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Current Opinion in Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103533/the-readily-releasable-pool-of-synaptic-vesicles
#1
REVIEW
Pascal S Kaeser, Wade G Regehr
Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092740/temporal-variations-in-early-developmental-decisions-an-engine-of-forebrain-evolution
#2
REVIEW
H Bielen, S Pal, S Tole, C Houart
Tight control of developmental timing is pivotal to many major processes in developmental biology, such as patterning, fate specification, cell cycle dynamics, cell migration and connectivity. Temporal change in these ontogenetic sequences is known as heterochrony, a major force in the evolution of body plans and organogenesis. In the last 5 years, studies in fish and rodents indicate that heterochrony in signaling during early development generates diversity in forebrain size and complexity. Here, we summarize these findings and propose that, additionally to spatio-temporal tuning of neurogenesis, temporal and quantitative modulation of signaling events drive pivotal changes in shape, size and complexity of the forebrain across evolution, participating to the generation of diversity in animal behavior and emergence of cognition...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088703/dopaminergic-rules-of-engagement-for-memory-in-drosophila
#3
REVIEW
Karla R Kaun, Adrian Rothenfluh
Dopamine is associated with a variety of conserved responses across species including locomotion, sleep, food consumption, aggression, courtship, addiction and several forms of appetitive and aversive memory. Historically, dopamine has been most prominently associated with dynamics underlying reward, punishment, or salience. Recent emerging evidence from Drosophila supports a role in all of these functions, as well as additional roles in the interplay between external sensation and internal states and forgetting of the very memories dopamine helped encode...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088067/tuning-neural-circuits-by-turning-the-interneuron-knob
#4
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088066/activity-dependent-development-of-visual-receptive-fields
#5
REVIEW
Andrew Thompson, Alexandra Gribizis, Chinfei Chen, Michael C Crair
It is widely appreciated that neuronal activity contributes to the development of brain representations of the external world. In the visual system, in particular, it is well known that activity cooperates with molecular cues to establish the topographic organization of visual maps on a macroscopic scale [1,2] (Huberman et al., 2008; Cang and Feldheim, 2013), mapping axons in a retinotopic and eye-specific manner. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of activity in driving the finer-scale circuit refinement that shapes the receptive fields of individual cells...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064004/wiring-visual-systems-common-and-divergent-mechanisms-and-principles
#6
REVIEW
Alex L Kolodkin, P Robin Hiesinger
The study of visual systems has a rich history, leading to the discovery and understanding of basic principles underlying the elaboration of neuronal connectivity. Recent work in model organisms such as fly, fish and mouse has yielded a wealth of new insights into visual system wiring. Here, we consider how axonal and dendritic patterning in columns and laminae influence synaptic partner selection in these model organisms. We highlight similarities and differences among disparate visual systems with the goal of identifying common and divergent principles for visual system wiring...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040643/adult-neurogenesis-beyond-the-niche-its-potential-for-driving-brain-plasticity
#7
REVIEW
Kurt A Sailor, Alejandro F Schinder, Pierre-Marie Lledo
Adult neurogenesis emerges as a tremendous form of plasticity with the continuous addition and loss of neurons in the adult brain. It is unclear how preexisting adult circuits generated during development are capable of modifying existing connections to accommodate the thousands of new synapses formed and exchanged each day. Here we first make parallels with sensory deprivation studies and its ability to induce preexisting non-neurogenic adult circuits to undergo massive reorganization. We then review recent studies that show high structural and synaptic plasticity in circuits directly connected to adult-born neurons...
December 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039763/spatial-and-temporal-arrangement-of-neuronal-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-mechanisms-controlling-axon-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Andrea Tedeschi, Frank Bradke
Axon regeneration and neuronal tissue repair varies across animal lineages as well as in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. While the peripheral nervous system retains the ability to self-repair, the majority of axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) fail to reactivate intrinsic growth programs after injury. Recent findings, however, suggest that long-distance axon regeneration, neuronal circuit assembly and recovery of functions in the adult mammalian CNS are possible...
December 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033531/synapse-biology-in-the-circuit-age-paths-toward-molecular-connectomics
#9
REVIEW
Dietmar Schreiner, Jeffrey N Savas, Etienne Herzog, Nils Brose, Joris de Wit
The neural connectome is a critical determinant of brain function. Circuits of precisely wired neurons, and the features of transmission at the synapses connecting them, are thought to dictate information processing in the brain. While recent technological advances now allow to define the anatomical and functional neural connectome at unprecedented resolution, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that establish the precise patterns of connectivity and the functional characteristics of synapses has remained challenging...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024185/in-the-loop-how-chromatin-topology-links-genome-structure-to-function-in-mechanisms-underlying-learning-and-memory
#10
REVIEW
L Ashley Watson, Li-Huei Tsai
Different aspects of learning, memory, and cognition are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as covalent DNA modifications and histone post-translational modifications. More recently, the modulation of chromatin architecture and nuclear organization is emerging as a key factor in dynamic transcriptional regulation of the post-mitotic neuron. For instance, neuronal activity induces relocalization of gene loci to 'transcription factories', and specific enhancer-promoter looping contacts allow for precise transcriptional regulation...
December 23, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025176/beyond-proneural-emerging-functions-and-regulations-of-proneural-proteins
#11
REVIEW
François Guillemot, Bassem A Hassan
Proneural proteins, which include Ascl1, Atoh1 and Neurogenins épinière in vertebrates and Achaete-Scute proteins and Atonal in Drosophila, are expressed in the developing nervous system throughout the animal kingdom and have an essential and well-characterised role in specifying the neural identity of progenitors. New properties and additional roles of these factors have emerged in recent years, including the regulation of stem cell proliferation and the capacity to reprogram many types of cells into neurons...
December 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012992/fifty-shades-of-inhibition
#12
REVIEW
Arianna Maffei
Inhibitory circuits are essential for brain function. Our understanding of their synaptic organization has advanced extensively with the identification and classification of an impressive variety of neuron groups, receptor types, and patterns of connectivity. However, the conceptual discussion regarding the role of in neural circuits still revolves around the idea that its primary role is to regulate circuit excitability. Here, I will focus on recent findings from cortical circuits and argue that inhibitory circuits are central to the integration of incoming inputs and can promote sophisticated fine-scale control of local circuits...
December 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992777/neuronal-chloride-and-excitability-the-big-impact-of-small-changes
#13
REVIEW
Joseph V Raimondo, Blake A Richards, Melanie A Woodin
Synaptic inhibition is a critical regulator of neuronal excitability, and in the mature brain the majority of synaptic inhibition is mediated by Cl(-)-permeable GABAA receptors. Unlike other physiologically relevant ions, Cl(-) is dynamically regulated, and alterations in the Cl(-) gradient can have significant impact on neuronal excitability. Due to changes in the neuronal Cl(-) concentration, GABAergic transmission can bidirectionally regulate the induction of excitatory synaptic plasticity and gate the closing of the critical period for monocular deprivation in visual cortex...
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984764/timing-temporal-transitions-during-brain-development
#14
REVIEW
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes, Claude Desplan
During development a limited number of progenitors generate diverse cell types that comprise the nervous system. Neuronal diversity, which arises largely at the level of neural stem cells, is critical for brain function. Often these cells exhibit temporal patterning: they sequentially produce neurons of distinct cell fates as a consequence of intrinsic and/or extrinsic cues. Here, we review recent advances in temporal patterning during neuronal specification, focusing on conserved players and mechanisms in invertebrate and vertebrate models...
December 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978481/division-modes-and-physical-asymmetry-in-cerebral-cortex-progenitors
#15
REVIEW
Delphine Delaunay, Ayano Kawaguchi, Colette Dehay, Fumio Matsuzaki
Neural stem cells go through a sequence of timely regulated gene expression and pattern of division mode to generate diverse neurons during brain development. During vertebrate cerebral cortex development, neural stem cells begin with proliferative symmetric divisions, subsequently undergo neurogenic asymmetric divisions, and finally gliogenic divisions. In this review, we explore the relationship between stem cell versus neural fate specification and the division mode. Specifically, we discuss recent findings on the mechanisms of asymmetric divisions, division mode, and developmental progression of neural progenitor identity...
December 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978480/adult-nsc-diversity-and-plasticity-the-role-of-the-niche
#16
REVIEW
Enric Llorens-Bobadilla, Ana Martin-Villalba
Adult somatic stem cells are generally defined as cells with the ability to differentiate into multiple different lineages and to self-renew during long periods of time. These features were long presumed to be represented in one single tissue-specific stem cell. Recent development of single-cell technologies reveals the existence of diversity in fate and activation state of somatic stem cells within the blood, skin and intestinal compartments [1] but also in the adult brain. Here we review how recent advances have expanded our view of neural stem cells (NSCs) as a diverse pool of cells and how the specialized microenvironment in which they reside acts to maintain this diversity...
December 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978479/orgs-and-mitotic-somal-translocation-a-role-in-development-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Bridget Ostrem, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Arnold Kriegstein
The evolution of the human brain has been characterized by an increase in the size of the neocortex. Underlying this expansion is a significant increase in the number of neurons produced by neural stem cells during early stages of cortical development. Here we highlight recent advances in our understating of these cell populations, consisting of ventricular radial glia and outer radial glia. We highlight how gene expression studies have identified molecular signatures for radial glial cell populations and outline what has been learned about the mechanisms underlying the characteristic mode of division observed in outer radial glia cells, mitotic somal translocation...
December 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930937/advances-in-myelinating-glial-cell-development
#18
REVIEW
Amy L Herbert, Kelly R Monk
In the vertebrate nervous system, the fast conduction of action potentials is potentiated by the myelin sheath, a multi-lamellar, lipid-rich structure that also provides vital trophic and metabolic support to axons. Myelin is elaborated by the plasma membrane of specialized glial cells, oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The diseases that result from damage to myelin or glia, including multiple sclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, underscore the importance of these cells for human health...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918886/computational-principles-and-models-of-multisensory-integration
#19
REVIEW
Chandramouli Chandrasekaran
Combining information from multiple senses creates robust percepts, speeds up responses, enhances learning, and improves detection, discrimination, and recognition. In this review, I discuss computational models and principles that provide insight into how this process of multisensory integration occurs at the behavioral and neural level. My initial focus is on drift-diffusion and Bayesian models that can predict behavior in multisensory contexts. I then highlight how recent neurophysiological and perturbation experiments provide evidence for a distributed redundant network for multisensory integration...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915086/metabolism-and-neurogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Marlen Knobloch, Sebastian Jessberger
The generation of neurons in the developing and adult mammalian brain by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) depends on a tight control of NSPC activity and neuronal differentiation that is regulated by a plethora of intrinsic and extrinsic molecular cues. Besides well-studied morphogenic signaling pathways and transcriptional codes that govern the distinct developmental steps from the dividing NSPC to a functional neuron, a critical role of cellular metabolism to determine the functional properties of NSPCs and newborn neurons has been recently identified...
December 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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