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Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

C Latella, A M Goodwill, M Muthalib, A M Hendy, B Major, K Nosaka, W P Teo
Differences in the neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) contractions exist; however, the acute effects of fatiguing muscle contractions on intracortical and corticospinal excitability are not well understood. Therefore, we compared maximal ECC and CON contractions of the right biceps brachii (BB) muscle for changes in corticospinal excitability, short- (SICI) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) up to 1 h post-exercise. Fourteen right-handed adults (11M/3F; 26...
November 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
T Zandonai, E Tam, P Bruseghini, C Capelli, M Baraldo, C Chiamulera
The use of nicotine administered through smokeless tobacco (snus) has increased among athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ergogenic effects of snus on aerobic performance during exercise until exhaustion in athletes after abstinence or satiety nicotine conditions. The study utilised a randomised, controlled, within-subject design experiment. Sixteen male snus-user athletes completed an exercise until exhaustion at a constant load of their 80% of VO2max (calculated by a maximal incremental test) in two separate sessions, corresponding to nicotine conditions: 12-hour overnight abstinence and satiety...
November 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Thomas G Balshaw, Garry J Massey, Thomas M Maden-Wilkinson, Marcel B Lanza, Jonathan P Folland
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of resistance training (RT) duration, including years of exposure, on agonist and antagonist neuromuscular activation throughout the knee extension voluntary torque range. Fifty-seven healthy men (untrained [UNT] n=29, short-term RT [12WK] n=14, and long-term RT [4YR] n=14) performed maximum and sub-maximum (20-80% maximum voluntary torque [MVT]) unilateral isometric knee extension contractions with torque, agonist and antagonist surface EMG recorded. Agonist EMG, including at MVT, was corrected for the confounding effects of adiposity (i...
November 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Allan Robson Kluser Sales, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Rafael Armani Porello, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da Fonseca, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Antonio Carlos Battaglia Filho, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Liliam Takayama, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Mauricio Yonamine, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Maria Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves
Disturbed shear rate (SR), characterized by increased retrograde and oscillatory SR in the brachial artery, is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Young subjects do not have disturbed SR; however, elderly subjects do, which seems to be associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse in young is associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). We hypothesized that AAS users might have disturbed SR...
November 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jochen D Schipke, Lars Eichhorn, Patrick Behm, Sinclair Cleveland, Malte Kelm, Florian Boenner
BACKGROUND: Breath-hold diving has increasingly established itself within the leisure sector as near-natural sport. In parallel, a number of competitive disciplines have developed. To reach greater depths various breathing maneuvers are employed one of them being glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI), for which air is repetitively "pumped" into the lungs in order to increase the intrathoracic air volume. As intrapulmonary pressure is considerable increased in parallel, venous return is impeded, leading to incomplete filling of the cardiac chambers...
October 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Eivind Aadland, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Lars Bo Andersen, Geir Kåre Resaland, Elin Kolle, Jostein Steene-Johannessen
Aerobic fitness is an apparent candidate for screening children and youth for poor cardiometabolic health and future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Yet, age- and sex-specific cut points for children and youth determined using a maximal protocol and directly measured peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ) does not exist. We used a nationally representative sample of 1462 Norwegian children and youth (788 boys and 674 girls aged 8.7-10.4 years and 14.7-16.7 years) who in 2005-2006 performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with direct measurement of VO2peak , along with measurement of several other risk factors for CVD (systolic blood pressure, waist circumference:height ratio, total:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance)...
October 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Mahdi Sareban, Tabea Perz, Franziska Macholz, Bernhard Reich, Peter Schmidt, Sebastian Fried, Heimo Mairbäurl, Marc M Berger, Josef Niebauer
Hypoxia challenges left ventricular (LV) function due to reduced energy supply. Conflicting results exist whether high-altitude exposure impairs LV diastolic function and thus contributes to the high altitude-induced increase in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and reduction in stroke volume (SV). This study aimed to assess LV diastolic function, LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and LA mechanics using comprehensive echocardiographic imaging in healthy volunteers at 4559 m. Fifty subjects performed rapid (<20 hours) and active ascent from 1130 m to 4559 m (high)...
October 29, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Gunnar Andersson, Peter Wallin, Jonas Söderling, Erik Hemmingsson, Björn Ekblom
BACKGROUND: Long-term trend analyses of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max) in the general population are limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in VO2 max from 1995 to 2017 in the Swedish working force and to study developments across categories of sex, age, education, and geographic regions. METHODS: 354.277 participants (44% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1995 and 2017 were included...
October 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Bent R Rønnestad, Sjur J Øfsteng, Stian Ellefsen
Team sports like ice hockey require high levels of performance in numerous physical characteristics such as strength, power, and endurance. As such, training is associated with a potential interference effect. The present study randomized well-trained ice hockey players into a block periodization group (BP; n = 8), focusing on the development of either strength and power or endurance on a weekly, undulating basis, and a traditional group (TRAD; n = 8), performing a mixed training model, with simultaneous focus of strength, power, and endurance training every week...
October 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R Pereira, Zhiguang Zhang, Sanne L C Veldman, Anthony D Okely, Rute Santos
BACKGROUND: In youth, research on the health benefits of breaking up sitting time is inconsistent. Our aim was to explore the association between the number of breaks in sitting time and adiposity in Australian toddlers. METHODS: This study comprised 266 toddlers (52% boys), aged 19.6±4.2 months from the GET-UP! Study, Australia. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and z-scores by age and sex were computed for waist circumference (WC). Participants were classified as overweight according to the WHO criteria for BMI...
October 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Paul F M Schoffelen, Marcel den Hoed, Eric van Breda, Guy Plasqui
This study aimed to analyze the intra-individual variation in VO2max of human subjects using total-capture and free-flow indirect calorimetry. Twenty-seven men (27±5 year; VO2max 49-79 ml•kg-1 •min-1 ) performed two maximal exertion tests (CPETs) on a cycle ergometer, separated by a 7±2 day interval. VO2 and VCO2 were assessed using an indirect calorimeter (Omnical) with total capture of exhalation in a free-flow airstream. Thirteen subjects performed a third maximal exertion test using a breath-by-breath calorimeter (Oxycon Pro)...
October 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Eva Ageberg, Sofia Bunke, Karolina Lucander, Per Nilsen, Alex Donaldson
There is a need for research to identify effective implementation strategies for injury prevention training within real-world community sports. The aim of this ecological participatory study was to identify facilitators, among stakeholders at multiple levels, that could help injury prevention training become part of regular training routines in youth team handball. Concept mapping, a mixed-method approach for qualitative data collection and quantitative data analysis, was used. Stakeholders (n = 196) of two community team handball clubs (29% players, 13% coaches, 38% caregivers, 11% club, district and national handball administrators, 9% unknown) participated in a brainstorming process...
October 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
George M Pamboris, Marika Noorkoiv, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Amir A Mohagheghi
The acute effects of two dynamic stretching (DS) protocols on changes in the ankle range of motion (RoM), neuromechanical, and sensorimotor properties of the plantarflexor muscle group were examined. Eighteen participants received slow (SDS) or fast dynamic stretching (FDS) on two separate days. Outcome measures were assessed pre- and 2 minutes post-interventions, and included maximum dorsiflexion angle, maximum isometric torque at neutral ankle position, maximum concentric and eccentric torques, force matching capacity, joint position sense and medial gastrocnemius muscle and tendon strain...
October 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Yong Woo An, Andrea DiTrani Lobacz, Tim Lehmann, Jochen Baumeister, William C Rose, Jill S Higginson, Jeffrey Rosen, Charles Buz Swanik
The purpose of this study was to identify how the brain simultaneously perceives proprioceptive input during joint loading in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients, when compared to healthy controls. Seventeen ACLR patients (ACLR) and seventeen controls (CONT) were tested for the somatosensory cortical activation using electroencephalography (EEG) while measuring knee laxity using a knee arthrometer. The relationship between cortical activation and joint laxity within group was also examined...
October 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Derwin K C Chan, Richard J Keegan, Alfred S Y Lee, Sophie X Yang, Lei Zhang, Ryan E Rhodes, Chris Lonsdale
The purpose of this three-study paper was to develop and validate the Perceived Social Influence in Sport Scale-2 (PSISS-2) that aimed to resolve the limitations of PSISS-1 in assessing the relative social influence of significant others in youth sport. In Study 1, a pool of 60 items generated from revisiting a qualitative dataset about significant others of young athletes were examined by two expert panel reviews in terms of content validity, clarity, coverage, and age-appropriateness, leading to the development of 16 items of the PSISS-2...
October 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Wendy A Pethick, Holly J Murray, Paula McFadyen, Ryan Brodie, Catherine A Gaul, Trent Stellingwerff
The impact of hydration status was investigated during a 5-day heat acclimation (HA) training protocol vs mild/cool control conditions on plasma volume (PV) and performance (20 km time-trial [TT]). Sub-elite athletes were allocated to one of two heat training groups (90 min/day): (a) dehydrated to ~2% body weight (BW) loss in heat (35°C; DEH; n = 14); (b) euhydrated heat (35°C; EUH; n = 10), where training was isothermally clamped to 38.5°C core temperature (Tc ). A euhydrated mild control group (22°C; CON; n = 9) was later added, with training clamped to the same relative heart rate (~75% HRmax ) as elicited during DEH and EUH; thus all groups experienced the same internal training stress (%HRmax )...
October 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Milkana Borges-Cosic, Virginia A Aparicio, Fernando Estévez-López, Alberto Soriano-Maldonado, Pedro Acosta-Manzano, Blanca Gavilán-Carrera, Manuel Delgado-Fernández, Rinie Geenen, Víctor Segura-Jiménez
PURPOSE: To get insight into the potential significance of objectively measured sedentary time (ST), and physical activity (PA) intensity levels on sleep quality (SQ) in women with fibromyalgia; and to assess whether those who meet moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) recommendations have better SQ than their counterparts. METHODS: Four-hundred and nine women with fibromyalgia (age range 30-65 years old) from Andalusia (southern Spain) were included in this cross-sectional study...
October 10, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Petros G Botonis, Panagiotis G Miliotis, Stylianos N Kounalakis, Maria D Koskolou, Nickos D Geladas
We investigated thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses at rest in a temperate (20°C) and in a warm (30°C) environment (40% RH) without and with the application of capsaicin on the skin. We hypothesized that regardless of environmental temperature, capsaicin application would stimulate heat loss and concomitantly deactivate heat conservation mechanisms, thus resulting in rectal temperature (Tre) and mean blood pressure decline due to excitation of heat-sensitive TRPV1. Ten male subjects were exposed, while seated, for 30 minutes to 20...
October 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Bjørge Herman Hansen, Elin Kolle, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Knut Eirik Dalene, Ulf Ekelund, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen
PURPOSE: The pandemic of physical inactivity is recognized globally but there is a scarcity of studies employing valid and reliable assessment methods of physical activity (PA) across the lifespan. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive description of objectively measured PA, sedentary time, and prevalence of meeting PA recommendations, in a population-based sample of Norwegian children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: Children and adolescents (6, 9 and 15-year-olds) were surveyed in 2011, and adults and older people (20-85-year-olds) were surveyed in 2014/15, including more than 8,000 individuals...
October 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jan Wilke, Stefanie Kaiser, Daniel Niederer, Kristin Kalo, Tobias Engeroff, Christian Morath, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
PURPOSE: A small share of the world's population meets current physical activity guidelines, which recommend regular engagement in endurance, strength, and neuromotor exercise. As lack of time represents a major cause of inactivity, multidimensional training methods with short durations may provide a promising alternative to classical, volume-oriented approaches focusing on one biomotor ability. This trial examined the effects of a high-intensity functional circuit training (HIFCT) on motor performance and exercise motivation in untrained adults...
October 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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