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International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527634/low-penetration-of-caspofungin-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-following-intravenous-administration-of-standard-doses
#1
Volker Strenger, Fedja Farowski, Carsten Müller, Nora Hofer, Hans Jürgen Dornbusch, Daniela Sperl, Herwig Lackner, Martin Benesch, Christian Urban
The kinetics of caspofungin (CAS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following intravenous (i.v.) administration has been studied exclusively in animal models. However, human data are missing so far. In this study, 13 CSF samples were obtained at different time points following i.v. infusion of CAS in ten paediatric haemato-/oncological patients (age range 1.0-14.2 years, median 8.6 years) without signs of central nervous system (CNS) infection (n = 10 samples) or with infectious meningitis (n = 3 samples). Serum samples were obtained concurrently...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527633/anthelmintic-activity-of-cytochrome-p450-inhibitors-miconazole-and-clotrimazole-in-vitro-effect-on-the-liver-fluke-opisthorchis-felineus
#2
Viatcheslav A Mordvinov, Alexander G Shilov, Maria Y Pakharukova
Discovery of drugs for the treatment of opisthorchiasis and schistosomiasis is a high priority. The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system in parasitic flatworms contains a single gene. CYP of the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, the causative agent of opisthorchiasis, is important for survival of the worm, so may be a promising target for therapeutics against liver fluke infection. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyse in-vitro anthelmintic activity of various CYP inhibitors using standard motility and mortality assays against juvenile and adult O...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522340/acute-kidney-injury-risk-associated-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-compared-with-cefepime-during-vancomycin-therapy-in-hospitalised-patients-a-cohort-study-stratified-by-baseline-kidney-function
#3
Nakyung Jeon, Ben Staley, Kenneth P Klinker, Juan Hincapie Castillo, Almut G Winterstein
Recent studies have found an association between piperacillin/tazobactam when added to vancomycin and acute kidney injury (AKI) risk. However, studies were limited by the small sample size and residual confounding. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of AKI with vancomycin plus piperacillin/tazobactam (VPT) versus vancomycin plus cefepime (VC) and to examine whether pre-existing renal impairment mediates the risk. This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records for patients admitted to two hospitals in 2012-2013...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506804/chloroquine-enhances-the-antimycobacterial-activity-of-isoniazid-and-pyrazinamide-by-reversing-inflammation-induced-macrophage-efflux
#4
U Matt, P Selchow, M Dal Molin, S Strommer, O Sharif, K Schilcher, F Andreoni, A Stenzinger, A S Zinkernagel, M Zeitlinger, P Sander, J Nemeth
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is notorious for persisting within host macrophages. Efflux pumps decrease intracellular drug levels, thus fostering persistence of MTB during therapy. Isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) are substrates of the efflux pump breast cancer resistance protein-1 (BCRP-1), which is inhibited by chloroquine (CQ). In this study, BCRP-1 was found to be expressed on macrophages of human origin and on foamy giant cells at the site of MTB infection. In the current in vitro study, interferon-gamma (IFNγ) increased the expression of BCRP-1 in macrophages derived from the human monocytic leukaemia cell line THP-1...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502697/impact-of-high-flux-haemodialysis-on-the-probability-of-target-attainment-for-oral-amoxicillin-clavulanic-acid-combination-therapy
#5
Katrina Hui, Kashyap Patel, David C M Kong, Carl M J Kirkpatrick
Clearance of small molecules such as amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is expected to increase during high-flux haemodialysis, which may result in lower concentrations and thus reduced efficacy. To date, clearance of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) during high-flux haemodialysis remains largely unexplored. Using published pharmacokinetic parameters, a two-compartment model with first-order input was simulated to investigate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis on the probability of target attainment (PTA) of orally administered AMC combination therapy...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502696/reverse-zoonotic-transmission-of-community-associated-mrsa-st1-iv-to-a-dairy-cow
#6
LETTER
Sam Abraham, Stephen Jagoe, Stanley Pang, Geoff W Coombs, Mark O'Dea, Jonathon Kelly, Manouchehr Khazandi, Kiro R Petrovski, Darren J Trott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501674/target-attainment-with-continuous-dosing-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-critical-illness-a-prospective-observational-study
#7
Heleen Aardema, Prashant Nannan Panday, Mireille Wessels, Kay van Hateren, Willem Dieperink, Jos G W Kosterink, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Jan G Zijlstra
Optimal dosing of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients is a challenge given the unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile of this patient population. Several studies have shown intermittent dosing to often yield inadequate drug concentrations. Continuous dosing is an attractive alternative from a pharmacodynamic point of view. This study evaluated whether, during continuous dosing, piperacillin concentrations reached and maintained a pre-defined target in critically ill patients. Adult patients treated with piperacillin by continuous dosing in the intensive care unit of a university medical centre in The Netherlands were prospectively studied...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499959/impact-of-initial-empirical-antifungal-agents-on-the-outcome-of-critically-ill-patients-with-invasive-candidiasis-analysis-of-the-china-scan-study
#8
Na Cui, Hao Wang, Haibo Qiu, Ruoyu Li, Dawei Liu
The effect of different empirical antifungal agents on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients with invasive candidiasis (IC) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, 136 patients with proven IC who received empirical therapy in the China-SCAN multicentre study were retrospectively analysed. Initial empirical antifungal monotherapy consisted of a triazole [fluconazole (n = 61), voriconazole (n = 20) or itraconazole (n = 12)] or an echinocandin (n = 43). Hospital mortality as the primary outcome and global responses (clinical and microbiological) were assessed...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499958/unexpected-persistence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-faecal-microbiota-of-hospitalised-patients-treated-with-imipenem
#9
N Grall, V Lazarevic, N Gaïa, C Couffignal, C Laouénan, E Ilic-Habensus, I Wieder, P Plesiat, C Angebault, M E Bougnoux, L Armand-Lefevre, A Andremont, X Duval, J Schrenzel
Imipenem is active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) but favours the intestinal emergence of resistance. The effects of imipenem on intestinal microbiota have been studied using culture-based techniques. In this study, the effects were investigated in patients using culture and metagenomic techniques. Seventeen hospitalised adults receiving imipenem were included in a multicentre study (NCT01703299, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Most patients had a history of antibiotic use and/or hospitalisation...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499957/costs-of-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-opat-administered-by-hospital-at-home-units-in-spain
#10
V J González-Ramallo, M Mirón-Rubio, A Mujal, O Estrada, C Forné, B Aragón, A J Rivera
The aim of this study was to assess the direct healthcare costs of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) administered by hospital at home (HaH) units in Spain. An observational, multicentre, economic evaluation of retrospective cohorts was conducted. Patients were treated at home by the HaH units of three Spanish hospitals between January 2012 and December 2013. From the cost accounting of HaH OPAT (staff, pharmacy, transportation, diagnostic tests and structural), the cost of each outpatient course was obtained following a top-down strategy based on the use of resources...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495479/limited-sampling-strategies-for-determining-the-area-under-the-plasma-concentration-time-curve-for-isoniazid-might-be-a-valuable-approach-for-optimizing-treatment-in-adult-patients-with-tuberculosis
#11
Piergiorgio Cojutti, Manuela Giangreco, Miriam Isola, Federico Pea
This study aimed to develop clinically feasible models of limited sampling strategy (LSS) for estimation of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24h) for isoniazid, that could be applied easily in daily clinical practice for dosage adjustment in adult patients with tuberculosis. Isoniazid plasma concentrations (n=1665) from 185 adult tuberculous patients were used for the development and validation of LSS models to estimate AUC24h following administration of the standard 5 mg/kg dose of isoniazid...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483717/surveillance-of-the-activity-of-solithromycin-cem-101-against-bacteria-from-respiratory-tract-infections
#12
Stephen Hawser, Ian Morrissey, Barbara Lemos, Kara Keedy, Prabhavathi Fernandes
The activity of solithromycin, a fourth-generation macrolide and novel fluoroketolide, was evaluated by determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (via Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution) against 2797 contemporary clinical respiratory tract isolates collected from North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and other regions of the world in 2012-13. Solithromycin was very active against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, with MIC90 of 0.25 and 0.12 µg/mL, respectively...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478211/hydroxychloroquine-susceptibility-determination-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-human-embryonic-lung-hel-fibroblast-cells
#13
Emmanouil Angelakis, Jacques Bou Khalil, Marion Le Bideau, Celine Perreal, Bernard La Scola, Didier Raoult
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, survives and replicates in the acidic environment of monocytes/macrophages; hydroxychloroquine, through alkalinisation of the acidic vacuoles, is critical for the management of Q fever. In this study, a collection of C. burnetii strains isolated from human samples were tested to evaluate the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. Serial two-fold dilutions of doxycycline (0.25-8 mg/L) and hydroxychloroquine (0...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478210/clinical-features-of-patients-with-bacteraemia-caused-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-species-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-the-isolates-at-a-medical-centre-in-taiwan-2008-2014
#14
Meng-Rui Lee, Jung-Yien Chien, Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Chin-Chung Shu, Chong-Jen Yu, Po-Ren Hsueh
Advanced molecular typing methods have greatly expanded the taxonomy of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species; however, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical features of bacteraemia caused by different MAC species. In this study, the clinical characteristics of patients treated for MAC bacteraemia in a tertiary-care centre in northern Taiwan during 2008-2014 were investigated. Isolates were identified to species level by rpoB gene and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region sequencing...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476613/emergence-of-multidrug-resistance-in-locally-acquired-human-infections-with-salmonella-typhimurium-in-australia-owing-to-a-new-clade-harbouring-blactx-m-9
#15
Sarah J Sparham, Jason C Kwong, Mary Valcanis, Marion Easton, Darren J Trott, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden
Antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is a critical problem globally, with the emergence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) a particular concern. The aim of this study was to use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise recently identified human and non-human isolates of 3GC-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from Australia. The Illumina NextSeq sequencing platform was used to determine the genome sequences of 78 S. Typhimurium definitive type 44 isolated in Australia between 1992 and 2016, including 31 3GC-resistant isolates...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461043/antimicrobial-peptide-from-mucus-of-andrias-davidianus-screening-and-purification-by-magnetic-cell-membrane-separation-technique
#16
Jinjin Pei, Lei Jiang
Andrias davidianus, the Chinese giant salamander, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many decades. However, no antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been described from A. davidianus until now. Here we describe a novel AMP (andricin 01) isolated from the mucus of A. davidianus. The peptide was recovered using an innovative magnetic cell membrane separation technique and was characterised using mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Andricin 01 is comprised of ten amino acid residues with a total molecular mass of 955...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457835/in-vitro-activity-of-a-novel-compound-mul-1867-against-clinically-significant-fungi-candida-spp-and-aspergillus-spp
#17
George Tetz, Michael Cynamon, Gregory Hendricks, Daria Vikina, Victor Tetz
There is an urgent need for new antifungal compounds to treat various types of fungal infections, including pulmonary infections. This study was designed to investigate the potency of a novel compound (Mul-1867) against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. isolated from patients with fungal pneumonia, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mul-1867 was highly effective against susceptible control strains as well as resistant clinical isolates, with minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) varying from 0...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456704/outpatient-treatment-of-osteomyelitis-with-telavancin
#18
Claudia P Schroeder, Lucinda J Van Anglen, Robin H Dretler, John S Adams, Richard C Prokesch, Quyen Luu, Andrew H Krinsky
Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, the most frequent cause of osteomyelitis. Treatment is often challenging due to needs for surgical intervention along with prolonged administration of intravenous antimicrobials, frequently in an outpatient setting. This was a retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of telavancin for treatment of osteomyelitis provided as outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in physician office infusion centres...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456703/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-mechanisms-of-fosfomycin-resistance-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-from-urinary-tract-infections-in-wenzhou-china
#19
Wenzi Bi, Bin Li, Jiangning Song, Youliang Hong, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Haiyang Liu, Hong Lu, Tieli Zhou, Jianming Cao
Fosfomycin in combination with various antibiotics represents an excellent clinically efficacious regimen for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. Underlying mechanisms of fosfomycin resistance remain largely uncharacterised. To investigate the antibacterial efficacy of fosfomycin against ESBL-producing E. coli, 356 non-repetitive ESBL-producing E. coli clinical isolates were collected from urine specimens from patients with UTI in Wenzhou, China, from January 2011 to December 2015...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454918/targeting-leishmania-amazonensis-amastigotes-through-macrophage-internalisation-of-a-hydroxymethylnitrofurazone-nanostructured-polymeric-system
#20
Lis Marie Monteiro, Raimar Löbenberg, Elizabeth Igne Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Cotrim, Edite Kanashiro, Mussya Rocha, Chung Man Chin, Nadia Bou-Chacra
Dextran-coated poly (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (PBCA-NPs) were prepared and were evaluated for enhanced delivery of a promising anti-Leishmania drug candidate, hydroxymethylnitrofurazone (NFOH), to phagocytic cells. Currently available chemotherapy for leishmaniasis, such as pentavalent antimonials, presents low safety and efficacy. Furthermore, widespread drug resistance in leishmaniasis is rapidly emerging. To overcome these drawbacks, the use of nanosized delivery systems can reduce systemic drug toxicity and increase the drug concentration in infected macrophages, therefore improving treatment of leishmaniasis...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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