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Current Opinion in Genetics & Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605672/intercellular-transfer-of-organelles-during-body-pigmentation
#1
REVIEW
Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yoshiko Takahashi
The intercellular transfer of the melanin-producing organelle, called melanosome, from melanocytes to adjacent keratinocytes, is largely responsible for the coat colors and skin pigmentation of amniotes (birds, reptiles, and mammals). Although several hypotheses of melanin-transfer were proposed mainly by in vitro studies and electron microscopies, how the melanosome transfer takes place in the actual skin remained unclear. With advances in technologies of gene manipulations and high-resolution microscopy that allow direct visualization of plasma membrane, we are beginning to understand the amazing behaviors and dynamics of melanocytes...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570929/patterning-of-the-turtle-shell
#2
REVIEW
Jacqueline E Moustakas-Verho, Judith Cebra-Thomas, Scott F Gilbert
Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527813/enhancer-evolution-and-the-origins-of-morphological-novelty
#3
REVIEW
Mark Rebeiz, Miltos Tsiantis
A central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic origin of morphological novelties-i.e. anatomical structures unique to a taxonomic group. Elaboration of morphology during development depends on networks of regulatory genes that activate patterned gene expression through transcriptional enhancer regions. We summarize recent case studies and genome-wide investigations that have uncovered diverse mechanisms though which new enhancers arise. We also discuss how these enhancer-originating mechanisms have clarified the history of genetic networks underlying diversification of genital structures in flies, limbs and neural crest in chordates, and plant leaves...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502890/a-quantitative-approach-to-understanding-vertebrate-limb-morphogenesis-at-the-macroscopic-tissue-level
#4
REVIEW
Takayuki Suzuki, Yoshihiro Morishita
To understand organ morphogenetic mechanisms, it is essential to clarify how spatiotemporally-regulated molecular/cellular dynamics causes physical tissue deformation. In the case of vertebrate limb development, while some of the genes and oriented cell behaviors underlying morphogenesis have been revealed, tissue deformation dynamics remains incompletely understood. We here introduce our recent work on the reconstruction of tissue deformation dynamics in chick limb development from cell lineage tracing data...
May 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486164/remaining-questions-related-to-the-hourglass-model-in-vertebrate-evolution
#5
REVIEW
Naoki Irie
Despite the phenotypic divergence of early embryogenesis among vertebrates (e.g., the wide variety of cleavage and gastrulation patterns), all species converge into phenotypically similar mid-embryonic stages (particularly pharyngula embryos, which show the typical anatomical features of vertebrates, such as the pharyngeal arch), and evolutionary divergence occurs again thereafter. This observation coincides well with the recently supported developmental hourglass model; however, little is known about the nature of this conserved pharyngula period in vertebrates, and it is unclear why this mid-embryonic period has been conserved...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473186/editorial-overview-molecular-genetic-basis-of-disease
#6
EDITORIAL
Nancy M Bonini, Edward B Lee, Wilma Wasco, Allen D Roses
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473185/editorial-overview-genome-architecture-and-expression
#7
EDITORIAL
Bart Deplancke, Charles Sagerström
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441621/prion-like-transmission-of-pathogenic-protein-aggregates-in-genetic-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#8
REVIEW
Margaret Mp Pearce
A key pathological hallmark of most neurodegenerative diseases is the misfolding of a particular protein, leading to deposition of toxic protein aggregates in brain tissue. Recent data provide compelling evidence that pathogenic protein aggregates have prion-like properties-they self-replicate by templated misfolding of monomeric proteins and spread between individual cells. Studies in genetic model organisms have expanded our understanding of how prion-like pathogenic aggregates propagate in vivo, revealing potential roles for spreading along neural networks and key cellular processes in both neurons and glial cells...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419934/genome-research-elucidating-environmental-adaptation-dark-fly-project-as-a-case-study
#9
REVIEW
Naoyuki Fuse
Organisms have the capacity to adapt to diverse environments, and environmental adaptation is a substantial driving force of evolution. Recent progress of genome science has addressed the genetic mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation. Whole genome sequencing has identified adaptive genes selected under particular environments. Genome editing technology enables us to directly test the role(s) of a gene in environmental adaptation. Genome science has also shed light on a unique organism, Dark-fly, which has been reared long-term in the dark...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419933/planar-polarized-contractile-actomyosin-networks-in-dynamic-tissue-morphogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Daiki Umetsu, Erina Kuranaga
The complex shapes of animal bodies are constructed through a sequence of simple physical interactions of constituent cells. Mechanical forces generated by cellular activities, such as division, death, shape change and rearrangement, drive tissue morphogenesis. By confining assembly or disassembly of actomyosin networks within the three-dimensional space of the cell, cells can localize forces to induce tissue deformation. Tissue-scale morphogenesis emerges from a collective behavior of cells that coordinates the force generation in space and time...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419908/editorial-overview-characterizing-the-cancer-genome-mechanistic-insights-and-translational-opportunities
#11
EDITORIAL
Olivier Delattre, Carol J Bult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391084/mammalian-swi-snf-complexes-in-cancer-emerging-therapeutic-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Roodolph St Pierre, Cigall Kadoch
Mammalian SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes orchestrate a diverse set of chromatin alterations which impact transcriptional output. Recent whole-exome sequencing efforts have revealed that the genes encoding subunits of mSWI/SNF complexes are mutated in over 20% of cancers, spanning a wide range of tissue types. The majority of mutations result in loss of subunit protein expression, implicating mSWI/SNF subunits as tumor suppressors. mSWI/SNF-deficient cancers remain a therapeutic challenge, owing to a lack of potent and selective agents which target complexes or unique pathway dependencies generated by mSWI/SNF subunit perturbations...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391060/spatiotemporal-mechanisms-of-root-branching
#13
REVIEW
Krisztina Ötvös, Eva Benková
The fundamental tasks of the root system are, besides anchoring, mediating interactions between plant and soil and providing the plant with water and nutrients. The architecture of the root system is controlled by endogenous mechanisms that constantly integrate environmental signals, such as availability of nutrients and water. Extremely important for efficient soil exploitation and survival under less favorable conditions is the developmental flexibility of the root system that is largely determined by its postembryonic branching capacity...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391059/root-hair-development-in-grasses-and-cereals-poaceae
#14
REVIEW
Liam Dolan
Root hairs are tubular, cellular outgrowths of epidermal cells that extend from the root surface into the soil. Root hairs tether root systems to their growth substrate, take up inorganic nutrients and water, and interact with the soil microflora. At maturity, the root epidermis comprises two cell types; cells with root hairs and hairless epidermal cells. These two cell types alternate with each other along longitudinal files in grasses and cereals (Poaceae). While the mechanism by which this alternating pattern develops is unknown, the later stages of root hair differentiation are controlled by a conserved mechanism that promotes root hair development among angiosperms...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365506/new-developments-in-ran-translation-insights-from-multiple-diseases
#15
REVIEW
John Douglas Cleary, Laura Pw Ranum
Since the discovery of repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, and more recently its association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia, there has been an intense focus to understand how this process works and the downstream effects of these novel proteins. RAN translation across several different types of repeat expansions mutations (CAG, CTG, CCG, GGGGCC, GGCCCC) results in the production of proteins in all three reading frames without an ATG initiation codon. The combination of bidirectional transcription and RAN translation has been shown to result in the accumulation of up to six mutant expansion proteins in a growing number of diseases...
March 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364657/genetic-models-of-c9orf72-what-is-toxic
#16
REVIEW
Thomas G Moens, Linda Partridge, Adrian M Isaacs
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the gene C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Pathogenesis may occur either due to loss of function of the C9orf72 gene, or a toxic gain of function, via the production of repetitive sense and antisense RNA and/or repetitive dipeptide repeat proteins. Recently, mouse knockouts have suggested that a loss of function of C9orf72 alone is insufficient to lead to neurodegeneration, whilst overexpression of hexanucleotide DNA is sufficient in a wide range of model systems...
March 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363112/ribosome-profiling-and-dynamic-regulation-of-translation-in-mammals
#17
REVIEW
Cédric Gobet, Felix Naef
Protein synthesis is an energy-demanding cellular process. Consequently, a well-timed, fine-tuned and plastic regulation of translation is needed to adjust and maintain cell states under dynamically changing environments. Genome-wide monitoring of translation was recently facilitated by ribosome profiling, which uncovered key features of translation regulation. In this review, we summarize recent ribosome profiling studies in mammals providing novel insight in dynamic translation regulation, notably related to circadian rhythms, diurnal feeding/fasting cycles, cell cycle progression, stress responses, and tRNA landscapes...
March 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445802/nmnat-it-s-an-nad-synthase%C3%A2-it-s-a-chaperone%C3%A2-it-s-a-neuroprotector
#18
REVIEW
Jennifer M Brazill, Chong Li, Yi Zhu, R Grace Zhai
Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) are a family of highly conserved proteins indispensable for cellular homeostasis. NMNATs are classically known for their enzymatic function of catalyzing NAD(+) synthesis, but also have gained a reputation as essential neuronal maintenance factors. NMNAT deficiency has been associated with various human diseases with pronounced consequences on neural tissues, underscoring the importance of the neuronal maintenance and protective roles of these proteins...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415023/drosophila-models-of-prionopathies-insight-into-prion-protein-function-transmission-and-neurotoxicity
#19
REVIEW
Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Jonatan Sanchez-Garcia, Diego E Rincon-Limas
Prion diseases (PrD) are unique neurodegenerative conditions with sporadic, genetic, and infectious etiologies. The agent responsible for these pathologies is a misfolded conformation of the prion protein (PrP). Although a process of autocatalytic "conversion" is known to mediate disease transmission, important gaps still remain regarding the physiological function of PrP and its relevance to pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating neurotoxicity and transmission, and the PrP conformations responsible for neurotoxicity...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376341/myotonic-dystrophy-approach-to-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Charles A Thornton, Eric Wang, Ellie M Carrell
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a dominantly-inherited genetic disorder affecting skeletal muscle, heart, brain, and other organs. DM type 1 is caused by expansion of a CTG triplet repeat in DMPK, whereas DM type 2 is caused by expansion of a CCTG tetramer repeat in CNBP. In both cases the DM mutations lead to expression of dominant-acting RNAs. Studies of RNA toxicity have now revealed novel mechanisms and new therapeutic targets. Preclinical data have suggested that RNA dominance is responsive to therapeutic intervention and that DM therapy can be approached at several different levels...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
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