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European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263177/pulmonary-hypertension-a-paradigm-for-rare-pulmonary-diseases
#1
EDITORIAL
Sergio Harari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263176/the-changing-landscape-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-management
#2
REVIEW
Michael Madani, Takeshi Ogo, Gérald Simonneau
For patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the current standard of care involves surgical removal of fibro-thrombotic obstructions by pulmonary endarterectomy. While this approach has excellent outcomes, significant proportions of patients are not eligible for surgery or suffer from persistent/recurrent pulmonary hypertension after the procedure. The availability of balloon pulmonary angioplasty and the approval of the first medical therapy for use in CTEPH have significantly improved the outlook for patients ineligible for pulmonary endarterectomy...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263175/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-tailoring-treatment-to-risk-in-the-current-era
#3
REVIEW
Sean Gaine, Vallerie McLaughlin
Recent advances in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have led to improved patient outcomes. Multiple PAH therapies are now available and optimising the use of these drugs in clinical practice is vital. In this review, we discuss the management of PAH patients in the context of current treatment guidelines and supporting clinical evidence. In clinical practice, considerable emphasis is placed on the importance of making treatment decisions guided by each patient's risk status, which should be assessed using multiple prognostic parameters...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263174/metabolic-dysfunction-in-pulmonary-hypertension-from-basic-science-to-clinical-practice
#4
REVIEW
Stephen Y Chan, Lewis J Rubin
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an often-fatal vascular disease of unclear molecular origins. The pulmonary vascular remodelling which occurs in PH is characterised by elevated vasomotor tone and a pro-proliferative state, ultimately leading to right ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. Guided in many respects by prior evidence from cancer biology, recent investigations have identified metabolic aberrations as crucial components of the disease process in both the pulmonary vessels and the right ventricle...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263173/pathobiology-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-understanding-the-roads-less-travelled
#5
REVIEW
Anna R Hemnes, Marc Humbert
The pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is complex and incompletely understood. Although three pathogenic pathways have been relatively well characterised, it is widely accepted that dysfunction in a multitude of other cellular processes is likely to play a critical role in driving the development of PAH. Currently available therapies, which all target one of the three well-characterised pathways, provide significant benefits for patients; however, PAH remains a progressive and ultimately fatal disease...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263172/advanced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-mechanical-support-and-lung-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Sonja Bartolome, Marius M Hoeper, Walter Klepetko
The development of targeted therapies has transformed the outlook for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, some patients fail to achieve an adequate clinical response despite receiving maximal treatment. For these patients, lung transplantation remains an important therapeutic option, and recommendations for transplantation are included in the current European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Although lung transplantation is not without risk, overall long-term survival rates are good and substantial improvements in quality of life have been reported for lung transplant recipients...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263171/lung-nodules-size-still-matters
#7
Anna Rita Larici, Alessandra Farchione, Paola Franchi, Mario Ciliberto, Giuseppe Cicchetti, Lucio Calandriello, Annemilia Del Ciello, Lorenzo Bonomo
The incidence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules has risen constantly over the past few years. Determination of lung nodule malignancy is pivotal, because the early diagnosis of lung cancer could lead to a definitive intervention. According to the current international guidelines, size and growth rate represent the main indicators to determine the nature of a pulmonary nodule. However, there are some limitations in evaluating and characterising nodules when only their dimensions are taken into account. There is no single method for measuring nodules, and intrinsic errors, which can determine variations in nodule measurement and in growth assessment, do exist when performing measurements either manually or with automated or semi-automated methods...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212838/long-term-macrolides-in-diffuse-interstitial-lung-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Paola Faverio, Francesco Bini, Adriano Vaghi, Alberto Pesci
In the present review we provide currently available evidence for the use of macrolides in the treatment of diffuse interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Up to now, research on macrolides has mainly focused on three areas. First, macrolides have shown some promising results in cellular models and case reports as antifibrotic agents, by promoting autophagy and clearance of intracellular protein aggregates and acting as regulators of surfactant homeostasis. Secondly, macrolides have an immunomodulatory effect, which has been applied in some organising pneumonia cases...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212837/pirfenidone-safety-and-adverse-event-management-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Lisa H Lancaster, Joao A de Andrade, Joseph D Zibrak, Maria L Padilla, Carlo Albera, Steven D Nathan, Marlies S Wijsenbeek, John L Stauffer, Klaus-Uwe Kirchgaessler, Ulrich Costabel
Pirfenidone is one of two approved therapies for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Randomised controlled clinical trials and subsequent post hoc analyses have demonstrated that pirfenidone reduces lung function decline, decreases mortality and improves progression-free survival. Long-term extension trials, registries and real-world studies have also shown similar treatment effects with pirfenidone. However, for patients with IPF to obtain the maximum benefits of pirfenidone treatment, the potential adverse events (AEs) associated with pirfenidone need to be managed...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212836/inhaler-technique-does-age-matter-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Barbara, Vicky Kritikos, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich
Poor inhaler technique and inferior asthma outcomes are evident in older adults. Reviews comparing metered dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) techniques across older adults and younger cohorts are scarce. This systematic review aimed to determine whether differences exist between such cohorts with regards to the number and type of MDI and DPI errors made. A systematic literature search was conducted in Embase, Medline and PubMed from July 1 to December 31, 2016. Studies were selected in accordance with preset inclusion criteria, relevant data were extracted, and quality was assessed with validated checklists...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212835/the-air-of-europe-where-are-we-going
#11
Isabella Annesi-Maesano
Air pollution constitutes one of the main threats to public health in Europe. Significant impacts on the health of Europeans in terms of morbidity and mortality have been observed, even in cases of low exposure and where pollutant levels are within limits set by the European Union (EU). The respiratory system is a primary target of the harmful effects of key air pollutants. Emissions of many air pollutants have decreased substantially over the past decades in Europe, resulting in diminished concentrations and improved air quality...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212834/lung-ageing-and-copd-is-there-a-role-for-ageing-in-abnormal-tissue-repair
#12
Corry-Anke Brandsma, Maaike de Vries, Rita Costa, Roy R Woldhuis, Melanie Königshoff, Wim Timens
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence, in particular in the elderly. COPD is characterised by abnormal tissue repair resulting in (small) airways disease and emphysema. There is accumulating evidence that ageing hallmarks are prominent features of COPD. These ageing hallmarks have been described in different subsets of COPD patients, in different lung compartments and also in a variety of cell types, and thus might contribute to different COPD phenotypes...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141964/acute-decompensated-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
Laurent Savale, Jason Weatherald, Xavier Jaïs, Constance Vuillard, Athénaïs Boucly, Mitja Jevnikar, David Montani, Olaf Mercier, Gerald Simonneau, Elie Fadel, Olivier Sitbon, Marc Humbert
Acute right heart failure in chronic precapillary pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a rapidly progressive syndrome with systemic congestion resulting from impaired right ventricular filling and/or reduced right ventricular flow output. This clinical picture results from an imbalance between the afterload imposed on the right ventricle and its adaptation capacity. Acute decompensated pulmonary hypertension is associated with a very poor prognosis in the short term. Despite its major impact on survival, its optimal management remains very challenging for specialised centres, without specific recommendations...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141963/current-and-new-challenges-in-occupational-lung-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Sara De Matteis, Dick Heederik, Alex Burdorf, Claudio Colosio, Paul Cullinan, Paul K Henneberger, Ann Olsson, Anne Raynal, Jos Rooijackers, Tiina Santonen, Joaquin Sastre, Vivi Schlünssen, Martie van Tongeren, Torben Sigsgaard
Occupational lung diseases are an important public health issue and are avoidable through preventive interventions in the workplace. Up-to-date knowledge about changes in exposure to occupational hazards as a result of technological and industrial developments is essential to the design and implementation of efficient and effective workplace preventive measures. New occupational agents with unknown respiratory health effects are constantly introduced to the market and require periodic health surveillance among exposed workers to detect early signs of adverse respiratory effects...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141962/personalised-medicine-for-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Céline Mascaux, Pascale Tomasini, Laurent Greillier, Fabrice Barlesi
After years of standard care prescribed to cancer patients without any selection except the primary site and histology of the tumour, the era of precision medicine has revolutionised cancer care. Personalised medicine refers to the selection of patients for specific treatment based on the presence of specific biomarkers which indicate sensitivity to corresponding targeted therapies and/or lower toxicity risk, such that patients will have the greatest chance of deriving benefit from the treatments. Here, we review personalised medicine for nonsmall cell lung cancer...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070583/-intersections-of-lung-progenitor-cells-lung-disease-and-lung-cancer-carla-f-kim-eur-respir-rev-2017-26-170054
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070582/lung-segmentectomy-does-it-offer-a-real-functional-benefit-over-lobectomy
#17
REVIEW
Anne Charloux, Elisabeth Quoix
Anatomical segmentectomy has been developed to offer better pulmonary function preservation than lobectomy, in stage IA lung cancer. Despite the retrospective nature of most of the studies and the lack of randomised studies, a substantial body of literature today allows us to evaluate to what extent lung function decreases after segmentectomy and whether segmentectomy offers a real functional benefit over lobectomy. From the available series, it emerges that the mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) is low, ranging from -9% to -24% of the initial value within 2 months and -3 to -13% 12 months after segmentectomy...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070581/personalised-medicine-in-sleep-respiratory-disorders-focus-on-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-diagnosis-and-treatment
#18
Maria R Bonsignore, Monique C Suarez Giron, Oreste Marrone, Alessandra Castrogiovanni, Josep M Montserrat
In all fields of medicine, major efforts are currently dedicated to improve the clinical, physiological and therapeutic understanding of disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is no exception. The personalised medicine approach is relevant for OSA, given its complex pathophysiology and variable clinical presentation, the interactions with comorbid conditions and its possible contribution to poor outcomes. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective, but CPAP is poorly tolerated or not accepted in a considerable proportion of OSA patients...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070580/copd-in-individuals-with-the-pimz-alpha-1-antitrypsin-genotype
#19
REVIEW
Haitham S Al Ashry, Charlie Strange
Since the discovery of severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency as a genetic risk factor for emphysema, there has been ongoing debate over whether individuals with intermediate deficiency with one protease inhibitor Z allele (PiMZ, or MZ) are at some risk for emphysema. This is important, because MZ individuals comprise 2-5% of the general population. In this review we summarise the evidence about the risks of the MZ population to develop emphysema or asthma. We discuss the different study designs that have tried to answer this question...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070579/use-of-multitarget-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-to-attenuate-platelet-derived-growth-factor-signalling-in-lung-disease
#20
REVIEW
Rana Kanaan, Charlie Strange
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) play a fundamental role in the embryonic development of the lung. Aberrant PDGF signalling has been documented convincingly in a large variety of pulmonary diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, lung cancer and lung fibrosis. Targeting PDGF signalling has been proven to be effective in these diseases. In clinical practice, the most effective way to block PDGF signalling is to inhibit the activity of the intracellular PDGFR kinases...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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