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International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330034/successful-treatment-of-a-penicillin-intermediate-and-ceftriaxone-resistant-granulicatella-adiacens-presumed-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-with-vancomycin
#1
Bruce M Jones, Roby M Hersey, Irwin J Trestman, Christopher M Bland
Advancements in rapid diagnostics have helped to identify nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) as an increasing cause of infective endocarditis. This case report highlights the challenges in susceptibility testing and the importance of appropriate empiric treatment for Granulicatella adiacens, as well as considerations for future practice guideline recommendations. Guidelines for treatment of IE caused by NVS are currently limited to patients with native valve disease. We present a patient with presumed prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Granulicatella adiacens, with clinically relevant resistance to recommended first-line agents (penicillin and ceftriaxone), who was successfully treated with 8 weeks of intravenous (IV) vancomycin...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325762/assessment-of-in-vivo-efficacy-of-eravacycline-against-enterobacteriaceae-exhibiting-various-resistance-mechanisms-a-dose-ranging-study-and-pk-pd-analysis
#2
Abrar K Thabit, Marguerite L Monogue, Joseph V Newman, David P Nicolau
After the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of eravacycline as a novel fluorocycline was defined, understanding its pharmacodynamic (PD) profile became essential. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of the PK/PD index of the area under free drug concentration-time curve above the minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUC/MIC) and its magnitude with eravacycline's efficacy against Enterobacteriaceae isolates using the immunocompetent murine thigh infection model to resemble the immunocompetent environment in eravacycline's clinical trials...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309900/sex-dependent-metabolism-of-nevirapine-in-rats-impact-on-plasma-levels-pharmacokinetics-and-interaction-with-nortriptyline
#3
Iris Usach, Pablo Compañ, José-Esteban Peris
Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) widely used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is the first choice NNRTI during pregnancy. NVP shows a sex dimorphic profile in humans with sex differences in bioavailability, biotransformation and toxicity. In this study, sex differences in the NVP metabolism and in the inhibition of NVP metabolism by the antidepressant nortriptyline (NT) were evaluated using rats as experimental animals. NVP was administered orally to male and female rats, and sex differences in plasma levels and pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309899/management-of-bloodstream-infections-by-infection-specialists-an-international-escmid-cross-sectional-survey
#4
Kévin Diallo, Nathalie Thilly, Amandine Luc, Guillaume Beraud, Önder Ergonul, Maddalena Giannella, Diamantis Kofteridis, Tomislav Kostyanev, José Ramón Paňo-Pardo, Pilar Retamar, Winfried Kern, Céline Pulcini
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are frequent, but international guidelines are available only for MRSA and candidaemia. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to explore the management of BSI by infection specialists. METHODS: This international ESCMID cross-sectional survey was opened from December 2016 to February 2017. All infection specialists, senior or trainees, giving at least weekly advice on positive blood cultures could participate...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305961/no-effect-of-vancomycin-mic-%C3%A2-1-5-mg-l-on-treatment-outcome-in-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#5
Kevin Bouiller, Caroline Laborde, Serge Ludwig Aho, Didier Hocquet, André Pechinot, Vincent Le Moing, Xavier Bertrand, Lionel Piroth, Catherine Chirouze
OBJECTIVES: The vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) has been shown to affect the outcome of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. In this study, the outcomes of patients with MSSA bacteremia, with a vancomycin MIC≥ 1.5 mg/L were assessed. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with MSSA bacteremia in two tertiary-care hospitals was collected. Vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest. SA strains were categorized as low (<1...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305960/antibiotic-susceptibilities-of-livestock-isolates-of-leptospira
#6
Geoffroy Liegeon, Tristan Delory, Mathieu Picardeau
Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease and is endemic worldwide. The antibiotic susceptibilities of Leptospira isolated from both humans and animals are poorly documented. This issue is particularly important for isolates from food-producing animals which are regularly exposed to antibiotic treatments. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of 35 Leptospira strains isolated from food-producing animals of diverse geographical origins between 1936 and 2016 to the antimicrobial agents most commonly used in animals...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305959/enhanced-in-vitro-tigecycline-activity-in-the-presence-of-chelating-agents
#7
Amelia N Deitchman, Ravi Shankar Prasad Singh, Kenneth H Rand, Hartmut Derendorf
Lack of availability of novel antibiotic agents and the rise of resistance to existing therapies has led clinicians to utilize combination therapy to adequately treat bacterial infections. Here we examine how chelators may impact the in vitro activity of tigecycline (TIG) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth dilution with and without various combinations of chelators (EDTA and other tetracyclines), and metal ions (i...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305958/description-of-a-novel-mutation-in-the-atpc-gene-in-optochin-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolates-from-tunisia
#8
Anis Raddaoui, Farah Ben Tanfous, Wafa Achour, Rekaya Baaboura, Assia Benhassen
The identification of Streptocooccus pneumoniae among other α-hemolytic streptococci is based on phenotypic or genotypic characteristics as colony morphology, bile solubility and optochin susceptibility. We report in this study three optochin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolated from immunocompromised patients in Tunisia. The three isolates were positive for bile solubility test. The biochemical identification with API® 20 Strep was not discriminatory for two strains. The three strains had different serotypes (6C, 19F and 23F) and three different sequence types (ST386, ST320, and ST326)...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305957/isolation-of-an-incp-1-plasmid-with-mcr-1-from-a-chicken-isolate-of-citrobacter-braakii-in-china
#9
Jinxin Liu, Yanxian Yang, Yunxia Li, Dan Liu, Hongmei Tuo, Hongning Wang, Douglas R Call, Margaret Davis, Anyun Zhang
The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been found worldwide, but the diversity of organisms harboring this gene is unknown. In this study, twelve colistin-resistant Citrobacter spp. isolates were obtained from diseased or dead chickens in China, and PCR analysis indicated that five were positive for mcr-1. One Citrobacter braakii strain (SCC4) with a multidrug resistance phenotype was chosen for further analysis. SCC4 was resistant to ten tested antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to colistin was >4 µg/mL...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305956/pharmacokinetics-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-cms-in-healthy-chinese-subjects-after-single-and-multiple-intravenous-doses
#10
Miao Zhao, Xiao-Jie Wu, Ya-Xin Fan, Ying-Yuan Zhang, Bei-Ning Guo, Ji-Cheng Yu, Guo-Ying Cao, Yuan-Cheng Chen, Ju-Fang Wu, Yao-Guo Shi, Jian Li, Jing Zhang
High prevalence of extensive-drug resistance (XDR) gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as the last-line therapy. Our knowledge on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS, an inactive prodrug) and colistin has increased substantially; however, the PK in Chinese population is still unknown due to the lack of a CMS product. This study aimed to evaluate the PK of a new CMS product developed in China for optimizing the dosing regimens. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose PK studies...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305955/should-evidence-based-medicine-be-considered-as-a-truth-in-clinical-microbiology
#11
LETTER
Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305954/clinical-use-of-the-polymyxins-the-tale-of-the-fox-and-the-cat
#12
Eric Wenzler, Kristen L Bunnell, Larry H Danziger
BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify practice patterns of polymyxin use, quantify gaps in knowledge, and recognize areas of persistent confusion. METHODS: A structured electronic survey was distributed to physicians, pharmacists, and microbiologists. Demographic information was obtained along with data regarding the availability, stewardship principles, therapeutic usage, dosing, microbiological testing, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the polymyxins...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288723/intravenous-colistin-combination-antimicrobial-treatment-versus-monotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Andreas D Mavroudis, Maria Georgiou, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether IV colistin in combination with other antibiotics (IVCC) was associated with lower mortality compared to colistin monotherapy (IVCM) and identify factors influencing study outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched till November 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated adult patients with MDR/XDR Gram-negative infections and reported comparative mortality data (adjusted and unadjusted) for patients receiving IVCC versus IVCM...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288722/comparative-analysis-of-phosphoethanolamine-transferases-involved-in-polymyxin-resistance-across-ten-clinically-relevant-gram-negative-bacteria
#14
Jiayuan Huang, Yan Zhu, Meiling Han, Mengyao Li, Jiangning Song, Tony Velkov, Chen Li, Jian Li
The rapid emergence of Gram-negative 'superbugs' has become a significant threat to human health globally and polymyxins become a last-line therapy for these very problematic pathogens. Polymyxins exhibit their antibacterial killing by the initial interaction with lipid A in Gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin resistance can be mediated by phosphoethanolamine (PEA) modification of lipid A that abolishes the initial electrostatic interaction with polymyxins. Both chromosome-encoded (e.g. EptA, EptB and EptC) and plasmid-encoded PEA transferases (e...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287710/rifampin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-molecular-characterization-and-fitness-cost-of-rpob-mutations
#15
Yu Mi Wi, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Cassandra L Brinkman, Jean Y H Lee, Benjamin P Howden, Robin Patel
Molecular mechanisms and characteristics of rifampin resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis are poorly characterized, even though S. epidermidis is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens associated with indwelling medical device-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of rifampin resistance and to characterize the associated molecular mechanisms in S. epidermidis. Rifampin-resistant mutants from two rifampin-susceptible S. epidermidis strains, RP62A and IDRL-8883, were selected through in vitro and in vivo exposure to rifampin...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284156/vancomycin-dosing-in-chronic-high-flux-haemodialysis-a-systematic-review
#16
Katrina Hui, Lydia Upjohn, Michelle Nalder, Kirsty Buising, Eugenie Pedagogos, Craig Nelson, Carl M J Kirkpatrick, David C M Kong
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically evaluate if non-weight-based (non-WBD) or weight-based dosing (WBD) of vancomycin led to a higher proportion of patients achieving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target. METHODS: Studies from January 1985 to February 2017 were identified through Cochrane, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Those conducted in adults with end-stage renal disease receiving high-flux haemodialysis and intravenous vancomycin were included...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284155/a-retrospective-analysis-comparing-oral-stepdown-therapy-for-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-fluoroquinolones-versus-beta-lactams
#17
Nicholas J Mercuro, Patricia Stogsdill, Minkey Wungwattana
Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections (EB-BSI) are a common manifestation of Gram-negative sepsis, and are initially managed with empiric intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Upon stabilization and source control, patients are often transitioned to an oral agent. The fluoroquinolone (FQ) class plays a prominent role in stepdown therapy for severe infections due to favorable pharmacokinetic parameters; however, serious adverse effects have been documented with their use. Two hundred and twenty-four adults with EB-BSI initiated on empiric IV antibiotics with stepdown to oral beta-lactam (BLM) (n= 84) or FQ (n= 140) were included to compare clinical success and identify risk factors for treatment failure...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284154/risks-of-using-the-natural-defense-of-commensal-bacteria-as-antibiotics-call-for-research-and-regulation
#18
LETTER
D G Joakim Larsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277531/population-pharmacokinetics-of-piperacillin-continuous-infusion-in-critically-ill-patients
#19
Sofie A M Dhaese, Jason A Roberts, Mieke Carlier, Alain G Verstraete, Veronique Stove, Jan J De Waele
Dosing recommendations for continuous infusion of piperacillin, a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic, are mainly guided by outputs from population pharmacokinetic models constructed with intermittent infusion data. However, the probability of target attainment in patients receiving piperacillin by continuous infusion may be overestimated when drug clearance estimates from population pharmacokinetic models based on intermittent infusion data are used, especially when higher doses (e.g. 16g/24h or more) are simulated...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277530/antibacterial-activity-of-high-concentrations-of-carvedilol-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#20
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Przemysław Bernat, Aleksandra Felczak, Sylwia Różalska, Katarzyna Lisowska
Many drugs used for the treatment of other diseases have shown excellent antibacterial potential or enhance the action of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of a popular ß-blocker, carvedilol, and the potential mechanism of its antibacterial action. The antibacterial activity of carvedilol was evaluated using the microdilution method, and its influence on the viability of bacterial cells was investigated by the AlamarBlue® test. Changes in phospholipid and fatty acid composition were analysed using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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