Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Opinion in Neurobiology

Gianluigi Mongillo, Simon Rumpel, Yonatan Loewenstein
According to the synaptic trace theory of memory, activity-induced changes in the pattern of synaptic connections underlie the storage of information for long periods. In this framework, the stability of memory critically depends on the stability of the underlying synaptic connections. Surprisingly however, synaptic connections in the living brain are highly volatile, which poses a fundamental challenge to the synaptic trace theory. Here we review recent experimental evidence that link the initial formation of a memory with changes in the pattern of connectivity, but also evidence that synaptic connections are considerably volatile even in the absence of learning...
July 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Nathan G Hedrick, Ryohei Yasuda
While it is generally appreciated that learning involves the structural rearrangement of neuronal circuits, the underlying orchestration of molecular events that drives these changes is not as well understood. Recent studies on the spatiotemporal organization of synaptic signaling events have provided new insights into the biochemical underpinnings of various expressions of structural neuronal plasticity, as well as the functional consequences that emerge because of the particular behavior of the molecules involved...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Lindsay A Osso, Jonah R Chan
Myelin increases the speed and efficiency of action potential propagation. Yet, not all axons are myelinated and some axons are discontinuously myelinated, prompting the question of how myelinating glia select axons for myelination. Whereas myelination by Schwann cells depends on axonal induction, oligodendrocytes can form myelin membrane in the absence of axons. However, oligodendrocytes alone cannot architect the complex myelination patterns of the central nervous system and recent advances have implicated axonal signaling in this process...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Michael A Kienzler, Ehud Y Isacoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Niels Andersen, Nathalie Krauth, Sadegh Nabavi
Hebbian plasticity, as represented by long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synapses, has been the most influential hypothesis to account for encoding of memories. The evidence for the physiological relevance of LTP is indisputable. However, until recently the ways by which LTP physiologically is induced in its natural environment, the brain, was less clear. Nonetheless, current evidence points to neuromodulators as an indispensable element. The case for LTD in vivo is less certain...
July 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Omri Barak
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are a class of computational models that are often used as a tool to explain neurobiological phenomena, considering anatomical, electrophysiological and computational constraints. RNNs can either be designed to implement a certain dynamical principle, or they can be trained by input-output examples. Recently, there has been large progress in utilizing trained RNNs both for computational tasks, and as explanations of neural phenomena. I will review how combining trained RNNs with reverse engineering can provide an alternative framework for modeling in neuroscience, potentially serving as a powerful hypothesis generation tool...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Caspar Glock, Maximilian Heumüller, Erin M Schuman
Neurons are amongst the most structurally complex cells and exhibit a high degree of spatial compartmentalization. Also, neurons exhibit rapid and dynamic signaling by processing information in a precise and, sometimes, spatially-restricted manner. The signaling that occurs in axons and dendrites necessitates the maintenance and modification of their local proteomes. Local translation of mRNAs into protein is one solution that neurons use to meet synaptic demand and activity. Here we review some of the key findings and recent discoveries that have shaped our understanding of local translation in neuronal function and highlight important new techniques that might pave the way for new insights...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Fiona Hollis, Alexandros K Kanellopoulos, Claudia Bagni
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a prototypic pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social interaction, and communication deficits, repetitive, stereotypic patterns of behavior, and impairments in language and development. Clinical studies have identified mitochondrial disturbances at the levels of DNA, activity, complexes, oxidative stress, and metabolites in blood and urine of ASD patients. However, these observations from postmortem brains or peripheral tissues do not provide a direct link between autism and mitochondria...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Jeffrey M Donlea, Md Noor Alam, Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep homeostasis is a fundamental property of vigilance state regulation that is highly conserved across species. Neuronal systems and circuits that underlie sleep homeostasis are not well understood. In Drosophila, a neuronal circuit involving neurons in the ellipsoid body and in the dorsal Fan-shaped body is a candidate for both tracing sleep need during waking and translating it to increased sleep drive and expression. Sleep homeostasis in rats and mice involves multiple neuromodulators acting on multiple wake- and sleep-promoting neuronal systems...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Oriane Mauger, Peter Scheiffele
Brain development and function are governed by tightly controlled gene expression programs. Transcriptional repertoires in neurons are highly specific to developmental stage, neuronal cell type and can undergo rapid changes upon neuronal stimulation. Dedicated molecular mechanisms are required to achieve such fine-tuned regulation. In addition to transcriptional programs, post-transcriptional processes and notably alternative splicing substantially contribute to the elaboration of neuronal gene expression. While alternative splicing has been viewed primarily as a means for expanding proteome diversity, it emerges to also be a major regulator of transcript levels and dynamics...
June 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Ghazaleh Ashrafi, Timothy A Ryan
Nerve terminals in the brain carry out the primary form of intercellular communication between neurons. Neurotransmission, however, requires adequate supply of ATP to support energetically demanding steps, including the maintenance of ionic gradients, reversing changes in intracellular Ca(2+) that arise from opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, as well recycling synaptic vesicles. The energy demands of the brain are primarily met by glucose which is oxidized through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Amy Ky Fu, Nancy Y Ip
Morphological changes of dendritic spines are strongly associated with synaptic development and synaptic plasticity, which underlies learning and memory. These changes are driven by alterations of F-actin dynamics under the control of Rho GTPases or by synaptic trafficking and insertion of glutamate receptors. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the formation and stabilization of dendritic spines, and the signaling pathways regulating these processes, provides insights into the mechanisms of learning and memory...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
René Aw Frank, Seth Gn Grant
The postsynaptic density (PSD) of all vertebrate species share a highly complex proteome with ∼1000 conserved proteins that function as sophisticated molecular computational devices. Here, we review recent studies showing that this complexity can be understood in terms of the supramolecular organization of proteins, which self-assemble within a hierarchy of different length scales, including complexes, supercomplexes and nanodomains. We highlight how genetic and biochemical approaches in mice are being used to uncover the native molecular architecture of the synapse, revealing hitherto unknown molecular structures, including highly selective mechanisms for specifying the assembly of NMDAR-MAGUK supercomplexes...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Jaehoon Jeong, Jeremiah D Paskus, Katherine W Roche
This review covers the dynamic regulation of neuroligin isoforms, focusing on posttranslational events including phosphorylation, glycosylation and activity-dependent cleavage. There is a growing literature on how phosphorylation confers an isoform-specific level of modulation affecting a variety of protein interactions. In addition, recent studies describe activity-dependent proteolytic cleavage of neuroligins, revealing a broader role for neuroligins than just synaptic 'glue'. Interesting new research implicates the cleaved extracellular fragments of neuroligins in promoting glioma...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Laura DeNardo, Liqun Luo
A major goal of modern neuroscience is to understand how ensembles of neurons participate in neural circuits underlying behavior. The recent explosion of genetically-encoded circuit analysis tools has allowed neuroscientists to characterize molecularly-defined neuronal types with unprecedented detail. However, since neurons defined by molecular expression can be functionally heterogeneous, targeting circuit analysis tools to neurons based on their activity is critical to elucidating the neural basis of behavior...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Katherine T Baldwin, Cagla Eroglu
Astrocytes are morphologically complex cells that perform a wide variety of critical functions in the brain. As a structurally and functionally integrated component of the synapse, astrocytes secrete proteins, lipids, and small molecules that bind neuronal receptors to promote synaptogenesis and regulate synaptic connectivity. Additionally, astrocytes are key players in circuit formation, instructing the formation of synapses between distinct classes of neurons. This review highlights recent publications on the topic of astrocyte-mediated synaptogenesis, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms through which astrocytes orchestrate the formation of synaptic circuits...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Hannah R Monday, Pablo E Castillo
Synaptic plasticity is critical for experience-dependent adjustments of brain function. While most research has focused on the mechanisms that underlie postsynaptic forms of plasticity, comparatively little is known about how neurotransmitter release is altered in a long-term manner. Emerging research suggests that many of the features of canonical 'postsynaptic' plasticity, such as associativity, structural changes and bidirectionality, also characterize long-term presynaptic plasticity. Recent studies demonstrate that presynaptic plasticity is a potent regulator of circuit output and function...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Kai Zinn, Engin Özkan
The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) encompasses hundreds of cell surface proteins containing multiple immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains. Among these are neural IgCAMs, which are cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between cells in the nervous system. IgCAMs in some vertebrate IgSF subfamilies bind to each other homophilically and heterophilically, forming small interaction networks. In Drosophila, a global 'interactome' screen identified two larger networks in which proteins in one IgSF subfamily selectively interact with proteins in a different subfamily...
May 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Jelena Radulovic, Vladimir Jovasevic, Mariah Aa Meyer
State-dependent learning (SDL) is a phenomenon relating to information storage and retrieval restricted to discrete states. While extensively studied using psychopharmacological approaches, SDL has not been subjected to rigorous neuroscientific study. Here we present an overview of approaches historically used to induce SDL, and highlight some of the known neurobiological mechanisms, in particular those related to inhibitory neurotransmission and its regulation by microRNAs (miR). We also propose novel cellular and circuit mechanisms as contributing factors...
May 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Wendy A Herbst, Kelsey C Martin
Synapse-to-nucleus communication is essential for neural development, plasticity, and repair. In addition to fast electrochemical signaling, neurons employ a slower mechanism of protein transport from synapse-to-nucleus. This mechanism provides potential advantages, including the encoding of spatial information. Many synaptonuclear signaling proteins are transported from the postsynaptic compartment to the nucleus in an activity-dependent manner. The phosphorylation state of two such proteins, CRTC1 and Jacob, is dependent on the stimulus type...
May 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"