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Current Opinion in Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343142/circuit-mechanisms-of-sleepiness-and-cataplexy-in-narcolepsy
#1
REVIEW
Sara Pintwala, John Peever
Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder caused by loss of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy are the major complaints in narcolepsy, and are associated with impaired quality of life. Although it is unclear how orexin loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy, animal models have been instrumental in identifying the neurobiological underpinnings of narcolepsy because they reliably recapitulate disease symptoms. Current evidence indicates that orexin cell loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy by destabilizing the ability of the circuits that initiate and sustain normal levels of arousal and motor activity...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334640/mirnas-in-synapse-development-and-synaptic-plasticity
#2
REVIEW
Zhonghua Hu, Zheng Li
Synapses are functional units of the nervous system, through which information is transferred between neurons. The development and activity-dependent modification of synapses require temporally and spatially controlled modulation of gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as essential regulators of gene expression. They are small non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability and translation by interacting with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of mRNAs. miRNAs are located to neuronal processes to regulate protein synthesis locally and their expression is regulated by synaptic activity...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325617/human-genetics-and-sleep-behavior
#3
REVIEW
Guangsen Shi, David Wu, Louis J Ptáček, Ying-Hui Fu
Why we sleep remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. In the past few years, great advances have been made to better understand this phenomenon. Human genetics has contributed significantly to this movement, as many features of sleep have been found to be heritable. Discoveries about these genetic variations that affect human sleep will aid us in understanding the underlying mechanism of sleep. Here we summarize recent discoveries about the genetic variations affecting the timing of sleep, duration of sleep and EEG patterns...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288386/sleep-regulation-of-the-distribution-of-cortical-firing-rates
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Levenstein, Brendon O Watson, John Rinzel, György Buzsáki
Sleep is thought to mediate both mnemonic and homeostatic functions. However, the mechanism by which this brain state can simultaneously implement the 'selective' plasticity needed to consolidate novel memory traces and the 'general' plasticity necessary to maintain a well-functioning neuronal system is unclear. Recent findings show that both of these functions differentially affect neurons based on their intrinsic firing rate, a ubiquitous neuronal heterogeneity. Furthermore, they are both implemented by the NREM slow oscillation, which also distinguishes neurons based on firing rate during sequential activity at the DOWN→UP transition...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284099/astrocytes-and-the-modulation-of-sleep
#5
REVIEW
Philip G Haydon
Astrocytes are being identified as having multiple roles in sleep. Initially they were shown to modulate the process of sleep homeostasis through the release of adenosine which acts on adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) to promote sleep drive. More recent studies indicate that the astrocyte also plays pivotal, sleep-dependent roles in 'cleaning the brain' during sleep. This work indicates that a glymphatic pathway that critically relies on astrocytic aquaporin 4, is able to flush solutes from the brain and that deficits in this pathway may contribute to Alzheimer's disease...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282540/ionotropic-ampa-type-glutamate-and-metabotropic-gabab-receptors-determining-cellular-physiology-by-proteomes
#6
REVIEW
Bernhard Bettler, Bernd Fakler
Ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptors and G-protein-coupled metabotropic GABAB receptors are key elements of neurotransmission whose cellular functions are determined by their protein constituents. Over the past couple of years unbiased proteomic approaches identified comprehensive sets of protein building blocks of these two types of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain (termed receptor proteomes). This provided the opportunity to match receptor proteomes with receptor physiology and to study the structural organization, regulation and function of native receptor complexes in an unprecedented manner...
March 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278432/sculpting-memory-during-sleep-concurrent-consolidation-and-forgetting
#7
REVIEW
Gordon B Feld, Jan Born
There is compelling evidence that sleep actively supports the formation of long-lasting memory representations. Experimental cuing of memories proved that neural replay of representations during sleep plays a causal role for this consolidation, which has also been shown to promote neocortical synaptic plasticity and spine formation. Concurrently, sleep has been proposed to facilitate forgetting through processes of synaptic renormalisation. This view received indirect support by findings in humans of sleep enhancing TMS-evoked plasticity and capabilities for encoding new information...
March 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273525/multisensory-integration-in-c-elegans
#8
REVIEW
D Dipon Ghosh, Michael N Nitabach, Yun Zhang, Gareth Harris
Multisensory integration is a neural process by which signals from two or more distinct sensory channels are simultaneously processed to form a more coherent representation of the environment. Multisensory integration, especially when combined with a survey of internal states, provides selective advantages for animals navigating complex environments. Despite appreciation of the importance of multisensory integration in behavior, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent work looking at how Caenorhabditis elegans makes multisensory decisions has yielded mechanistic insights into how a relatively simple and well-defined nervous system employs circuit motifs of defined features, synaptic signals and extrasynaptic neurotransmission, as well as neuromodulators in processing and integrating multiple sensory inputs to generate flexible and adaptive behavioral outputs...
March 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260633/plasticity-of-hippocampal-memories-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
Aidan J Horner, Christian F Doeller
The human hippocampus is a brain region that supports episodic and spatial memory. Recent experiments have drawn on animal research and computational modelling to reveal how the unique computations and representations of the hippocampus support episodic and spatial memory. Invasive electrophysiological recordings and non-invasive functional brain imaging have provided evidence for the rapid formation of hippocampal representations, as well as the ability of the hippocampus to both pattern-separate and pattern-complete input from the neocortex...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242433/the-tired-hippocampus-the-molecular-impact-of-sleep-deprivation-on-hippocampal-function
#10
REVIEW
Robbert Havekes, Ted Abel
Memory consolidation, the process by which information is stored following training, consists of synaptic consolidation and systems consolidation. It is widely acknowledged that sleep deprivation has a profound effect on synaptic consolidation, particularly for memories that require the hippocampus. It is unclear, however, which of the many molecular changes associated with sleep deprivation directly contribute to memory deficits. In this review, we highlight recent studies showing that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP and mTOR signaling, and ultimately causes spine loss in CA1 neurons in a cofilin-dependent fashion...
February 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236779/maguks-multifaceted-synaptic-organizers
#11
REVIEW
Sehoon Won, Jon M Levy, Roger A Nicoll, Katherine W Roche
The PSD-95 family of proteins, known as MAGUKs, have long been recognized to be central building blocks of the PSD. They are categorized as scaffolding proteins, which link surface-expressed receptors to the intracellular signaling molecules. Although the four members of the PSD-95 family (PSD-95, PSD-93, SAP102, and SAP97) have many shared roles in regulating synaptic function, recent studies have begun to delineate specific binding partners and roles in plasticity. In the current review, we will highlight the conserved and unique roles of these proteins...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236778/interactions-between-synaptic-homeostatic-mechanisms-an-attempt-to-reconcile-bcm-theory-synaptic-scaling-and-changing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#12
REVIEW
Tara Keck, Mark Hübener, Tobias Bonhoeffer
Homeostatic plasticity is proposed to be mediated by synaptic changes, such as synaptic scaling and shifts in the excitation/inhibition balance. These mechanisms are thought to be separate from the Bienenstock, Cooper, Munro (BCM) learning rule, where the threshold for the induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression slides in response to changes in activity levels. Yet, both sets of mechanisms produce a homeostatic response of a relative increase (or decrease) in strength of excitatory synapses in response to overall activity-level changes...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219683/the-c1q-complement-family-of-synaptic-organizers-not-just-complementary
#13
REVIEW
Michisuke Yuzaki
Molecules that regulate formation, differentiation, and maintenance of synapses are called synaptic organizers. Recently, various 'C1q family' proteins have been shown to be released from neurons, and serve as a new class of synaptic organizers. Cbln1 and C1ql1 proteins regulate the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, respectively, in the cerebellum. Cbln1 also modulates the function of postsynaptic delta2 glutamate receptors to regulate synaptic plasticity...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219682/epilepsy-and-synaptic-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Yuko Fukata, Masaki Fukata
Throughout history, epilepsy affects about 1-2% of the population worldwide. Epilepsy can be caused by traumatic brain injury, exposure to certain toxins and drugs, and mutations of genes that often encode synaptic proteins. In addition to conventional linkage and association studies, the recent trio exome sequencing in epilepsy and proteomic analysis in autoimmune synaptopathies have accelerated identification of novel epilepsy-related proteins, most of which play critical roles in synaptic transmission. Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy analysis has revealed subsynaptic nanoscale distribution of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins and suggests a precise trans-synaptic alignment of neurotransmitter release to receptors...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160757/biochemistry-and-neuroscience-the-twain-need-to-meet
#15
REVIEW
Mary B Kennedy
Neuroscience has come to mean the study of electrophysiology of neurons and synapses, micro and macro-scale neuroanatomy, and the functional organization of brain areas. The molecular axis of the field, as reflected in textbooks, often includes only descriptions of the structure and function of individual channels and receptor proteins, and the extracellular signals that guide development and repair. Studies of cytosolic 'molecular machines', large assemblies of proteins that orchestrate regulation of neuronal functions, have been neglected...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126451/sleep-and-plasticity-in-the-visual-cortex-more-than-meets-the-eye
#16
REVIEW
Marcos G Frank
The visual cortex has provided key insights into how experience shapes cortical circuitry. Scientists have identified how different manipulations of visual experience trigger distinct forms of plasticity as well as many of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Intriguingly, experience is not the only factor driving plasticity in the visual system. Sleep is also required for the full expression of plasticity in the developing visual cortex. In this review, I discuss what we have learned about the role of sleep in visual cortical plasticity and what it tells us about sleep function...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122326/functional-roles-of-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-with-an-emphasis-on-inhibition
#17
REVIEW
Haroon Anwar, Xinping Li, Dirk Bucher, Farzan Nadim
Almost all synapses show activity-dependent dynamic changes in efficacy. Numerous studies have explored the mechanisms underlying different forms of short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), but the functional role of STP for circuit output and animal behavior is less understood. This is particularly true for inhibitory synapses that can play widely varied roles in circuit activity. We review recent findings on the role of synaptic STP in sensory, pattern generating, thalamocortical, and hippocampal networks, with a focus on synaptic inhibition...
January 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117212/editorial-overview-developmental-neuroscience-2017
#18
EDITORIAL
Paola Arlotta, Pierre Vanderhaeghen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109973/sleep-loss-and-structural-plasticity
#19
REVIEW
Cassandra C Areal, Simon C Warby, Valérie Mongrain
Wakefulness and sleep are dynamic states during which brain functioning is modified and shaped. Sleep loss is detrimental to many brain functions and results in structural changes localized at synapses in the nervous system. In this review, we present and discuss some of the latest observations of structural changes following sleep loss in some vertebrates and insects. We also emphasize that these changes are region-specific and cell type-specific and that, most importantly, these structural modifications have functional roles in sleep regulation and brain functions...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103533/the-readily-releasable-pool-of-synaptic-vesicles
#20
REVIEW
Pascal S Kaeser, Wade G Regehr
Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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