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Current Opinion in Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633050/the-adenosine-mediated-neuronal-glial-homeostatic-sleep-response
#1
REVIEW
Robert W Greene, Theresa E Bjorness, Ayako Suzuki
Slow wave activity (SWA) during slow wave sleep (SWS) is the best indicator of the sleep homeostasis. The intensity of the SWA observed during SWS that follows prolonged waking is directly correlated with the duration of prior waking and its intensity decays during SWS suggesting a buildup and a resolution of sleep need. This sleep-homeostasis related SWA results from a buildup and decay of extracellular adenosine that acts at neuronal adenosine A1 receptors to facilitate SWA and is metabolized by adenosine kinase found in glia...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633045/mrna-transport-local-translation-in-neurons
#2
REVIEW
Caspar Glock, Maximilian Heumüller, Erin M Schuman
Neurons are amongst the most structurally complex cells and exhibit a high degree of spatial compartmentalization. Also, neurons exhibit rapid and dynamic signaling by processing information in a precise and, sometimes, spatially-restricted manner. The signaling that occurs in axons and dendrites necessitates the maintenance and modification of their local proteomes. Local translation of mRNAs into protein is one solution that neurons use to meet synaptic demand and activity. Here we review some of the key findings and recent discoveries that have shaped our understanding of local translation in neuronal function and highlight important new techniques that might pave the way for new insights...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628841/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-clinical-features-and-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Fiona Hollis, Alexandros K Kanellopoulos, Claudia Bagni
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a prototypic pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social interaction, and communication deficits, repetitive, stereotypic patterns of behavior, and impairments in language and development. Clinical studies have identified mitochondrial disturbances at the levels of DNA, activity, complexes, oxidative stress, and metabolites in blood and urine of ASD patients. However, these observations from postmortem brains or peripheral tissues do not provide a direct link between autism and mitochondria...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628804/neuronal-substrates-of-sleep-homeostasis-lessons-from-flies-rats-and-mice
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea, Md Noor Alam, Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep homeostasis is a fundamental property of vigilance state regulation that is highly conserved across species. Neuronal systems and circuits that underlie sleep homeostasis are not well understood. In Drosophila, a neuronal circuit involving neurons in the ellipsoid body and in the dorsal Fan-shaped body is a candidate for both tracing sleep need during waking and translating it to increased sleep drive and expression. Sleep homeostasis in rats and mice involves multiple neuromodulators acting on multiple wake- and sleep-promoting neuronal systems...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610895/editorial-overview-neurobiology-of-sleep-2017
#5
EDITORIAL
Thomas S Kilduff, Yang Dan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609697/beyond-proteome-diversity-alternative-splicing-as-a-regulator-of-neuronal-transcript-dynamics
#6
REVIEW
Oriane Mauger, Peter Scheiffele
Brain development and function are governed by tightly controlled gene expression programs. Transcriptional repertoires in neurons are highly specific to developmental stage, neuronal cell type and can undergo rapid changes upon neuronal stimulation. Dedicated molecular mechanisms are required to achieve such fine-tuned regulation. In addition to transcriptional programs, post-transcriptional processes and notably alternative splicing substantially contribute to the elaboration of neuronal gene expression. While alternative splicing has been viewed primarily as a means for expanding proteome diversity, it emerges to also be a major regulator of transcript levels and dynamics...
June 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605677/glucose-metabolism-in-nerve-terminals
#7
REVIEW
Ghazaleh Ashrafi, Timothy A Ryan
Nerve terminals in the brain carry out the primary form of intercellular communication between neurons. Neurotransmission, however, requires adequate supply of ATP to support energetically demanding steps, including the maintenance of ionic gradients, reversing changes in intracellular Ca(2+) that arise from opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, as well recycling synaptic vesicles. The energy demands of the brain are primarily met by glucose which is oxidized through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600964/regulation-of-postsynaptic-signaling-in-structural-synaptic-plasticity
#8
REVIEW
Amy Ky Fu, Nancy Y Ip
Morphological changes of dendritic spines are strongly associated with synaptic development and synaptic plasticity, which underlies learning and memory. These changes are driven by alterations of F-actin dynamics under the control of Rho GTPases or by synaptic trafficking and insertion of glutamate receptors. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the formation and stabilization of dendritic spines, and the signaling pathways regulating these processes, provides insights into the mechanisms of learning and memory...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577468/wake-sleep-circuitry-an-overview
#9
REVIEW
Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller
Although earlier models of brain circuitry controlling wake-sleep focused on monaminergic and cholinergic arousal systems, recent evidence indicates that these play mainly a modulatory role, and that the backbone of the wake-sleep regulatory system depends upon fast neurotransmitters, such as glutmate and GABA. We review here recent advances in understanding the role these systems play in controlling sleep and wakefulness.
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577431/supramolecular-organization-of-nmda-receptors-and-the-postsynaptic-density
#10
REVIEW
René Aw Frank, Seth Gn Grant
The postsynaptic density (PSD) of all vertebrate species share a highly complex proteome with ∼1000 conserved proteins that function as sophisticated molecular computational devices. Here, we review recent studies showing that this complexity can be understood in terms of the supramolecular organization of proteins, which self-assemble within a hierarchy of different length scales, including complexes, supercomplexes and nanodomains. We highlight how genetic and biochemical approaches in mice are being used to uncover the native molecular architecture of the synapse, revealing hitherto unknown molecular structures, including highly selective mechanisms for specifying the assembly of NMDAR-MAGUK supercomplexes...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577430/posttranslational-modifications-of-neuroligins-regulate-neuronal-and-glial-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Jaehoon Jeong, Jeremiah D Paskus, Katherine W Roche
This review covers the dynamic regulation of neuroligin isoforms, focusing on posttranslational events including phosphorylation, glycosylation and activity-dependent cleavage. There is a growing literature on how phosphorylation confers an isoform-specific level of modulation affecting a variety of protein interactions. In addition, recent studies describe activity-dependent proteolytic cleavage of neuroligins, revealing a broader role for neuroligins than just synaptic 'glue'. Interesting new research implicates the cleaved extracellular fragments of neuroligins in promoting glioma...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577429/genetic-strategies-to-access-activated-neurons
#12
REVIEW
Laura DeNardo, Liqun Luo
A major goal of modern neuroscience is to understand how ensembles of neurons participate in neural circuits underlying behavior. The recent explosion of genetically-encoded circuit analysis tools has allowed neuroscientists to characterize molecularly-defined neuronal types with unprecedented detail. However, since neurons defined by molecular expression can be functionally heterogeneous, targeting circuit analysis tools to neurons based on their activity is critical to elucidating the neural basis of behavior...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575720/local-aspects-of-sleep-and-wakefulness
#13
REVIEW
Francesca Siclari, Giulio Tononi
Slow waves, the hallmark of NREM (Non Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, are not uniformly distributed across the cortical surface, but can occur locally and asynchronously across brain regions. Their regional distribution and amplitude is affected by brain maturation and by time spent awake, mediated in part by experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength. Recent studies have shown that local low-frequency oscillations (<10Hz) can also occur in REM sleep and during wakefulness, leading to region-specific cognitive errors...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575719/fast-and-slow-ca-2-dependent-hyperpolarization-mechanisms-connect-membrane-potential-and-sleep-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Koji L Ode, Takahiro Katsumata, Daisuke Tone, Hiroki R Ueda
Several lines of evidence indicate that the sleep-wake state of cortical neurons is regulated not only through neuronal projections from the lower brain, but also through the cortical neurons' intrinsic ability to initiate a slow firing pattern related to the slow-wave oscillation observed in electroencephalography of the sleeping brain. Theoretical modeling and experiments with genetic and pharmacological perturbation suggest that ion channels and kinases acting downstream of calcium signaling regulate the cortical-membrane potential and sleep duration...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575718/sleep-homeostasis-habits-and-habituation
#15
REVIEW
Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Mark E Walton, Stuart N Peirson, David M Bannerman
The importance of sleep for behavioural performance during waking is long-established, but the underlying reasons and mechanisms remain elusive. Waking and sleep are associated with changes in the levels of GluA1 AMPAR subunit in synaptic membranes, while studies using genetically-modified mice have identified an important role for GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity in a non-associative form of memory that underlies short-term habituation to recently experienced stimuli. Here we posit that sleep may play a role in dishabituation, which restores attentional capacity and maximises the readiness of the animal for learning and goal-directed behaviour during subsequent wakefulness...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570953/oscillations-neural-computations-and-learning-during-wake-and-sleep
#16
REVIEW
Hector Penagos, Carmen Varela, Matthew A Wilson
Learning and memory theories consider sleep and the reactivation of waking hippocampal neural patterns to be crucial for the long-term consolidation of memories. Here we propose that precisely coordinated representations across brain regions allow the inference and evaluation of causal relationships to train an internal generative model of the world. This training starts during wakefulness and strongly benefits from sleep because its recurring nested oscillations may reflect compositional operations that facilitate a hierarchical processing of information, potentially including behavioral policy evaluations...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570864/molecular-mechanisms-of-astrocyte-induced-synaptogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Katherine T Baldwin, Cagla Eroglu
Astrocytes are morphologically complex cells that perform a wide variety of critical functions in the brain. As a structurally and functionally integrated component of the synapse, astrocytes secrete proteins, lipids, and small molecules that bind neuronal receptors to promote synaptogenesis and regulate synaptic connectivity. Additionally, astrocytes are key players in circuit formation, instructing the formation of synapses between distinct classes of neurons. This review highlights recent publications on the topic of astrocyte-mediated synaptogenesis, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms through which astrocytes orchestrate the formation of synaptic circuits...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570863/closing-the-gap-long-term-presynaptic-plasticity-in-brain-function-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Hannah R Monday, Pablo E Castillo
Synaptic plasticity is critical for experience-dependent adjustments of brain function. While most research has focused on the mechanisms that underlie postsynaptic forms of plasticity, comparatively little is known about how neurotransmitter release is altered in a long-term manner. Emerging research suggests that many of the features of canonical 'postsynaptic' plasticity, such as associativity, structural changes and bidirectionality, also characterize long-term presynaptic plasticity. Recent studies demonstrate that presynaptic plasticity is a potent regulator of circuit output and function...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558267/neural-immunoglobulin-superfamily-interaction-networks
#19
REVIEW
Kai Zinn, Engin Özkan
The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) encompasses hundreds of cell surface proteins containing multiple immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains. Among these are neural IgCAMs, which are cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between cells in the nervous system. IgCAMs in some vertebrate IgSF subfamilies bind to each other homophilically and heterophilically, forming small interaction networks. In Drosophila, a global 'interactome' screen identified two larger networks in which proteins in one IgSF subfamily selectively interact with proteins in a different subfamily...
May 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558266/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-state-dependent-learning
#20
REVIEW
Jelena Radulovic, Vladimir Jovasevic, Mariah Aa Meyer
State-dependent learning (SDL) is a phenomenon relating to information storage and retrieval restricted to discrete states. While extensively studied using psychopharmacological approaches, SDL has not been subjected to rigorous neuroscientific study. Here we present an overview of approaches historically used to induce SDL, and highlight some of the known neurobiological mechanisms, in particular those related to inhibitory neurotransmission and its regulation by microRNAs (miR). We also propose novel cellular and circuit mechanisms as contributing factors...
May 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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