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European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025751/dose-reduction-of-high-dose-first-generation-antipsychotics-or-switch-to-ziprasidone-in-long-stay-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-1-year-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Jan P A M Bogers, Peter F J Schulte, Theo G Broekman, Peter Moleman, Lieuwe de Haan
Long-stay patients with severe schizophrenia are frequently treated with high doses of first-generation antipsychotics (FGA). Dose reduction or switching to ziprasidone may reduce the severity of negative symptoms and side effects. We investigated in a randomized double-blind trial whether a dose-reduction strategy to achieve an adequate dose of a FGA (5 mg/day haloperidol equivalents, n = 24) or switching to ziprasidone (160 mg/day, n = 24) in treatment resistant patients would decrease negative symptoms after 1 year of treatment...
July 16, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017260/abnormal-serum-potassium-levels-and-6-month-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-co-treated-with-antipsychotic-and-diuretic-drugs-a-danish-register-based-cohort-study
#2
Mette Marcussen, Christoffer Polcwiartek, Elisabeth Helen Anna Mills, Fia Jirback, Pernille Bylin, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Peter Søgaard, Kristian Kragholm
Psychiatric patients have excess mortality compared to the general population, and several potential mechanisms may explain this increased risk. This study examined the relationship between serum potassium levels and risk of all-cause mortality in patients co-treated with antipsychotic and diuretic drugs. Using a register-based cohort design, we identified patients between 1995 and 2012 who received a combination of an antipsychotic and a diuretic drug and who further had a serum potassium measurement within 90 days...
July 14, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017261/peripheral-blood-sirt1-mrna-levels-in-depression-and-treatment-with-electroconvulsive-therapy
#3
Claire L McGrory, Karen M Ryan, Erik Kolshus, Martha Finnegan, Declan M McLoughlin
Sirtuins are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) dependent enzymes that regulate cellular functions through deacetylation of protein targets. They have roles in both the periphery and central nervous system and have been implicated in depression biology. A recent genome-wide association study has identified a locus for major depression in the Sirtuin1 gene (SIRT1) and lower blood levels of SIRT1 mRNA in patients with depression have also been observed in two studies. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the effect of treatment on SIRT1 levels in patients with depression...
July 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006253/the-affinity-of-antipsychotic-drugs-to-dopamine-and-serotonin-5-ht-2-receptors-determines-their-effects-on-prefrontal-striatal-functional-connectivity
#4
F Tollens, N Gass, R Becker, A J Schwarz, C Risterucci, B Künnecke, P Lebhardt, J Reinwald, M Sack, W Weber-Fahr, A Meyer-Lindenberg, A Sartorius
One of the major challenges of cross-species translation in psychiatry is the identification of quantifiable brain phenotypes linked to drug efficacy and/or side effects. A measure that has received increasing interest is the effect of antipsychotic drugs on resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in magnetic resonance imaging. However, quantitative comparisons of antipsychotic drug-induced alterations of FC patterns are missing. Consideration of receptor binding affinities provides a means for the effects of antipsychotic drugs on extended brain networks to be related directly to their molecular mechanism of action...
July 10, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980424/on-the-effects-of-tyrosine-supplementation-on-interference-control-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-control-trial
#5
Ann-Kathrin Stock, Lorenza Colzato, Christian Beste
Exerting cognitive control is an effortful endeavor that is strongly modulated by the availability of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE), which are both synthesized from the amino acid precursor tyrosine. Supplementing tyrosine may increase the synthesis of both catecholamines. This has been suggested to improve executive functioning and potentially even counteract depletion effects in this domain. Yet, it has remained unclear whether tyrosine also improves interference control and whether subliminally and consciously triggered response conflicts are subject to the same modulation...
July 3, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026011/chronic-exposure-to-cannabinoids-before-an-emotional-trauma-may-have-negative-effects-on-emotional-function
#6
Brenda Sbarski, Irit Akirav
Chronic direct activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1r) may lead to downregulation of CB1r which may in turn result in a depression-like phenotype in certain individuals. We examined the effects of chronic cannabinoid receptor activation before exposure to an emotional traumatic event on CB1r expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and CA1 and on protracted anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We used exposure to severe shock and situational reminders (SRs) in an inhibitory apparatus as a model for emotional trauma...
June 29, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941239/intoxicated-aggression-do-alcohol-and-stimulants-cause-dose-related-aggression-a-review
#7
Kpc Kuypers, R J Verkes, W van den Brink, Jgc van Amsterdam, J G Ramaekers
RATIONALE: Violence and drug use are significant public health challenges that are strongly linked. It is known that alcohol plays a major role in the causation of unnatural deaths and that stimulants like cocaine and amphetamine are often implicated in aggressive acts or violence. However, a clear causal relationship between these substances and aggression, and more specifically a blood concentration threshold at which intoxicated aggression emerges is lacking. In case of a crime and subsequent law enforcement, knowledge about dose-response relationships could be of pivotal importance when evaluating the role of alcohol and drugs in aggressive offences...
June 22, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937325/electroencephalographic-biomarkers-as-predictors-of-methylphenidate-response-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Martijn Arns, Madelon A Vollebregt, Donna Palmer, Chris Spooner, Evian Gordon, Michael Kohn, Simon Clarke, Glen R Elliott, Jan K Buitelaar
EEG biomarkers have shown promise in predicting non-response to stimulant medication in ADHD and could serve as translational biomarkers. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous EEG biomarkers. The international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for ADHD (iSPOT-A), a multi-center, international, prospective open-label trial, enrolled 336 children and adolescents with ADHD (11.9 yrs; 245 males; prescribed methylphenidate) and 158 healthy children. Treatment response was established after six weeks using the clinician rated ADHD-Rating Scale-IV...
June 22, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934090/efficacy-tolerability-and-safety-of-low-dose-and-high-dose-baclofen-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-dependence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Mimi Pierce, Arjen Sutterland, Esther M Beraha, Kirsten Morley, Wim van den Brink
A systematic review of the current literature on the efficacy of baclofen, particularly the effect of dosing, for the treatment of alcohol dependence (AD) is missing. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic literature search for RCTs in AD patients comparing baclofen to placebo was performed in September 2017. The effect of baclofen treatment, and the moderating effects of baclofen dosing (low-dose (LDB) 30-60 mg versus high-dose (HDB) targeted as >60 mg/day), and the amount of alcohol consumption before inclusion were studied...
June 19, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891216/role-of-adipokines-fgf21-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-self-concept-of-youths-with-obesity
#10
Ge Li, Dan Feng, Xiaoxue Qu, Junling Fu, Yonghui Wang, Lianxia Li, Lujiao Li, Lanwen Han, Issy C Esangbedo, Mingyao Li, Ming Li, Shan Gao
The mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of psychosocial disorders remain unclear. We aimed at exploring the association between obesity and self-concept in Chinese youths and the role of adipokines. Data for 559 participants (aged 14-28 years) were analyzed. Self-concept was assessed by utilizing the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II). Subjects with obesity had higher leptin, FGF21 and lower adiponectin levels (all p < 0.001). They also had lower SDQ-II scores especially in the domains of general school, physical abilities, physical appearance and opposite-sex relations (all p < 0...
June 8, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891215/effect-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-neural-response-to-affective-pictures-a-randomized-sham-controlled-fmri-study
#11
K W Miskowiak, J Macoveanu, M B Jørgensen, C V Ott, M M Støttrup, H M Jensen, A Jørgensen, C J Harmer, O B Paulson, H R Siebner, L V Kessing
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for severe depression but its neurocognitive mechanisms are unclear. This randomized, sham-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the effects of a single ECT on neural response to affective pictures. Twenty-seven patients with major depressive disorder were randomized to a single active ECT (N = 15) or sham (N = 12) session in a double-blind, parallel-group design. On the following day, patients underwent fMRI during which they viewed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures and performed a free recall test after the scan...
June 8, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891214/attaining-in-vivo-selectivity-of-positive-modulation-of-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-2-gaba-a-receptors-in-rats-a-hard-task
#12
Bojan Batinić, Tamara Stanković, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Revathi Kodali, Veera V Tiruveedhula, Guanguan Li, Petra Scholze, Bojan D Marković, Aleksandar Lj Obradović, Margot Ernst, James M Cook, Miroslav M Savić
It is unclear whether GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) that contain the α3-subunit are substantially involved in the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines (BDZs). In the present study, we tested YT-III-31, a newer BDZ ligand with functional preference for α3βγ2 GABAA Rs, in two paradigms of unconditioned anxiety, the open field and elevated plus maze in rats. The effective dose of YT-III-31 (2 mg/kg) displayed a clear anxiolytic-like profile, unhampered by sedative action, in both tests. At a higher dose (10 mg/kg), YT-III-31 induced ataxia in the rotarod and sedation in spontaneous locomotor activity test...
June 8, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807846/characterizing-decision-making-and-reward-processing-in-bipolar-disorder-a-cluster-analysis
#13
E Jiménez, B Solé, B Arias, M Mitjans, C Varo, M Reinares, C M Bonnín, E Salagre, V Ruíz, I Torres, Y Tomioka, P A Sáiz, M P García-Portilla, P Burón, J Bobes, A Martínez-Arán, C Torrent, E Vieta, A Benabarre
The presence of abnormalities in emotional decision-making and reward processing among bipolar patients (BP) has been well rehearsed. These disturbances are not limited to acute phases and are common even during remission. In recent years, the existence of discrete cognitive profiles in this psychiatric population has been replicated. However, emotional decision making and reward processing domains have barely been studied. Therefore, our aim was to explore the existence of different profiles on the aforementioned cognitive dimensions in BP...
May 25, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802040/biomarkers-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-versus-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Ulla Knorr, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Lars Vedel Kessing
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological processes of bipolar disorder (BD) may be detectable by the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. AIM: We aimed for the first time to review studies of CSF biomarkers in patients with BD compared to healthy control individuals (HC). We investigated the effect of diagnosis, age, gender, clinical state, medication, technical characteristics of tests, fasting state and, cognitive function if applicable. METHOD: We did a systematic review according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studies on cerebrospinal biomarkers in patients with bipolar disorder versus HC...
May 22, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935939/modulation-of-acute-effects-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-psychotomimetic-effects-cognition-and-brain-function-by-previous-cannabis-exposure
#15
Marco Colizzi, Philip McGuire, Vincent Giampietro, Steve Williams, Mick Brammer, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Cannabis use has been associated with psychosis and cognitive dysfunction. Some evidence suggests that the acute behavioral and neurocognitive effects of the main active ingredient in cannabis, (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), might be modulated by previous cannabis exposure. However, this has not been investigated either using a control group of non-users, or following abstinence in modest cannabis users, who represent the majority of recreational users. Twenty-four healthy men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures, within-subject, ∆9-THC challenge study...
July 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887289/nitrous-oxide-may-interfere-with-the-reconsolidation-of-drinking-memories-in-hazardous-drinkers-in-a-prediction-error-dependent-manner
#16
R K Das, K Walsh, J Hannaford, A I Lazzarino, S K Kamboj
Weakening drinking-related reward memories by blocking their reconsolidation is a potential novel strategy for treating alcohol use disorders. However, few viable pharmacological options exist for reconsolidation interference in humans. We therefore examined whether the NMDA receptor antagonising gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2 O) could reduce drinking by preventing the post-retrieval restabilisation of alcohol memories in a group of hazardous drinkers. Critically, we focussed on whether prediction error (PE; a key determinant of reconsolidation) was experienced at retrieval...
July 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887287/probing-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-healthy-volunteers-cannabidiol-alters-fronto-striatal-resting-state-connectivity
#17
Oliver Grimm, Martin Löffler, Sandra Kamping, Aljoscha Hartmann, Cathrin Rohleder, Markus Leweke, Herta Flor
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are two substances from cannabis sativa that have beenimplicated in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders. We concentrated on a previously validated neuroimaging phenotype, fronto-striatal connectivity across different striatal seeds, because of this loop's relevance to executive functioning, decision making, salience generation and motivation and its link to various neuropsychiatric conditions. Therefore, we studied the effect of THC and CBD on fronto-striatal circuitry by a seed-voxel connectivity approach using seeds from the caudate and the putamen...
July 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880336/multimodal-neuroimaging-measures-and-intelligence-influence-pedophile-child-sexual-offense-behavior
#18
Tristram A Lett, Sebastian Mohnke, Till Amelung, Eva J Brandl, Kolja Schiltz, Alexander Pohl, Hannah Gerwinn, Christian Kärgel, Claudia Massau, Gilian Tenbergen, Matthias Wittfoth, Jonas Kneer, Klaus M Beier, Martin Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Tillmann H C Krüger, Boris Schiffer, Henrik Walter
Pedophilia is a heterogeneous disorder for which the neurobiological correlates are not well established. In particular, there are no biological markers identifying individuals with high risk to commit child sexual offense (CSO). Pedophiles with CSO (P+CSO; N = 73), pedophiles without CSO (P-CSO; N = 77), and non-pedophilic controls (NPC; N = 133) were assessed using multimodal structural neuroimaging measures including: cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as full scale IQ (FSIQ) performance...
July 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871818/epigenetic-alterations-of-the-pomc-promoter-in-tobacco-dependence
#19
Marc Muschler, Mathias Rhein, Andreas Ritter, Thomas Hillemacher, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich, Alexander Glahn
Impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is substantially involved in several psychiatric disorders. Smoking interferes with HPA axis by activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and thus stimulating the expression of POMC. The POMC transcript is processed into several peptide hormones, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), that play a role in stress response and weight control. In alcohol dependence, POMC promoter methylation is associated with craving...
July 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866576/childhood-abuse-and-white-matter-integrity-in-bipolar-disorder-patients-and-healthy-controls
#20
Remi Stevelink, Lucija Abramovic, Sanne Verkooijen, Marieke J H Begemann, Iris E C Sommer, Marco P Boks, Rene C W Mandl, Neeltje E M van Haren, Christiaan H Vinkers
Childhood trauma has a negative impact on the developing brain and increases the risk for almost all psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder. White matter abnormalities may play a role in the persistently increased risk for bipolar disorder following childhood trauma. We therefore examined the influence of childhood abuse and neglect on white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), quantified as fractional anisotropy (FA), in patients with bipolar I disorder (N = 251) and healthy controls (N = 163)...
July 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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