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Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090681/excess-of-exercise-increases-the-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#1
REVIEW
A Müssigbrodt, A Weber, J Mandrola, Y van Belle, S Richter, M Döring, A Arya, P Sommer, A Bollmann, G Hindricks
An interesting and still not well-understood example for old medical wisdom "Sola dosis facit venenum" is the increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in athletes. Numerous studies have shown a fourfold to eightfold increased risk of AF in athletes compared to the normal population. Analysis of the existing data suggests a dose-dependent effect of exercise. Moderate exercise seems to have a protective effect and decreases the risk of AF, whereas excessive exercise seems to increase the risk of AF. The described cases illustrate clinical manifestations within the spectrum of AF in elderly athletes, that is, exercise-induced AF, vagal AF, chronic AF, and atrial flutter...
January 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090680/validity-of-noninvasive-composite-scores-to-assess-cardiovascular-risk-in-10-year-old-children
#2
Ø Lerum, E Aadland, L B Andersen, S A Anderssen, G K Resaland
Agreement between and classification accuracy of six different noninvasive composite scores and a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor score were investigated in 911 (466 boys and 445 girls) 10-year-old Norwegian children. A CVD risk factor score (triglyceride, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure (SBP), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and cardiorespiratory fitness) and six noninvasive risk scores (fitness+three different measurements of fatness (body mass index (BMI), WHtR, and skinfolds), with and without inclusion of SBP) were calculated (mean z-score by gender)...
January 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075521/association-between-adolescent-sport-activities-and-lumbar-disc-degeneration-among-young-adults
#3
Jani Takatalo, Jaro Karppinen, Simo Näyhä, Simo Taimela, Jaakko Niinimäki, Roberto Blanco Sequeiros, Tuija Tammelin, Juha Auvinen, Osmo Tervonen
The relationship between different sport activities and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) is largely unknown. We evaluated whether adolescent participation in different sports is associated with lumbar DD in a population-based birth cohort of young adults. A total of 558 young adults (325 females and 233 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5-T scanner). A DD sum score, based on the Pfirrmann grading, was calculated for all lumbar levels. The sum score was categorized into no DD, 1, 2, or at least 3...
January 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075504/anxiety-and-burnout-in-young-athletes-the-mediating-role-of-cognitive-appraisal
#4
A Rui Gomes, Susana Faria, Carla Vilela
This study tested the relationship between trait anxiety, cognitive appraisal, and athletes' burnout proposing two hypotheses: (a) there is a direct relationship between athletes' trait anxiety and cognitive appraisal and burnout; and (b) cognitive appraisal mediates the relationship between trait anxiety and burnout and this mediation occurs despite the competitive level and sport records of athletes. The study included 673 young athletes and provided measures of trait anxiety, cognitive appraisal, and burnout...
January 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054391/head-injuries-in-children-s-football-results-from-two-prospective-cohort-studies-in-four-european-countries
#5
Oliver Faude, Roland Rössler, Astrid Junge, Karen Aus der Fünten, Jiri Chomiak, Evert Verhagen, Florian Beaudouin, Jiri Dvorak, Nina Feddermann-Demont
Head injuries are considered harmful in children. We analysed head and neck injuries in organised football in 7 to 12 year old children. Data for this analysis were obtained from a prospective cohort study over two consecutive football seasons in two European countries, and a randomised intervention trial over one season in four European countries. Football exposure and injuries were documented through an online database. Detailed information regarding injury characteristics and medical follow-up was retrieved from coaches, children and parents by phone...
January 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033689/the-muscle-biopsy-technique-historical-and-methodological-considerations
#6
REVIEW
B Ekblom
The muscle biopsy method is an important tool for clinical and scientific work. In this study, the two most used instruments, the Bergström needle and the Well-Blakesley conchotome, are described. The technique of using those instruments, risks, and other considerations are discussed. Finally, a few consequences and the error of the method for determining muscle fiber type, fiber area, substrates, and metabolites are presented.
December 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033657/neuromuscular-responses-of-the-plantar-flexors-to-whole-body-vibration
#7
B Harwood, J Scherer, R E Brown, K M D Cornett, K A Kenno, J M Jakobi
Enhanced physical performance following whole-body vibration (WBV) has been attributed to increased muscle activity; however, few studies have measured the mechanisms underlying these changes. The objective of this study was to measure the responsiveness of the Ia pathway as well as contractile properties in 16 young adults (24±2 years, eight men, eight women) following repeated bouts of acute WBV (45 Hz, 2 mm). Hoffman reflexes (H-reflex), compound muscle action potentials (M-wave), and twitch contractile properties were measured prior to and immediately following five 1-minute WBV exposures, and at 3, 5, 10, and 20 minute post-WBV...
December 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033652/high-ankle-injury-rate-in-adolescent-basketball-a-3-year-prospective-follow-up-study
#8
K Pasanen, T Ekola, T Vasankari, P Kannus, A Heinonen, U M Kujala, J Parkkari
This prospective study investigated the incidence and pattern of acute time-loss injuries in young female and male basketball players. Eight basketball teams (n=201; mean age 14.85±1.5) participated in the follow-up study (2011-2014). The coaches recorded player participation in practices and games on a team diary. A study physician contacted the teams once a week to check new injuries and interviewed the injured players. In total, 158 injuries occurred. The overall rate of injury (per 1000 hours) was 2.64 (95% CI 2...
December 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028894/attacking-22-entries-in-rugby-union-running-demands-and-differences-between-successful-and-unsuccessful-entries
#9
P Tierney, D P Tobin, C Blake, E Delahunt
Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028870/neuromuscular-performance-of-maximal-voluntary-explosive-concentric-contractions-is-influenced-by-angular-acceleration
#10
D Hahn, P Bakenecker, F Zinke
Torque production during maximal voluntary explosive contractions is considered to be a functionally more relevant neuromuscular measure than steady-state torque, but little is known about accelerated concentric contractions. This study investigated torque, muscle activity, and fascicle behavior during isometric and fast concentric contractions of quadriceps femoris. Ten participants performed maximal voluntary explosive isometric, isovelocity, and additional concentric knee extensions at angular accelerations ranging from 700 to 4000° s(-2) that resulted in an angular velocity of 300° s(-1) at 40° knee flexion...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028866/factors-affecting-pain-relief-in-response-to-physical-exercise-interventions-among-healthcare-workers
#11
M D Jakobsen, E Sundstrup, M Brandt, L L Andersen
The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with musculo-skeletal pain reduction during workplace-based or home-based physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0-10) from three hospitals participated. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level (18 departments) to 10 weeks of (i) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (ii) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure-time for 5 × 10 minutes per week...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028847/muscle-excitability-during-sustained-maximal-voluntary-contractions-by-a-separate-analysis-of-the-m-wave-phases
#12
J Rodriguez-Falces, N Place
This study was designed to examine separately the changes in the first and second phases of the muscle compound action potential (M-wave) during and after a sustained 3-minutes maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). M-waves were evoked by supramaximal single shocks to the femoral nerve given at 10-seconds intervals throughout a sustained isometric 3-minutes MVC and also during six brief MVCs performed throughout a 30-minutes recovery period. The amplitude, duration, and area of the M-wave first and second phases, together with muscle conduction velocity and force, were measured...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028840/pain-duration-is-associated-with-increased-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-patients-with-achilles-tendinopathy
#13
J L Jewson, E A Lambert, S Docking, M Storr, G W Lambert, J E Gaida
Tendinopathy is a common condition, which has been linked to surrogate measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and insulin resistance. This study aimed to compare in vivo measures of the SNS and insulin resistance between individuals with and without Achilles tendinopathy. This case-control study compared Achilles tendinopathy sufferers to healthy controls. SNS activity was quantified using muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), while metabolic status was assessed via a modified glucose tolerance test and fasting lipid panel...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028836/does-physical-education-influence-eye-hand-coordination-the-lifestyles-of-our-kids-intervention-study
#14
L J Wicks, R M Telford, R B Cunningham, S J Semple, R D Telford
In Australian government-funded primary schools, the responsibility for physical education (PE) falls mainly on general classroom teachers, many of whom possess limited PE training. This study sought to examine the impact of specialist-taught PE on eye-hand coordination (EHC) development. In this 4-year cluster-randomized intervention, participants were 187 boys and 172 girls initially in grade 2 in 29 primary schools, where no school employed university-trained specialist PE teachers. In 13 (intervention) schools, specialist PE teachers conducted 268 PE classes (two 45-minute sessions/wk) from grade 2 to grade 6...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000342/a-new-model-of-short-acceleration-based-training-improves-exercise-performance-in-old-mice
#15
R Niel, M Ayachi, L Mille-Hamard, L Le Moyec, P Savarin, M-J Clement, S Besse, T Launay, V L Billat, I Momken
In order to identify a more appealing exercise strategy for the elderly, we studied a mouse model to determine whether a less time-consuming training program would improve exercise performance, enzyme activities, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolomic parameters. We compared the effects of short-session (acceleration-based) training with those of long-session endurance training in 23-month-old mice. The short-session training consisted of five acceleration-based treadmill running sessions over 2 weeks (the acceleration group), whereas the endurance training consisted of five-one-hour treadmill sessions per week for 4 weeks (the endurance group)...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000312/motor-adaptations-to-unilateral-quadriceps-fatigue-during-a-bilateral-pedaling-task
#16
N-P Brøchner Nielsen, F Hug, A Guével, V Fohanno, J Lardy, S Dorel
This study was designed to investigate how motor coordination adapts to unilateral fatigue of the quadriceps during a constant-load bilateral pedaling task. We first hypothesized that this local fatigue would not be compensated within the fatigued muscles leading to a decreased knee extension power. Then, we aimed to determine whether this decrease would be compensated by between-joints compensations within the ipsilateral leg and/or an increased contribution of the contralateral leg. Fifteen healthy volunteers were tested during pedaling at 350 W before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of 15 minutes of electromyostimulation on the quadriceps muscle...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000283/maturational-and-social-factors-contributing-to-relative-age-effects-in-school-sports-data-from-the-london-youth-games
#17
K E Reed, D A Parry, G R H Sandercock
Few studies have investigated whether relative age effects (RAEs) exist in school sport. None have sought to test the competing maturational and social-agent hypotheses proposed to explain the RAE. We aimed to determine the presence of RAEs in multiple school sports and examine the contribution of maturational and social factors in commonplace school sports. We analyzed birth dates of n=10645 competitors (11-18 years) in the 2013 London Youth Games annual inter-school multisport competition and calculated odds ratio (OR) for students competing based on their yearly birth quarter (Q1-Q4)...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935646/postactivation-potentiation-can-counteract-declines-in-force-and-power-that-occur-after-stretching
#18
J Kümmel, A Kramer, N J Cronin, M Gruber
Stretching can decrease a muscle's maximal force, whereas short but intense muscle contractions can increase it. We hypothesized that when combined, postactivation potentiation induced by reactive jumps would counteract stretch-induced decrements in drop jump (DJ) performance. Moreover, we measured changes in muscle twitch forces and ankle joint stiffness (KAnkle ) to examine underlying mechanisms. Twenty subjects completed three DJs and 10 electrically evoked muscle twitches of the triceps surae subsequent to four different conditioning activities and control...
December 9, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917543/is-motivation-for-marathon-a-protective-factor-or-a-risk-factor-of-injury
#19
A Chalabaev, R Radel, I Ben Mahmoud, B Massiera, T Deroche, F d'Arripe-Longueville
This research investigated whether and how self-determined motivation predicts perceived susceptibility to injury during competition (marathon). Two correlational studies including 378 (Study 1) and 339 (Study 2) marathon runners were conducted. Participants filled out a questionnaire the day before the race measuring self-determined motivation, perceived susceptibilities to marathon-related injury and to keep running through pain, and control variables. Study 1 showed that self-determined motivation was negatively related to perceived susceptibility to marathon-related injury...
December 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905148/simultaneous-validation-of-five-activity-monitors-for-use-in-adult-populations
#20
C Powell, B P Carson, K P Dowd, A E Donnelly
Numerous cut-points exist to measure physical activity by accelerometry. The ability to compare accelerometer findings from different devices from different locations may be advantageous to researchers. This study aimed to develop and validate cut-points for 1.5, 3, and 6 METs in five activity monitors simultaneously. Fifty-six participants (mean age=39.9 [±11.5] years) performed six activities while wearing a CosMED K4b(2) and five activity monitors: activPAL3 Micro, activPAL, ActiGraph GT1M, ActiGraph wGT3X-BT, and GENEActiv...
December 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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