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European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415783/oxytocin-receptor-gene-methylation-in-male-and-female-ptsd-patients-and-trauma-exposed-controls
#1
L Nawijn, I M Krzyzewska, M van Zuiden, P Henneman, S B J Koch, A N Mul, J L Frijling, D J Veltman, M M A M Mannens, M Olff
Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) DNA-methylation levels have been associated with trauma-exposure, mood- and anxiety disorders, and social processes relevant to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that OXTR methylation may play a role in the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD. In the current study, we compared OXTR methylation between PTSD patients (n = 31, 14 females) and trauma-exposed controls (n = 36, 19 females). Additionally, the association between OXTR methylation and PTSD symptom severity and amygdala reactivity to an emotional faces task was assessed, as a neural hallmark of PTSD...
November 8, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409537/the-effect-of-body-mass-index-on-glucagon-like-peptide-receptor-gene-expression-in-the-post-mortem-brain-from-individuals-with-mood-and-psychotic-disorders
#2
Rodrigo B Mansur, Gabriel R Fries, Alisson P Trevizol, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Julie Lovshin, Kangguang Lin, Maj Vinberg, Roger C Ho, Elisa Brietzke, Roger S McIntyre
There is an increasing interest in the putative role of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists as novel therapeutic agents for mental disorders. Herein, we investigated the expressions of GLP-1R and GLP-2R genes, and its relationship with body mass index (BMI), in the post-mortem brain tissue of patients with mood (MD) and psychotic disorders. Brain samples were localized to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) (n = 459) and hippocampus (n = 378). After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, post-mortem interval (PMI) and BMI, we observed significant differences, between healthy controls and MD subjects, in GLP-1R and GLP-2R gene expression in the dlPFC (β = 1...
November 5, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396698/the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-probiotics-and-their-faecal-abundance-may-be-modulated-by-the-cohabiting-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#3
Anders Abildgaard, Timo Kern, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Gregers Wegener, Sten Lund
Numerous studies have been published describing the effect of various probiotics (PRO) on behaviours related to psychiatric disease. We have previously shown a robust antidepressant-like effect of PRO in rats, but over time, the treatment effect seems to vary significantly between different sets of rats from the same commercial vendor. Therefore, we hypothesised that the antidepressant-like response may be modulated by the cohabiting gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate any differences in the gut microbiota composition between responders (Resp) and non-responders (Non-resp) to PRO with regards to depressive-like behaviour, and (2) to evaluate the effects of PRO on the microbiota composition...
November 2, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322771/oprm1-a118g-and-serum-%C3%AE-endorphin-interact-with-sex-and-digit-ratio-2d-4d-to-influence-risk-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence
#4
Bruno Gegenhuber, Christian Weinland, Johannes Kornhuber, Christiane Mühle, Bernd Lenz
Activation of mesolimbic mu-opioid receptors by their endogenous ligand, β-endorphin, can mediate the rewarding effects of alcohol. However, there is conflicting evidence on the relationship between the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and alcohol dependence risk. Preclinical evidence suggests that sex and sex hormone-dependent prenatal brain organization may interact with the opioid system to influence alcohol drinking behavior. We genotyped 200 alcohol-dependent patients and 240 healthy individuals for the OPRM1 A118G SNP and measured serum β-endorphin level at recruitment and after acute withdrawal...
October 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292416/role-of-conduct-problems-in-the-relation-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-substance-use-and-gaming
#5
G H Schoenmacker, A P Groenman, E Sokolova, J Oosterlaan, N Rommelse, H Roeyers, R D Oades, S V Faraone, B Franke, T Heskes, A Arias Vasquez, T Claassen, J K Buitelaar
Known comorbidities for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) include conduct problems, substance use disorder and gaming. Comorbidity with conduct problems may increase the risk for substance use disorder and gaming in individuals with ADHD. The aim of the study was to build a causal model of the relationships between ADHD and comorbid conduct problems, and alcohol, nicotine, and other substance use, and gaming habits, while accounting for age and sex. We used a state-of-the-art causal discovery algorithm to analyze a case-only sample of 362 ADHD-diagnosed individuals in the ages 12-24 years...
October 3, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292415/beneficial-effects-of-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-spatial-working-memory-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
T Schwippel, I Papazova, W Strube, A J Fallgatter, A Hasan, C Plewnia
Schizophrenia is a severe and often detrimental psychiatric disorder. The individual patients' level of functioning is essentially determined by cognitive, particularly working memory (WM), deficits that are critically linked to dysfunctional activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can transiently modulate activity of the dlPFC and remote areas and has been shown to improve WM functions. It may therefore provide a new, targeted treatment option...
October 3, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257799/prenatal-immune-activation-potentiates-endocannabinoid-related-plasticity-of-inhibitory-synapses-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-rat-offspring
#7
Zhiling Guo, Yiu Chung Tse, Ying Zhang, Qiang Sun, Haley A Vecchiarelli, Robert Aukema, Matthew N Hill, Tak Pan Wong, Patricia Boksa
There is strong evidence that immune activation from prenatal infection increases the risk for offspring to develop schizophrenia. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia while models of cortical dysfunction postulate an imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition in the disorder. The current study examined the impact of prenatal immune activation on eCB-mediated inhibitory mechanisms. We compared two forms of eCB-related plasticity of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents, namely depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced long term depression (mGluR-iLTD), in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus between adolescent offspring from rat dams that received either saline or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during pregnancy...
September 23, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244920/lentiviral-mediated-let-7d-microrna-overexpression-induced-anxiolytic-and-anti-depressant-like-behaviors-and-impaired-dopamine-d3-receptor-expression
#8
Amine Bahi, Jean-Luc Dreyer
Generalized anxiety and major depression disorders (MDD) are severe debilitating mood disorders whose etiology are not fully understood, but growing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) might play a key role in their neuropathophysiological mechanisms. In the current study, we investigate the role of Lethal-7 (let-7d) miRNA, and its direct target dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) gain-of-function, in the hippocampus, in preclinical models of anxiety and depression in mice. For this purpose, we have constructed a lentiviral vector carrying let-7d miRNA and its anxiolytic effect was investigated by employing the open-field (OF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM) tests...
September 20, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243681/can-lithium-salts-prevent-depressive-episodes-in-the-real-world
#9
Ana González-Pinto, Purificación López-Peña, Cristina Bermúdez-Ampudia, Eduard Vieta, Mónica Martinez-Cengotitabengoa
To critically examine the effectiveness of lithium in preventing depressive symptoms (mixed and depressive episodes) in real life settings, taking into account adherence to drug treatment and its implications for the clinical costs of the disease. Overall, 72 patients with bipolar disorder initially treated with lithium carbonate were included and followed-up for 10 years. Patients were assessed every 8 weeks for morbidity and alcohol/drug consumption. Patients with good adherence to lithium had fewer episodes with depressive features than poor adherers (B = 2...
September 20, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243680/antipsychotic-drugs-for-elderly-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Marc Krause, Maximilian Huhn, Johannes Schneider-Thoma, Philipp Rothe, Robert C Smith, Stefan Leucht
Elderly patients with schizophrenia are a particularly vulnerable group often excluded from clinical trials. Currently there is no evidence-synthesis about the efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in this subgroup. We reviewed all randomized-controlled-trials, about antipsychotics in elderly schizophrenics (last search Dec 12, 2017). Pairwise meta-analyses were conducted. The primary outcome was overall symptoms. Secondary outcomes included positive symptoms, negative symptoms, response, dropouts, quality of life, social functioning and side-effects...
September 20, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243683/an-fmri-study-of-decision-making-under-sunk-costs-in-gambling-disorder
#11
Junya Fujino, Ryosaku Kawada, Kosuke Tsurumi, Hideaki Takeuchi, Takuro Murao, Ariyoshi Takemura, Shisei Tei, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
The sunk cost effect is the tendency to continue an investment, or take an action, even though it has higher future costs than benefits, if costs of time, money, or effort were previously incurred. This type of decision bias is pervasive in real life and has been studied in various disciplines. Previous studies and clinical observations suggest that decision-making under sunk costs is altered in gambling disorder (GD). However, the neural mechanisms of decision-making under sunk costs in GD remain largely unknown, and so is their association with the clinical characteristics of this patient group...
September 19, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243682/schizophrenia-dimension-specific-antipsychotic-drug-action-and-failure-in-amphetamine-sensitized-psychotic-like-rats
#12
Taygun C Uzuneser, Magnus Schindehütte, Ekrem Dere, Stephan von Hörsten, Johannes Kornhuber, Teja W Grömer, Christian P Müller
Schizophrenic patients suffer from various disruptions in their psyche, mood and cognition, most of which cannot be effectively treated with the available antipsychotic drugs. Some dimensions of the schizophrenia syndrome in man can be mimicked in animals by the amphetamine (AMPH)-sensitization-induced psychosis model. Using such a sensitization procedure, we induced a psychosis-like syndrome in rats, measured as a deficit in sensory information processing and memory deficits. We then investigated the possible restorative effects of continuous treatment with haloperidol (HAL), a typical antipsychotic drug, on distinct dimensions of the syndrome...
September 19, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217553/cb1-receptors-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-modulate-the-release-of-5-ht-and-gaba-to-stimulate-food-intake-in-rats
#13
Ana María Cruz-Martínez, Juan Gabriel Tejas-Juárez, Juan Manuel Mancilla-Díaz, Benjamín Florán-Garduño, Verónica Elsa López-Alonso, Rodrigo Erick Escartín-Pérez
Endocannabinoids and their receptors not only contribute to the control of natural processes of appetite regulation and energy balance but also have an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. CB1 receptors (CB1R) are expressed in several hypothalamic nuclei, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where induce potent orexigenic responses. Activation of CB1R in the PVN induces hyperphagia by modulating directly or indirectly orexigenic and anorexigenic signals; however, interaction among these mediators has not been clearly defined...
September 11, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217552/effects-of-high-dose-baclofen-on-cue-reactivity-in-alcohol-dependence-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-pharmaco-fmri-study
#14
Anne Beck, Patricia Pelz, Robert C Lorenz, Katrin Charlet, Olga Geisel, Andreas Heinz, Torsten Wüstenberg, Christian A Müller
Increased functional brain response towards alcohol-associated stimuli is a neural hallmark of alcohol dependence and a promising target for pharmacotherapy. For the first time, we assessed the effects of individually titrated high-dose baclofen on cue reactivity and functional connectivity in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We investigated 23 recently detoxified AD patients and 23 matched healthy controls (HC) with a cue reactivity functional magnetic resonance imaging task...
September 11, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217551/rapid-acquisition-of-dynamic-control-over-dlpfc-using-real-time-fmri-feedback
#15
Max Alexander Van den Boom, Johan Martijn Jansma, Nick Franciscus Ramsey
It has been postulated that gaining control over activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key region of the working memory brain network, may be beneficial for cognitive performance and treatment of certain psychiatric disorders. Several studies have reported that, with neurofeedback training, subjects can learn to increase DLPFC activity. However, improvement of dynamic control in terms of switching between low and high activity in DLPFC brain states may potentially constitute more effective self-regulation...
September 11, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213668/nicotine-improves-probabilistic-reward-learning-in-wildtype-but-not-alpha7-nachr-null-mutants-yet-alpha7-nachr-agonists-do-not-improve-probabilistic-learning
#16
Morgane Milienne-Petiot, Kerin K Higa, Andrea Grim, Debbie Deben, Lucianne Groenink, Elizabeth W Twamley, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
Cognitive impairments, e.g., reward learning, are present in various psychiatric disorders and warrant treatment. Improving reward-related learning could synergistically enhance psychosocial treatments and cognition generally. A critical first step is to understand the mechanisms underlying reward learning. The dopamine system has been implicated in such learning, but less known is how indirect activation of this system may affect reward learning. We determined the role of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on a probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT) in mice that includes reward and punishment...
September 11, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201120/saliva-oxytocin-cortisol-and-testosterone-levels-in-adolescent-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-oppositional-defiant-disorder-conduct-disorder-and-typically-developing-individuals
#17
M J Bakker-Huvenaars, C U Greven, P Herpers, E Wiegers, A Jansen, R van der Steen, A E van Herwaarden, A N Baanders, K S Nijhof, F Scheepers, N Rommelse, J C Glennon, J K Buitelaar
The aim of the current study was to compare levels of oxytocin, cortisol, and testosterone in adolescents with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD), and in typically developing individuals (TDI), and relate hormone levels to severity and subtype of aggression and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Saliva concentrations of oxytocin, cortisol, and testosterone were assessed in 114 male participants (N = 49 ASD, N = 37 ODD/CD, N = 28 TDI,) aged 12-19 years (M = 15...
September 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193832/the-need-for-paediatric-registries-to-assess-long-term-brain-effects-of-psychotropic-medications-the-case-of-bipolar-disorder
#18
EDITORIAL
Eduard Vieta, Celso Arango, A John Rush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170709/neurological-soft-signs-in-bipolar-disorder-in-comparison-to-healthy-controls-and-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Emre Bora, Özge Akgül, Deniz Ceylan, Ayşegül Özerdem
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle deficits in motor coordination, sensory integration, and sequencing of complex motor acts. Increased NSS is a well-established feature of patients with schizophrenia but a relatively smaller number of studies have investigated NSS in bipolar disorder (BD). Some authors but not others suggested that NSS can distinguish schizophrenia from BD. We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 studies to quantitatively review NSS in BD in comparison to schizophrenia and healthy controls...
August 28, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153954/loratadine-augments-emotional-blushing
#20
Peter D Drummond, Bronwyn Lester
The aim of this study was to determine whether loratadine, a selective inverse agonist of peripheral histamine H1 receptors, would reduce emotional blushing. Loratadine (10 mg) or placebo was administered orally one hour before 31 healthy participants sang a children's nursery rhyme to evoke embarrassment and blushing. Skin blood flow was monitored via a laser Doppler probe attached to the cheek. Increases in facial blood flow while participants sang were greater in the loratadine than the placebo group (mean increase ± standard deviation 71 ± 52% in the loratadine group versus 35 ± 37%, p = ...
August 25, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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