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European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515042/radiology-in-diffuse-parenchymal-lung-disease-and-lung-nodules
#1
EDITORIAL
Nicola Sverzellati, Sujal Desai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515041/multidisciplinary-evaluation-of-interstitial-lung-diseases-current-insights-number-1-in-the-series-radiology-edited-by-nicola-sverzellati-and-sujal-desai
#2
Simon L F Walsh
Multidisciplinary team (MDT) diagnosis is regarded as the diagnostic reference standard for interstitial lung disease (ILD). Several studies have reported that MDT diagnosis is associated with higher levels of diagnostic confidence and better interobserver agreement when compared to the individual components of the MDT in isolation. Although this recommendation is widely accepted, no guideline statement specifies what constitutes an MDT meeting and how its participants should govern it. Furthermore, the precise role of an MDT meeting in the setting of ILD may vary from one group to another...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515040/a-systematic-review-of-overlapping-microrna-patterns-in-systemic-sclerosis-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Gianluca Bagnato, William Neal Roberts, Jesse Roman, Sebastiano Gangemi
Lung fibrosis can be observed in systemic sclerosis and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, two disorders where lung involvement carries a poor prognosis. Although much has been learned about the pathogenesis of these conditions, interventions capable of reversing or, at the very least, halting disease progression are not available. Recent studies point to the potential role of micro messenger RNAs (microRNAs) in cancer and tissue fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNA sequences (20-23 nucleotides) that are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved and encoded in the genome...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446601/diffuse-parenchymal-lung-disease
#4
REVIEW
Sara Tomassetti, Claudia Ravaglia, Venerino Poletti
Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs). For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446600/management-of-suspected-monogenic-lung-fibrosis-in-a-specialised-centre
#5
Raphael Borie, Caroline Kannengiesser, Flore Sicre de Fontbrune, Laurent Gouya, Nadia Nathan, Bruno Crestani
At least 10% of patients with interstitial lung disease present monogenic lung fibrosis suspected on familial aggregation of pulmonary fibrosis, specific syndromes or early age of diagnosis. Approximately 25% of families have an identified mutation in genes mostly involved in telomere homeostasis, and more rarely in surfactant homeostasis.Beyond pathophysiological knowledge, detection of these mutations has practical consequence for patients. For instance, mutations involved in telomere homeostasis are associated with haematological complications after lung transplantation and may require adapted immunosuppression...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446599/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Marco Confalonieri, Francesco Salton, Francesco Fabiano
Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356407/an-epidemiological-analysis-of-the-burden-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-usa-europe-and-japan
#7
REVIEW
Henning Gall, Marius M Hoeper, Manuel J Richter, William Cacheris, Barbara Hinzmann, Eckhard Mayer
Epidemiological data for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are limited and there are conflicting reports regarding its pathogenesis.A literature review was conducted to identify CTEPH epidemiological data up to June 2014. Data were analysed to provide estimates of the incidence of CTEPH in the USA, Europe and Japan. An epidemiological projection model derived country-specific estimates of future incidence and diagnosis rates of CTEPH.Overall, 25 publications and 14 databases provided quantitative epidemiological data...
March 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356406/balloon-pulmonary-angioplasty-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Irene Lang, Bernhard C Meyer, Takeshi Ogo, Hiromi Matsubara, Marcin Kurzyna, Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani, Eckhard Mayer, Philippe Brenot
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is thought to result from incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboemboli that undergo organisation into fibrous tissue within pulmonary arterial branches, filling pulmonary arterial lumina with collagenous obstructions. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in CTEPH centres, which has low post-operative mortality and good long-term survival. For patients ineligible for PEA or who have recurrent or persistent pulmonary hypertension after surgery, medical treatment with riociguat is beneficial...
March 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356405/the-pathophysiology-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Gérald Simonneau, Adam Torbicki, Peter Dorfmüller, Nick Kim
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare, progressive pulmonary vascular disease that is usually a consequence of prior acute pulmonary embolism. CTEPH usually begins with persistent obstruction of large and/or middle-sized pulmonary arteries by organised thrombi. Failure of thrombi to resolve may be related to abnormal fibrinolysis or underlying haematological or autoimmune disorders. It is now known that small-vessel abnormalities also contribute to haemodynamic compromise, functional impairment and disease progression in CTEPH...
March 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356404/medical-management-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Joanna Pepke-Zaba, Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani, Marius M Hoeper
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) results from incomplete resolution of acute pulmonary emboli, organised into fibrotic material that obstructs large pulmonary arteries, and distal small-vessel arteriopathy. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the treatment of choice for eligible patients with CTEPH; in expert centres, PEA has low in-hospital mortality rates and excellent long-term survival. Supportive medical therapy consists of lifelong anticoagulation plus diuretics and oxygen, as needed...
March 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356403/short-and-long-term-effects-of-diving-on-pulmonary-function
#11
Kay Tetzlaff, Paul S Thomas
The diving environment provides a challenge to the lung, including exposure to high ambient pressure, altered gas characteristics and cardiovascular effects on the pulmonary circulation. Several factors associated with diving affect pulmonary function acutely and can potentially cause prolonged effects that may accumulate gradually with repeated diving exposure. Evidence from experimental deep dives and longitudinal studies suggests long-term adverse effects of diving on the lungs in commercial deep divers, such as the development of small airways disease and accelerated loss of lung function...
March 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298389/screening-for-copd-the-gap-between-logic-and-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Alan Kaplan, Mike Thomas
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease leading to further morbidity and significant mortality. The first step for any condition is to make the appropriate diagnosis, and spirometry barriers abound in practice around the world. It is tempting to undertake mass screening on all smokers to detect COPD. While this would pick up cases of COPD, results of studies of its effect on COPD end-points such as exacerbations, hospitalisations and mortality are disappointing. As such, aggressive case finding of COPD by screening for symptoms that patients may not themselves perceive is very important in primary care, with subsequent spirometry defining the diagnosis...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298388/pulmonary-endarterectomy-in-the-management-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
David Jenkins, Michael Madani, Elie Fadel, Andrea Maria D'Armini, Eckhard Mayer
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a type of pulmonary hypertension, resulting from fibrotic transformation of pulmonary artery clots causing chronic obstruction in macroscopic pulmonary arteries and associated vascular remodelling in the microvasculature.Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) offers the best chance of symptomatic and prognostic improvement in eligible patients; in expert centres, it has excellent results. Current in-hospital mortality rates are <5% and survival is >90% at 1 year and >70% at 10 years...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298387/diagnosis-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Deepa Gopalan, Marion Delcroix, Matthias Held
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is the only potentially curable form of pulmonary hypertension. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is pivotal for successful treatment. Clinical signs and symptoms can be nonspecific and risk factors such as history of venous thromboembolism may not always be present. Echocardiography is the recommended first diagnostic step. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a complementary tool that can help to identify patients with milder abnormalities and chronic thromboembolic disease, triggering the need for further investigation...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223398/exertional-dyspnoea-in-interstitial-lung-diseases-the-clinical-utility-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#15
Matteo Bonini, Giuseppe Fiorenzano
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterised by alveolar and interstitial damage, pulmonary inflammation (usually associated with fibrosis), decreased lung function and impaired gas exchange, which can be attributed to either a known or an unknown aetiology. Dyspnoea is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with ILD, significantly impacting quality of life. The mechanisms causing dyspnoea are complex and not yet fully understood. However, it is recognised that dyspnoea occurs when there is an imbalance between the central respiratory efferent drive and the response of the respiratory musculature...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223397/what-people-with-down-syndrome-can-teach-us-about-cardiopulmonary-disease
#16
REVIEW
Kelley L Colvin, Michael E Yeager
Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality among live-born infants. Through full or partial trisomy of chromosome 21, Down syndrome is associated with cognitive impairment, congenital malformations (particularly cardiovascular) and dysmorphic features. Immune disturbances in Down syndrome account for an enormous disease burden ranging from quality-of-life issues (autoimmune alopecia) to more serious health issues (autoimmune thyroiditis) and life-threatening issues (leukaemia, respiratory tract infections and pulmonary hypertension)...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223396/personalising-airway-clearance-in-chronic-lung-disease
#17
REVIEW
Maggie McIlwaine, Judy Bradley, J Stuart Elborn, Fidelma Moran
This review describes a framework for providing a personalised approach to selecting the most appropriate airway clearance technique (ACT) for each patient. It is based on a synthesis of the physiological evidence that supports the modulation of ventilation and expiratory airflow as a means of assisting airway clearance. Possession of a strong understanding of the physiological basis for ACTs will enable clinicians to decide which ACT best aligns with the individual patient's pathology in diseases with anatomical bronchiectasis and mucus hypersecretion...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223395/oxygen-therapy-for-interstitial-lung-disease-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Emily C Bell, Narelle S Cox, Nicole Goh, Ian Glaspole, Glen P Westall, Alice Watson, Anne E Holland
This review aims to establish the impact of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), exercise capacity and mortality in interstitial lung disease (ILD).We included studies that compared oxygen therapy to no oxygen therapy in adults with ILD. No limitations were placed on study design or intervention type. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was dyspnoea.Eight studies evaluated the acute effects of oxygen (n=1509)...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143879/acute-high-altitude-sickness
#19
Andrew M Luks, Erik R Swenson, Peter Bärtsch
At any point 1-5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143878/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-in-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte M Kohn, Priyamvada Paudyal
Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease affecting around 235 million people worldwide. Conventional medications in asthma are not curative and patients have significant concerns regarding their side-effects. Consequently, many asthma patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a more holistic approach to care. We systematically reviewed the available evidence on the effectiveness of CAM in the management of asthma in adults.We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and Cochrane databases for randomised controlled trials published in English between 1990 and 2016 investigating the effectiveness of oral or topical CAM in asthmatic adults...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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