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International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336312/old-antibiotics-for-emerging-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-xdr-tb
#1
Philippe Brouqui, Fanny Quenard, Michel Drancourt
Recently, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a therapeutic challenge. In addition to drug resistance, drug adverse events, intravenous delivery, cost and availability of some antibiotics in low-income countries have led to a look back to old drugs, especially those efficient against closely related organisms such as Mycobacterium leprae. Here we review the available drugs that respect the conditions above and could be upgraded to first-line therapy for treating MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336313/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-colonisation-risk-factors-and-risk-for-infection-among-hospitalised-paediatric-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Myrto Eleni Flokas, Spyridon A Karageorgos, Marios Detsis, Michail Alevizakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The objective of this study was to estimate the rate and significance of colonisation with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) among hospitalised children. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were systematically searched (last accessed on 29 May 2016) to identify studies evaluating VRE colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalised children in non-outbreak periods. Of 945 non-duplicate citations, 19 studies enrolling 20 234 children were included. The overall and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rate of VRE colonisation were both 5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3-8% overall and 95% CI 2-9% in the PICU] but was 23% in haematology/oncology units (95% CI 18-29%)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336311/polyclonal-dissemination-of-kpc-2-in-serratia-marcescens-including-a-clone-with-epidemic-behaviour-in-the-nosocomial-niche
#3
LETTER
Cecilia Rodríguez, Silvina Brengi, Mariel Agustina Cáceres, Silvana Mochi, María Rosa Viñas, Graciela Merletti, Raúl Ricardo Raya, Daniela Centrón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315729/pharmacodynamics-of-tigecycline-alone-and-in-combination-with-colistin-against-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacodynamic-model
#4
Xuejiu Cai, Zhen Yang, Jianqiang Dai, Kun Chen, Huiliang Liu, Wentao Ni, Chuanqi Wei, Junchang Cui
The objectives of this study, which were based on the hypothesis of mutant prevention concentration (MPC), were to compare tigecycline and colistin monotherapy and combination therapy against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) and to identify changes in the susceptibility of the organism using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Human free-drug concentration profiles of colistin and tigecycline used alone and in combination were simulated against four clinical MDR-AB isolates over 24 h. Pharmacodynamic activity was measured as log10 CFU/mL and as the area under the bactericidal curve (AUBC)...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315730/synthesis-antimicrobial-activity-and-toxicity-to-nematodes-of-cyclam-derivatives
#5
Luis G Alves, Pedro F Pinheiro, Joana R Feliciano, Diana P Dâmaso, Jorge H Leitão, Ana M Martins
The antimicrobial activity and toxicity to nematodes of the cyclam salt [H2{H2((4-CF)3PhCH2)2Cyclam}](CH3COO)2.(CH3COOH)2 was evaluated. Estimated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 9, 261 and 15 µg/mL were obtained for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. For selected Candida spp., the estimated MICs obtained ranged from 32 µg/mL to 63 µg/mL. Bactericidal activity was demonstrated but the compound was not reliably fungicidal. Concentrations of the cyclam salt up to 32 µg/mL did not significantly affect survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; however, concentrations equal or above this value significantly affected nematode survival in a dose-dependent manner...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315452/comparing-the-therapeutic-efficacies-of-third-generation-cephalosporins-and-broader-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactams-as-appropriate-empirical-therapy-in-adults-with-community-onset-monomicrobial-enterobacteriaceae-bacteraemia-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#6
Chung-Hsun Lee, Chih-Chia Hsieh, Ming-Yuan Hong, Yuan-Pin Hung, Wen-Chien Ko, Ching-Chi Lee
In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) was compared with that of broader-spectrum β-lactams (BSBLs) [fourth-generation cephalosporins (4GCs) and carbapenems] as empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Compared with those in the 3GC group (n = 477), a significantly higher proportion of patients in the BSBL group (n = 141) had initial presentation with severe sepsis or septic shock, critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) at bacteraemia onset and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302539/ciprofloxacin-resistant-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-st410-strain-carrying-the-mcr-1-gene-associated-with-bloodstream-infection
#7
LETTER
Igor Vasconcelos Rocha, Carlos Alberto das Neves Andrade, Túlio de Lima Campos, Antonio Mauro Rezende, Nilma Cintra Leal, Cláudia Fernanda de Lacerda Vidal, Danilo Elias Xavier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286115/association-between-augmented-renal-clearance-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-receiving-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotic-therapy-by-continuous-or-intermittent-infusion-a-nested-cohort-study-of-the-bling-ii-randomised-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Andrew A Udy, Joel M Dulhunty, Jason A Roberts, Joshua S Davis, Steven A R Webb, Rinaldo Bellomo, Charles Gomersall, Charudatt Shirwadkar, Glenn M Eastwood, John Myburgh, David L Paterson, Therese Starr, Sanjoy K Paul, Jeffrey Lipman
Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is known to influence β-lactam antibiotic pharmacokinetics. This substudy of the BLING-II trial aimed to explore the association between ARC and patient outcomes in a large randomised clinical trial. BLING-II enrolled 432 participants with severe sepsis randomised to receive β-lactam therapy by continuous or intermittent infusion. An 8-h creatinine clearance (CLCr) measured on Day 1 was used to identify ARC, defined as CLCr ≥ 130 mL/min. Patients receiving any form of renal replacement therapy were excluded...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279787/implementation-of-a-cefazolin-based-stewardship-pathway-for-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections-paired-with-infectious-diseases-consultation
#9
Benjamin J Lee, Sonia N Rao, Sheila K Wang, Jane Y Lee, Irfana Y Lakada, Elise M Gilbert, Viktorija O Barr, Michael J Postelnick, Sarah H Sutton, Teresa R Zembower, Maureen Bolon, Marc H Scheetz, Nathaniel J Rhodes
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections have been successfully treated both with cefazolin and antistaphylococcal penicillins; cefazolin appears effective in MSSA bloodstream infections (BSIs). Thus, our antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) implemented a clinical pathway supporting cefazolin use in MSSA-BSIs and restricting oxacillin use to infectious diseases (ID) consultation due to cefazolin's lower cost and more convenient dosing. This before and after quasi-experimental study was conducted to describe the impact on outcomes and process of care measures associated with implementing this pathway among patients with MSSA-BSI...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279786/miltefosine-is-fungicidal-to-paracoccidioides-spp-yeast-cells-but-subinhibitory-concentrations-induce-melanisation
#10
Diego Conrado Pereira Rossi, Cristina de Castro Spadari, Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, Kelly Ishida
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. The duration of antifungal treatment ranges from months to years and relapses may nevertheless occur despite protracted therapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need for new therapeutic options. Miltefosine (MLT), an analogue of alkylphospholipids, has antifungal activity against species of yeast and filamentous fungi. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of MLT on the yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279672/erratum-to-predominance-of-healthcare-associated-cases-among-episodes-of-community-onset-bacteraemia-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-international-journal-of-antimicrobial-agents-49-1-67-73
#11
Jean-Ralph Zahar, Philippe Lesprit, Stephane Ruckly, Aurelia Eden, Hitoto Hikombo, Louis Bernard, Stephan Harbarth, Jean-Francois Timsit, Christian Brun-Buisson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267594/effects-of-colistin-on-biofilm-matrices-of-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Claudia Stein, Christina Forstner, Oliwia Makarewicz, Mathias W Pletz
Biofilms are the preferred environment of micro-organisms on various surfaces such as catheters and heart valves, are associated with numerous difficult-to-treat and recurrent infections, and confer an extreme increase in antibiotic tolerance to most compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate how colistin affects both the extracellular biofilm matrix and the embedded bacteria in biofilms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a species with intrinsic resistance to colistin, and colistin-susceptible Escherichia coli...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264779/erratum-to-forgotten-antibiotics-a-follow-up-inventory-study-in-europe-the-usa-canada-and-australia-international-journal-of-antimicrobial-agents-49-1-2017-98-101
#13
Celine Pulcini, Simone Mohrs, Bojana Beovic, Inge Gyssens, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Otto Cars
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263895/shortening-the-incubation-time-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-by-disk-diffusion-for-enterobacteriaceae-how-short-can-it-be-and-are-the-results-accurate
#14
Wouter van den Bijllaardt, Anton G Buiting, Johan W Mouton, Anouk E Muller
The standard incubation time for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by disk diffusion is primarily based on laboratory working hours rather than growth and kill characteristics of bacteria. Faster AST results could result in better patient outcomes and reduced costs by initiating earlier appropriate therapy. The earliest possible reading moment for disk diffusion using established disk zone diameter breakpoints for Enterobacteriaceae was determined with a special focus on the accuracy of the results...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263896/prevalence-of-the-mcr-1-colistin-resistance-gene-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-from-human-faecal-samples-collected-in-2012-in-rural-villages-in-shandong-province-china
#15
Zhenwang Bi, Björn Berglund, Qiang Sun, Maud Nilsson, Baoli Chen, Maria Tärnberg, Lilu Ding, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Zhenqiang Bi, Göran Tomson, Jingjing Yao, Zhanying Gu, Xiao Yin, Zengqiang Kou, Lennart E Nilsson
Since its initial discovery in China in 2015, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been reported in Escherichia coli isolated from clinical samples, animals and meat worldwide. In this study, 706 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli from 411 persons were detected in a collection of faecal samples from 1000 rural residents in three counties in Shandong Province, China. These isolates were screened for mcr-1 and phenotypic colistin resistance. The gene was found in 3.5% of the isolates (from 4...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263710/role-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-as-a-carbapenem-sparing-antibiotic-for-treatment-of-acute-pyelonephritis-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#16
Young Kyung Yoon, Jong Hun Kim, Jang Wook Sohn, Kyung Sook Yang, Min Ja Kim
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) is a frequent cause of acute pyelonephritis (APN), requiring carbapenem therapy. However, alternatives to carbapenems are needed due to the emergence of carbapenemase-producing micro-organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) versus ertapenem in the treatment of adult patients with APN caused by ESBL-Ec. A retrospective observational study of APN caused by ESBL-Ec susceptible to TZP was performed at a university-affiliated hospital in the Republic of Korea between February 2011 and June 2013...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257905/successful-treatment-of-persistent-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-manuka-honey
#17
LETTER
Sophie L Giles, Robert J F Laheij
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257904/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftaroline-and-comparator-agents-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-clinical-isolates-from-cancer-patients
#18
Kenneth V I Rolston, Mohamed A Jamal, Lior Nesher, Samuel A Shelburne, Issam Raad, Randall A Prince
Bacterial infections are common in cancer patients. Ceftaroline (CFT) is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against most Gram-positive organisms (GPOs) and many Gram-negative organisms. In this study, the in vitro activity of CFT was compared with vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin (DAP), linezolid (LZD), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (SXT) and tigecycline (TIG) against bacteria (predominantly blood culture isolates) isolated from cancer patients in 2014 and 2015. CFT was active against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257903/does-a-triple-combination-have-better-activity-than-double-combinations-against-multiresistant-fungi-experimental-in-vitro-evaluation
#19
Adela Martin-Vicente, Josep Guarro, Javier Capilla
In this study, the in vitro interactions of amphotericin B (AmB), voriconazole (VRC) and anidulafungin (AFG) in double and triple combinations against four species of multiresistant fungi (Fusarium solani, Lomentospora prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Scopulariopsis brumptii) were evaluated. In general, AmB combined with AFG was the most synergistic, especially against F. solani (7/8; 87.5%) when low concentrations of AmB were used, i.e. 0.125-0.5 µg/mL. The least active combination was AmB + VRC, with the lowest percentage of synergy against S...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257756/bacteraemia-due-to-non-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-o25b-h4-sequence-type-131-insights-into-risk-factors-clinical-features-and-outcomes
#20
Isabel Morales-Barroso, Lorena López-Cerero, José Molina, Mar Bellido, María Dolores Navarro, Lara Serrano, Verónica González-Galán, Julia Praena, Alvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
The epidemiology and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Escherichia coli ST131 isolates not producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are not well defined despite being more prevalent than ESBL-producers. In this study, risk factors and the impact on outcome of BSIs caused by non-ESBL-producing ST131 E. coli versus non-ST131 E. coli were investigated. A case-control study was performed in two tertiary centres to identify risk factors for ST131. Molecular methods were used to investigate all E...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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