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Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD

H Malmström, P E Wändell, M J Holzmann, J Ärnlöv, I Jungner, N Hammar, G Walldius, A C Carlsson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both high and low fasting glucose has been associated with an increased mortality among individuals without diabetes. This J-shaped association has also been shown for HbA1c in relation to all-cause mortality. High fructosamine is associated with increased mortality. In this study we aim to evaluate if low fructosamine is also associated with increased mortality in non-diabetic subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 215,011 subjects from the AMORIS cohort undergoing occupational health screening or primary care in Stockholm, Sweden...
September 2, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
S Di Mauro, M Ragusa, F Urbano, A Filippello, A Di Pino, A Scamporrino, A Pulvirenti, A Ferro, A M Rabuazzo, M Purrello, F Purrello, S Piro
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. NAFLD has the potential to progress through the inflammatory phase of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Identifying patients at risk for this transition is a relevant clinical challenge. The complexity of these phenotypes in vivo made necessary the development of in vitro models in order to dissect the molecular signalling affected in NAFLD and NASH, but also to identify potential circulating biomarkers...
August 20, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
E M Brouwer-Brolsma, G J van Woudenbergh, S J W H Oude Elferink, C M Singh-Povel, A Hofman, A Dehghan, O H Franco, E J M Feskens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasing. Several studies have suggested a beneficial effect of several major dairy nutrients on insulin production and sensitivity. Conversely, harmful effects have been suggested as well. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the full-range of dairy products and its association with incidence T2DM in Dutch adults aged ≥55 years participating in the Rotterdam Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dairy intake was assessed with a validated FFQ, including total, skimmed, semi-skimmed, full-fat, fermented, and non-fermented dairy, and subclasses of these product groups...
August 10, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
C Borghi, R Urso, A F Cicero
AIM: The aim of this study is to discuss the reliable scientific evidence of an interactive link between hypertension and hypercholesterolemia considering the metabolic pathways and the pathogenetic mechanisms connecting the two risk factors. DATA SYNTHESIS: Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are highly prevalent in the general population and their coexistence in the same subjects additively increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Probably, hypercholesterolemia is also a risk factor for the development of hypertension...
August 6, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
S Galasso, A Facchinetti, B M Bonora, V Mariano, F Boscari, E Cipponeri, A Maran, A Avogaro, G P Fadini, D Bruttomesso
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Degludec is an ultralong-acting insulin analogue with a flat and reproducible pharmacodynamic profile. As some patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) fail to achieve 24-h coverage with glargine or detemir despite twice-daily injections, we studied the effect of switching T1D patients from twice-daily glargine or detemir to degludec. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prospective observational study, T1D patients on twice-daily glargine or detemir were enrolled...
August 6, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
A Das, B Ambale-Venkatesh, J A C Lima, J E Freedman, A Spahillari, R Das, S Das, R V Shah, V L Murthy
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. As an emerging population, South Asians (SAs) bear a disproportionately high burden of CVD relative to underlying classical risk factors, partly attributable to a greater prevalence of insulin resistance and diabetes and distinct genetic and epigenetic influences. While the phenotypic distinctions between SAs and other ethnicities in CVD risk are becoming increasingly clear, the biology of these conditions remains an area of active investigation, with emerging studies involving metabolism, genetic variation and epigenetic modifiers (e...
August 6, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
D C Chan, J Pang, P H R Barrett, D R Sullivan, T A Mori, J R Burnett, F M van Bockxmeer, G F Watts
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased arterial stiffness is closely linked with raised blood pressure that contributes substantially to enhanced risk of coronary heart disease in high risk individuals with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Omega-3 fatty acid (ω3-FA) supplementation has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in subjects with a high cardiovascular disease risk. Whether ω3-FA supplementation improves arterial stiffness in FH subjects, on background statin therapy, has yet to be investigated...
August 3, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
G Colussi, C Catena, M Novello, N Bertin, L A Sechi
AIMS: To overview the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on blood vessels and blood pressure (BP) and their relevance for cardiovascular prevention. DATA SYNTHESIS: The importance of omega-3 PUFA for the cardiovascular system has come under the spotlight during the last decades. These fatty acids are present in variable amounts in cell membranes of mammal species, and their content affects a variety of cellular functions. Evidence obtained in animal and human studies suggests that omega-3 PUFA affect many steps of the atherosclerotic process...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
L Degli Esposti, G Desideri, S Saragoni, S Buda, R Pontremoli, C Borghi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic hyperuricemia is responsible for a relevant burden of articular diseases and cardio-nephrometabolic disorders. We evaluated the effect of high serum uric acid (SUA) levels on hospitalization risk and mortality and on healthcare costs in a real-life setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective analysis using a large administrative database and a clinical registry among 112,170 subjects from three Italian local health units...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
I Labayen, J R Ruiz, I Huybrechts, F B Ortega, L Arenaza, M González-Gross, K Widhalm, D Molnar, Y Manios, S DeHenauw, A Meirhaeghe, L A Moreno
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been associated with obesity and dietary intake. The aims were: (i) To assess whether energy and macronutrient intakes were different across the FTOrs9939609 genotypes in adolescents, and (ii) to explore whether dietary fat intake modified the association of the rs9939609 polymorphism with adiposity. METHODS AND RESULTS: The FTOrs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in 652 adolescents (53% females, 14...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
L M Raffield, S Agarwal, F C Hsu, I H de Boer, J H Ix, D Siscovick, M Szklo, G L Burke, A C Frazier-Wood, D M Herrington
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many US adults use calcium supplements to address inadequate dietary intake and improve bone health. However, recent reports have suggested that use of calcium supplements may elevate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this study, we examined associations between baseline calcium supplement use and incident myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 208 events) and CVD events (n = 641 events) over 10.3 years in men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort (n = 6236), with dietary calcium intake at baseline also examined as a supplementary objective...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
S Del Prato, S Patel, S Crowe, M von Eynatten
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to determine if patient baseline characteristics affect responses to linagliptin and identify relevant predictors of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were pooled from three 24-week, placebo-controlled trials of similar design (linagliptin, n = 1651; placebo, n = 607). Patients were categorized according to baseline characteristics: age, T2DM duration, gender, body mass index (BMI), Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
A R Bonfigli, M Boemi, R Festa, P Bonazzi, G Brandoni, L Spazzafumo, F Olivieri, A Ceriello, S Genovese, R Testa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Literature data suggest an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and glucose homeostasis. However, a causative link between them has not been demonstrated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of H. pylori eradication on glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effect of H. pylori eradication on glucose homeostasis in 154 patients with type 2 diabetes and who tested positive for H...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
H Huang, T Zheng, S Wang, L Wei, Q Wang, Z Sun
BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study was conducted to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels in serum, and to investigate their associations with stroke recurrence events in a 3-month follow-up study in Chinese patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: From February 2014 to September 2015, consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Department of Emergency of our hospital were identified. Serum 25(OH) D levels were measured at admission...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
É J F Peixoto de Miranda, M S Bittencourt, A C Pereira, A C Goulart, I S Santos, P A Lotufo, I M Bensenor
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is scarce data about subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with SCH. We aimed to analyze the association between SCH and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included subjects with normal thyroid function (TSH: 0.4-4.0 mIU/l, and normal free thyroxine (FT4): 0...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
F Scazzina, A Dei Cas, D Del Rio, F Brighenti, R C Bonadonna
The quantity and quality of dietary fat and/or carbohydrate may alter one or more of the basic components of the insulin-glucose system, which in turn affect the pathways leading to alterations in glucose homeostasis and, possibly, to cardiovascular disease. This viewpoint article, reviewing some of the currently available tools aiming at quantifying the impact of dietary carbohydrates on the glucose-insulin homeostatic loop, highlights the unmet need of a more thorough assessment of the complex interaction between dietary factors and the glucose-insulin system...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
S Eligini, S Fiorelli, E Tremoli, S Colli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), a member of the transglutaminase family of enzymes, is a multifunctional protein involved in numerous events spanning from cell differentiation, to signal transduction, apoptosis, and wound healing. It is expressed in a variety of cells, macrophages included. Macrophage TGM2 promotes the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) and emerging evidence suggests that defective efferocytosis contributes to the consequences of inflammation-associated diseases, including atherosclerotic lesion progression and its sequelae...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
K Yadav, M Sharma, K C Ferdinand
AIMS: Our comprehensive review highlights the drug development and pharmacogenomics leading to the recent approval of PCSK9 inhibitors. We also review the anticipated future advances into the uses of PCSK9 inhibition. BACKGROUND: Despite the present advances in pharmacotherapy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is the primary target for ASCVD risk reduction, showing demonstrable benefits in mortality...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
A Cimellaro, M Perticone, T V Fiorentino, A Sciacqua, M L Hribal
AIM: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of several human disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD recognizes endothelial dysfunction (ED) as its pathogenetic primum movens; interestingly a large body of evidence has identified the unchecked ER stress response as a main actor in vascular damage elicited by various cardio-metabolic risk factors. In the present Review, we summarize findings from experimental studies on the ER stress-related ED, focusing on the mechanisms underlying this association...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
E Pagano, M De Rosa, E Rossi, E Cinconze, G Marchesini, R Miccoli, O Vaccaro, E Bonora, G Bruno
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the present population-based study, we aimed to describe the per patient annual healthcare cost of people with diabetes in 2007-2012, to assess the relative burden of diabetes complications and other potential determinants on healthcare costs in the 2012 cohort, and to describe and analyse the determinants of the cost of incident cases diagnosed in 2012. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data from a retrospective cohort of residents in four Italian areas that were served by Local Health Units participating in the ARNO Observatory...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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