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European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903672/-exertional-dyspnoea-in-copd-the-clinical-utility-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-denis-e-o-donnell-amany-f-elbehairy-azmy-faisal-katherine-a-webb-j-alberto-neder-and-donald-a-mahler-eur-respir-rev-2016-25-333-347
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903671/sports-related-lung-injury-during-breath-hold-diving
#2
Tanja Mijacika, Zeljko Dujic
The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903670/oxygen-the-lung-and-the-diver-friends-and-foes
#3
Pieter-Jan A M van Ooij, Peter J Sterk, Robert A van Hulst
Worldwide, the number of professional and sports divers is increasing. Most of them breathe diving gases with a raised partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ). However, if the PO2 is between 50 and 300 kPa (375-2250 mmHg) (hyperoxia), pathological pulmonary changes can develop, known as pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Although in its acute phase, POT is reversible, it can ultimately lead to non-reversible pathological changes. Therefore, it is important to monitor these divers to prevent them from sustaining irreversible lesions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903669/exertional-dyspnoea-in-obesity
#4
Vipa Bernhardt, Tony G Babb
The purpose of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the obese person, as in any cardiopulmonary exercise test, is to determine the patient's exercise tolerance, and to help identify and/or distinguish between the various physiological factors that could contribute to exercise intolerance. Unexplained dyspnoea on exertion is a common reason for CPET, but it is an extremely complex symptom to explain. Sometimes obesity is the simple answer by elimination of other possibilities. Thus, distinguishing among multiple clinical causes for exertional dyspnoea depends on the ability to eliminate possibilities while recognising response patterns that are unique to the obese patient...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903668/malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-an-update-on-investigation-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Anna C Bibby, Selina Tsim, Nikolaos Kanellakis, Hannah Ball, Denis C Talbot, Kevin G Blyth, Nick A Maskell, Ioannis Psallidas
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy of the pleural surface, predominantly caused by prior asbestos exposure. There is a global epidemic of malignant pleural mesothelioma underway, and incidence rates are predicted to peak in the next few years.This article summarises the epidemiology and pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma, before describing some key factors in the patient experience and outlining common symptoms. Diagnostic approaches are reviewed, including imaging techniques and the role of various biomarkers...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903667/experiences-of-noninvasive-ventilation-in-adults-with-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-a-review-of-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Hamadziripi Ngandu, Nichola Gale, Jane B Hopkinson
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be beneficial for patients with respiratory failure; however, many patients fail to tolerate it and require other interventions. The objective of this thematic synthesis was to describe the nature of NIV experiences in adults with hypercapnic respiratory failure. A systematic, computerised literature search of English-language databases was undertaken with no restriction on date of publication. A total of 99 papers was identified and screened for eligibility from databases including CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO, and some were hand searched...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903666/managing-adult-fontan-patients-where-do-we-stand
#7
REVIEW
Paul Clift, David Celermajer
The Fontan operation is performed as a palliative procedure to improve survival in infants born with a functionally univentricular circulation. The success of the operation is demonstrated by a growing adult Fontan population that exists with this unique physiology. Late follow-up has demonstrated expected and unexpected sequelae, and has shown multisystem effects of this circulation. This review discusses the challenges of managing the late complications in terms of understanding this unique physiology and the innovative therapeutic interventions that are being investigated...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903665/pregnancy-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Karen M Olsson, Richard Channick
Despite advanced therapies, maternal mortality in women with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains high in pregnancy and is especially high during the post-partum period. However, recent data indicates that morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and after birth have improved for PAH patients. The current European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines recommend that women with PAH should not become pregnant. Therefore, the risks associated with pregnancy must be emphasised and counselling offered to women at the time of PAH diagnosis and to women with PAH who become pregnant...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903664/practical-considerations-for-therapies-targeting-the-prostacyclin-pathway
#9
REVIEW
Harrison W Farber, Wendy Gin-Sing
Therapies that target the prostacyclin pathway play a key role in the treatment of both early- and late-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension, and provide significant clinical benefits for patients. A number of agents have been approved, which are administered via intravenous, subcutaneous, inhaled or oral routes. The use of these therapies is associated with practical challenges, relating to the need for up-titration and their routes of administration. We discuss here a number of measures that can be taken to support patients and healthcare professionals in order to address the complexities of using these therapies and to encourage compliance...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903663/beyond-a-single-pathway-combination-therapy-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Olivier Sitbon, Sean Gaine
There is a strong rationale for combining therapies to simultaneously target three of the key pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Evidence to support this strategy is growing, and a number of studies have demonstrated that combination therapy, administered as either a sequential or an initial regimen, can improve long-term outcomes in PAH. Dual combination therapy with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and an endothelin receptor antagonist is the most widely utilised combination regimen...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903662/patient-engagement-and-self-management-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Jytte Graarup, Pisana Ferrari, Luke S Howard
Improved care in pulmonary arterial hypertension has led to increased longevity for patients, with a paralleled evolution in the nature of their needs. There is more focus on the impact of the disease on their day-to-day activities and quality of life, and a holistic approach is coming to the front of pulmonary arterial hypertension management, which places the patient at the centre of their own healthcare. Patients are thus becoming more proactive, involved and engaged in their self-care, and this engagement is an important factor if patient outcomes are to improve...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903661/risk-assessment-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Amresh Raina, Marc Humbert
Regular patient assessment is essential for the management of chronic diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Comprehensive patient assessment and risk stratification in PAH are important to guide treatment decisions and to monitor disease progression as well as patients' response to treatment. Approaches for assessing risk in PAH patients include the use of risk variables, as recommended in the 2015 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) pulmonary hypertension (PH) guidelines, and the application of risk equations and scores, such as the French registry risk equation and the REVEAL registry risk score...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903660/future-perspectives-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Gérald Simonneau, Marius M Hoeper, Vallerie McLaughlin, Lewis Rubin, Nazzareno Galiè
While there have been advances in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), disease management remains suboptimal for many patients. The development of novel treatments and strategies can provide opportunities to target other mechanisms that play a role in the complex pathobiology of PAH outside of the three main pathophysiological pathways. In this review, we highlight some of the potential PAH therapies or techniques that are being, or have been, investigated in phase II clinical trials. This review also discusses potential points for consideration in the development of novel therapies that target putative disease mediators or modifiers...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903659/pulmonary-hypertension-the-importance-of-correctly-diagnosing-the-cause
#14
Sanjay Mehta, Jean-Luc Vachiéry
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex condition that can occur as a result of a wide range of disorders, including left heart disease, lung disease and chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. Contemporary PH patients are older and frequently have a multitude of comorbidities that may contribute to or simply coincide with their PH. Identifying the cause of PH in these complicated patients can be challenging but is essential, given that the aetiology of the disease has a significant impact on the management options available...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903658/prognostic-considerations-of-the-new-world-health-organization-classification-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
REVIEW
Alain C Borczuk
The 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) lung adenocarcinoma classification divides tumours into categories of indolent pre-invasive, minimally invasive and predominantly lepidic and, by examining predominant patterns of invasion, allows for further stratification into intermediate and high-grade tumours. The impact of the 2015 classification on prognosis was reviewed by a PubMed search for search terms "adenocarcinoma", "lung pathology" and "prognosis" and relevant publications reviewed. These were sorted for data on stage and survival as impacted by histological classification, and survival studies were separated into all stage versus stage 1 studies...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903657/the-revolution-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#16
EDITORIAL
Sergio Harari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581835/-advanced-medical-interventions-in-pleural-disease-rahul-bhatnagar-john-p-corcoran-fabien-maldonado-david-feller-kopman-julius-janssen-philippe-astoul-and-najib-m-rahman-eur-respir-rev-2016-25-199-213
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581834/-malignant-pleural-effusion-from-bench-to-bedside-ioannis-psallidas-ioannis-kalomenidis-jose-m-porcel-bruce-w-robinson-and-georgios-t-stathopoulos-eur-respir-rev-2016-25-189-198
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581833/sports-related-to-drowning
#19
David Szpilman, James P Orlowski
Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581832/exertional-dyspnoea-in-copd-the-clinical-utility-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#20
Denis E O'Donnell, Amany F Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Donald A Mahler
Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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