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Current Opinion in Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145015/glial-control-of-neurogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Sven Falk, Magdalena Götz
Glial cells are central components of all neurogenic niches in the embryonic as well as in the adult central nervous system. While neural stem cells (NSCs) themselves exhibit glial features the behavior of NSCs is also strongly influenced by niche glial cells. Recently, studies have begun to uncover a large variety of glial cell-extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors that play crucial roles in the control of NSCs and the regulation of the cellular output from the neurogenic niches. In this review, we focus on mechanisms underlying the formation of adult NSCs by embryonic radial glia cells, discuss the influence of niche glia cells on adult NSCs and examine how the neurogenic potential of glial cells is controlled...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128849/genetic-strategies-to-tackle-neurological-diseases-in-fruit-flies
#2
REVIEW
Mümine Şentürk, Hugo J Bellen
Drosophila melanogaster is a genetic model organism that has contributed to the discovery of numerous genes whose human homologues are associated with diseases. The development of sophisticated genetic tools to manipulate its genome accelerates the discovery of the genetic basis of undiagnosed human diseases and the elucidation of molecular pathogenic events of known and novel diseases. Here, we discuss various approaches used in flies to assess the function of the fly homologues of disease-associated genes...
November 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126016/go-and-stop-signals-for-glial-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Alicia Hidalgo, Ann Logan
The regenerative response of ensheating glia to central nervous system (CNS) injury involves proliferation and differentiation, axonal re-enwrapment and some recovery of behaviour. Understanding this limited response could enable the enhancement of it. In Drosophila, the glial progenitor state is maintained by Notch, an activator of cell division and Prospero (Pros), a repressor. Injury provokes the activation of NFκB and up-regulation of Kon-tiki (Kon), driving cell proliferation. Homeostatic switch-off comes about as two negative feedback loops involving Pros terminate the response...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126015/single-cell-transcriptomic-analysis-of-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells
#4
REVIEW
David van Bruggen, Eneritz Agirre, Gonçalo Castelo-Branco
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which produce myelin, a lipid-rich membrane that insulates neuronal axons. The main function ascribed to OLs is to regulate the speed of electric pulse transmission, and as such OLs have been widely considered as a single and discrete population. Nevertheless, OLs and their precursor cells (OPCs) throughout the CNS have different morphologies and regional functional differences have been observed. Moreover, OLs have recently been involved in other functional processes such as metabolic coupling with axons...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125987/contextual-modulation-of-sound-processing-in-the-auditory-cortex
#5
REVIEW
C Angeloni, M N Geffen
In everyday acoustic environments, we navigate through a maze of sounds that possess a complex spectrotemporal structure, spanning many frequencies and exhibiting temporal modulations that differ within frequency bands. Our auditory system needs to efficiently encode the same sounds in a variety of different contexts, while preserving the ability to separate complex sounds within an acoustic scene. Recent work in auditory neuroscience has made substantial progress in studying how sounds are represented in the auditory system under different contexts, demonstrating that auditory processing of seemingly simple acoustic features, such as frequency and time, is highly dependent on co-occurring acoustic and behavioral stimuli...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125986/gating-of-visual-processing-by-physiological-need
#6
REVIEW
Christian R Burgess, Yoav Livneh, Rohan N Ramesh, Mark L Andermann
Physiological need states and associated motivational drives can bias visual processing of cues that help meet these needs. Human neuroimaging studies consistently show a hunger-dependent, selective enhancement of responses to images of food in association cortex and amygdala. More recently, cellular-resolution imaging combined with circuit mapping experiments in behaving mice have revealed underlying neuronal population dynamics and enabled tracing of pathways by which hunger circuits influence the assignment of value to visual objects in visual association cortex, insular cortex, and amygdala...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125980/molecular-insights-into-cortico-striatal-miscommunications-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Matthew B Veldman, X William Yang
Huntington's disease (HD), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease, is defined by its genetic cause, a CAG-repeat expansion in the HTT gene, its motor and psychiatric symptomology and primary loss of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). However, the molecular mechanisms from genetic lesion to disease phenotype remain largely unclear. Mouse models of HD have been created that exhibit phenotypes partially recapitulating those in the patient, and specifically, cortico-striatal disconnectivity appears to be a shared pathogenic event shared by HD mouse models and patients...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125979/synaptic-plasticity-may-underlie-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#8
REVIEW
Anders Borgkvist, Ori J Lieberman, David Sulzer
l-DOPA provides highly effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, but l-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID) is a very debilitating response that eventually is presented by a majority of patients. A central issue in understanding the basis of LID is whether it is due to a response to chronic l-DOPA over years of therapy, and/or due to synaptic changes that follow the loss of dopaminergic neurotransmission and then triggered by acute l-DOPA administration. We review recent work that suggests that specific synaptic changes in the D1 dopamine receptor-expressing direct pathway striatal projection neurons due to loss of dopamine in Parkinson's disease are responsible for LID...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125978/decoding-hidden-messages-in-neurons-insights-from-epitranscriptome-controlled-and-specialized-ribosome-controlled-translation
#9
REVIEW
Yi-Shuian Huang, Wen-Hsin Lu
Activity-regulated protein synthesis, especially in the restricted synaptic domains, is critical to maintaining connections and communication between neurons. Accumulating evidence has linked dysregulated translation to various neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases. In the past 3 decades, after finding ribosomes and specific mRNAs localized around synapses, a significant amount of work has furthered our understanding of how the genetic sequences in mRNAs and their cognate RNA-binding proteins are coordinated to build up synaptic proteomes...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125977/windows-of-opportunity-timing-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra Krol, Guoping Feng
Developmental processes disrupted in neurodevelopmental disorders occur rapidly and with temporal precision. During development, individual gene activity can dynamically engage different signaling networks; thus genetic mutations can lead to different functional changes at different times. Interpretation of phenotypes can be further complicated if initial functional changes trigger compensatory mechanisms. Examining genetic mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders reveals cellular phenotypes that change over the course of development and exist long before behavioral deficits are assessed...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125960/neural-lineage-tracing-in-the-mammalian-brain
#11
REVIEW
Jian Ma, Zhongfu Shen, Yong-Chun Yu, Song-Hai Shi
Delineating the lineage of neural cells that captures the progressive steps in their specification is fundamental to understanding brain development, organization, and function. Since the earliest days of embryology, lineage questions have been addressed with methods of increasing specificity, capacity, and resolution. Yet, a full realization of individual cell lineages remains challenging for complex systems. A recent explosion of technical advances in genome-editing and single-cell sequencing has enabled lineage analysis in an unprecedented scale, speed, and depth across different species...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125959/proximity-labeling-spatially-resolved-proteomic-mapping-for-neurobiology
#12
REVIEW
Shuo Han, Jiefu Li, Alice Y Ting
Understanding signaling pathways in neuroscience requires high-resolution maps of the underlying protein networks. Proximity-dependent biotinylation with engineered enzymes, in combination with mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, has emerged as a powerful method to dissect molecular interactions and the localizations of endogenous proteins. Recent applications to neuroscience have provided insights into the composition of sub-synaptic structures, including the synaptic cleft and inhibitory post-synaptic density...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125958/investigation-of-brain-science-and-neurological-psychiatric-disorders-using-genetically-modified-non-human-primates
#13
REVIEW
Hideyuki Okano, Noriyuki Kishi
Although mice have been the most frequently used experimental animals in many research fields due to well-established gene manipulation techniques, recent evidence has revealed that rodent models do not always recapitulate pathophysiology of human neurological and psychiatric diseases due to the differences between humans and rodents. The recent developments in gene manipulation of non-human primate have been attracting much attention in the biomedical research field, because non-human primates have more applicable brain structure and function than rodents...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121585/schwann-cells-participate-in-synapse-elimination-at-the-developing-neuromuscular-junction
#14
REVIEW
Young Il Lee, Wesley J Thompson, Mark L Harlow
During the initial stages of innervation of developing skeletal muscles, the terminal branches of axons from multiple motor neurons form neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) on a small region of each muscle fiber, the motor endplate. Subsequently, the number of axonal inputs at the endplate region is reduced so that, at maturity, each muscle fiber is innervated by the terminals of a single motor neuron. The Schwann cells associated with the axon terminals are involved in the removal of these synapses but do not select the axon that is ultimately retained on each fiber...
November 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096245/glial-contributions-to-neuronal-health-and-disease-new-insights-from-drosophila
#15
REVIEW
Mary A Logan
Glial cells are essential for proper formation and maintenance of the nervous system. During development, glia keep neuronal cell numbers in check and ensure that mature neural circuits are appropriately sculpted by engulfing superfluous cells and projections. In the adult brain, glial cells offer metabolic sustenance and provide critical immune support in the face of acute and chronic challenges. Dysfunctional glial immune activity is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive decline, as well as neurodegenerative disease risk, but we still know surprisingly little about the specific molecular pathways that govern glia-neuron communication in the healthy or diseased brain...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096244/neuronal-activity-in-the-glioma-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Tessa Johung, Michelle Monje
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor and high-grade gliomas the leading cause of brain tumor-related death in both children and adults. An appreciation for the crucial role of the nervous system in the tumor microenvironment is emerging for cancers in general, and the neural regulation of glioma progression has come into sharp focus. Here, we review what is known about the influence of active neurons on glioma pathobiology.
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096243/environment-matters-microglia-function-and-dysfunction-in-a-changing-world
#17
REVIEW
Richa Hanamsagar, Staci D Bilbo
The immune system is our interface with the environment, and immune molecules such as cytokines and chemokines and the cells that produce them within the brain, notably microglia, are critical for normal brain development. This recognition has in recent years led to the working hypothesis that inflammatory events during pregnancy or the early postnatal period, for example, in response to infection, may disrupt the normal developmental trajectory of microglia and consequently their interactions with neurons, thereby contributing to the risk for neurological disorders...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096115/model-based-predictions-for-dopamine
#18
REVIEW
Angela J Langdon, Melissa J Sharpe, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Yael Niv
Phasic dopamine responses are thought to encode a prediction-error signal consistent with model-free reinforcement learning theories. However, a number of recent findings highlight the influence of model-based computations on dopamine responses, and suggest that dopamine prediction errors reflect more dimensions of an expected outcome than scalar reward value. Here, we review a selection of these recent results and discuss the implications and complications of model-based predictions for computational theories of dopamine and learning...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096242/a-microglia-cytokine-axis-to-modulate-synaptic-connectivity-and-function
#19
REVIEW
Sebastian Werneburg, Philip A Feinberg, Kasey M Johnson, Dorothy P Schafer
Microglia have recently been recognized as key regulators of synapse development, function, and plasticity. Critical to progressing the field is the identification of molecular underpinnings necessary for microglia to carry out these important functions within neural circuits. Here, we focus a review specifically on roles for microglial cytokine signaling within developing and mature neural circuits. We review exciting new studies demonstrating essential roles for microglial cytokine signaling in axon outgrowth, synaptogenesis and synapse maturation during development, as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity in adulthood...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096241/unwrapping-the-unappreciated-recent-progress-in-remak-schwann-cell-biology
#20
REVIEW
Breanne L Harty, Kelly R Monk
Schwann cells (SCs) are specialized glial cells that myelinate and protect axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Although myelinating SCs are more commonly studied, the PNS also contains a variety of non-myelinating SCs, including but not limited to Remak SCs (RSCs), terminal SCs, enteric glia. Although the field currently lacks many robust tools for interrogating the functions of non-myelinating SCs, recent evidence suggests that, like their myelinating counterparts, non-myelinating SCs are critical for proper PNS function...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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