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Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

J D Adams, Dylan M Scott, Natasha A Brand, Hyun-Gyu Suh, Adam D Seal, Brendon P McDermott, Matthew S Ganio, Stavros A Kavouras
The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of mild hypohydration on exercise performance with subjects blinded to their hydration status. Eleven male cyclists (weight 75.8±6.4 kg, VO2peak : 64.9±5.6 mL·kg-1 ·min-1 , body fat: 12.0±5.8%, Powermax : 409±40 W) performed three sets of criterium-like cycling, consisting of 20-min steady-state cycling (50% peak power output), each followed by a 5-km time-trial at 3% grade. Following a familiarization trial subjects completed the experimental trials, in counter-balanced fashion, on two separate occasions in dry heat (30 °C, 30% rh) either hypohydrated (HYP) or euhydrated (EUH)...
January 19, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Emily M Brook, Adam S Tenforde, Elizabeth M Broad, Elizabeth G Matzkin, Heidi Y Yang, Jamie E Collins, Cheri A Blauwet
INTRODUCTION: The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a syndrome describing three interrelated conditions: low energy availability (LEA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD). Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) expands the Triad to include multiple physiologic consequences of LEA in both sexes. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of factors associated with the Triad/RED-S in an elite para athlete population. METHODS: Athletes were United States elite para athletes training to qualify for the 2016 or the 2018 Paralympic games...
January 15, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Olivier Aubel, Brice Lefèvre, Jean Marie Le Goff, Natascia Taverna
This article questions organizations' (clubs, teams, etc.) responsibility in doping use from the case of anti-doping rules violations (ADRVs) sanctioned by the Union Cycliste Internationale in professional cycling. We built a database with 271 caught riders among 10551 professional riders employed from 2005 to 2016 in the three first world divisions. We developed a time-discrete event history model with a multilevel perspective to consider if the ADRV is related to the characteristic of a rider's career path (level 1) and/or the team by which the rider is employed (level 2)...
January 13, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
João Paulo Moita, António Gomes, Luís Xarez, Constança Coelho
INTRODUCTION: Pre-professional dance training starts at very early ages, on a highly demanding environment placing students at significant risk for injury. Injury management and prevention are a matter of concern. Given the constant interchangeability of risk factors, identifying injury patterns may prove to be equally as important. Data looking back from the time of injury through context-specific approaches, are missing. OBJECTIVES: To identify activity-related injury patterns based on pre-diagnostic data...
January 11, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Mairena Sánchez-López, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Celia Alvarez-Bueno, Abel Ruiz-Hermosa, Diana P Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Ana Díez-Fernández, David Gutierrez-Díaz Del Campo, María Jesús Pardo-Guijarro, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the impact of a multicomponet physical activity (PA) intervention (MOVI-KIDS) on improving cognition in schoolchildren. This paper also analyzed the mediator role of motor fitness between MOVI-KIDS and cognition. METHODS: Propensity score analysis of data from a cluster randomized controlled trial (MOVI-KIDS study). This analysis including 240 five-seven years old children from 9 schools in the provinces of Cuenca and Ciudad Real, Spain...
January 11, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Christopher W Pollard, David A Opar, Morgan D Williams, Matthew N Bourne, Ryan G Timmins
OBJECTIVES: To investigate knee flexor strength and biceps femoris long head (BFlh) architectural adaptations following two different Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) interventions and one razor hamstring curl (RHC) intervention. METHODS: Thirty recreationally-active males performed a total of 128 reps of NHEbodyweight (n=10), NHEweighted (n=10) or RHCweighted training (n=10) across six weeks. Following the intervention, participants avoided any eccentric training for four weeks (detraining period)...
January 10, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Mathias Forsberg Brobakken, Mona Nygård, Joshua Landen Taylor, Ismail Cüneyt Güzey, Gunnar Morken, Solveig Klaebo Reitan, Jørn Heggelund, Einar Vedul-Kjelsaas, Eivind Wang
Patients with schizophrenia are physically inactive and have high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak ) is one of the strongest predictors for CVD, yet is rarely investigated in this patient population, and how V̇O2peak relates to other conventional CVD risk measures in this population is unclear. We measured treadmill V̇O2peak along with daily physical activity assessed by triaxial accelerometry, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and glucose in 48 outpatients (28 men, 35 ± 10 (SD) years; 20 women, 35 ± 12 years), diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizotypal, or delusional disorders (ICD-10; F20-29)...
January 7, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Alba Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta Camacho-Cardenosa, Guillermo Olcina, Rafael Timón, Javier Brazo-Sayavera
PURPOSE: Promising benefits on fat mass and biochemical components may be reported after applying programs of cyclic hypoxia and HIIT. AIM: To investigate the effect of a month of detraining on cardiometabolic risk markers after active hypoxia exposure. METHODS: Participants included 59 overweight/obese women, who started a 12-week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17...
January 7, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Anita Zacharias, Tania Pizzari, Adam I Semciw, Daniel J English, Theo Kapakoulakis, Rodney A Green
The gluteal muscles act as stabilisers of the hip joint and are important for the maintenance of hip function. Atrophy and weakness of the gluteal muscles has been identified in people with hip OA, but it is not known whether these muscles also exhibit altered activity patterns. The aim of this study was to compare gluteal muscle activity in people with hip OA and healthy older adults. Fine wire intramuscular electrodes were inserted into the three segments of gluteus medius (GMed) and two segments of gluteus minimus (GMin) in 20 participants with unilateral hip OA and 20 age- and gender-matched controls...
January 7, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Thomas Wyss, Lilian Roos, Fabian Studer, Urs Mäder, Christiane Beuchat, Kaspar Staub
From 1980 to 2000, physical fitness decreased and body mass index (BMI) increased in the population of many industrialised countries. Little is known about these trends after the year 2000. The present study aimed to investigate physical fitness performance, physical activity (PA) behaviour and BMI of young, male Swiss adults between 2006 and 2015. For this purpose, results from the Swiss Armed Forces mandatory recruitment were used. 306,746 male conscripts provided complete fitness test data, mean±SD (range from 5th to 95th -percentile): 20±1 (18-21)yrs...
December 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Karah J Dring, Simon B Cooper, John G Morris, Caroline Sunderland, Gemma A Foulds, A Graham Pockley, Mary E Nevill
An acute bout of endurance exercise in adults stimulates a same-day anti-inflammatory response which may affect low-grade chronic inflammation and insulin resistance and benefit cardio-metabolic health. The anti-inflammatory responses to intermittent games-based exercise and to exercise in young people beyond 2-h post-exercise are unknown. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to examine the anti-inflammatory, glycemic and insulinemic response to games-based activity in adolescents. Following ethical approval and familiarization, 39 adolescents (12...
December 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Dustin J Oranchuk, Adam G Storey, André R Nelson, John B Cronin
Isometric training is used in the rehabilitation and physical preparation of athletes, special populations and the general public. However, little consensus exists regarding training guidelines for a variety of desired outcomes. Understanding the adaptive response to specific loading parameters would be of benefit to practitioners. The objective of this systematic review, therefore, was to detail the medium to long-term adaptations of different types of isometric training on morphological, neurological and performance variables...
December 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Birgit Pötzelsberger, Alexander Kösters, Thomas Finkenzeller, Erich Müller
This study analyzes long-term changes in muscle strength, muscle architecture and patellar tendon mechanical properties in a specific sample of physically active elderly people. Twenty-two participants were re-examined from a former 12 week long skiing intervention study: 11 from the intervention group (IG: 7 ♀, 4 ♂; 67 ± 3 years) and 11 from the control group (CG: 6 ♀, 5 ♂; 66 ± 4 years). Muscle architecture, strength endurance, maximum torque and tendon properties were analyzed three times within six months, and again six years later in a follow up test...
December 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Thomas Finkenzeller, Birgit Pötzelsberger, Alexander Kösters, Sabine Würth, Günter Amesberger, Flemming Dela, Erich Müller
This article aims to (1) describe the study design of a six year follow up multidisciplinary research project on ageing, (2) report the psychosocial characteristics of the sample in detail, and (3) evaluate ageing-related changes of health, physical activity, and psychosocial characteristics in 10 young-old (age at pre-test: M ± SD = 63.2 ± 1.5) and 12 old-old (age at pre-test: M ± SD = 69 ± 2) individuals. Both age groups consist of individuals displaying a high health status, a high extent of physical activity, high levels of psychosocial properties in the dimensions of well-being, life satisfaction, self-concept, body image, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, as well as a low general depression index...
December 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Flemming Dela, Thomas Finkenzeller, Arthur Ingersen, Birgit Pötzelsberger, Erich Müller
Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max) and muscle mass decreases with age. The loss of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength is accelerated with physical inactivity and has well-documented consequences for morbidity and all-cause mortality. Participation in exercise training programs will improve one or more of the cardio-metabolic risk factors, but the long-term effect of such programs are questionable. Here we re-examined 25 old (72 ± 4 yr.) men and women who considered him/her-self as "success-full agers" and were participants in a 3-month alpine skiing training program six years earlier...
December 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Yoko Tanabe, Kentaro Chino, Takahiro Ohnishi, Hitomi Ozawa, Hiroyuki Sagayama, Seiji Maeda, Hideyuki Takahashi
We examined the effect of curcumin (CUR) ingestion before or after exercise on changes in muscle damage and inflammatory responses after exercise. We conducted two parallel experiments with different CUR ingestion timings using a double-blind crossover. In Exp. 1, ten healthy men ingested 180 mg∙day-1 of CUR or placebo (PLA) 7 days before exercise. In Exp. 2, ten other healthy men ingested 180 mg∙day-1 of CUR or PLA 7 days after exercise. They performed 30 maximal isokinetic (120°∙s-1 ) eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors using an isokinetic dynamometer and this was repeated with the other arm ≥ 4 weeks later...
December 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Yosuke Osuka, Narumi Kojima, Miji Kim, Chang Won Won, Takao Suzuki, Hunkyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Exercise may reduce the risk of disability for activities of daily living (ADL), but the degree of associations between specific exercise types and such a risk remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal associations between exercise types and the incidence of ADL disability in older women. METHODS: This 8-year population-based prospective cohort study enrolled 1003 community-dwelling older Japanese women without ADL disability in the baseline surveys...
December 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Xin Chen, Steve Abbey, Adam Bharmal, Sophie Harris, Edward Hudson, Lisa Krinner, Emma Langan, Alex Maling, Jagdip Nijran, Hannah Street, Charlotte Wooley, Rudolf Billeter
A density model of neurovascular structures was generated from 28 human vastus lateralis muscles isolated from embalmed cadavers. The intramuscular portion of arteries, veins and nerves was dissected, traced on transparencies and digitised before adjustment to an average muscle shape using Procrustes analysis to generate density distributions for the relative positions of these structures. The course of arteries, veins and nerves was highly variable between individual muscles. Nevertheless, a zone of lower average neurovascular density was found between the tributaries from the lateral circumflex femoral and the deep femoral arteries...
December 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Alberto Grao-Cruces, David Sánchez-Oliva, Víctor Segura-Jiménez, Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez, David Martínez-Gómez, Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis A Moreno, José Castro-Piñero
The study aimed (i) to examine changes in physical activity (PA) during the whole day, school hours, recess, and physical education classes (PEC) during a 2-year period in primary and secondary students; (ii) to identify changes in the proportion of compliance with specific PA recommendations for these periods; and (iii) to examine whether PA levels at baseline are associated with PA levels 2 years later. Eight hundred fourteen (51.8% boys) children and 658 (50.1% boys) adolescents from 41 Spanish schools participated in the study...
December 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jairo H Migueles, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Marie Löf, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Pablo Molina-Garcia, Jose Mora-Gonzalez, Maria Rodriguez-Ayllon, Eduardo Garcia-Marmol, Ulf Ekelund, Francisco B Ortega
This study aimed to compare estimations of sedentary time (SED) and time spent in physical activity (PA) intensities in children with overweight/obesity across different age-appropriate cut-points based on different body-worn attachment sites and acceleration metrics. A total of 104 overweight/obese children (10.1±1.1 years old, 43 girls) concurrently wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on their right hip and non-dominant wrist for 7 days (24 hours). Euclidean Norm Minus One g (ENMO) and activity counts from both vertical axis (VACounts) and vector magnitude (VMCounts) were derived...
December 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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