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International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

Tat Ming Ng, Vanessa Y Phang, Barnaby Young, Sock Hoon Tan, Hui Lin Tay, Michelle W Tan, Li Min Ling, Brenda S Ang, Christine B Teng, David C Lye
INTRODUCTION: The multi-disciplinary antimicrobial stewardship team at the study hospital conducts prospective review and feedback on all inpatient orders of piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems. In addition, the team provides non-antibiotic recommendations (i.e. additional investigations and infectious disease reviews). This study aimed to describe the impact of these recommendations on patient outcomes. METHODS: Patients on carbapenem and piperacillin-tazobactam who received at least one non-antibiotic recommendation between January 2012 and August 2014 were included in this study...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Luyao Bie, Hao Wu, Xin-Hua Wang, Mingyu Wang, Hai Xu
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible chromosomal mobile elements that play significant roles in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. Identification of the structures and functions of ICEs, particularly those in pathogens, improves understanding of the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. This study identified new members of the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT)/R391 family of ICEs that could confer multi-drug resistance in the opportunistic pathogen Proteus mirabilis, characterized their genetic structures, and explored their evolutionary connection with other members of this family of ICEs...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Joanna Szczepaniak, Wioleta Cieślik, Anna Romanowicz, Robert Musioł, Anna Krasowska
Styrylquinolines are a novel group of quinoline drugs that are known to have p53-independent antiproliferative activity and antiviral properties. This study evaluated the antifungal activity of these drugs more deeply, particularly their activity modulation towards Cdr1p, the main multidrug transporter of Candida albicans. Styrylquinolines were found to have antifungal activity and to work synergistically with fluconazole. Additionally, they decreased the extracellular concentration of rhodamine 6G in ABC-transporter-expressing cells...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Thomas M File, Paul B Eckburg, George H Talbot, Lily Llorens, H David Friedland
BACKGROUND: Therapy directed against atypical pathogens in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often recommended. This post-hoc analysis evaluated the effect of addition of a macrolide to ceftaroline fosamil or ceftriaxone treatment in atypical CAP. METHODS: Two phase 3, double-blind, comparative safety and efficacy studies of ceftaroline fosamil vs. ceftriaxone, FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2, enrolled adults with CAP. Only FOCUS 1 included 24-h adjunctive clarithromycin therapy for all patients on day 1...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Rosario Sánchez-Benito, M Rocío Iglesias, Narciso M Quijada, Maria J Campos, María Ugarte-Ruiz, Marta Hernández, Carmen Pazos, David Rodríguez-Lázaro, Eugenio Garduño, Lucas Domínguez, Alberto Quesada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Fanny Quenard, Pierre Edouard Fournier, Michel Drancourt, Philippe Brouqui
Second-line injectable antituberculosis drugs (aminoglycosides and capreomycin) are the main drugs used in the management of resistant tuberculosis. Their preserved efficacy in the case of multi-drug-resistant bacillus is counterbalanced by frequent adverse events. Adverse events are linked to the drugs themselves and to the recommended 8-month period of parenteral administration. In numerous countries facing a high incidence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, treatment is administered by intramuscular injection...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Khalil Antoine El Kfoury, Marie-Bénédicte Romond, Angelo Scuotto, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze, Ilka Engelmann, Famara Sane, Didier Hober
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bifidobacteria in protecting cells from coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) infection. Bifidobacterial screening identified two of five strains that protected human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell viability when bifidobacteria were incubated with viral particles prior to inoculation. In contrast, no effect was shown by incubating HEp-2 cells with bifidobacteria prior to CV-B4 inoculation. Cell wall lipoprotein aggregates (LpAs) secreted by the selected strains were assayed for their antiviral activity...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Joao Pires, Odette J Bernasconi, Christoph Hauser, Regula Tinguely, Andrew Atkinson, Vincent Perreten, Valentina Dona, Andri Rauch, Hansjakob Furrer, Andrea Endimiani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Núria Prim, Alba Rivera, Pere Coll, Beatriz Mirelis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Orlando C Conceição-Neto, Caio A M Aires, Natacha F Pereira, Lívia H J da Silva, Renata C Picão, Bibiana N Siqueira, Rodolpho M Albano, Marise D Asensi, Ana Paula D'A Carvalho-Assef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Miyuki Morozumi, Takafumi Okada, Takeshi Tajima, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Iwata
Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) has emerged and is increasing worldwide. In a 2011 outbreak of MRMP infections in Japan, symptoms failed to improve in many patients who initially received macrolides; the therapeutic agent was then changed to minocycline (MIN), doxycycline (DOX) or tosufloxacin (TFX). In this study, the bactericidal effects of these three agents against MRMP were evaluated. Time-kill kinetics against MRMP and macrolide-susceptible M. pneumoniae (MSMP) were determined over 5 days at concentrations corresponding to the respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 2× MIC, i...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Vasileios Soranoglou, Ilias Galanopoulos, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Apostolos Papalois, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Lazaros A Poultsides, Theodosia Choreftaki, Kyriaki Kanellakopoulou
Fluoroquinolones have been well studied in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis due to their beneficial pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic profiles. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of intramuscular (IM) moxifloxacin administration in the treatment of experimental osteomyelitis by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Following an experimental osteomyelitis animal model described previously, three groups of rabbits (A = control; B = IM moxifloxacin administration; C = PK study of moxifloxacin penetration into bone) were evaluated...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Loic Bourdellon, Nathalie Thilly, Sébastien Fougnot, Céline Pulcini, Sandrine Henard
Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is a potential intervention for laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AST reporting on the appropriateness of antibiotics selected by French general practitioners for urinary tract infections (UTIs). A randomised controlled case-vignette study in a region of northeast France surveyed general practitioners between July and October 2015 on treatment of four clinical cases of community-acquired Escherichia coli UTIs (two cases of complicated cystitis, one of acute pyelonephritis and one male UTI)...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
María Carmen López-Díaz, Esther Ríos, Iciar Rodríguez-Avial, Rosa Janneth Simaluiza, Juan José Picazo, Esther Culebras
This study investigated the in-vitro activity of clinically relevant aminoglycosides and new antimicrobial agents - plazomicin, ceftobiprole and dalbavancin - against 55 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates producing aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). The checkerboard method was used to assess synergism between plazomicin and four antibiotics (fosfomycin, ceftobiprole, cefoxitin and meropenem), and time-kill assays were performed for the most active combinations. Among the aminoglycosides tested, plazomicin was the most active agent against MRSA, with >90% of isolates being inhibited at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≤1 mg/L...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Magali Jaillard, Alex van Belkum, Kyle C Cady, David Creely, Dee Shortridge, Bernadette Blanc, E Magda Barbu, W Michael Dunne, Gilles Zambardi, Mark Enright, Nathalie Mugnier, Christophe Le Priol, Stéphane Schicklin, Ghislaine Guigon, Jean-Baptiste Veyrieras
Genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance (AR) have been extensively investigated. High-throughput sequencing allows for the assessment of the relationship between genotype and phenotype. A panel of 672 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was analysed, including representatives of globally disseminated multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant clones; genomes and multiple antibiograms were available. This panel was annotated for AR gene presence and polymorphism, defining a resistome in which integrons were included...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Hollie Burrell-Saward, Andrew J Harris, Raul de LaFlor, Hatem Sallam, Mo S Alavijeh, Theresa H Ward, Simon L Croft
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease, with a population of 70 million at risk. Current treatment options are limited. In the search for new therapeutics, the repurposing of the broad-spectrum antiprotozoal drug fexinidazole has completed Phase III trials with the anticipation that it will be the first oral treatment for HAT. This study used the recently validated bioluminescence imaging model to assess the dose and rate of kill effect of fexinidazole in infected mice, and the dose-dependent effect of fexinidazole on trypanosome infection...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Lucía Boix-Palop, Mariona Xercavins, Cristina Badía, Meritxell Obradors, Montserrat Riera, Núria Freixas, Josefa Pérez, Mónica Rodríguez-Carballeira, Javier Garau, Esther Calbo
The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology and risk factors associated with community-onset urinary tract infections (CO-UTIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp). A cohort study including all consecutive patients with K. pneumoniae CO-UTI identified from January 2010 to December 2014 was conducted. Patients with CO-UTI due to ESBL-Kp were then included as cases in a retrospective case-control-control study; controls were outpatients with CO-UTI caused by non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and K...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Céline Dupieux, Camille Kolenda, Anders Rhod Larsen, Bruno Pichon, Mark Holmes, Michèle Bes, Christopher Teale, Elizabeth Dickson, Robert Hill, Robert Skov, Angela Kearns, Frédéric Laurent
In this study, the performances of four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) chromogenic screening media were compared for detecting mecC-positive MRSA. Using 111 clinical isolates representative of the various mecC-MRSA clones in Europe, chromID(®) MRSA (bioMérieux) and Brilliance(TM) MRSA 2 (Oxoid Ltd.) showed higher sensitivity (99.1% and 97.3%, respectively) than BBL(TM) CHROMagar(®) MRSA II (BD Diagnostics) and MRSASelect(TM) (Bio-Rad) (79.3% and 63.1%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). These findings have important implications for effective public health diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance of MRSA...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Nicole Roschanski, Linda Falgenhauer, Mirjam Grobbel, Sebastian Guenther, Lothar Kreienbrock, Can Imirzalioglu, Uwe Roesler
In November 2015, the first plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was described in animals and in humans in China. Subsequently, a multitude of further studies was performed and quite recently the global spread of mcr-1 as well as the occurrence of a new gene variant, mcr-2, was reported. To obtain an overview of the occurrence of the colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 in German pig farms, a retrospective study, including 436 boot swab and pooled faeces samples collected from 58 pig-fattening farms throughout Germany, was performed...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Amjad Ahmadi, Himen Salimizand
Early detection of Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen in hospital settings, is of interest. The blaOXA-51-like family had been used as a marker to detect A. baumannii. During an infection outbreak, 14 isolates produced a 1.7-kb PCR band instead of 353 bp for this marker. This work sought the reasons behind the increased marker size. Characterisation of isolates was done by API-20NE, gyrB multiplex PCR and 16S-23S rRNA ITS sequencing. The 1.7-kb band generated and the complete blaOXA-51-like variant were sequenced to find the probable integrated element...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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