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International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

Antonella Santona, Elisa Taviani, Hoa Minh Hoang, Maura Fiamma, Massimo Deligios, Tram Viet Q Ngo, An Van Le, Pietro Cappuccinelli, Salvatore Rubino, Bianca Paglietti
Enterococcus faecium has become a globally disseminated nosocomial pathogen principally as the consequence of acquisition and diffusion of virulence factors and multidrug resistance determinants, including glycopeptides, one of the last resort antimicrobials used to treat more serious infections that usually occur in high-risk patients. In this study we investigated and molecular characterized Hospital-Associated (HA) Enterococcus faecium isolates collected at Hue Central Hospital, Vietnam. Our results highlighted the spread among hospital wards of a surprisingly heterogeneous multi drugs resistant E...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Michael John Aldape, Clifford Roland Bayer, Savannah Nicole Rice, Amy Evelyn Bryant, Dennis Leroy Stevens
Clostridium septicum is a highly pathogenic microbe that causes gas gangrene in humans and is the principal cause of spontaneous gas gangrene in patients with gastrointestinal maladies, including adenocarcinoma of the colon. Despite modern approaches to manage C. septicum infections, morbidity and mortality remain high (>50%). At present, no objective in vivo data exists supporting the current antibiotic treatment recommendations for C. septicum infection. Utilizing our established murine model of clostridial myonecrosis, we investigated the efficacy of standard antibiotics for anaerobic Gram positive soft-tissue infections (penicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline, vancomycin) in treating C...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Han Zhong, Xian-Yuan Zhao, Zai-Li Zhang, Zhi-Chun Gu, Chi Zhang, Yuan Gao, Min Cui
OBJECTIVE: Data on the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is limited to date. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the role of CAZ-AVI for patients with serious gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and cohort studies that involved CAZ-AVI. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Harald Seifert, Joseph Blondeau, Michael J Dowzicky
We report contemporary (2014-2016) Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) global data on activity of tigecycline and comparators against WHO 'priority pathogens', and global trends (2004-2016) in antimicrobial resistance. MICs were determined using CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Antimicrobial resistance was determined using CLSI breakpoints (FDA breakpoints for tigecycline). Data are reported for Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. From 2014-2016, Africa, Asia and South America reported highest resistance rates among Acinetobacter baumannii; North America lowest (all antimicrobials tested)...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Teng Xu, Jian Wang, Jianchao Ying, Tingyuan Zhu, Yabo Liu, Lei Xu, Pingping Li, Peizhen Li, Jun Ying, Kewei Li, Huiguang Yi, Junwan Lu, Yunliang Hu, Tieli Zhou, Qiyu Bao
Integrons are genetic platforms responsible for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria primarily due to their association with transposable elements and conjugative plasmids. In this study, we identified a cassette array containing four identical blaGES-5 genes embedded in a class 1 integron that is located on an IncP-1β group plasmid from a clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Comparative genome analysis and conjugation assay showed that the plasmid pICP-4GES lacked the trbN, trbO, trbP genes, but could still conjugate...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Rong Xiang, Xiaolan Ye, Hongmei Tuo, Xiuzhong Zhang, Anyun Zhang, Changwei Lei, Yanxian Yang, Hongning Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Nicola Gianotti, Laura Galli, Nadia Galizzi, Marco Ripa, Andrea Andolina, Silvia Nozza, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Andrea Poli, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
PURPOSE: To investigate if starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with diverse regimens, differently affects the time spent with residual viremia (RV) after achieving <50 HIV-RNA copies/mL. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study on prospectively followed HIV-infected patients who started ART with a boosted protease inhibitors (PIs/r)-, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs)-, an integrase inhibitor (InSTI)-based triple regimens or with >3 drugs...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Gonzalez M Micaela, Cabrerizo Franco M, Baiker Armin, Erra-Balsells Rosa, Osterman Andreas, Nitschko Hans, Vizoso-Pinto María G
Several commercial and novel synthetic βCs were evaluated for their antiviral activity against HSV-1 using an adapted MTS assay. Of 21 drugs tested, although 11 exerted antiviral activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations, only three of them (9-methyl-norharmane, 9-methyl-harmane and 6-methoxy-harmane) completely avoided virus-driven cytopathic effects. Effective concentrations (EC50, 4.9 ± 0.4 µM, 5.9 ± 0.8 µM and 19.5 ± 0.3 µM, respectively) and selectivity indexes (SI, 88.8, 40.2 and 7.0, respectively) of the latter three βCs against HSV-1 were determined by MTS, flow cytometry and plaque reduction assays...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Marina Caldara, Nelson Marmiroli
Candida albicans is a commensal yeast of the human body, able to form biofilms on solid surfaces such as implanted medical devices, and contributes to nosocomial infections. Biofilms have the capacity to resist to higher levels of antifungals compared to planktonic cells and can develop tolerance to commonly used treatments. The necessity to overcome acquired drug resistance, and identify new active molecules with low toxicity is a significant problem. It has been reported that some antidepressants have antibacterial properties, but little is known on the effect that these drugs have on fungi...
July 7, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Elizabeth Valdivieso, Fabiola Mejías, Eugenia Carrillo, Carmen Sánchez, Javier Moreno
The present work assesses, in vitro, the effect of combining the antiretroviral drug nelfinavir (NFV - a drug used against HIV but also a strong in vitro inhibitor of the growth of Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes) with amphotericin B or miltefosine on different strains of Leishmania infantum. The isobolograms revealed a synergistic effect for both combinations, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (∑FIC) <0.5. The ∑FICs values obtained with reference strain MCAN/ES/98/LLM-724 were 0...
June 30, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
A Russo, M Falcone, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, E Calbo, B Almirante, P L Viale, A Oliver, P Ruiz-Garbajosa, O Gasch, M Gozalo, J Pitout, M Akova, C Peña, J M Cisneros, A Hernández-Torres, A Farcomeni, N Prim, J Origüen, G Bou, E Tacconelli, M Tumbarello, A Hamprecht, I Karaiskos, C de la Calle, F Pérez, M J Schwaber, J Bermejo, W Lowman, P-R Hsueh, M Mora-Rillo, J Rodriguez-Gomez, M Souli, R A Bonomo, D L Paterson, Y Carmeli, A Pascual, J Rodríguez-Baño, M Venditti
PURPOSE: Few data are reported in literature regarding severe sepsis or septic shock due to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (E). The aim of this study was to assess predictors of outcome in septic patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-E. METHODS: Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and BSI due to ESBL-E were selected from the INCREMENT database. The primary endpoint of the study was the evaluation of predictors of outcome after 30 days from development of severe sepsis or septic shock due to ESBL-E infection...
June 30, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Jessica McKinnon, Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Steven P Djordjevic
ST58 phylogroup B1 E. coli have been isolated from a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts but are not noted for their ability to cause serious disease in humans or animals. Here we determined the genome sequences of two multiple drug resistant ST58 Escherichia coli strains from urine and blood of one patient using a combination of Illumina and Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing. Both ST58 strains were clonal and were characterised as serotype O8:H25 phylogroup B1 and carried a complex resistance locus/loci (CRL) that featured an atypical class 1 integron with a dfrA5 (trimethoprim resistance) gene cassette followed by only 24 bp of the 3´-CS...
June 30, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Yongyu Rui, Wenting Lu, Si Li, Cancan Cheng, Jingjing Sun, Qiu Yang
The integrons and insertion sequence common region 1 (ISCR1) of 329 carbapenem-non-susceptible Gram-negative bacilli, excluding 60 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains, in fecal specimens from 5,000 patients in southern China were studied. Two hundred five (62.3%) class 1 integron-positive strains and 126 (61.5%) gene-cassette-positive strains were detected, and 44 types of gene-cassette arrays were found, including eight types described for the first time in the corresponding species and one gene cassette originally detected in integrons, a putative helicase...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Giannoula S Tansarli, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Mina Balaska, Michael Samarkos, Angeliki Pantazatou, Antonios Markogiannakis, Marina Mantzourani, Katerina Polonyfi, George L Daikos
BACKGROUND: Colistin is often the only available treatment option against infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp). We investigated the evolution of colistin resistance among CP-Kp and its relationship with colistin use in a tertiary care hospital, in Athens, Greece. METHODS: All CP-Kp blood isolates recovered between January 2002 and June 2016 were tested for susceptibility to colistin by agar dilution and broth microdilution. Data on colistin use were collected from the pharmacy database...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
S P van Mens, T Ten Doesschate, M F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, J W Mouton, J W A Rossen, C Verhulst, M J M Bonten, J A J W Kluytmans
OBJECTIVES: The increasing use of fosfomycin requires reliable susceptibility testing in clinical practice. The reference standard, Agar dilution (AD) is rarely used in routine settings. The fosfomycin Etest (BioMérieux) is frequently used, though the reading of MICs can be hampered by the interpretation of the growth of macrocolonies in the inhibition zone. We investigated the interobserver (IO), interlaboratory (IL), and interobserver-interlaboratory (IOIL) agreement of the fosfomycin Etest and evaluated the agreement to AD...
June 26, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Kanzari Lamia, Ferjani Sana, Saidani Mabrouka, Hamzaoui Zeineb, Jendoubi Ali, Harbaoui Sarra, Ferjani Asma, Rehaiem Amel, Boutiba Ben Boubaker Ilhem, Slim Amine
Emergence of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1), an Ambler class B metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) able to hydrolyze all β-lactams, except monobactams constitutes a critical and growingly important medical issue. The acquisition of blaNDM-1 is of a special concern with P. mirabilis that is intrinsically resistant to tetracycline, tigecycline and colistin, which will make clinical treatment extremely difficult. Here we described, for the first time, blaNDM-1 gene in an extensively drug resistant (XDR) P...
June 26, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Flavio A Oliveira, Tânia R Zaccariotto, Cristiane Piveta, Christian C Hofling, Mariangela R Resende, Carlos E Levy, Nilton Lincopan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Chih-Ming Chen, Mei Huang, Hwa-Jene Wu, Ming-Kai Guo, Lii-Tzu Wu
A clinical isolate of Citrobacter freundii, JA99 obtained from bile culture of a Taiwanese patient, was found to produce a plasmid-encoded β-lactamase that conferred resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and cephamycins. Resistance arising from production of the β-lactamase could be transferred by conjugation with an IncW plasmid pJA99 into Escherichia coli J53. The substrate and inhibition profiles of this enzyme resembled those of the AmpC β-lactamase. The resistance gene of pJA99, cloned and expressed in E...
June 23, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Sun Ju Kim, Kwan Soo Ko
We investigated the intra- and inter-strain diversity of genetic alterations in Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to colistin. Four colistin-susceptible K. pneumoniae strains with different sequence types were exposed to 2 mg/L colistin, the average steady-state plasma concentration. After exposure, ten single-step colistin-resistant mutants were selected in vitro from each K. pneumoniae strain. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were evaluated by broth microdilution. Nucleotide sequences of genes associated with colistin resistance (phoPQ, pmrAB, mgrB, and crrAB) were determined, and the mRNA expression levels of pbgP, phoP, phoQ, pmrD, pmrA, and pmrB were measured by quantitative real-time PCR...
June 23, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Olfa Dziri, Carla Andrea Alonso, Raoudha Dziri, Haythem Gharsa, Abderrahmen Maraoub, Carmen Torres, Chedly Chouchani
Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria constitutes a major clinical problem. We propose to characterize molecular features among carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from Southeastern Tunisian Island Hospital. Eighteen carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates (13 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 Proteus mirabilis, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 3 Acinetobacter baumannii) were recovered during April 2015-August 2016. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance was performed by PCR and sequencing...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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