few of them have assessed the metabolic abnormalities in their first-degree relatives (FDRs) who had MetS. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical and biochemical variables in T2DM subjects and their FDRs without diabetes in Benin City, Nigeria...
January 2016: Endocrine Regulations
S Baldane, S H Ipekci, L Kebapcilar
OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an independent risk factor for moderate hypocalcaemia and may lead to the development of resistant hypocalcaemia following thyroid surgery. Subject and Results. A 35-year old female patient was referred to our hospital by her family physician for treatment of resistant hypocalcaemia. The patient underwent RYGB three years ago and a total thyroidectomy for a benign thyroid nodule one year ago. Calcitriol, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and ergocalciferol therapeutic dosages were incremented...
January 2016: Endocrine Regulations
I Ates, M Kaplan, N Yilmaz
OBJECTIVE: While non-symptomatic pericardial effusion is seen in primary hypothyroidism, massive pericardial effusion is a very rare finding. In the literature, newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism cases presenting with massive pericardial effusion or acute renal failure are present, but we did not encounter any case first presenting with combination of two signs. In this case report, primary hypothyroidism case that presenting with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure will be discussed...
January 2016: Endocrine Regulations
A Fodor, B Klausz, B Toth, D Zelena
OBJECTIVE: A disturbance of sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) is one of the best tests of the schizophrenia-like behavior. Vasopressin was implicated in the development of schizophrenia; therefore, the naturally occurring vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rat has been suggested to be a reliable non-pharmacological animal model. However, previous studies focusing on PPI deficit did not use proper control and despite clear gender differences in the development of the disorder, the effect of gender has been mostly neglected...
January 2016: Endocrine Regulations
I Rueda, I Banegas, I Prieto, R Wangensteen, A B Segarra, A B Villarejo, M De Gasparo, J D Luna, F Vives, M Ruiz-Bailen, M Ramirez-Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: The type and level of sex steroids influence blood pressure (BP). It has been suggested that functional brain asymmetries may be influenced by sex hormones. In addition, there are inter-arm differences in BP not yet related with handedness. In this study, we hypothesize a possible association between sex hormones, handedness, and inter-arm differences in blood pressure. METHODS: To analyze this hypothesis, we measured BP in the left and right arm of the left and right handed adult young men and women in menstrual and ovulatory phase and calculated their mean arterial pressure (MAP)...
January 2016: Endocrine Regulations
J Podoba, K Racova, H Urbankova, M Srbecky
OBJECTIVE: Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require...
January 2016: Endocrine Regulations
R Cappellesso, L Nicole, A Guido, D Pizzol
Osteoporosis is one of the established major consequences of long-duration spaceflights in astronauts seriously undermining their health after their returning on Earth. Indeed, astronauts typically lose more bone mass during one month than postmenopausal women on Earth lose in one year. To date, countermeasures mainly consist in exercise and supplementation while pharmacological treatment as those used in postmenopausal women are not routine. However, it is evident that exercise and supplementation alone are not enough to maintain bone homeostasis...
October 2015: Endocrine Regulations
S Baldane, S H Ipekci, E Celik, G K Gedik, E Ozaslan, I Guler, L Kebapcilar
Because the adrenal glands are common locations for metastases, pheochromocytoma is frequently misdiagnosed as adrenal metastasis in patients with a history of cancer. An incidental adrenal mass was detected during an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan performed to stage the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a 35-year-old male patient. The features of an adrenal mass on the CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) were thought to show adrenal metastasis...
October 2015: Endocrine Regulations
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