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Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345173/increasing-preferred-step-rate-during-running-reduces-plantar-pressures
#1
James M Gerrard, Daniel R Bonanno
Increasing preferred step rate during running is a commonly used strategy in the management of running-related injuries. This study investigated the effect of different step rates on plantar pressures during running. Thirty-two healthy runners ran at a comfortable speed on a treadmill at five step rates (preferred, ±5%, and ±10%). For each step rate, plantar pressure data were collected using the pedar-X in-shoe system. Compared to running with a preferred step rate, a 10% increase in step rate significantly reduced peak pressure (144...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345160/increasing-skeletal-muscle-carnitine-availability-does-not-alter-the-adaptations-to-high-intensity-interval-training
#2
Christopher E Shannon, Reza Ghasemi, Paul L Greenhaff, Francis B Stephens
Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine availability alters muscle metabolism during steady-state exercise in healthy humans. We investigated whether elevating muscle carnitine, and thereby the acetyl-group buffering capacity, altered the metabolic and physiological adaptations to 24 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) at 100% maximal exercise capacity (Wattmax ). Twenty-one healthy male volunteers (age 23±2 years; BMI 24.2±1.1 kg/m(2) ) performed 2x3 minute bouts of cycling exercise at 100% Wattmax , separated by five minutes rest...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329441/a-framework-for-the-etiology-of-running-related-injuries
#3
REVIEW
M L Bertelsen, A Hulme, J Petersen, R Korsgaard Brund, H Sørensen, C F Finch, E T Parner, R O Nielsen
The etiology of running-related injury is important to consider as the effectiveness of a given running-related injury prevention intervention is dependent on whether etiologic factors are readily modifiable and consistent with a biologically plausible causal mechanism. Therefore, the purpose of the present article was to present an evidence-informed conceptual framework outlining the multifactorial nature of running-related injury etiology. In the framework, four mutually exclusive parts are presented: (A) Structure-specific capacity when entering a running session; (B) Structure-specific cumulative load per running session; (C) Reduction in the structure-specific capacity during a running session; and, (D) Exceeding the structure-specific capacity...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329413/physical-activity-muscular-strength-and-polypharmacy-among-older-multimorbid-persons-results-from-the-kora-age-study
#4
K A Volaklis, B Thorand, A Peters, M Halle, M Heier, B Strasser, U Amann, K H Ladwig, H Schulz, W Koenig, C Meisinger
The purpose of this study was to examine if physical activity (PA) and muscular strength (MS) are related to polypharmacy. Our cross-sectional analysis was based on 711 patients with multimorbidity (ΜΜΒ), aged 65-94 years, who participated in the KORA-Age study. Participants underwent a face to face interview and extensive physical examinations including anthropometric measurements, registration of chronic diseases, determination of health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, etc), collection of blood samples and measurement of hand-grip strength...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329411/tv-viewing-time-is-associated-with-increased-all-cause-mortality-in-brazilian-adults-independent-of-physical-activity
#5
Bruna Camilo Turi, Henrique Luiz Monteiro, Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Jamile Sanches Codogno, Kyle Robinson Lynch, Camila Angélica Asahi Mesquita, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults after six years of follow-up. This longitudinal study started in 2010 in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil, and involved 970 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the Brazilian National Health System. Physical activity (PA) and TV viewing were assessed by the Baecke questionnaire. Health status, sociodemographic and behavioural covariates were considered as potential confounders...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321925/effects-of-6-months-aerobic-interval-training-on-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-in-middle-aged-metabolic-syndrome-patients
#6
A Guadalupe-Grau, V E Fernández-Elías, J F Ortega, F Dela, J W Helge, R Mora Rodríguez
AIM: Aerobic interval training (AIT) improves the health of metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) more than moderate intensity continuous training. However, AIT has not been shown to reverse all metabolic syndrome risk factors, possibly due to the limited duration of the training programs. PURPOSE: To assess the effects of 6 months of AIT on cardio-metabolic health and muscle metabolism in middle aged MetS. METHODS: Eleven MetS (54.5 ± 0.7 yrs old) underwent 6 month of 3 days a week supervised AIT program on a cycle-ergometer...
March 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314091/changes-in-muscle-architecture-of-biceps-femoris-induced-by-eccentric-strength-training-with-nordic-hamstring-exercise
#7
Diego Alonso-Fernandez, Pedro Docampo-Blanco, Juan Martinez-Fernandez
Eccentric strength training alters muscle architecture, but it is also an important factor for the prevention of hamstring injuries. The purpose was to determine the architectural adaptations of the Biceps Femoris long head (BFlh) after eccentric strength training with Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE), followed by a subsequent detraining period. The participants in this intervention (n = 23) completed a period of 13 weeks consisting of a first week of control and prior training, followed by 8 weeks of eccentric strength training with NHE, and concluding with a 4-week period of detraining...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314090/prevalence-age-at-onset-and-risk-factors-of-self-reported-asthma-among-swedish-adolescent-elite-cross-country-skiers
#8
L M Eriksson, T Irewall, Anne Lindberg, Nikolai Stenfors
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314078/high-physical-fitness-is-associated-with-reduction-in-basal-and-exercise-induced-inflammation
#9
Øyunn Kleiven, Magnus Bjørkavoll-Bergseth, Tor Melberg, Øyvind Skadberg, Rolf Bergseth, Jone Selvåg, Bjørn Auestad, Pål Aukrust, Torbjørn Aarsland, Stein Ørn
C-reactive protein (CRP) increases after strenuous exercise. It has been a concern that prolonged strenuous exercise may be harmful, and induce a deleterious inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to 1) Assess and quantify the magnitude of CRP response following an endurance cycling competition in healthy middle-aged recreational cyclists. 2) Identify important determinants of this response. 3) Identify the relationship between CRP, myocardial damage (cardiac Troponin I (cTnI)) and myocardial strain (B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP))...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314055/localization-of-muscle-damage-within-the-quadriceps-femoris-induced-by-different-types-of-eccentric-exercises
#10
Sumiaki Maeo, Akira Saito, Shun Otsuka, Xiyao Shan, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami
This study examined localization of muscle damage within the quadriceps femoris induced by different types of eccentric exercises by using transverse relaxation time (T2 )-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-three young males performed either of the following three exercises: single-joint eccentric contraction of the knee extensors (KE), eccentric squat (S), or downhill walking (DW) (n=11/exercise). KE and S consisted of 5-set × 10-lowering of 90% one-repetition maximum load. DW was performed for 60 min with -10% slope, 6 km/h velocity, and 20% body mass load carried...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299832/secular-and-longitudinal-physical-activity-changes-in-population-based-samples-of-children-and-adolescents
#11
Knut Eirik Dalene, Sigmund A Anderssen, Lars Bo Andersen, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Ulf Ekelund, Bjørge H Hansen, Elin Kolle
PURPOSE: 1) To investigate if physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in 9- and 15-year-olds differed between 2005-06 and 2011-12 (secular change) and: 2) to investigate changes in PA and ST from age 9 to 15 (longitudinal change). METHODS: In 2005-06, we invited nationally representative samples of Norwegian 9- (n=1470) and 15-year-olds (n=1348) to participate. In 2011-12, we invited a new nationally representative sample of 9-year-olds (n=1945), whereas 15-year-olds (n=1759) were invited to participate either based on previous participation in 2005-06 or from a random sample of schools...
March 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295686/increased-insulin-stimulated-glucose-uptake-in-both-leg-and-arm-muscles-after-sprint-interval-and-moderate-intensity-training-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-or-prediabetes
#12
Tanja J Sjöros, Marja A Heiskanen, Kumail K Motiani, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Kirsi A Virtanen, Nina J Savisto, Olof Solin, Jarna C Hannukainen, Kari K Kalliokoski
We investigated the effects of sprint interval (SIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on glucose uptake (GU) during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and fatty acid uptake (FAU) at fasting state in thigh and arm muscles in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or prediabetes. Twenty-six patients (age 49, SD 4; 10 women) were randomly assigned into two groups: SIT (n=13), and MICT (n=13). The exercise in the SIT group consisted of 4-6 x 30 s of all-out cycling with 4 min recovery and in the MICT group 40-60 min cycling at 60% of VO2peak ...
March 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294413/acute-effect-of-running-exercise-on-physiological-achilles-tendon-blood-flow
#13
Lucie Risch, Michael Cassel, Frank Mayer
Sonographically detectable intratendinous blood flow (IBF) is found in 50-88% of Achilles tendinopathy patients as well as in up to 35% of asymptomatic Achilles tendons (AT). Although IBF is frequently associated with tendon pathology, it may also represent a physiological regulation e.g. due to increased blood flow in response to exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a standardized running exercise protocol on IBF assessed with Doppler ultrasound (DU) "Advanced dynamic flow" in healthy ATs...
March 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271547/coach-led-prevention-programs-are-effective-in-reducing-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-risk-in-female-athletes-a-number-needed-to-treat-analysis
#14
K R Pfile, B Curioz
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effectiveness of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) prevention program is impacted by the individual(s) directing the program. A number-needed-to-treat analysis compared the effectiveness of injury prevention measures when either directed by a coach or a mixed leadership group consisting of coach and healthcare providers. Eleven studies were included for analysis. Number-needed-to-treat and relative risk reduction (RRR) were calculated for each study and data sets were pooled based on the intervention leader...
March 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271542/a-multistudy-examination-of-organizational-stressors-emotional-labor-burnout-and-turnover-in-sport-organizations
#15
R J Larner, C R D Wagstaff, R C Thelwell, J Corbett
While a growing body of research has examined the types of organizational stressors encountered by individuals and their allied responses, little is known about how such individuals manage their emotional responses to these stressors or the consequences of such behaviors. This article presents novel findings from two studies examining the moderating role that emotional labor plays in the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressor experience, burnout, turnover intentions, and actual turnover in sport...
March 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267868/validity-of-the-spex-sports-injury-surveillance-system-for-time-loss-and-medical-attention-injuries-in-sports
#16
M Møller, N Wedderkopp, G Myklebust, M Lind, H Sørensen, J J Hebert, C A Emery, J Attermann
The accurate measurement of sport exposure time and injury occurrence is key to effective injury prevention and management. Current measures are limited by their inability to identify all types of sport-related injury, narrow scope of injury information, or lack the perspective of the injured athlete. The aims of the study were to evaluate the proportion of injuries and the agreement between sport exposures reported by the SMS messaging and follow-up telephone part of the SMS, Phone, and medical staff Examination (SPEx) sports injury surveillance system when compared to measures obtained by trained on-field observers and medical staff (comparison method)...
March 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267247/validity-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-the-danish-cohort-diet-cancer-and-health-next-generations
#17
Lene Lerche, Anja Olsen, Kristina Elin Nielsen Petersen, Agnetha Linn Rostgaard-Hansen, Lars Ove Dragsted, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Anne Tjønneland, Jytte Halkjaer
Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for e.g. formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population based subsample (n=125) was included from the 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations' (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment...
March 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263414/assessment-of-propulsive-pin-force-and-oar-angle-time-series-using-functional-data-analysis-in-on-water-rowing
#18
John Warmenhoven, Stephen Cobley, Conny Draper, Andrew Harrison, Norma Bargary, Richard Smith
The graphical presentation of the propulsive force applied at the pin plotted relative to the horizontal angle of the oar has been used practically in on-water rowing for the qualitative assessment of skill. How the pattern is related to performance variables has not been well identified, particularly for highly trained sculling athletes. Bivariate functional principal components analysis (bfPCA) was used on force-angle data to identify the main modes of variance in curves representing twenty seven female rowers of different competition levels (national and international level), rowing at 32 strokes per minute in a single scull boat...
March 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263409/cryotherapy-induces-an-increase-in-muscle-stiffness
#19
Maxime Point, Gaël Guilhem, François Hug, Antoine Nordez, Alain Frey, Lilian Lacourpaille
Although cold application (i.e., cryotherapy) may be useful to treat sports injuries and to prevent muscle damage, it is unclear whether it has adverse effects on muscle mechanical properties. This study aimed to determine the effect of air-pulsed cryotherapy on muscle stiffness estimated using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Myoelectrical activity, ankle passive torque, shear modulus (an index of stiffness) and muscle temperature of the gastrocnemius medialis were measured before, during an air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30°) treatment of 4 sets of 4 minutes with 1 min recovery in between, and during a 40-min post-cryotherapy period...
March 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263394/conditioning-hops-increase-triceps-surae-muscle-force-and-achilles-tendon-strain-energy-in-the-stretch-shortening-cycle
#20
Jakob Kümmel, Neil J Cronin, Andreas Kramer, Janne Avela, Markus Gruber
Post-activation potentiation can improve athletic performance, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of conditioning hops on triceps surae muscle force and tendon strain and its contribution to potentiated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) performance. Thirty-two subjects participated in two experiments. In both experiments, subjects performed three drop jumps (DJs) after prior conditioning with 10 maximal hops, three unconditioned DJs served as control. Ground reaction forces, kinematics, and triceps surae electromyographic activity were recorded...
March 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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