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European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096287/prediction-models-for-exacerbations-in-patients-with-copd
#1
REVIEW
Beniamino Guerra, Violeta Gaveikaite, Camilla Bianchi, Milo A Puhan
Personalised medicine aims to tailor medical decisions to the individual patient. A possible approach is to stratify patients according to the risk of adverse outcomes such as exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Risk-stratified approaches are particularly attractive for drugs like inhaled corticosteroids or phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors that reduce exacerbations but are associated with harms. However, it is currently not clear which models are best to predict exacerbations in patients with COPD...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096286/diagnosis-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-potential-options-for-resource-limited-countries
#2
REVIEW
Nisreen Rumman, Claire Jackson, Samuel Collins, Patricia Goggin, Janice Coles, Jane S Lucas
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetic disease of ciliary function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently overlooked because the symptoms are nonspecific and the knowledge about the disease in the primary care setting is poor. Additionally, none of the available tests is accurate enough to be used in isolation. These tests are expensive, and need sophisticated equipment and expertise to analyse and interpret results; diagnosis is therefore only available at highly specialised centres...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096285/epoprostenol-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-20%C3%A2-years-of-clinical-experience
#3
REVIEW
Olivier Sitbon, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf
Epoprostenol was the first therapy to be approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In the 20 years since the introduction of this prostacyclin analogue, the outlook for patients with PAH has improved, with survival rates now double those from the era before the development of disease-specific treatments. Today, there are a large amount of data on the clinical role of prostacyclin treatments and a body of evidence attesting the efficacy of epoprostenol in improving exercise capacity, key haemodynamic parameters and PAH symptoms, as well as in reducing mortality...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096284/pulmonary-vascular-and-cardiac-impairment-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#4
REVIEW
Marios Panagiotou, Alistair C Church, Martin K Johnson, Andrew J Peacock
Pulmonary vascular and cardiac impairment is increasingly appreciated as a major adverse factor in the natural history of interstitial lung disease. This clinically orientated review focuses on the current concepts in the pathogenesis, pathophysiology and implications of the detrimental sequence of increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure in interstitial lung disease, and provides guidance on its management.
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096283/laba-lama-combination-in-copd-a-meta-analysis-on-the-duration-of-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Luigino Calzetta, Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Ermanno Puxeddu, Mario Cazzola, Maria Gabriella Matera
When there are no randomised clinical trials directly comparing all relevant treatment options, an indirect treatment comparison via meta-analysis of the available clinical evidence is an acceptable alternative. However, meta-analyses may be very misleading if not adequately performed. Here, we propose and validate a simple and effective approach to meta-analysis for exploring the effectiveness of long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) fixed-dose combinations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096282/the-effect-of-mtor-inhibitors-on-respiratory-infections-in-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#6
REVIEW
Andrew M Courtwright, Hilary J Goldberg, Elizabeth Petri Henske, Souheil El-Chemaly
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive cystic lung disease. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are the primary treatment for LAM but it is unknown whether these immunosuppressing medications increase the risk for or the severity of respiratory infections in LAM patients.We searched multiple databases for original articles that reported the rate of respiratory infections in LAM patients treated with mTOR inhibitors or placebo. We calculated incidence rates for respiratory infections in these groups and incidence rate ratios for respiratory infections and severe respiratory infections in mTOR inhibitors treated versus placebo treated patients...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049129/out-with-the-old-in-with-the-new-for-the-european-respiratory-review
#7
EDITORIAL
Sergio Harari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049128/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-pulmonary-pathogens
#8
REVIEW
Radha Gopal, Rekha R Rapaka, Jay K Kolls
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response to a variety of pathogens in response to antiretroviral therapy-mediated recovery of the immune system in HIV-infected patients. Although IRIS can occur in many organs, pulmonary IRIS, associated with opportunistic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii, is particularly associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathology of IRIS is associated with a variety of innate and adaptive immune factors, including CD4(+) T-cells, CD8(+) T-cells, γδ T-cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, the complement system and surfactant proteins, Toll-like receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049127/association-between-morning-symptoms-and-physical-activity-in-copd-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Amanda R van Buul, Marise J Kasteleyn, Niels H Chavannes, Christian Taube
Morning symptoms are common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many COPD patients consider the morning as the most troublesome part of the day, in which they experience more symptoms and physical activity limitations.To systematically report evidence of the association between morning symptoms and physical activity in COPD patients, a literature search was conducted using relevant MESH terms and text words in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Quality of the articles was assessed with validated checklists...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049126/comorbidities-in-interstitial-lung-diseases
#10
REVIEW
George A Margaritopoulos, Katerina M Antoniou, Athol U Wells
Fibrosing lung disorders include a large number of diseases with diverse behaviour. Patients can die because of the progression of their illness, remain stable or even improve after appropriate treatment has been instituted. Comorbidities, such as acute and chronic infection, gastro-oesophageal reflux, pulmonary hypertension, lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive sleep apnoea, can pre-exist or develop at any time during the course of the disease and, if unidentified and untreated, may impair quality of life, impact upon the respiratory status of the patients, and ultimately lead to disease progression and death...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049125/pre-operative-screening-for-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#11
REVIEW
Johan Verbraecken, Jan Hedner, Thomas Penzel
Sleep disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), has a high and increasing prevalence. Depending on the apnoea and hypopnoea scoring criteria used, and depending on the sex and age of the subjects investigated, prevalence varies between 3% and 49% of the general population. These varying prevalences need to be reflected when considering screening for OSA. OSA is a cardiovascular risk factor and patients are at risk when undergoing medical interventions such as surgery. Screening for OSA before anaesthesia and surgical interventions is increasingly considered...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049124/personalised-medicine-in-asthma-from-curative-to-preventive-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Laurent Guilleminault, Hakima Ouksel, Chantal Belleguic, Yannick Le Guen, Patrick Germaud, Emilie Desfleurs, Christophe Leroyer, Antoine Magnan
The concept of asthma has changed substantially in recent years. Asthma is now recognised as a heterogeneous entity that is complex to treat. The subdivision of asthma, provided by "cluster" analyses, has revealed various groups of asthma patients who share phenotypic features. These phenotypes underlie the need for personalised asthma therapy because, in contrast to the previous approach, treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. Determination of the patient's asthma phenotype is therefore essential but sometimes challenging, particularly in elderly patients with a multitude of comorbidities and a complex exposure history...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049123/-recent-advances-in-targeting-the-prostacyclin-pathway-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-irene-m-lang-sean-p-gaine-eur-respir-rev-2015-24-630-641
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903672/-exertional-dyspnoea-in-copd-the-clinical-utility-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-denis-e-o-donnell-amany-f-elbehairy-azmy-faisal-katherine-a-webb-j-alberto-neder-and-donald-a-mahler-eur-respir-rev-2016-25-333-347
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903671/sports-related-lung-injury-during-breath-hold-diving
#15
Tanja Mijacika, Zeljko Dujic
The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903670/oxygen-the-lung-and-the-diver-friends-and-foes
#16
Pieter-Jan A M van Ooij, Peter J Sterk, Robert A van Hulst
Worldwide, the number of professional and sports divers is increasing. Most of them breathe diving gases with a raised partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ). However, if the PO2 is between 50 and 300 kPa (375-2250 mmHg) (hyperoxia), pathological pulmonary changes can develop, known as pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Although in its acute phase, POT is reversible, it can ultimately lead to non-reversible pathological changes. Therefore, it is important to monitor these divers to prevent them from sustaining irreversible lesions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903669/exertional-dyspnoea-in-obesity
#17
Vipa Bernhardt, Tony G Babb
The purpose of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the obese person, as in any cardiopulmonary exercise test, is to determine the patient's exercise tolerance, and to help identify and/or distinguish between the various physiological factors that could contribute to exercise intolerance. Unexplained dyspnoea on exertion is a common reason for CPET, but it is an extremely complex symptom to explain. Sometimes obesity is the simple answer by elimination of other possibilities. Thus, distinguishing among multiple clinical causes for exertional dyspnoea depends on the ability to eliminate possibilities while recognising response patterns that are unique to the obese patient...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903668/malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-an-update-on-investigation-diagnosis-and-treatment
#18
Anna C Bibby, Selina Tsim, Nikolaos Kanellakis, Hannah Ball, Denis C Talbot, Kevin G Blyth, Nick A Maskell, Ioannis Psallidas
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy of the pleural surface, predominantly caused by prior asbestos exposure. There is a global epidemic of malignant pleural mesothelioma underway, and incidence rates are predicted to peak in the next few years.This article summarises the epidemiology and pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma, before describing some key factors in the patient experience and outlining common symptoms. Diagnostic approaches are reviewed, including imaging techniques and the role of various biomarkers...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903667/experiences-of-noninvasive-ventilation-in-adults-with-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-a-review-of-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Hamadziripi Ngandu, Nichola Gale, Jane B Hopkinson
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be beneficial for patients with respiratory failure; however, many patients fail to tolerate it and require other interventions. The objective of this thematic synthesis was to describe the nature of NIV experiences in adults with hypercapnic respiratory failure. A systematic, computerised literature search of English-language databases was undertaken with no restriction on date of publication. A total of 99 papers was identified and screened for eligibility from databases including CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO, and some were hand searched...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903666/managing-adult-fontan-patients-where-do-we-stand
#20
REVIEW
Paul Clift, David Celermajer
The Fontan operation is performed as a palliative procedure to improve survival in infants born with a functionally univentricular circulation. The success of the operation is demonstrated by a growing adult Fontan population that exists with this unique physiology. Late follow-up has demonstrated expected and unexpected sequelae, and has shown multisystem effects of this circulation. This review discusses the challenges of managing the late complications in terms of understanding this unique physiology and the innovative therapeutic interventions that are being investigated...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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