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Current Opinion in Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219683/the-c1q-complement-family-of-synaptic-organizers-not-just-complementary
#1
REVIEW
Michisuke Yuzaki
Molecules that regulate formation, differentiation, and maintenance of synapses are called synaptic organizers. Recently, various 'C1q family' proteins have been shown to be released from neurons, and serve as a new class of synaptic organizers. Cbln1 and C1ql1 proteins regulate the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, respectively, in the cerebellum. Cbln1 also modulates the function of postsynaptic delta2 glutamate receptors to regulate synaptic plasticity...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219682/epilepsy-and-synaptic-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Yuko Fukata, Masaki Fukata
Throughout history, epilepsy affects about 1-2% of the population worldwide. Epilepsy can be caused by traumatic brain injury, exposure to certain toxins and drugs, and mutations of genes that often encode synaptic proteins. In addition to conventional linkage and association studies, the recent trio exome sequencing in epilepsy and proteomic analysis in autoimmune synaptopathies have accelerated identification of novel epilepsy-related proteins, most of which play critical roles in synaptic transmission. Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy analysis has revealed subsynaptic nanoscale distribution of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins and suggests a precise trans-synaptic alignment of neurotransmitter release to receptors...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160757/biochemistry-and-neuroscience-the-twain-need-to-meet
#3
REVIEW
Mary B Kennedy
Neuroscience has come to mean the study of electrophysiology of neurons and synapses, micro and macro-scale neuroanatomy, and the functional organization of brain areas. The molecular axis of the field, as reflected in textbooks, often includes only descriptions of the structure and function of individual channels and receptor proteins, and the extracellular signals that guide development and repair. Studies of cytosolic 'molecular machines', large assemblies of proteins that orchestrate regulation of neuronal functions, have been neglected...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126451/sleep-and-plasticity-in-the-visual-cortex-more-than-meets-the-eye
#4
REVIEW
Marcos G Frank
The visual cortex has provided key insights into how experience shapes cortical circuitry. Scientists have identified how different manipulations of visual experience trigger distinct forms of plasticity as well as many of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Intriguingly, experience is not the only factor driving plasticity in the visual system. Sleep is also required for the full expression of plasticity in the developing visual cortex. In this review, I discuss what we have learned about the role of sleep in visual cortical plasticity and what it tells us about sleep function...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122326/functional-roles-of-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-with-an-emphasis-on-inhibition
#5
REVIEW
Haroon Anwar, Xinping Li, Dirk Bucher, Farzan Nadim
Almost all synapses show activity-dependent dynamic changes in efficacy. Numerous studies have explored the mechanisms underlying different forms of short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), but the functional role of STP for circuit output and animal behavior is less understood. This is particularly true for inhibitory synapses that can play widely varied roles in circuit activity. We review recent findings on the role of synaptic STP in sensory, pattern generating, thalamocortical, and hippocampal networks, with a focus on synaptic inhibition...
January 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117212/editorial-overview-developmental-neuroscience-2017
#6
EDITORIAL
Paola Arlotta, Pierre Vanderhaeghen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109973/sleep-loss-and-structural-plasticity
#7
REVIEW
Cassandra C Areal, Simon C Warby, Valérie Mongrain
Wakefulness and sleep are dynamic states during which brain functioning is modified and shaped. Sleep loss is detrimental to many brain functions and results in structural changes localized at synapses in the nervous system. In this review, we present and discuss some of the latest observations of structural changes following sleep loss in some vertebrates and insects. We also emphasize that these changes are region-specific and cell type-specific and that, most importantly, these structural modifications have functional roles in sleep regulation and brain functions...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103533/the-readily-releasable-pool-of-synaptic-vesicles
#8
REVIEW
Pascal S Kaeser, Wade G Regehr
Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092740/temporal-variations-in-early-developmental-decisions-an-engine-of-forebrain-evolution
#9
REVIEW
H Bielen, S Pal, S Tole, C Houart
Tight control of developmental timing is pivotal to many major processes in developmental biology, such as patterning, fate specification, cell cycle dynamics, cell migration and connectivity. Temporal change in these ontogenetic sequences is known as heterochrony, a major force in the evolution of body plans and organogenesis. In the last 5 years, studies in fish and rodents indicate that heterochrony in signaling during early development generates diversity in forebrain size and complexity. Here, we summarize these findings and propose that, additionally to spatio-temporal tuning of neurogenesis, temporal and quantitative modulation of signaling events drive pivotal changes in shape, size and complexity of the forebrain across evolution, participating to the generation of diversity in animal behavior and emergence of cognition...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088703/dopaminergic-rules-of-engagement-for-memory-in-drosophila
#10
REVIEW
Karla R Kaun, Adrian Rothenfluh
Dopamine is associated with a variety of conserved responses across species including locomotion, sleep, food consumption, aggression, courtship, addiction and several forms of appetitive and aversive memory. Historically, dopamine has been most prominently associated with dynamics underlying reward, punishment, or salience. Recent emerging evidence from Drosophila supports a role in all of these functions, as well as additional roles in the interplay between external sensation and internal states and forgetting of the very memories dopamine helped encode...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088067/tuning-neural-circuits-by-turning-the-interneuron-knob
#11
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088066/activity-dependent-development-of-visual-receptive-fields
#12
REVIEW
Andrew Thompson, Alexandra Gribizis, Chinfei Chen, Michael C Crair
It is widely appreciated that neuronal activity contributes to the development of brain representations of the external world. In the visual system, in particular, it is well known that activity cooperates with molecular cues to establish the topographic organization of visual maps on a macroscopic scale [1,2] (Huberman et al., 2008; Cang and Feldheim, 2013), mapping axons in a retinotopic and eye-specific manner. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of activity in driving the finer-scale circuit refinement that shapes the receptive fields of individual cells...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064004/wiring-visual-systems-common-and-divergent-mechanisms-and-principles
#13
REVIEW
Alex L Kolodkin, P Robin Hiesinger
The study of visual systems has a rich history, leading to the discovery and understanding of basic principles underlying the elaboration of neuronal connectivity. Recent work in model organisms such as fly, fish and mouse has yielded a wealth of new insights into visual system wiring. Here, we consider how axonal and dendritic patterning in columns and laminae influence synaptic partner selection in these model organisms. We highlight similarities and differences among disparate visual systems with the goal of identifying common and divergent principles for visual system wiring...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040643/adult-neurogenesis-beyond-the-niche-its-potential-for-driving-brain-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
Kurt A Sailor, Alejandro F Schinder, Pierre-Marie Lledo
Adult neurogenesis emerges as a tremendous form of plasticity with the continuous addition and loss of neurons in the adult brain. It is unclear how preexisting adult circuits generated during development are capable of modifying existing connections to accommodate the thousands of new synapses formed and exchanged each day. Here we first make parallels with sensory deprivation studies and its ability to induce preexisting non-neurogenic adult circuits to undergo massive reorganization. We then review recent studies that show high structural and synaptic plasticity in circuits directly connected to adult-born neurons...
December 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039763/spatial-and-temporal-arrangement-of-neuronal-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-mechanisms-controlling-axon-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Andrea Tedeschi, Frank Bradke
Axon regeneration and neuronal tissue repair varies across animal lineages as well as in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. While the peripheral nervous system retains the ability to self-repair, the majority of axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) fail to reactivate intrinsic growth programs after injury. Recent findings, however, suggest that long-distance axon regeneration, neuronal circuit assembly and recovery of functions in the adult mammalian CNS are possible...
December 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033531/synapse-biology-in-the-circuit-age-paths-toward-molecular-connectomics
#16
REVIEW
Dietmar Schreiner, Jeffrey N Savas, Etienne Herzog, Nils Brose, Joris de Wit
The neural connectome is a critical determinant of brain function. Circuits of precisely wired neurons, and the features of transmission at the synapses connecting them, are thought to dictate information processing in the brain. While recent technological advances now allow to define the anatomical and functional neural connectome at unprecedented resolution, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that establish the precise patterns of connectivity and the functional characteristics of synapses has remained challenging...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024185/in-the-loop-how-chromatin-topology-links-genome-structure-to-function-in-mechanisms-underlying-learning-and-memory
#17
REVIEW
L Ashley Watson, Li-Huei Tsai
Different aspects of learning, memory, and cognition are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as covalent DNA modifications and histone post-translational modifications. More recently, the modulation of chromatin architecture and nuclear organization is emerging as a key factor in dynamic transcriptional regulation of the post-mitotic neuron. For instance, neuronal activity induces relocalization of gene loci to 'transcription factories', and specific enhancer-promoter looping contacts allow for precise transcriptional regulation...
December 23, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025176/beyond-proneural-emerging-functions-and-regulations-of-proneural-proteins
#18
REVIEW
François Guillemot, Bassem A Hassan
Proneural proteins, which include Ascl1, Atoh1 and Neurogenins épinière in vertebrates and Achaete-Scute proteins and Atonal in Drosophila, are expressed in the developing nervous system throughout the animal kingdom and have an essential and well-characterised role in specifying the neural identity of progenitors. New properties and additional roles of these factors have emerged in recent years, including the regulation of stem cell proliferation and the capacity to reprogram many types of cells into neurons...
December 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012992/fifty-shades-of-inhibition
#19
REVIEW
Arianna Maffei
Inhibitory circuits are essential for brain function. Our understanding of their synaptic organization has advanced extensively with the identification and classification of an impressive variety of neuron groups, receptor types, and patterns of connectivity. However, the conceptual discussion regarding the role of in neural circuits still revolves around the idea that its primary role is to regulate circuit excitability. Here, I will focus on recent findings from cortical circuits and argue that inhibitory circuits are central to the integration of incoming inputs and can promote sophisticated fine-scale control of local circuits...
December 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992777/neuronal-chloride-and-excitability-the-big-impact-of-small-changes
#20
REVIEW
Joseph V Raimondo, Blake A Richards, Melanie A Woodin
Synaptic inhibition is a critical regulator of neuronal excitability, and in the mature brain the majority of synaptic inhibition is mediated by Cl(-)-permeable GABAA receptors. Unlike other physiologically relevant ions, Cl(-) is dynamically regulated, and alterations in the Cl(-) gradient can have significant impact on neuronal excitability. Due to changes in the neuronal Cl(-) concentration, GABAergic transmission can bidirectionally regulate the induction of excitatory synaptic plasticity and gate the closing of the critical period for monocular deprivation in visual cortex...
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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