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International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research

Holly James Westervelt, Rachel A Bernier, Melanie Faust, Mary Gover, H Jeremy Bockholt, Roland Zschiegner, Jeffrey D Long, Jane S Paulsen
We discuss the strategies employed in data quality control and quality assurance for the cognitive core of Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington's Disease (PREDICT-HD), a long-term observational study of over 1,000 participants with prodromal Huntington disease. In particular, we provide details regarding the training and continual evaluation of cognitive examiners, methods for error corrections, and strategies to minimize errors in the data. We present five important lessons learned to help other researchers avoid certain assumptions that could potentially lead to inaccuracies in their cognitive data...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Lenard A Adler, Stephen V Faraone, Thomas J Spencer, Patricia Berglund, Samuel Alperin, Ronald C Kessler
Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in three pooled US samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Luise Lago, Meyer D Glantz, Ronald C Kessler, Nancy A Sampson, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Silvia Florescu, Jacek Moskalewicz, Sam Murphy, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Yolanda Torres de Galvis, Maria Carmen Viana, Miguel Xavier, Louisa Degenhardt
The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Jennifer R Fonda, Catherine Brawn Fortier
Many US veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq have multiple physical and psychiatric problems. A major focus of research has been on determining the effects of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), but mTBI is rarely diagnosed in the absence of co-occurring conditions such as blast exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance abuse, etc. These potentially interactive psychological and physical conditions produce complex patterns of cognitive, psychological, and physical symptoms that impede civilian reintegration and complicate efficient and effective treatment planning...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Maria Christina Dehoust, Holger Schulz, Martin Härter, Jana Volkert, Susanne Sehner, Anna Drabik, Karl Wegscheider, Alessandra Canuto, Kerstin Weber, Mike Crawford, Alan Quirk, Luigi Grassi, Chiara DaRonch, Manuel Munoz, Berta Ausin, Anna Santos-Olmo, Arieh Shalev, Ora Rotenstein, Yael Hershkowitz, Jens Strehle, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Sylke Andreas
Somatoform disorders have rarely been addressed in epidemiological and health care services studies of the elderly. The few existing studies vary considerably in their methodologies limiting comparability of findings. Data come from the MentDis_ICF65+ study, in which a total of 3142 community-dwelling respondents aged 65-84 years from six different countries were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview adapted to the needs of the elderly (CIDI65+). The 12-month prevalence rate for any somatoform disorders was found to be 3...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Matthias Romppel, Andreas Hinz, Carolyn Finck, Jeremy Young, Elmar Brähler, Heide Glaesmer
While the General Health Questionnaire, 12-item version (GHQ-12) has been widely used in cross-cultural comparisons, rigorous tests of the measurement equivalence of different language versions are still lacking. Thus, our study aims at investigating configural, metric and scalar invariance across the German and the Spanish version of the GHQ-12 in two population samples. The GHQ-12 was applied in two large-scale population-based samples in Germany (N = 1,977) and Colombia (N = 1,500). To investigate measurement equivalence, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted in both samples...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Megan Galbally, Marinus van IJzendoorn, Michael Permezel, Richard Saffery, Martha Lappas, Joanne Ryan, Elisabeth van Rossum, Andrew R Johnson, Douglas Teti, Andrew J Lewis
Maternal mental health represents a significant global health burden. The Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Well-being Study (MPEWS) was established to provide a comprehensive investigation of early developmental mechanisms and modifiers for maternal, fetal and child emotional well-being. MPEWS is a prospective, longitudinal study from pregnancy to 36 months postpartum that includes diagnostic measures of maternal mental health, observational measures of the mother-infant relationship, measures of child development, and repeat biological sampling...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Nicole R Giuliani, John C Flournoy, Elizabeth J Ivie, Arielle Von Hippel, Jennifer H Pfeifer
The stimulus sets presently used to study emotion processing are primarily static pictures of individuals (primarily adults) making emotional facial expressions. However, the dynamic, stereotyped movements associated with emotional expressions contain rich information missing from static pictures, such as the difference between happiness and pride. We created a set of 1.1 s dynamic emotional facial stimuli representing boys and girls aged 8-18. A separate group of 36 individuals (mean [M] age = 19.5 years, standard deviation [SD] = 1...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
James McIntosh
Kessler k6 psychological distress scores are analyzed using a count model and item response theory (IRT) models are applied to the items which produce the k6 score and generate an alternative distress score, θ(*) . Other ways of utilizing the constituent items are also examined. The data used in the analysis comes from the 2014 National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Three important results emerge. First, θ(*) and k6 are not highly correlated and their distributions are quite different. The k6 score gives a much more favourable picture of mental health than θ(*) ...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Stéphane Legleye, Aida Eslami, Stéphanie Bougeard
Our aims are to describe and explain the structure of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) across countries. Standard statistical analyses fail to describe and explain several variables simultaneously while taking account of the group structure of individuals. The 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD): 5204 last-year cannabis users aged 15-16 from 13 European countries. Multigroup principal component analysis (mgPCA) and multigroup partial least squares (mgPLS). MgPCA shows that the CAST has a two-dimensional structure (frequency of use/problems and non-recreational use/dependency symptoms)...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Stephen J Tueller, Kiersten L Johnson, Kevin J Grimm, Sarah L Desmarais, Brian G Sellers, Richard A Van Dorn
Factor analytic work on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) has yielded varied and conflicting results. The current study explored potential causes of these discrepancies. Prior research has been limited by small sample sizes and an incorrect assumption that the items are normally distributed when in practice responses are highly skewed ordinal variables. Using simulation methodology, we examined the effects of sample size, (in)correctly specifying item distributions, collapsing rarely endorsed response categories, and four factor analytic models...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Melissa A MacLeod, Paul F Tremblay, Kathryn Graham, Sharon Bernards, Jürgen Rehm, Samantha Wells
The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a brief measurement tool used cross-culturally to capture the multi-dimensional nature of disablement through six domains, including: understanding and interacting with the world; moving and getting around; self-care; getting on with people; life activities; and participation in society. Previous psychometric research supports that the WHODAS 2.0 functions as a general factor of disablement. In a pooled dataset from community samples of adults (N = 447) we used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm a one-factor structure...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Minyoung Lee, Steven H Aggen, Takeshi Otowa, Enrique Castelao, Martin Preisig, Hans J Grabe, Catharina A Hartman, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Christel M Middeldorp, Henning Tiemeier, John M Hettema
To achieve sample sizes necessary for effectively conducting genome-wide association studies (GWASs), researchers often combine data from samples possessing multiple potential sources of heterogeneity. This is particularly relevant for psychiatric disorders, where symptom self-report, differing assessment instruments, and diagnostic comorbidity complicates the phenotypes and contribute to difficulties with detecting and replicating genetic association signals. We investigated sources of heterogeneity of anxiety disorders (ADs) across five large cohorts used in a GWAS meta-analysis project using a dimensional structural modeling approach including confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and measurement invariance (MI) testing...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Rei Monden, Stijn de Vos, Richard Morey, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Peter de Jonge, Annelieke M Roest
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses a p < 0.05 null-hypothesis significance testing framework to evaluate "substantial evidence" for drug efficacy. This framework only allows dichotomous conclusions and does not quantify the strength of evidence supporting efficacy. The efficacy of FDA-approved antidepressants for the treatment of anxiety disorders was re-evaluated in a Bayesian framework that quantifies the strength of the evidence. Data from 58 double-blind placebo-controlled trials were retrieved from the FDA for the second-generation antidepressants for the treatment of anxiety disorders...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Amandine Luquiens, Marie-Laure Tanguy, Amine Benyamina, Marthylle Lagadec, Henri-Jean Aubin, Michel Reynaud
The aim was to develop and validate an instrument to track online problem poker gamblers with player account-based gambling data (PABGD). We emailed an invitation to all active poker gamblers on the online gambling service provider Winamax. The 14,261 participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). PGSI served as a gold standard to track problem gamblers (i.e., PGSI ≥ 5). We used a stepwise logistic regression to build a predictive model of problem gambling with PABGD, and validated it...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Ahsan Rao, Amna Suliman, Giles Story, Sabine Vuik, Paul Aylin, Ara Darzi
BACKGROUND: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are often prescribed in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD), however, their use has been discouraged in light of clinical trials suggesting that they cause an increased risk of cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to assess relative risk of CVA in dementia patients prescribed SGA rather than first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), through meta-analysis of population-based studies...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Maj Vinberg, Mads Frost, Sune Debel, Ellen Margrethe Christensen, Jakob E Bardram, Lars Vedel Kessing
Smartphones are useful in symptom-monitoring in bipolar disorder (BD). Objective smartphone data reflecting illness activity could facilitate early treatment and act as outcome in efficacy trials. A total of 29 patients with BD presenting with moderate to severe levels of depressive and manic symptoms used a smartphone-based self-monitoring system during 12 weeks. Objective smartphone data on behavioral activities were collected. Symptoms were clinically assessed every second week using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Pia Tio, Sacha Epskamp, Arjen Noordhof, Denny Borsboom
The International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) represent dominant approaches to diagnosis of mental disorders. However, it is unclear how these alternative systems relate to each other when taking into account the symptoms that make up the disorders. This study uses a network approach to investigate the overlap in structure between diagnostic networks pertaining to ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. Networks are constructed by representing individual symptoms as nodes, and connecting nodes whenever the corresponding symptoms feature as diagnostic criteria for the same mental disorder...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Aileen O'Reilly, Nicholas Peiper, Lynsey O'Keeffe, Robert Illback, Richard Clayton
This article assesses the performance and psychometric properties of two versions of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE) measures that assess psychological distress: the Young Person's CORE (YP-CORE) for 11-16 year olds and the CORE-10 for those 17 or older. The sample comprised 1592 young people aged 12-25 who completed the YP-CORE and CORE-10 during their initial engagement with an early intervention service. Total and average scores were examined for both measures. Gender and age differences were evaluated using t-tests and analysis of variance...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Alexandre J S Morin, A Katrin Arens, Antoine Tran, Hervé Caci
This paper illustrates a psychometric approach of broad relevance to psychiatric research instruments. Many instruments include indicators related to more than one source of true-score variance due to the: (1) assessment of conceptually adjacent constructs; (2) the presence of a global construct underlying answers to items designed to assess multiple dimensions. Exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) is naturally suited to the investigation of the first source, whereas bifactor models are particularly suited to the investigation of the second source...
December 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
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