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International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

Jin-Wei Zhou, Tong-Tong Chen, Xiao-Juan Tan, Ji-Yang Sheng, Ai-Qun Jia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a serious disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and is difficult to cure due to biofilm persistence and emerging multidrug resistance. Considering the essential role of quorum sensing (QS) in P. aeruginosa infections, the enhanced effects between quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) resveratrol and several antibiotics against P. aeruginosa PAO1 were investigated. Crystal violet staining assay revealed that the biofilms of P. aeruginosa PAO1 grown in the presence of resveratrol were more susceptible to aminoglycoside antibiotics...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Shaimaa F Mouftah, Tibor Pál, Akela Ghazawi, Dalal H Halat, Anju Nabi, Mouza A AlSharhan, Zulfa O AlDeesi, Christabel C Peters, Handan Celiloglu, Manjunath Sannegowda, Dolla K Sarkis, Ágnes Sonnevend
Few studies have addressed the molecular epidemiology of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates in the Arabian Peninsula, and such investigations have been missing from Dubai, a major economical, tourism and medical centre of the region. The antibiotic susceptibility, the carbapenemase type produced, and the clonality of 89 CRE strains isolated in five major Dubai hospitals in June 2015 - June 2016 were determined. Thirty three percent of the collection of 70 K. pneumoniae, 13 E. coli and 6 other Enterobacteriaceae were extremely drug resistant, 27% were resistant to colistin, and 4...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Caleb J P Economou, Jan T Kielstein, David Czock, Jiao Xie, Jonathan Field, Brent Richards, Mandy Tallot, Adam Visser, Christina Koenig, Carsten Hafer, Julius J Schmidt, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin during prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. METHODS: Critically ill patients prescribed vancomycin across two sites had blood samples collected during 1-3 dosing intervals during which PIRRT was performed. Plasma samples were assayed with a validated immunoassay method. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Pmetrics® ...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Rodrigo E Mendes, Robert K Flamm, Mariana Castanheira
We evaluated meropenem-vaborbactam activity against 11,559 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including 330 carbapenem-resistant phenotypes (CRE) and carbapenemase genotypes collected worldwide during 2015. Meropenem-vaborbactam (inhibitor at 8 mg/L) and comparators were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. CRE isolates were screened for the presence of genes encoding carbapenemases and 292 (88.5%) of the CRE isolates carried these resistance genes. A total of 209 (63.3% of the CRE; 1...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Zubair Shanib Bhat, Ali Mohd Lone, Mubashir Maqbool, Shajrul Amin, Bilal Ahmad Bhat, Zahoor Ahmad
The presented study reports in vitro antituberculosis potential of 2-(((2-hydroxyphenyl) amino)methylene)-5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (PAMCHD) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. PAMCHD proved to be tuberculostatic as well as tuberculocidal agent by agar and broth dilution methods with MIC and MBC values equivalent to some standard antituberculosis drugs (ATDs). The dynamics of M. tuberculosis killing revealed its time as well as concentration dependent antituberculosis activity and it sterilized M...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Shey-Ying Chen, Hsin-Sui Hsu, Lee-Jene Teng, Po-Ren Hsueh
Clinical data related to bacteraemia caused by mecA-positive borderline-oxacillin resistant (minimum inhibitory concentrations, 0.5-4 mg/L) Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) isolates are limited. Patients (age >15 years) with bacteraemia due to BORSA who were admitted to the emergency department in a tertiary hospital between January 2001 and December 2015 were evaluated. Clinical characteristics of patients with bacteraemia caused by BORSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and MRSA were compared. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12 antibiotics were determined using the agar dilution method...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Eduardo C Gomes, Diego R Falci, Pedro Bergo, Alexandre P Zavascki, Maria Helena Rigatto
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of polymyxin B (PMB)- associated Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in 1-year mortality and renal function recovery. METHODS: Patients >18 years old who survived the first 30-days after PMB therapy were followed for 1-year. The impact of AKI and Renal Failure (using RIFLE score) in 1-year mortality was analyzed, along with other confounding variables. Variables with a P value ≤0.2 were included in a forward stepwise Cox regression model...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Matthieu Grégoire, Romain Dumont, Ludovic Ronchi, Jean-Baptiste Woillard, Vincent Atthar, Eric Letessier, Raphaël Cinotti, Antoine Roquilly, Guillaume Deslandes, Pascale Jolliet, Karim Asehnoune, Eric Dailly
Morbid obesity is known to increase the risk of surgical site infections. Optimal concentrations of prophylactic antibacterial drugs are required. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the aim of this work was to build a population pharmacokinetics model for a morbidly obese population to assess a 4000-mg dose of cefazolin recommended by the guidelines and to propose new administration schemes. One hundred and seventeen morbidly obese patients (mean body mass index, 46.95 kg/m2 ) received 4000 mg of cefazolin intravenously before sleeve gastrectomy...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Qiuxia Ma, Yong Huang, Jian Wang, Xuebin Xu, Jane Hawkey, Chaojie Yang, Beibei Liang, Xiaofeng Hu, Fuli Wu, Xiaoxia Yang, Jinyan Wang, Rongrui Li, Peng Li, Jing Xie, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Yigang Tong, Kathryn E Holt, Shaofu Qiu, Yansong Sun, Hongbin Song
Since the plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance gene mcr-1 was first reported in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in China, only one mcr-1-positive isolate of Shigella sonnei, containing inactivated mcr-1, has been reported worldwide. Here, we screened 1650 historical S. sonnei strains isolated from 2003 to 2015 in China for mcr-1. We determined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance genes of mcr-1-positive isolates and investigated the transferability of polymyxin resistance by plasmid conjugation...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Kordo Saeed, Silvano Esposito, Ian Gould, Tiziana Ascione, Matteo Bassetti, Eric Bonnet, Emilio Bouza, Monica Chan, Joshua S Davis, Giuseppe De Simone, Matthew Dryden, Thomas Gottlieb, Karolin Hijazi, David C Lye, Pasquale Pagliano, Christina Petridou, Elda Righi, John Segreti, Serhet Unal, Ata Nevzat Yalcin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Kodai Kawamura, Kazuya Ichikado, Makoto Takaki, Yoshitomo Eguchi, Keisuke Anan, Moritaka Suga
Effective pharmacological therapy has not been established for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Macrolides are antibiotics with potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that may be beneficial in ARDS treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the adjunctive effect of azithromycin on survival for patients with ARDS. This single-center, retrospective cohort evaluation of hospitalized patients with moderate or severe ARDS aimed to assess the impact of intravenous azithromycin on clinical outcomes using a propensity score analysis...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Manjulika Shukla, Isha Soni, Karen Matsuyama, Tran Tran, Mary Tanga, Leyi Gong, Sidharth Chopra
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is one of the most significant nosocomial pathogens, that is increasingly being isolated in healthcare settings worldwide. Owing to its inherent drug-resistant nature, coupled with its ability to readily acquire resistance to other antibiotic classes, there is a real dearth of antibiotics available to treat infections with MDR-AB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercially available library was screened against MDR-AB BAA-1605 to identify novel inhibitory molecules...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Maria Giufrè, Giulia Errico, Marisa Accogli, Monica Monaco, Laura Villa, Maria Antonietta Distasi, Tito Del Gaudio, Annalisa Pantosti, Alessandra Carattoli, Marina Cerquetti
The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a critical concern worldwide. In Italy, CPE isolates are very frequent with the KPC types strongly predominant whereas the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) enzymes are extremely rare. In this study, we report the first detection of NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 167 isolates from two patients with urinary tract infection (Ec001and Ec002 from urines) including one with colonization (Ec003 from faeces) admitted to the same hospital in 2017 two months apart...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
J S Davis, J Turnidge, S Y C Tong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Antistaphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) are recommended as first line treatment for invasive infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Cefazolin is an alternative option, but there is theoretical concern about using it due to the fact that some MSSA strains produce beta-lactamases active against cefazolin. We aimed to compare outcomes from patients with MSSA infections treated with flucloxacillin and cefazolin. METHODS: We analysed data from The Australia and New Zealand Co-operative Outcomes of Staphylococcal Sepsis (ANZCOSS) observational study, which included all consecutive unique episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia from 27 hospital-based or independent microbiology laboratories from January 2007 to September 2013...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Norelle L Sherry, Sarah L Baines, Benjamin P Howden
Avibactam is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor active against classes A, C and some class D β-lactamases. In combination with ceftazidime, it may be useful for the treatment of infections due to carbapenemase-producing Gram negative (CPGN) bacteria from these classes; however, susceptibility data for some of the less-common carbapenemases are limited. To assess the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA), we tested a panel of fifty diverse CPGN collected from clinical isolates in Victoria, Australia, containing KPC, GES, SME, OXA-23 and OXA-48-like carbapenemases for CZA susceptibility using broth microdilution (BMD), E-tests and disc diffusion...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Zackery P Bulman, Miao Zhao, Michael J Satlin, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Thomas J Walsh, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Brian T Tsuji
Polymyxin B and fosfomycin are two 'old' antibiotics that consistently maintain activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms based on in vitro susceptibility testing. However, each antibiotic's use in monotherapy has been associated with high rates of treatment failure. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the combinatorial pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B and fosfomycin against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. Polymyxin B front-loading (3.33 mg/kg for 1 dose followed by 1...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Yen-Hung Liu, Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Po-Ren Hsueh
A high prevalence of gonococcal resistance to various antimicrobials as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates exhibiting resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have been reported in the past few decades. A total of 226 N. gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from the National Taiwan University Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the isolates to antimicrobials were determined by the agar dilution method and interpreted using the 2017 clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cut-off values recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Morgan Young-Speirs, Dominique Drouin, Paloma Araujo Cavalcante, Herman W Barkema, Eduardo R Cobo
Cathelicidins are a primitive class of host defense peptides, known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. However, these small, cationic, proteolytically activated peptides are diverse in structure, encompassing a wide range of activities on host immune and inflammatory cell responses. The dual capacity of cathelicidins to directly control infection and regulate host defenses highlights the potential use of cathelicidins as alternatives to antibiotics and immunomodulators...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Humberto Palza, Mauricio Nuñez, Roberto Bastías, Katherine Delgado
Copper and its alloys are recognized as effective antimicrobial surface materials at the laboratory scale as well as in clinical trials. Copper has been used in the healthcare setting to reduce environmental contamination and thus prevent healthcare-associated infections, complementing traditional protocols. The addition of copper nanoparticles to polymer/plastic matrices can also produce antimicrobial materials as confirmed under laboratory conditions. However, there is a lack of studies validating the antimicrobial behavior of these nanocomposite materials in clinical trials...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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