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Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047173/motivational-orientations-and-performance-in-penalty-throws-during-elite-male-team-handball-games
#1
Thierry Debanne, Guillaume Laffaye, David Trouilloud
The present study is based on Regulatory Focus Theory and investigates the links between the subjects' motivational orientations for promotion or prevention and their performance in handball penalty throws. In a real-world setting with high stakes, we analysed 327 penalties taken from 68 closed games. The results of the 7-metre throws constitute the dependent variable (Goal vs. Miss). The independent variables are the situational focus ([critical moment (i.e., final minute) = pressure] vs. [non-critical moment = no pressure]), the reward structure (i...
October 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032593/association-analysis-of-the-actn3-r577x-polymorphism-with-passive-muscle-stiffness-and-muscle-strain-injury
#2
Naokazu Miyamoto, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Kosuke Hirata, Noriko Kimura, Noriyuki Fuku
Passive muscle stiffness is considered to be a major factor affecting joint flexibility and is thought to relate to the occurrence of muscle strain injury. In skinned muscle fiber experiments, the R577X polymorphism of the α-actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) has been associated with passive muscle stiffness. Our primary purpose was to clarify whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism influences passive stiffness of human muscle in vivo. We also examined whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of hamstring strain injury...
October 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027266/reliable-and-sensitive-physical-testing-of-elite-trapeze-sailors
#3
Jonathan Bay, Jens Bojsen-Møller, Nikolai B Nordsborg
It was investigated, if a newly developed discipline specific test for elite-level trapeze sailors is reli-able and sensitive. Furthermore, the physical demands of trapeze sailing were examined. In part 1, nine national team athletes were accustomed to a simulated sailing test, which subsequently was completed on four occasions to determine test reliability and sensitivity to manipulations in body-weight. Rope-pulling mean power output (MPO), oxygen consumption (VO2 ), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate values were acquired in all trials...
October 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027265/shared-and-task-specific-muscle-synergies-of-nordic-walking-and-conventional-walking
#4
Gennaro Boccia, Chiara Zoppirolli, Lorenzo Bortolan, Federico Schena, Barbara Pellegrini
Nordic walking is a form of walking that includes a poling action, and therefore an additional subtask, with respect to conventional walking. The aim of this study was to assess whether Nordic walking required a task-specific muscle coordination with respect to conventional walking. We compared the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 15 upper and lower limb muscles of nine Nordic walking instructors, while executing Nordic walking and conventional walking at 1.3 ms(-1) on a treadmill. Non-negative matrix factorization method was applied to identify muscle synergies, representing the spatial and temporal organization of muscle coordination...
October 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027263/on-the-use-of-a-six-level-scale-for-physical-activity
#5
REVIEW
G Grimby, K Frändin
The four-level questionnaire to assess leisure time physical activity (PA) originally described by Saltin and Grimby has been extended to a six (or seven) level questionnaire, especially for the elderly or other persons with a low level of PA, expanded to include household activities. There are currently two main versions, one used in Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian studies and one with further modifications used in Finnish studies. In this review, predictive validity for mortality and different aspects of physical performance are demonstrated...
October 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024041/strength-training-improves-double-poling-performance-after-prolonged-submaximal-exercise-in-cross-country-skiers
#6
S Øfsteng, Ø Sandbakk, M van Beekvelt, D Hammarström, R Kristoffersen, J Hansen, G Paulsen, B R Rønnestad
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training with or without vibration to cross-country (XC) skiers' endurance training on double poling (DP) performance, physiological and kinematic adaptations. Twenty-one well-trained male XC skiers combined endurance- and upper-body strength-training three times per week, either with (n=11) or without (n=10) superimposed vibrations for 8 weeks, whereas eight skiers performed endurance training only (CON). Testing included 1RM in upper-body exercises, work economy, neural activation, oxygen saturation in muscle and DP kinematics during a prolonged submaximal DP roller ski test which was directly followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) test...
October 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981988/longitudinal-physical-activity-trajectories-from-childhood-to-adulthood-and-their-determinants-the-young-finns-study
#7
Suvi P Rovio, Xiaolin Yang, Anna Kankaanpää, Ville Aalto, Mirja Hirvensalo, Risto Telama, Katja Pahkala, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Jorma S A Viikari, Olli T Raitakari, Tuija H Tammelin
BACKGROUND: Determining life-long trajectories and their determinants is essential to promote a physically active lifestyle throughout the life-course. We aimed to identify physical activity (PA) trajectories from childhood to midlife and their determinants in a longitudinal population-based cohort. METHODS: This study is a part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. From 1980, a population-based cohort (N=3,596:1764 boys/1832 girls, age 3-18 years) has been followed-up for 31 years...
October 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980345/exercise-physiology-and-nutritional-perspectives-of-elite-soccer-refereeing
#8
REVIEW
Kai Schenk, Mario Bizzini, Hannes Gatterer
Referees are an integral part of soccer and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity and training load...
October 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980347/sensory-processing-and-central-pain-modulation-in-patients-with-chronic-shoulder-pain-a-case-control-study
#9
K Kuppens, G Hans, N Roussel, F Struyf, E Fransen, P Cras, C P Van Wilgen, J Nijs
Chronicity and recurrence in musculoskeletal shoulder pain are highly prevalent and can possibly be attributed to the concept of central sensitization. Available studies suggest a role for central sensitization in explaining chronic shoulder pain, but so far a comprehensive quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been used. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on sensory processing and central pain modulatory mechanisms in patients suffering from chronic shoulder pain using such a QST protocol...
October 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975667/development-of-a-nutrition-knowledge-questionnaire-for-young-endurance-athletes-and-their-coaches
#10
Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta, Mikael Fogelholm
Both athletes and coaches should have adequate nutrition knowledge in order to understand the importance of diet on athletic performance, recovery and health. Nutrition knowledge can be assessed reliably only by validated knowledge questionnaires. The aim of the present study was to develop a reliable and valid questionnaire for assessing the nutrition knowledge of young endurance athletes and their coaches. The questionnaire was developed with an expert panel and pilot tested by athletes, coaches and students...
October 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972291/achilles-and-patellar-tendinopathy-display-opposite-changes-in-elastic-properties-a-shear-wave-elastography-study
#11
Brooke Kaye Coombes, Kylie Tucker, Bill Vicenzino, Viana Vuvan, Rebecca Mellor, Luke Heales, Antoine Nordez, François Hug
PURPOSE: To compare tendon elastic and structural properties of healthy individuals with those with Achilles or patellar tendinopathy. METHODS: Sixty-seven participants (22 Achilles tendinopathy, 17 patellar tendinopathy, 28 healthy controls) were recruited between March 2015-March 2016. Shear wave velocity (SWV), an index of tissue elastic modulus, and tendon thickness were measured bilaterally at mid-tendon and insertional regions of Achilles and patellar tendons by an examiner blinded to group...
October 3, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948634/applying-physical-science-principles-to-mid-substance-achilles-tendinopathy-and-the-relationship-to-eccentric-lengthening-exercises
#12
Geoffrey M Verrall, Bronwyn K Dolman, Thomas Best
OBJECTIVES: Mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy is common in the active population. Eccentric (lengthening) exercises are known to be effective in alleviating the clinical condition. To better understand mid-substance Achilles tendinopathy and the response to lengthening exercises physical science principles of elasticity are applied. METHOD: We apply elastic motion laws to the spring-like tendon as well as the normal and pathological adaptation seen with this common injury...
September 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948697/sustained-sympathetic-activity-in-altitude-acclimatizing-lowlanders-and-high-altitude-natives
#13
C Lundby, J Calbet, G van Hall, B Saltin, M Sander
Combined results from different independent studies suggest that acclimatization to high altitude induces a slowly developing sympathetic activation, even at levels of hypoxia that cause no acute chemoreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation. We here provide direct neurophysiological evidence for this phenomenon. In eight Danish lowlanders, we quantified mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), twice at sea level (normoxia and with acute hypoxic exposure to 12...
September 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940675/the-andersen-aerobic-fitness-test-new-peak-oxygen-consumption-prediction-equations-in-10-and-16-year-olds
#14
Eivind Aadland, Lars Bo Andersen, Øystein Lerum, Geir Kåre Resaland
INTRODUCTION: Measurement of aerobic fitness by determining peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ) is often not feasible in children and adolescents, thus field-tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings, for example in most school-based studies. The present study provides cross-validated prediction equations for VO2peak based on the Andersen test in 10 and 16-year-old children. METHODS: We included 235 children (n = 113 10-year-olds and 122 16-year-olds) who performed the Andersen test and a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion to determine VO2peak ...
September 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940766/effects-of-menthol-application-on-the-skin-during-prolonged-immersion-in-cool-and-cold-water
#15
Petros G Botonis, Stylianos N Kounalakis, Evgenia D Cherouveim, Maria D Koskolou, Nickos D Geladas
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of skin surface menthol application on rectal temperature (Tre) during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water. We hypothesized that menthol application would lead to a slower Tre decline due to the reduced heat loss as a consequence of the menthol-induced vasoconstriction and that this effect would be attenuated during cold-water immersion. Six male subjects were immersed for 55min in stirred cool (24°C) or cold (14°C) water immediately after attaining a Tre of 38°C by cycling at 60% of maximum heart rate on two occasions: without (ΝΜ) and with (Μ) whole-body skin application of menthol cream...
September 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940555/serum-il-15-and-il-15r%C3%AE-levels-are-decreased-in-lean-and-obese-physically-active-humans
#16
Alberto Pérez-López, David Valadés, Clotilde Vázquez Martínez, Ana Isabel de Cos Blanco, Julia Bujan, Natalio García-Honduvilla
Circulating IL-15 presence is required to stimulate anti-adipogenic effects of the IL-15/IL-15Rα axis in adipose tissue. Although exercise increases blood IL-15 expression post-exercise, it remains inconclusive whether physical activity can alter the baseline concentrations of this cytokine. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activity regulates circulating IL-15 and IL-15Rα in lean and obese individuals. Two hundred and seventy-six participants were divided into 5 groups according to physical activity (PA), body mass and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis: a) lean PA (N=25); b) lean non-PA (N=28); c) obese PA (N=64), d) obese non-PA (N=79); e) obese non-PA with T2DM (N=80)...
September 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922490/risk-factors-for-football-injuries-in-young-players-aged-7-to-12-years
#17
Roland Rössler, Astrid Junge, Jiri Chomiak, Karel Němec, Jiri Dvorak, Eric Lichtenstein, Oliver Faude
OBJECTIVES: Football (soccer) is very popular amongst children. Little is known about risk factors for football injuries in children. The aim was to analyse potential injury risk factors in 7 to 12 year old players. DESIGN: Prospective epidemiological study. METHODS: We collected prospective data in Switzerland and the Czech Republic over two seasons. Coaches reported exposure of players (in hours), absence, and injury data via an internet-based registration system...
September 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921747/pitfalls-in-accelerometer-based-measurement-of-physical-activity-the-presence-of-reactivity-in-an-adult-population
#18
S Baumann, S Groß, L Voigt, A Ullrich, F Weymar, T Schwaneberg, M Dörr, C Meyer, U John, S Ulbricht
When a behavior is monitored, it is likely to change, even if no change may be intended. This phenomenon is known as measurement reactivity. We investigated systematic changes in accelerometer-based measures over the days of monitoring as an indicator of measurement reactivity in an adult population. One hundred seventy-one participants from the general population (65% women; mean age = 55 years, range: 42-65 years) wore accelerometers for 7 consecutive days to measure sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA)...
September 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921722/interactive-effects-of-music-tempi-and-intensities-on-grip-strength-and-subjective-affect
#19
Costas I Karageorghis, Peter Cheek, Stuart D Simpson, Marcelo Bigliassi
Pretask music is widely used by athletes albeit there is scant empirical evidence to support its use. The present study extended a line of work into pretask music by examining the interactive effects of music tempo and intensity (volume) on the performance of a simple motor skill and subjective affect. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was employed with an additional no-music control, the scores from which were used as a covariate. A sample of 52 male athletes (age = 26.1 ± 4.8 years) was exposed to five conditions: fast/loud (126 bpm/80 dBA), fast/quiet (126 bpm/70 dBA), slow/loud (87 bpm/80 dBA), slow/quiet (87 bpm/70 dBA) music, and a no-music control...
September 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921697/cross-country-skiing-is-associated-with-lower-all-cause-mortality-a-population-based-follow-up-study
#20
Jari A Laukkanen, Tanjaniina Laukkanen, Setor K Kunutsor
OBJECTIVES: The prospective relationship between leisure time cross-country skiing and any fatal events is uncertain. We aimed to assess the associations of leisure time cross-country skiing habits with the risk of all-cause mortality in a general population. METHODS: A 12-month physical activity questionnaire was used at baseline to assess the frequency, average duration, and intensity of cross-country skiing in a prospective population-based cohort of 2,087 middle-aged men from Eastern Finland...
September 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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