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European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141964/acute-decompensated-pulmonary-hypertension
#1
Laurent Savale, Jason Weatherald, Xavier Jaïs, Constance Vuillard, Athénaïs Boucly, Mitja Jevnikar, David Montani, Olaf Mercier, Gerald Simonneau, Elie Fadel, Olivier Sitbon, Marc Humbert
Acute right heart failure in chronic precapillary pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a rapidly progressive syndrome with systemic congestion resulting from impaired right ventricular filling and/or reduced right ventricular flow output. This clinical picture results from an imbalance between the afterload imposed on the right ventricle and its adaptation capacity. Acute decompensated pulmonary hypertension is associated with a very poor prognosis in the short term. Despite its major impact on survival, its optimal management remains very challenging for specialised centres, without specific recommendations...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141963/current-and-new-challenges-in-occupational-lung-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Sara De Matteis, Dick Heederik, Alex Burdorf, Claudio Colosio, Paul Cullinan, Paul K Henneberger, Ann Olsson, Anne Raynal, Jos Rooijackers, Tiina Santonen, Joaquin Sastre, Vivi Schlünssen, Martie van Tongeren, Torben Sigsgaard
Occupational lung diseases are an important public health issue and are avoidable through preventive interventions in the workplace. Up-to-date knowledge about changes in exposure to occupational hazards as a result of technological and industrial developments is essential to the design and implementation of efficient and effective workplace preventive measures. New occupational agents with unknown respiratory health effects are constantly introduced to the market and require periodic health surveillance among exposed workers to detect early signs of adverse respiratory effects...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141962/personalised-medicine-for-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Céline Mascaux, Pascale Tomasini, Laurent Greillier, Fabrice Barlesi
After years of standard care prescribed to cancer patients without any selection except the primary site and histology of the tumour, the era of precision medicine has revolutionised cancer care. Personalised medicine refers to the selection of patients for specific treatment based on the presence of specific biomarkers which indicate sensitivity to corresponding targeted therapies and/or lower toxicity risk, such that patients will have the greatest chance of deriving benefit from the treatments. Here, we review personalised medicine for nonsmall cell lung cancer...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070583/-intersections-of-lung-progenitor-cells-lung-disease-and-lung-cancer-carla-f-kim-eur-respir-rev-2017-26-170054
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070582/lung-segmentectomy-does-it-offer-a-real-functional-benefit-over-lobectomy
#5
REVIEW
Anne Charloux, Elisabeth Quoix
Anatomical segmentectomy has been developed to offer better pulmonary function preservation than lobectomy, in stage IA lung cancer. Despite the retrospective nature of most of the studies and the lack of randomised studies, a substantial body of literature today allows us to evaluate to what extent lung function decreases after segmentectomy and whether segmentectomy offers a real functional benefit over lobectomy. From the available series, it emerges that the mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) is low, ranging from -9% to -24% of the initial value within 2 months and -3 to -13% 12 months after segmentectomy...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070581/personalised-medicine-in-sleep-respiratory-disorders-focus-on-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
Maria R Bonsignore, Monique C Suarez Giron, Oreste Marrone, Alessandra Castrogiovanni, Josep M Montserrat
In all fields of medicine, major efforts are currently dedicated to improve the clinical, physiological and therapeutic understanding of disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is no exception. The personalised medicine approach is relevant for OSA, given its complex pathophysiology and variable clinical presentation, the interactions with comorbid conditions and its possible contribution to poor outcomes. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective, but CPAP is poorly tolerated or not accepted in a considerable proportion of OSA patients...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070580/copd-in-individuals-with-the-pimz-alpha-1-antitrypsin-genotype
#7
REVIEW
Haitham S Al Ashry, Charlie Strange
Since the discovery of severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency as a genetic risk factor for emphysema, there has been ongoing debate over whether individuals with intermediate deficiency with one protease inhibitor Z allele (PiMZ, or MZ) are at some risk for emphysema. This is important, because MZ individuals comprise 2-5% of the general population. In this review we summarise the evidence about the risks of the MZ population to develop emphysema or asthma. We discuss the different study designs that have tried to answer this question...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070579/use-of-multitarget-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-to-attenuate-platelet-derived-growth-factor-signalling-in-lung-disease
#8
REVIEW
Rana Kanaan, Charlie Strange
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) play a fundamental role in the embryonic development of the lung. Aberrant PDGF signalling has been documented convincingly in a large variety of pulmonary diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, lung cancer and lung fibrosis. Targeting PDGF signalling has been proven to be effective in these diseases. In clinical practice, the most effective way to block PDGF signalling is to inhibit the activity of the intracellular PDGFR kinases...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070578/is-mitochondrial-dysfunction-a-driving-mechanism-linking-copd-to-nonsmall-cell-lung-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Francois Ng Kee Kwong, Andrew G Nicholson, Celeste L Harrison, Philip M Hansbro, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at increased risk of developing nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, irrespective of their smoking history. Although the mechanisms behind this observation are not clear, established drivers of carcinogenesis in COPD include oxidative stress and sustained chronic inflammation. Mitochondria are critical in these two processes and recent evidence links increased oxidative stress in COPD patients to mitochondrial damage. We therefore postulate that mitochondrial damage in COPD patients leads to increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, thereby increasing the risk of carcinogenesis...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974541/when-to-start-and-when-to-stop-antifibrotic-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Sebastiano Emanuele Torrisi, Mauro Pavone, Ada Vancheri, Carlo Vancheri
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by progressive changes of the lung architecture causing cough and dyspnoea and ultimately leading to lung failure and death. Today, for the first time, two drugs that may reduce the inexorable progression of the disease are available, suggesting that treatment with specific drugs for IPF should be started as soon as diagnosis is made. This applies to any disease and particularly to IPF, which is marked by a 5-year survival comparable or even worse than many cancers...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954770/the-threat-in-chronic-lung-diseases-acute-exacerbations
#11
EDITORIAL
Michael Kreuter, Vincent Cottin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954769/pharmacotherapy-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-current-landscape-and-future-potential
#12
REVIEW
Ganesh Raghu
Over the past two and a half decades, many clinical trials have been designed to determine the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, so far, only two drugs (pirfenidone and nintedanib) have been found to have an impact on disease progression as defined by reducing the rate of decline in forced vital capacity over a year among IPF patients with mild to moderate impairment in lung function. These two drugs have been approved for treatment of IPF by regulatory agencies and are currently in clinical use worldwide...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954768/personalised-medicine-in-asthma-time-for-action-number-1-in-the-series-personalised-medicine-in-respiratory-diseases-edited-by-renaud-louis-and-nicolas-roche
#13
Kian Fan Chung
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease comprising several phenotypes driven by different pathways. To define these phenotypes or endotypes (phenotypes defined by mechanisms), an unbiased approach to clustering of various omics platforms will yield molecular phenotypes from which composite biomarkers can be obtained. Biomarkers can help differentiate between these phenotypes and pinpoint patients suitable for specific targeted therapies - the basis for personalised medicine. Biomarkers need to be linked to point-of-care biomarkers that may be measured readily in exhaled breath, blood or urine...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954767/pulmonary-hypertension-in-systemic-sclerosis-different-phenotypes
#14
REVIEW
David Launay, Vincent Sobanski, Eric Hachulla, Marc Humbert
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a frequent and severe complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc). PH in SSc is highly heterogeneous because of the various clinical phenotypes of SSc itself and because the mechanisms of PH can vary from one patient to another. PH in SSc may be due to vasculopathy of the small pulmonary arteries (group 1; pulmonary arterial hypertension), interstitial lung disease (group 3; PH due to lung disease or chronic hypoxia) or myocardial fibrosis leading to left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction (group 2; PH due to chronic left-heart disease)...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954766/recent-lessons-learned-in-the-management-of-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Yasuhiro Kondoh, Vincent Cottin, Kevin K Brown
Recognising recent advances, the definition and diagnostic criteria for acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) have been updated by an international working group. The new definition describes any acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration (both idiopathic and triggered events) characterised by evidence of new widespread alveolar abnormality. The new criteria require a previous or concurrent diagnosis of IPF, an acute worsening or development of dyspnoea typically less than 1 month in duration, chest imaging evidence on computed tomography (CT) of new bilateral ground-glass opacity and/or consolidation superimposed on a background imaging pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia not fully explained by cardiac failure or fluid overload...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954765/new-insights-in-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-and-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#16
REVIEW
Olga Torre, Davide Elia, Antonella Caminati, Sergio Harari
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) are rare diseases that lead to progressive cystic destruction of the lungs. Despite their distinctive characteristics, these diseases share several features. Patients affected by LAM or PLCH have similar radiological cystic patterns, a similar age of onset, and the possibility of extrapulmonary involvement. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, as well as the current and most promising biomarkers and therapeutic approaches, are described...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954764/systems-medicine-advances-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#17
REVIEW
Flavia R Greiffo, Oliver Eickelberg, Isis E Fernandez
Fibrotic lung diseases involve subject-environment interactions, together with dysregulated homeostatic processes, impaired DNA repair and distorted immune functions. Systems medicine-based approaches are used to analyse diseases in a holistic manner, by integrating systems biology platforms along with clinical parameters, for the purpose of understanding disease origin, progression, exacerbation and remission.Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) refer to a heterogeneous group of complex fibrotic diseases. The increase of systems medicine-based approaches in the understanding of ILDs provides exceptional advantages by improving diagnostics, unravelling phenotypical differences, and stratifying patient populations by predictable outcomes and personalised treatments...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954763/severe-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-what-can-be-done
#18
REVIEW
Antonella Caminati, Roberto Cassandro, Olga Torre, Sergio Harari
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains a challenging disease to manage. Two drugs are now available that can slow disease progression in patients with mild-to-moderate IPF. This means that early diagnosis is mandatory, because there are no proven effective therapies for severe IPF. This lack of proven therapies may be at least partially due to the fact that severe IPF patients are usually not enrolled in randomised, prospective, multicentre, international trials. Clinical observation experiences and preliminary results of long-term, open-label extensions of clinical trials suggest that both pirfenidone and nintedanib may also slow or decrease progression in patients with severe IPF...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877978/how-i-manage-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#19
Gwenaël Lorillon, Abdellatif Tazi
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare sporadic cystic lung disease of unknown aetiology that is characterised by the infiltration and destruction of the wall of distal bronchioles by CD1a(+) Langerhans-like cells. In adults, PLCH is frequently isolated and affects young smokers of both sexes. Recent multicentre studies have led to the more standardised management of patients in clinical practice. Smoking cessation is essential and is occasionally the only suitable intervention. Serial lung function testing is important because a significant proportion of patients may experience an early decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and develop airflow obstruction...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877977/rare-pulmonary-diseases-a-common-fight
#20
EDITORIAL
Sergio Harari, Marc Humbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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