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Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777633/hypertrophic-effect-of-inhaled-beta-2-agonist-with-and-without-concurrent-exercise-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Søren Jessen, Johan Onslev, Anders Lemminger, Vibeke Backer, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men...
May 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772608/activity-behaviours-in-lean-and-morbidly-obese-pregnant-women
#2
Caterina Fazzi, Nor Mohd-Shukri, Fiona C Denison, David H Saunders, Jane E Norman, Rebecca M Reynolds
Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (<24 weeks), and late (≥24 weeks) gestation...
May 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772095/effect-of-specific-exercise-strategy-on-strength-and-proprioception-in-volleyball-players-with-infraspinatus-muscle-atrophy
#3
José Inácio Salles, Victor Rodrigues Amaral Cossich, João Matheus Guimarães, Geraldo Motta Filho, Dylan Morrissey
Infraspinatus muscle atrophy is common in professional volleyball players, but it is unclear whether commonly observed strength and proprioception deficits can be reversed with training. Fifty-four participants were recruited into an infraspinatus atrophy group (IAG, n = 18) and a non-atrophy group (NAG, n=18) of elite volleyballers plus a healthy non-athletic control group (CG, n = 18). IAG were trained with a progressive, specific shoulder external rotator strengthening routine for 32 sessions over 8 weeks...
May 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772093/leaders-promote-attendance-in-sport-and-exercise-sessions-by-fostering-social-identity
#4
Mark Stevens, Tim Rees, Pete Coffee, S Alexander Haslam, Niklas K Steffens, Remco Polman
Sport and exercise participation exert a positive effect on numerous aspects of individuals' health. Although sport and exercise leaders have generally been observed to play a key role in shaping group members' behavior, our understanding of their impact on group members' attendance in sport and exercise sessions is limited. To address this, and building on promising findings in other domains, we examined associations between perceptions of sport and exercise leaders' engagement in social identity leadership, group identification, and attendance...
May 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771450/effects-of-intense-aerobic-exercise-and-or-antihypertensive-medication-in-individuals-with-metabolic-syndrome
#5
M Ramirez-Jimenez, F Morales-Palomo, J F Ortega, R Mora-Rodriguez
We studied the blood pressure lowering effects of a bout of exercise and/or antihypertensive medicine with the goal of studying if exercise could substitute or enhance pharmacologic hypertension treatment. Twenty-three hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients chronically medicated with angiotensin II receptor 1 blockade antihypertensive medicine underwent 24-hr monitoring in four separated days in a randomized order; a) after taking their habitual dose of antihypertensive medicine (AHM trial), b) substituting their medicine by placebo medicine (PLAC trial), c) placebo medicine with a morning bout of intense aerobic exercise (PLAC+EXER trial) and d) combining the exercise and antihypertensive medicine (AHM+EXER trial)...
May 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770517/validity-and-generalizability-of-findings-of-randomized-controlled-trials-on-arthroscopic-partial-meniscectomy-of-the-knee
#6
REVIEW
Antti Malmivaara
BACKGROUND: The validity and generalizability of evidence from trials on arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) for a ruptured meniscus of the knee has been debated in scientific journals. OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and generalizability of evidence for trials on effectiveness of APM by a novel Benchmarking method; and to compare this assessment with established assessment methods; and to make an overall assessment of the current evidence on validity and generalizability of findings...
May 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762863/objective-physical-activity-levels-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Blathin Casey, Susan Coote, Rose Galvin, Alan Donnelly
PURPOSE: To quantify physical activity (PA) levels in people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) using objective measurement and to establish using a meta-analytical approach if pwMS are less active than the general population. METHODS: A systematic search of 8 databases was conducted. Cohort and intervention studies which included an objective measure of PA were included. Objective PA outputs of steps per day and minutes of moderate-vigorous activity (MVPA) per day were extracted from the MS studies and the published NHANES dataset...
May 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749663/inter-individual-responses-to-different-exercise-stimuli-among-insulin-resistant-women
#8
C Álvarez, R Ramírez-Vélez, R Ramírez-Campillo, I Shigenori, C Celis-Morales, A García-Hermoso, L Rodriguez-Mañas, A Lucia, M Izquierdo
We aimed to investigate which among 20-cardiometabolic and performance outcomes do and do not respond to high-intensity interval training (HIT), resistance training (RT), or concurrent training (CT) in insulin-resistant adult women. A secondary aim was to report the training-induced changes and the prevalence of non-responders. Forty-five insulin-resistant adult women were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: HIT (39.2±9.5 years [y]; body mass index [BMI], 29.3±3.3; n=14), RT (33.9±9.3 y; BMI, 29...
May 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749641/antioxidant-rich-foods-and-response-to-altitude-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#9
Anu Elisa Koivisto, Gøran Paulsen, Ingvild Paur, Ina Garthe, Espen Tønnessen, Truls Raastad, Nasser Ezzatkhah Bastani, Jostein Hallén, Rune Blomhoff, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn
High doses of isolated antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E, have demonstrated the potential to blunt cellular adaptations to training It is, however, unknown whether intake of high doses of antioxidants from foods has similar effects. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate whether intake of antioxidant-rich foods affects adaptations to altitude training in elite athletes. In a randomized controlled trial, 31 national team endurance athletes (23 ± 5 years), ingested antioxidant-rich foods (n=16) or eucaloric control foods (n=15) daily during a 3-week altitude training camp (2320 m)...
May 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744948/presynaptic-inhibition-decreases-when-estrogen-level-rises
#10
M A Hoffman, J R Doeringer, M F Norcross, S T Johnson, P E Chappell
The objective was to determine estrogen's influence on control of a skeletal muscle through measurements of motorneuron excitability (H:M ratio) and presynaptic inhibition (PI). Estrogen serum concentrations were measured at menses and ovulation of female subjects and compared to male controls. Data was analyzed from 12 females and 13 males reporting no history of knee ligament injury. Females reported regular menstrual cycles and no hormone-based contraceptive use for the previous year. Females were tested at menses (Time1) and ovulation (Time2)...
May 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727499/learning-to-balance-on-a-slackline-development-of-coordinated-multi-joint-synergies
#11
Robyn L Mildren, Martin Zaback, Allan L Adkin, Leah R Bent, James S Frank
Previous research has investigated synergies involved in locomotion and balance reactions; however, there is limited insight into the emergence of skilled balance control with practice of challenging tasks. We explored motor learning of tandem and single leg stance on an unstable surface - a slackline. Balance was tested in 10 naïve healthy adults at four time points: baseline, after one slackline practice session, after one week of practice, and one week following the final practice session. We recorded kinematics of the upper and lower arms bilaterally, trunk, and thigh and foot unilaterally while participants balanced in tandem and single leg stance on a slackline and narrow rigid beam (transfer task)...
May 4, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723933/handgrip-and-knee-extension-strength-as-predictors-of-cancer-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
A García-Hermoso, R Ramírez-Vélez, M D Peterson, F Lobelo, I Cavero-Redondo, J E Correa-Bautista, Martínez-Vizcaíno
The specific role of different strength measures on mortality risk needs to be clarified in order to gain a better understanding of the clinical importance of different muscle groups, as well as to inform intervention protocols in relation to reducing early mortality. The aim of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between muscular strength and risk for cancer mortality. Eligible cohort studies were those that examined the association between muscular strength, as assessed using validated tests, and cancer mortality in healthy youth and adults...
May 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723911/specialized-properties-of-the-triceps-surae-muscle-tendon-unit-in-professional-ballet-dancers
#13
M M Moltubakk, M M Magulas, F O Villars, O R Seynnes, J Bojsen-Møller
This study compared professional ballet dancers (n=10) to non-stretching controls (n=10) with the purpose of comparing muscle and tendon morphology, mechanical, neural and functional properties of the triceps surae and their role for ankle joint flexibility. Torque-angle and torque-velocity data were obtained during passive and active conditions by use of isokinetic dynamometry, while tissue morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by ultrasonography. Dancers displayed longer gastrocnemius medialis fascicles (55 ± 5 vs 47 ± 6 mm) and a longer (207 ± 33 vs 167 ± 10 mm) and more compliant (230 ± 87 vs 364 ± 106 N·mm-1 ) Achilles tendon compared to controls...
May 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718556/football-training-improves-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-health-status-in-55-to-70-year-old-women-and-men-with-prediabetes
#14
M-B Skoradal, P Weihe, P Patursson, J Mortensen, L Connolly, P Krustrup, M Mohr
We examined the effects of 16 weeks of football training and dietary advice on blood glucose control and health status in 55- to 70-year-old women and men with prediabetes. Fifty participants with prediabetes (age; 61 ± 6 years, BMI; 29.6 ± 4.7; VO2max 22.3 ± 5.7 mL·min-1 ·kg-1 ) were randomized into a football and dietary advice group (F+D; n = 27) and a dietary advice group (D; n = 23). F+D performed football training (twice weekly 30- to 60-minutes sessions) and received dietary advice, while D only received dietary advice...
May 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701887/comparison-of-single-and-dual-monitor-approaches-to-differentiate-sitting-from-lying-in-free-living-conditions
#15
Esther J Smits, Elisabeth A H Winkler, Genevieve N Healy, Philippa M Dall, Malcolm H Granat, Paul W Hodges
High levels of sedentary time have been detrimentally linked to health outcomes. Differentiating sitting from lying may help to further understand the mechanisms associated with these health impacts. This study compares the inter-method agreement between the 'single-monitor' method (thigh-worn activPAL3 TM ) and a more robustly validated 'dual-monitor' method (trunk and thigh-worn activPAL3 TM ) in their classifications of sitting and lying under free-living conditions. Thirty-five participants (20-50 years) who wore two activity monitors (thigh and trunk) for 24 hours...
April 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701884/retinal-vascular-diameters-in-relation-to-physical-activity-in-danish-children-the-champs-eye-study
#16
Kristian Lundberg, Jakob Tarp, Anders Højslet Vestergaard, Nina Jacobsen, Anne Suhr Thykjaer, Maria Sode Rønne, Anna Bugge, Ernst Goldschmidt, Tunde Peto, Niels Wedderkopp, Jakob Grauslund
Our objective was to determine associations between retinal vascular caliber and physical activity (PA) in a school-based child cohort. In a prospective study we created a childhood cumulative average PA-index using objectively measured PA (accelerometry) assessed at four periods between 2009 and 2015. Cumulative exposure to PA intensities was estimated. Cross-sectional examinations on biomarkers, anthropometry and ophthalmological data including retinal fundus photographs were performed in 2015. Semi-automated measurements of retinal vascular diameters were performed and summarized into central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalents (CRAE, CRVE)...
April 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697863/does-organized-sport-participation-during-youth-predict-healthy-habits-in-adulthood-a-28-year-longitudinal-study
#17
Sanna Palomäki, Mirja Hirvensalo, Kylie Smith, Olli Raitakari, Satu Männistö, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tuija Tammelin
Health behaviors in youth can predict the same behaviors later in life, but the role of sport participation in predicting healthy lifestyle habits is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between participation in organized youth sport and adult healthy lifestyle habits. Data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS) with a 28 year follow-up was used. The participation in sport-club training sessions was self-reported by 9-18-year olds in 1983 and 1986 (n=1285). During 2011, participants (aged 37-43-year old) reported their smoking status, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity...
April 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694677/interseason-variability-in-isokinetic-strength-and-poor-correlation-with-nordic-hamstring-eccentric-strength-in-football-players
#18
Nicol van Dyk, Erik Witvrouw, Roald Bahr
INTRODUCTION: In elite sport, the use of strength testing to establish muscle function and performance is common. Traditionally, isokinetic strength tests have been used, measuring torque during concentric and eccentric muscle action. A device that measures eccentric hamstring muscle strength while performing the Nordic hamstring exercise is now also frequently used. The study aims to investigate the variability of isokinetic muscle strength over time, e.g. between seasons, and the relationship between isokinetic testing and the new Nordic hamstring exercise device...
April 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679415/elite-swimmers-internal-markers-trajectories-in-ecological-training-conditions
#19
Philippe Vacher, Guillaume Martinent, Laurent Mourot, Michel Nicolas
PURPOSE: This study examined the trajectories of elite swimmers' recovery-stress states and cardiac vagal-related markers during a three-month training period preceding the national championship and their within-person relationships with perceived control. METHODS: A Multilevel Growth Curve Analysis (MGCA) approach was used with 21 male elite swimmers. Four waves of assessments of psychological (stress, recovery, perceived control) and physiological (heart rate variability, HRV) markers were completed during a three-month training preparation leading to a major competition...
April 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672952/remodeling-of-muscle-fibres-approaching-the-human-myotendinous-junction
#20
Jens R Jakobsen, Niels R Jakobsen, Abigail L Mackey, Manuel Koch, Michael Kjaer, Michael R Krogsgaard
INTRODUCTION: The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is at high risk of strain injuries, due to high amounts of energy that is transferred through this structure. The risk of strain injury is significantly reduced by heavy resistance training (HRT), indicating a remodeling capacity of MTJ. We investigated the degree of remodeling of muscle fibres near the human MTJ. METHODS: In eight individuals, samples were taken from the semitendinosus and gracilis MTJ and they were stained immunohistochemically for myonuclei (DAPI), fibroblasts (TCF7L2) and satellite cells (CD56)...
April 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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