journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Current Opinion in Genetics & Development

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445802/nmnat-it-s-an-nad-synthase%C3%A2-it-s-a-chaperone%C3%A2-it-s-a-neuroprotector
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer M Brazill, Chong Li, Yi Zhu, R Grace Zhai
Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) are a family of highly conserved proteins indispensable for cellular homeostasis. NMNATs are classically known for their enzymatic function of catalyzing NAD(+) synthesis, but also have gained a reputation as essential neuronal maintenance factors. NMNAT deficiency has been associated with various human diseases with pronounced consequences on neural tissues, underscoring the importance of the neuronal maintenance and protective roles of these proteins...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441621/prion-like-transmission-of-pathogenic-protein-aggregates-in-genetic-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#2
REVIEW
Margaret Mp Pearce
A key pathological hallmark of most neurodegenerative diseases is the misfolding of a particular protein, leading to deposition of toxic protein aggregates in brain tissue. Recent data provide compelling evidence that pathogenic protein aggregates have prion-like properties-they self-replicate by templated misfolding of monomeric proteins and spread between individual cells. Studies in genetic model organisms have expanded our understanding of how prion-like pathogenic aggregates propagate in vivo, revealing potential roles for spreading along neural networks and key cellular processes in both neurons and glial cells...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419934/genome-research-elucidating-environmental-adaptation-dark-fly-project-as-a-case-study
#3
REVIEW
Naoyuki Fuse
Organisms have the capacity to adapt to diverse environments, and environmental adaptation is a substantial driving force of evolution. Recent progress of genome science has addressed the genetic mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation. Whole genome sequencing has identified adaptive genes selected under particular environments. Genome editing technology enables us to directly test the role(s) of a gene in environmental adaptation. Genome science has also shed light on a unique organism, Dark-fly, which has been reared long-term in the dark...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419933/planar-polarized-contractile-actomyosin-networks-in-dynamic-tissue-morphogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Daiki Umetsu, Erina Kuranaga
The complex shapes of animal bodies are constructed through a sequence of simple physical interactions of constituent cells. Mechanical forces generated by cellular activities, such as division, death, shape change and rearrangement, drive tissue morphogenesis. By confining assembly or disassembly of actomyosin networks within the three-dimensional space of the cell, cells can localize forces to induce tissue deformation. Tissue-scale morphogenesis emerges from a collective behavior of cells that coordinates the force generation in space and time...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419908/editorial-overview-characterizing-the-cancer-genome-mechanistic-insights-and-translational-opportunities
#5
EDITORIAL
Olivier Delattre, Carol J Bult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415023/drosophila-models-of-prionopathies-insight-into-prion-protein-function-transmission-and-neurotoxicity
#6
REVIEW
Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Jonatan Sanchez-Garcia, Diego E Rincon-Limas
Prion diseases (PrD) are unique neurodegenerative conditions with sporadic, genetic, and infectious etiologies. The agent responsible for these pathologies is a misfolded conformation of the prion protein (PrP). Although a process of autocatalytic "conversion" is known to mediate disease transmission, important gaps still remain regarding the physiological function of PrP and its relevance to pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating neurotoxicity and transmission, and the PrP conformations responsible for neurotoxicity...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412585/the-promise-of-epigenetic-therapy-reprogramming-the-cancer-epigenome
#7
REVIEW
Andrew D Kelly, Jean-Pierre J Issa
Epigenetics refers to heritable molecular determinants of phenotype independent of DNA sequence. Epigenetic features include DNA methylation, histone modifications, non-coding RNAs, and chromatin structure. The epigenetic status of cells plays a crucial role in determining their differentiation state and proper function within multicellular organisms. Disruption of these processes is now understood to be a major contributor to cancer development and progression, and recent efforts have attempted to pharmacologically reverse such altered epigenetics...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391084/mammalian-swi-snf-complexes-in-cancer-emerging-therapeutic-opportunities
#8
REVIEW
Roodolph St Pierre, Cigall Kadoch
Mammalian SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes orchestrate a diverse set of chromatin alterations which impact transcriptional output. Recent whole-exome sequencing efforts have revealed that the genes encoding subunits of mSWI/SNF complexes are mutated in over 20% of cancers, spanning a wide range of tissue types. The majority of mutations result in loss of subunit protein expression, implicating mSWI/SNF subunits as tumor suppressors. mSWI/SNF-deficient cancers remain a therapeutic challenge, owing to a lack of potent and selective agents which target complexes or unique pathway dependencies generated by mSWI/SNF subunit perturbations...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391060/spatiotemporal-mechanisms-of-root-branching
#9
REVIEW
Krisztina Ötvös, Eva Benková
The fundamental tasks of the root system are, besides anchoring, mediating interactions between plant and soil and providing the plant with water and nutrients. The architecture of the root system is controlled by endogenous mechanisms that constantly integrate environmental signals, such as availability of nutrients and water. Extremely important for efficient soil exploitation and survival under less favorable conditions is the developmental flexibility of the root system that is largely determined by its postembryonic branching capacity...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391059/root-hair-development-in-grasses-and-cereals-poaceae
#10
REVIEW
Liam Dolan
Root hairs are tubular, cellular outgrowths of epidermal cells that extend from the root surface into the soil. Root hairs tether root systems to their growth substrate, take up inorganic nutrients and water, and interact with the soil microflora. At maturity, the root epidermis comprises two cell types; cells with root hairs and hairless epidermal cells. These two cell types alternate with each other along longitudinal files in grasses and cereals (Poaceae). While the mechanism by which this alternating pattern develops is unknown, the later stages of root hair differentiation are controlled by a conserved mechanism that promotes root hair development among angiosperms...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376341/myotonic-dystrophy-approach-to-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Charles A Thornton, Eric Wang, Ellie M Carrell
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a dominantly-inherited genetic disorder affecting skeletal muscle, heart, brain, and other organs. DM type 1 is caused by expansion of a CTG triplet repeat in DMPK, whereas DM type 2 is caused by expansion of a CCTG tetramer repeat in CNBP. In both cases the DM mutations lead to expression of dominant-acting RNAs. Studies of RNA toxicity have now revealed novel mechanisms and new therapeutic targets. Preclinical data have suggested that RNA dominance is responsive to therapeutic intervention and that DM therapy can be approached at several different levels...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365506/new-developments-in-ran-translation-insights-from-multiple-diseases
#12
REVIEW
John Douglas Cleary, Laura Pw Ranum
Since the discovery of repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, and more recently its association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia, there has been an intense focus to understand how this process works and the downstream effects of these novel proteins. RAN translation across several different types of repeat expansions mutations (CAG, CTG, CCG, GGGGCC, GGCCCC) results in the production of proteins in all three reading frames without an ATG initiation codon. The combination of bidirectional transcription and RAN translation has been shown to result in the accumulation of up to six mutant expansion proteins in a growing number of diseases...
March 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364657/genetic-models-of-c9orf72-what-is-toxic
#13
REVIEW
Thomas G Moens, Linda Partridge, Adrian M Isaacs
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the gene C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Pathogenesis may occur either due to loss of function of the C9orf72 gene, or a toxic gain of function, via the production of repetitive sense and antisense RNA and/or repetitive dipeptide repeat proteins. Recently, mouse knockouts have suggested that a loss of function of C9orf72 alone is insufficient to lead to neurodegeneration, whilst overexpression of hexanucleotide DNA is sufficient in a wide range of model systems...
March 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363112/ribosome-profiling-and-dynamic-regulation-of-translation-in-mammals
#14
REVIEW
Cédric Gobet, Felix Naef
Protein synthesis is an energy-demanding cellular process. Consequently, a well-timed, fine-tuned and plastic regulation of translation is needed to adjust and maintain cell states under dynamically changing environments. Genome-wide monitoring of translation was recently facilitated by ribosome profiling, which uncovered key features of translation regulation. In this review, we summarize recent ribosome profiling studies in mammals providing novel insight in dynamic translation regulation, notably related to circadian rhythms, diurnal feeding/fasting cycles, cell cycle progression, stress responses, and tRNA landscapes...
March 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359978/transcription-factor-dna-binding-beyond-binding-site-motifs
#15
REVIEW
Sachi Inukai, Kian Hong Kock, Martha L Bulyk
Sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding to cis-regulatory elements in promoter and enhancer DNA. While studies of TF-DNA binding have focused on TFs' intrinsic preferences for primary nucleotide sequence motifs, recent studies have elucidated additional layers of complexity that modulate TF-DNA binding. In this review, we discuss technological developments for identifying TF binding preferences and highlight recent discoveries that elaborate how TF interactions, local DNA structure, and genomic features influence TF-DNA binding...
March 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347942/cross-kingdom-comparison-of-the-developmental-hourglass
#16
REVIEW
Hajk-Georg Drost, Philipp Janitza, Ivo Grosse, Marcel Quint
The developmental hourglass model has its foundations in classic anatomical studies by von Baer and Haeckel. In this context, even the conservation of animal body plans has been explained by evolutionary constraints acting on mid-embryogenic development. Recent studies have shown that developmental hourglass patterns also exist on the transcriptomic level, mirroring the corresponding morphological patterns. The identification of similar patterns in embryonic, post-embryonic, and life cycle spanning transcriptomes in plant and fungus development, however, contradict the notion of a direct coupling between morphological and molecular patterns...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347941/the-role-of-metabolic-states-in-development-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Matthew H Sieber, Allan C Spradling
During development, cells adopt distinct metabolic strategies to support growth, produce energy, and meet the demands of a mature tissue. Some of these metabolic states maintain a constrained program of nutrient utilization, while others providing metabolic flexibility as a means to couple developmental progression with nutrient availability. Here we discuss our understanding of metabolic programs, and how they support specific aspects of animal development. During phases of rapid proliferation a subset of metabolic programs provide the building blocks to support growth...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343090/developmental-systems-of-plasticity-and-trans-generational-epigenetic-inheritance-in-nematodes
#18
REVIEW
Vahan Serobyan, Ralf J Sommer
Several decades of research provided detailed insight into how genes control development and evolution, whereas recent studies have expanded this purely genetic perspective by presenting strong evidence for environmental and epigenetic influences. We summarize examples of phenotypic plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in the nematode model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, which indicate that the response of developmental systems to environmental influences is hardwired into the organismś genome...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319737/relationship-between-c9orf72-repeat-size-and-clinical-phenotype
#19
REVIEW
Sara Van Mossevelde, Julie van der Zee, Marc Cruts, Christine Van Broeckhoven
Patient carriers of a C9orf72 repeat expansion exhibit remarkable heterogeneous clinical and pathological characteristics suggesting the presence of modifying factors. In accordance with other repeat expansion diseases, repeat length is the prime candidate as a genetic modifier. Observations of earlier onset ages in younger generations of large families suggested a mechanism of disease anticipation. Yet, studies of repeat size and onset age have led to conflicting results. Also, the correlation between repeat size and diagnosis is poorly understood...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314174/key-developmental-transitions-during-flower-morphogenesis-and-their-regulation
#20
REVIEW
Doris Wagner
The arrangement of flowers on flowering stems called inflorescences contributes to the beauty of the natural world and enhances seed yield, impacting species survival and human sustenance. During the reproductive phase, annual/monocarpic plants like Arabidopsis and most crops form two types of lateral structures: indeterminate lateral inflorescences and determinate flowers. Their stereotypical arrangement on the primary inflorescence stem determines the species-specific inflorescence architecture. This architecture can be modulated in response to environmental cues to enhance reproductive success...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
journal
journal
30807
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"