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European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997247/noninvasive-ventilation-in-acute-respiratory-failure-which-recipe-for-success
#1
Raffaele Scala, Lara Pisani
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) to treat acute respiratory failure has expanded tremendously over the world in terms of the spectrum of diseases that can be successfully managed, the locations of its application and achievable goals.The turning point for the successful expansion of NPPV is its ability to achieve the same physiological effects as invasive mechanical ventilation with the avoidance of the life-threatening risks correlated with the use of an artificial airway.Cardiorespiratory arrest, extreme psychomotor agitation, severe haemodynamic instability, nonhypercapnic coma and multiple organ failure are absolute contraindications for NPPV...
September 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997246/bronchiectasis-a-case-based-approach-to-investigation-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Martina Contarini, Simon Finch, James D Chalmers
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by a syndrome of productive cough and recurrent respiratory infections due to permanent dilatation of the bronchi. Bronchiectasis represents the final common pathway of different disorders, some of which may require specific treatment. Therefore, promptly identifying the aetiology of bronchiectasis is recommended by the European Respiratory Society guidelines. The clinical history and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features can be useful to detect the underlying causes...
September 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997245/systematic-review-of-drug-effects-in-humans-and-models-with-surfactant-processing-disease
#3
REVIEW
Dymph Klay, Thijs W Hoffman, Ankie M Harmsze, Jan C Grutters, Coline H M van Moorsel
Fibrotic interstitial pneumonias are a group of rare diseases characterised by distortion of lung interstitium. Patients with mutations in surfactant-processing genes, such as surfactant protein C ( SFTPC ), surfactant protein A1 and A2 ( SFTPA1 and A2 ), ATP binding cassette A3 ( ABCA3 ) and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome ( HPS1 , 2 and 4 ), develop progressive pulmonary fibrosis, often culminating in fatal respiratory insufficiency. Although many mutations have been described, little is known about the optimal treatment strategy for fibrotic interstitial pneumonia patients with surfactant-processing mutations...
September 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950308/interstitial-pneumonia-with-autoimmune-features-a-new-classification-still-on-the-move
#4
EDITORIAL
Lorenzo Cavagna, Miguel A Gonzalez Gay, Yannick Allanore, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950307/cell-matrix-interactions-in-lung-disease-and-regeneration-ers-lung-science-conference-2018-report
#5
EDITORIAL
Silke Meiners, Clare Lloyd, Rachel C Chambers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950306/matrix-abnormalities-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Chandak Upagupta, Chiko Shimbori, Rahmah Alsilmi, Martin Kolb
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating, progressive disease, marked by excessive scarring, which leads to increased tissue stiffness, loss in lung function and ultimately death. IPF is characterised by progressive fibroblast and myofibroblast proliferation, and extensive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Myofibroblasts play a key role in ECM deposition. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-╬▓1 is a major growth factor involved in myofibroblast differentiation, and the creation of a profibrotic microenvironment...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950305/the-consequence-of-matrix-dysfunction-on-lung-immunity-and-the-microbiome-in-copd
#7
Tracy Hussell, Sylvia Lui, Christopher Jagger, David Morgan, Oliver Brand
The pulmonary extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of proteins which primarily defines tissue architecture and regulates various biochemical and biophysical processes. It is a dynamic system comprising two main structures (the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane) which undergo continuous, yet highly regulated, remodelling. This remodelling process is essential for tissue homeostasis and uncontrolled regulation can lead to pathological states including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950304/how-bacteria-hack-the-matrix-and-dodge-the-bullets-of-immunity
#8
Magnus Paulsson, Kristian Riesbeck
Haemophilus influenzae , Moraxella catarrhalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are common Gram-negative pathogens associated with an array of pulmonary diseases. All three species have multiple adhesins in their outer membrane, i.e. surface structures that confer the ability to bind to surrounding cells, proteins or tissues. This mini-review focuses on proteins with high affinity for the components of the extracellular matrix such as collagen, laminin, fibronectin and vitronectin. Adhesins are not structurally related and may be lipoproteins, transmembrane porins or large protruding trimeric auto-transporters...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950303/the-multifaceted-roles-of-the-matrikine-pro-gly-pro-in-pulmonary-health-and-disease
#9
Dhiren F Patel, Robert J Snelgrove
Matrikines are bioactive fragments of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that are fundamental in regulating a diverse array of physiological processes. The tripeptide Proline-Glycine-Proline (PGP) is a collagen-derived matrikine that has classically been described as a neutrophil chemoattractant. In this article, we describe our current understanding of the pathways that generate, degrade and modify PGP to dictate its bioavailability and stability. Additionally, we discuss our expanding appreciation of the capacity of PGP to regulate diverse cell types and biological processes, independent of its activity on neutrophils, including a putative role in wound repair...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898905/tuberculosis-elimination-where-are-we-now
#10
Alberto Matteelli, Adrian Rendon, Simon Tiberi, Seif Al-Abri, Constantia Voniatis, Anna Cristina C Carvalho, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Dina Visca, Antonio Spanevello, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Tuberculosis (TB) still represents a major public health issue in spite of the significant impact of the efforts made by the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners to improve its control. In 2014 WHO launched a new global strategy (End TB) with a vision of a world free of TB, and a 2035 goal of TB elimination (defined as less than one incident case per million). The aim of this article is to summarise the theoretical bases of the End TB Strategy and to analyse progresses and persistent obstacles on the way to TB elimination...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898904/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-copd-and-air-travel
#11
REVIEW
Begum Ergan, Metin Akgun, Angela Maria Grazia Pacilli, Stefano Nava
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a challenging respiratory problem throughout the world. Although survival is prolonged with new therapies and better management, the magnitude of the burden resulting from moderate-to-severe disease is increasing. One of the major aims of the disease management is to try to break the vicious cycle of patients being homebound and to promote an active lifestyle. A fundamental component of active daily life is, of course, travelling. Today, the world is getting smaller with the option of travelling by air...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875138/copd-stands-for-complex-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Sarah Houben-Wilke, Ingrid M Augustin, Jan H Vercoulen, Dirk van Ranst, Eline Bij de Vaate, Johan B Wempe, Martijn A Spruit, Emiel F M Wouters, Frits M E Franssen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has extensively been reported as a complex disease affecting patients' health beyond the lungs with a variety of intra- and extrapulmonary components and considerable variability between individuals. This review discusses the assessment of this complexity and underlines the importance of transdisciplinary management programmes addressing the physical, emotional and social health of the individual patient.COPD management is challenging and requires advanced, sophisticated strategies meeting the patient's individual needs...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875137/acellular-human-lung-scaffolds-to-model-lung-disease-and-tissue-regeneration
#13
Sarah E Gilpin, Darcy E Wagner
Recent advances in whole lung bioengineering have opened new doors for studying lung repair and regeneration ex vivo using acellular human derived lung tissue scaffolds. Methods to decellularise whole human lungs, lobes or resected segments from normal and diseased human lungs have been developed using both perfusion and immersion based techniques. Immersion based techniques allow laboratories without access to intact lobes the ability to generate acellular human lung scaffolds. Acellular human lung scaffolds can be further processed into small segments, thin slices or extracellular matrix extracts, to study cell behaviour such as viability, proliferation, migration and differentiation...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769296/interpreting-risk-reduction-in-clinical-trials-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Annie C Lajoie, S├ębastien Bonnet, Yves Lacasse, Jean-Christophe Lega, Steeve Provencher
Because of scepticism concerning study results when relying solely on relative effect estimates, the number needed to treat (NNT) has been used extensively to quantify the net clinical benefit of an intervention, and is reported increasingly in randomised trials and observational studies. This method is a simple measure representing the number of patients who would need to be treated to prevent one additional adverse event. However, like relative risk, the NNT is an inherently time-dependent measure. Thus, its calculation may lead to misleading interpretations, especially for studies involving varying follow-up times or recurrent outcomes...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769295/indoor-mould-exposure-asthma-and-rhinitis-findings-from-systematic-reviews-and-recent-longitudinal-studies
#15
REVIEW
Denis Caillaud, Benedicte Leynaert, Marion Keirsbulck, Rachel Nadif
Starting from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and World Health Organization (WHO) reports, this review provides an overview of the literature published from 2006 to 2017 on the associations between indoor mould exposure and asthma and rhinitis separately in children and adults with a focus on longitudinal epidemiological studies.A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was performed, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, longitudinal, incident case-control and panel studies. 61 publications were identified reporting visible mould or mould odour or quantitative assessment of culturable fungi or mould species...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769294/pulmonary-function-tests-as-outcomes-for-systemic-sclerosis-interstitial-lung-disease
#16
REVIEW
Melissa Caron, Sabrina Hoa, Marie Hudson, Kevin Schwartzman, Russell Steele
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We performed a systematic review to characterise the use and validation of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) as surrogate markers for systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) progression.Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant studies. Included studies either used at least one PFT measure as a longitudinal outcome for SSc-ILD progression ( i.e. outcome studies) and/or reported at least one classical measure of validity for the PFTs in SSc-ILD ( i...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720510/efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-xanthines-in-copd-a-network-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Peter J Barnes, Gerard J Criner, Fernando J Martinez, Alberto Papi, Maria Gabriella Matera
Theophylline can still have a role in the management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its use remains controversial, mainly due to its narrow therapeutic window. Doxofylline, another xanthine, is an effective bronchodilator and displays a better safety profile than theophylline. Therefore, we performed a quantitative synthesis to compare the efficacy and safety profile of different xanthines in COPD.The primary end-point of this meta-analysis was the impact of xanthines on lung function...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720509/state-of-the-art-in-interstitial-pneumonia-with-autoimmune-features-a-systematic-review-on-retrospective-studies-and-suggestions-for-further-advances
#18
REVIEW
Gianluca Sambataro, Domenico Sambataro, Sebastiano Emanuele Torrisi, Ada Vancheri, Mauro Pavone, Roberta Rosso, Matteo Schisano, Claudia Crimi, Francesca Pignataro, Aryeh Fischer, Nicoletta Del Papa, Carlo Vancheri
The term interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) has been proposed to define patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with autoimmune signs not classifiable for connective tissue diseases (CTDs). This new definition overcomes previous nomenclatures and provides a uniform structure for prospective studies through specific classification criteria.This work evaluates the characteristics of IPAF patients reported in the literature, to highlight potential limits through a comparative analysis and to suggest better performing classification criteria...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720508/the-role-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-tests-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Stefania Farina, Michele Correale, Noemi Bruno, Stefania Paolillo, Elisabetta Salvioni, Roberto Badagliacca, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
Despite recent advances in the therapeutic management of patients affected by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), survival remains poor. Prompt identification of the disease, especially in subjects at increased risk of developing PAH, and prognostic stratification of patients are a necessary target of clinical practice but remain challenging. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) parameters, particularly peak oxygen uptake, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension and the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production relationship, emerged as new prognostic tools for PAH patients...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653950/personalised-medicine-in-interstitial-lung-diseases-number-6-in-the-series-personalised-medicine-in-respiratory-diseases-edited-by-renaud-louis-and-nicolas-roche
#20
Maria A Kokosi, George A Margaritopoulos, Athol U Wells
Interstitial lung diseases in general, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in particular, are complex disorders with multiple pathogenetic pathways, various disease behaviour profiles and different responses to treatment, all facets that make personalised medicine a highly attractive concept. Personalised medicine is aimed at describing distinct disease subsets taking into account individual lifestyle, environmental exposures, genetic profiles and molecular pathways. The cornerstone of personalised medicine is the identification of biomarkers that can be used to inform diagnosis, prognosis and treatment stratification...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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