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Current Opinion in Genetics & Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692904/emerging-roles-of-the-histone-chaperone-caf-1-in-cellular-plasticity
#1
REVIEW
Sihem Cheloufi, Konrad Hochedlinger
During embryonic development, cells become progressively restricted in their differentiation potential. This is thought to be regulated by dynamic changes in chromatin structure and associated modifications, which act together to stabilize distinct specialized cell lineages. Remarkably, differentiated cells can be experimentally reprogrammed to a stem cell-like state or to alternative lineages. Thus, cellular reprogramming provides a valuable platform to study the mechanisms that normally safeguard cell identity and uncover factors whose manipulation facilitates cell fate transitions...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683341/the-n-6-methyladenosine-rna-modification-in-pluripotency-and-reprogramming
#2
REVIEW
Francesca Aguilo, Martin J Walsh
Chemical modifications of RNA provide a direct and rapid way to manipulate the existing transcriptome, allowing rapid responses to the changing environment further enriching the regulatory capacity of RNA. N(6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) has been identified as the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA in eukaryotes, linking external stimuli to an intricate network of transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational processes. M(6)A modification affects a broad spectrum of cellular functions, including maintenance of the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
July 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675884/single-cell-transcriptomics-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-reprogramming-and-differentiation
#3
REVIEW
Kedar Nath Natarajan, Sarah A Teichmann, Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk
Single-cell transcriptomics serves as a powerful tool to identify cell states within populations of cells, and to dissect underlying heterogeneity at high resolution. Single-cell transcriptomics on pluripotent stem cells has provided new insights into cellular variation, subpopulation structures and the interplay of cell cycle with pluripotency. The single-cell perspective has helped to better understand gene regulation and regulatory networks during exit from pluripotency, cell-fate determination as well as molecular mechanisms driving cellular reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stage...
July 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668635/reprogramming-human-cells-to-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency-how-close-are-we
#4
REVIEW
Lawrence E Bates, José Cr Silva
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the potential to revolutionise biomedical science; however, while it is simple to reproducibly obtain comparable, stable cell lines in mouse, those produced from human material typically show significant variability both within and between cell lines. This is likely due to differences in the cell identity of conventional mouse and human PSCs. It is hoped that recently identified conditions to reprogram human cells to a naïve-like state will produce better PSCs resulting in reproducible experimental outcomes and more consistent differentiation protocols...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662446/acquisition-of-the-pluripotent-and-trophectoderm-states-in-the-embryo-and-during-somatic-nuclear-reprogramming
#5
REVIEW
Mohammad Jaber, Shulamit Sebban, Yosef Buganim
How the first cell fate decision of an embryo occurs is one of the most fascinating biological questions examined over the last few decades, with numerous in vivo models proposed and many factors tested for their role in the process. In this review, we will primarily focus on the mouse model and discuss the role that transcription factors play during establishment and maintenance of the first lineage segregation in the embryo, towards inner cell mass or trophectoderm. We will also overview recent developments in somatic nuclear reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells, the inner cell mass (epiblast) equivalent, and into induced trophoblast stem cells, the trophectoderm equivalent, and discuss potential correspondences between the in vivo and in vitro models...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667865/engineering-cell-identity-establishing-new-gene-regulatory-and-chromatin-landscapes
#6
REVIEW
Chuner Guo, Samantha A Morris
Cellular reprogramming can be achieved by ectopically expressing transcription factors that directly convert one differentiated cell type into another, bypassing embryonic states. A number of different cell types have been generated by such 'direct lineage reprogramming' methods, but their practical utility has been limited because, in most protocols, the resulting populations are often partially differentiated or incompletely specified. Here, we review mechanisms of lineage reprogramming by pioneer transcription factors, a unique class of transcriptional regulators that has the capacity to engage with silent chromatin to activate target gene regulatory networks...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662447/metabolic-switching-and-cell-fate-decisions-implications-for-pluripotency-reprogramming-and-development
#7
REVIEW
Tim S Cliff, Stephen Dalton
Cell fate decisions are closely linked to changes in metabolic activity. Over recent years this connection has been implicated in mechanisms underpinning embryonic development, reprogramming and disease pathogenesis. In addition to being important for supporting the energy demands of different cell types, metabolic switching from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation plays a critical role in controlling biosynthetic processes, intracellular redox state, epigenetic status and reactive oxygen species levels...
June 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662445/direct-reprogramming-with-sox-factors-masters-of-cell-fate
#8
REVIEW
Lisa M Julian, Angela Ch McDonald, William L Stanford
Over the last decade significant advances have been made toward reprogramming the fate of somatic cells, typically by overexpression of cell lineage-determinant transcription factors. As key regulators of cell fate, the SOX family of transcription factors has emerged as potent drivers of direct somatic cell reprogramming into multiple lineages, in some cases as the sole overexpressed factor. The vast capacity of SOX factors, especially those of the SOXB1, E and F subclasses, to reprogram cell fate is enlightening our understanding of organismal development, cancer and disease, and offers tremendous potential for regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies...
June 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654825/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-pluripotent-state
#9
REVIEW
Qing Chen, Guang Hu
Pluripotency describes the developmental capacity to give rise to all cell types in the adult body. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate pluripotency is important for both basic and translational research. While earlier studies mostly focused on signaling pathways, transcriptional regulation, and epigenetic modifications, recent investigations showed that RNA binding proteins, RNA processing machineries, and regulatory RNA molecules also play essential roles. Here, we provide a concise review on the latest findings and developments in post-transcriptional regulation of the pluripotent state...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651214/dna-methylation-and-the-preservation-of-cell-identity
#10
REVIEW
Ozren Bogdanović, Ryan Lister
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification of vertebrate genomes that is mostly associated with transcriptional repression. During embryogenesis, DNA methylation together with other epigenetic factors plays an essential role in selecting and maintaining cell identity. Recent technological advances are now allowing for the exploration of this mark at unprecedented resolution. This has resulted in a wealth of studies describing the developmental roles of DNA methylation in various vertebrate model systems...
June 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646660/towards-understanding-transcriptional-networks-in-cellular-reprogramming
#11
REVIEW
Jaber Firas, Jose M Polo
Most of the knowledge we have on the molecular mechanisms of transcription factor mediated reprogramming comes from studies conducted in induced pluripotency. Recently however, a few studies investigated the mechanisms of cellular reprogramming in direct and indirect transdifferentiation, which allows us to explore whether shared parallel mechanisms can be drawn. Moreover, there are currently several computational tools that have been developed to predict and enhance the reprogramming process by reconstructing the transcriptional networks of reprogramming cells...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473186/editorial-overview-molecular-genetic-basis-of-disease
#12
EDITORIAL
Nancy M Bonini, Edward B Lee, Wilma Wasco, Allen D Roses
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473185/editorial-overview-genome-architecture-and-expression
#13
EDITORIAL
Bart Deplancke, Charles Sagerström
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688462/editorial-overview-developmental-mechanisms-patterning-and-evolution-developmental-patterning-from-stochasticity-to-plasticity
#14
EDITORIAL
Christian S Hardtke, Yoshiko Takahashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605672/intercellular-transfer-of-organelles-during-body-pigmentation
#15
REVIEW
Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yoshiko Takahashi
The intercellular transfer of the melanin-producing organelle, called melanosome, from melanocytes to adjacent keratinocytes, is largely responsible for the coat colors and skin pigmentation of amniotes (birds, reptiles, and mammals). Although several hypotheses of melanin-transfer were proposed mainly by in vitro studies and electron microscopies, how the melanosome transfer takes place in the actual skin remained unclear. With advances in technologies of gene manipulations and high-resolution microscopy that allow direct visualization of plasma membrane, we are beginning to understand the amazing behaviors and dynamics of melanocytes...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570929/patterning-of-the-turtle-shell
#16
REVIEW
Jacqueline E Moustakas-Verho, Judith Cebra-Thomas, Scott F Gilbert
Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527813/enhancer-evolution-and-the-origins-of-morphological-novelty
#17
REVIEW
Mark Rebeiz, Miltos Tsiantis
A central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic origin of morphological novelties-i.e. anatomical structures unique to a taxonomic group. Elaboration of morphology during development depends on networks of regulatory genes that activate patterned gene expression through transcriptional enhancer regions. We summarize recent case studies and genome-wide investigations that have uncovered diverse mechanisms though which new enhancers arise. We also discuss how these enhancer-originating mechanisms have clarified the history of genetic networks underlying diversification of genital structures in flies, limbs and neural crest in chordates, and plant leaves...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502890/a-quantitative-approach-to-understanding-vertebrate-limb-morphogenesis-at-the-macroscopic-tissue-level
#18
REVIEW
Takayuki Suzuki, Yoshihiro Morishita
To understand organ morphogenetic mechanisms, it is essential to clarify how spatiotemporally-regulated molecular/cellular dynamics causes physical tissue deformation. In the case of vertebrate limb development, while some of the genes and oriented cell behaviors underlying morphogenesis have been revealed, tissue deformation dynamics remains incompletely understood. We here introduce our recent work on the reconstruction of tissue deformation dynamics in chick limb development from cell lineage tracing data...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486164/remaining-questions-related-to-the-hourglass-model-in-vertebrate-evolution
#19
REVIEW
Naoki Irie
Despite the phenotypic divergence of early embryogenesis among vertebrates (e.g., the wide variety of cleavage and gastrulation patterns), all species converge into phenotypically similar mid-embryonic stages (particularly pharyngula embryos, which show the typical anatomical features of vertebrates, such as the pharyngeal arch), and evolutionary divergence occurs again thereafter. This observation coincides well with the recently supported developmental hourglass model; however, little is known about the nature of this conserved pharyngula period in vertebrates, and it is unclear why this mid-embryonic period has been conserved...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419934/genome-research-elucidating-environmental-adaptation-dark-fly-project-as-a-case-study
#20
REVIEW
Naoyuki Fuse
Organisms have the capacity to adapt to diverse environments, and environmental adaptation is a substantial driving force of evolution. Recent progress of genome science has addressed the genetic mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation. Whole genome sequencing has identified adaptive genes selected under particular environments. Genome editing technology enables us to directly test the role(s) of a gene in environmental adaptation. Genome science has also shed light on a unique organism, Dark-fly, which has been reared long-term in the dark...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
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