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Cerebral Cortex

Minyoung Jung, Yoshifumi Mizuno, Takashi X Fujisawa, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Jian Kong, Hirotaka Kosaka, Akemi Tomoda
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with frontal cortex development and the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, how the COMT gene impacts brain structure and behavior in ADHD remains unknown. In the present study, we identify the effect of COMT on cortical thickness and surface area in children with ADHD and children with typically developing (TD) using a machine learning approach. In a sample of 39 children with ADHD and 34 age- and IQ-matched TD children, we found that cortical thickness and surface area differences were predominantly observed in the frontal cortex...
December 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Florian Krull, Francesco Bettella, Espen Hagen, Solveig Næss, Torbjørn V Ness, Torgeir Moberget, Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Christoph Metzner, Anna Devor, Andrew G Edwards, Marianne Fyhn, Srdjan Djurovic, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen, Gaute T Einevoll
Genome-wide association studies have implicated many ion channels in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Although the functions of these channels are relatively well characterized by single-cell studies, the contributions of common variation in these channels to neurophysiological biomarkers and symptoms of schizophrenia remain elusive. Here, using computational modeling, we show that a common biomarker of schizophrenia, namely, an increase in delta-oscillation power, may be a direct consequence of altered expression or kinetics of voltage-gated ion channels or calcium transporters...
November 22, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Tomi Karjalainen, Kerttu Seppälä, Enrico Glerean, Henry K Karlsson, Juha M Lahnakoski, Pirjo Nuutila, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Riitta Hari, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
Emotions can be characterized by dimensions of arousal and valence (pleasantness). While the functional brain bases of emotional arousal and valence have been actively investigated, the neuromolecular underpinnings remain poorly understood. We tested whether the opioid and dopamine systems involved in reward and motivational processes would be associated with emotional arousal and valence. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to quantify μ-opioid receptor and type 2 dopamine receptor (MOR and D2R, respectively) availability in brains of 35 healthy adult females...
November 22, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Arvid Guterstam, Kelly L Collins, Jeneva A Cronin, Hugo Zeberg, Felix Darvas, Kurt E Weaver, Jeffrey G Ojemann, H Henrik Ehrsson
Over the past decade, numerous neuroimaging studies based on hemodynamic markers of brain activity have examined the feeling of body ownership using perceptual body-illusions in humans. However, the direct electrophysiological correlates of body ownership at the cortical level remain unexplored. To address this, we studied the rubber hand illusion in 5 patients (3 males and 2 females) implanted with intracranial electrodes measuring cortical surface potentials. Increased high-γ (70-200 Hz) activity, an index of neuronal firing rate, in premotor and intraparietal cortices reflected the feeling of ownership...
November 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Gaelle E Doucet, Dominik A Moser, Amanda Rodrigue, Danielle S Bassett, David C Glahn, Sophia Frangou
The characterization of the functional significance of interindividual variation in brain morphometry is a core aim of cognitive neuroscience. Prior research has focused on interindividual variation at the level of regional brain measures thus overlooking the fact that each individual brain is a person-specific ensemble of interdependent regions. To expand this line of inquiry we introduce the person-based similarity index (PBSI) for brain morphometry. The conceptual unit of the PBSI is the individual person's brain structural profile which considers all relevant morphometric measures as features of a single vector...
November 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Tara G Chowdhury, Gauri S Wable, Yi-Wen Chen, Kei Tateyama, Irene Yu, Jia-Yi Wang, Alex D Reyes, Chiye Aoki
Adolescence is marked by increased vulnerability to mental disorders and maladaptive behaviors, including anorexia nervosa. Food-restriction (FR) stress evokes foraging, which translates to increased wheel running exercise (EX) for caged rodents, a maladaptive behavior, since it does not improve food access and exacerbates weight loss. While almost all adolescent rodents increase EX following FR, some then become resilient by suppressing EX by the second-fourth FR day, which minimizes weight loss. We asked whether GABAergic plasticity in the hippocampus may underlie this gain in resilience...
November 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Riccardo Cafiero, Jens Brauer, Alfred Anwander, Angela D Friederici
The human brain undergoes dramatic structural changes during childhood that co-occur with behavioral development. These age-related changes are documented for the brain's gray matter and white matter. However, their interrelation is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated age-related effects in cortical thickness (CT) and in cortical surface area (SA) as parts of the gray matter volume as well as age effects in T1 relaxation times in the white matter. Data from N = 170 children between the ages of 3 and 7 years contributed to the sample...
November 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Yao Wang, Yu-Zhang Liu, Lidan Wang, Wei Tang, Zhiru Wang
Clarifying learning-induced synaptic plasticity in hippocampal circuits is critical for understanding hippocampal mechanisms of memory acquisition and storage. Many in vitro studies have demonstrated learning-associated plasticity at hippocampal synapses. However, as a neural basis of memory encoding, the nature of synaptic plasticity underlying hippocampal neuronal responses to memorized stimulation remains elusive. Using in vivo whole-cell recording in anaesthetized adult rats and mice, we investigated synaptic activity of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) in response to a flash of visual stimulation as the conditioned stimulus (CS) in associative fear conditioning...
November 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Lukas Hensel, Felix Hoffstaedter, Julian Caspers, Jochen Michely, Christian Mathys, Julia Heller, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Martin Südmeyer, Gereon R Fink, Alfons Schnitzler, Christian Grefkes, Simon B Eickhoff
Akinesia, a cardinal symptom of Parkinson's disease, has been linked to abnormal activation in putamen and posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC). However, little is known whether clinical severity of akinesia is linked to dysfunctional connectivity of these regions. Using a seed-based approach, we here investigated resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of putamen, pMFC and primary motor cortex (M1) in 60 patients with Parkinson's disease on regular medication and 72 healthy controls. We found that in patients putamen featured decreases of connectivity for a number of cortical and subcortical areas engaged in sensorimotor and cognitive processing...
November 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Edmund T Rolls, Wei Cheng, Weikang Gong, Jiang Qiu, Chanjuan Zhou, Jie Zhang, Wujun Lv, Hongtao Ruan, Dongtao Wei, Ke Cheng, Jie Meng, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
The first voxel-level resting-state functional connectivity (FC) neuroimaging analysis of depression of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) showed in 282 patients with major depressive disorder compared with 254 controls, some higher, and some lower FCs. However, in 125 unmedicated patients, primarily increases of FC were found: of the subcallosal anterior cingulate with the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, of the pregenual/supracallosal anterior cingulate with the medial orbitofrontal cortex, and of parts of the anterior cingulate with the inferior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and with early cortical visual areas...
November 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Caterina Gratton, Jonathan M Koller, William Shannon, Deanna J Greene, Baijayanta Maiti, Abraham Z Snyder, Steven E Petersen, Joel S Perlmutter, Meghan C Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Shipra Kanjlia, Rashi Pant, Marina Bedny
Studies of sensory loss are a model for understanding the functional flexibility of human cortex. In congenital blindness, subsets of visual cortex are recruited during higher-cognitive tasks, such as language and math tasks. Is such dramatic functional repurposing possible throughout the lifespan or restricted to sensitive periods in development? We compared visual cortex function in individuals who lost their vision as adults (after age 17) to congenitally blind and sighted blindfolded adults. Participants took part in resting-state and task-based fMRI scans during which they solved math equations of varying difficulty and judged the meanings of sentences...
November 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Julia Erb, Marcelo Armendariz, Federico De Martino, Rainer Goebel, Wim Vanduffel, Elia Formisano
Understanding homologies and differences in auditory cortical processing in human and nonhuman primates is an essential step in elucidating the neurobiology of speech and language. Using fMRI responses to natural sounds, we investigated the representation of multiple acoustic features in auditory cortex of awake macaques and humans. Comparative analyses revealed homologous large-scale topographies not only for frequency but also for temporal and spectral modulations. In both species, posterior regions preferably encoded relatively fast temporal and coarse spectral information, whereas anterior regions encoded slow temporal and fine spectral modulations...
November 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Stacey A W Jackson, Nicole K Horst, Sebastian F A Axelsson, Naotaka Horiguchi, Gemma J Cockcroft, Trevor W Robbins, Angela C Roberts
Fronto-striatal circuitry involving the orbitofrontal cortex has been identified as mediating successful reversal of stimulus-outcome contingencies. The region of the striatum that most contributes to reversal learning remains unclear, with studies in primates implicating both caudate nucleus and putamen. We trained four marmosets on a touchscreen-based serial reversal task and implanted each with cannulae targeting both putamen and caudate bilaterally. This allowed reversible inactivation of the two areas within the same monkeys, but across separate sessions, to directly investigate their respective contributions to reversal performance...
November 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Amandine Fernandez, Camille Dumon, Damien Guimond, Roman Tyzio, Paolo Bonifazi, Natalia Lozovaya, Nail Burnashev, Diana C Ferrari, Yehezkel Ben-Ari
Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that maternal immune activation (MIA) leads to developmental brain disorders, but whether the pathogenic mechanism impacts neurons already at birth is not known. We now report that MIA abolishes in mice the oxytocin-mediated delivery γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in CA3 pyramidal neurons, and this is restored by the NKCC1 chloride importer antagonist bumetanide. Furthermore, MIA hippocampal pyramidal neurons at birth have a more exuberant apical arbor organization and increased apical dendritic length than age-matched controls...
November 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Paula Merino-Serrais, Raul Loera-Valencia, Patricia Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina Parrado-Fernandez, Muhammad A Ismail, Silvia Maioli, Eduardo Matute, Eva Maria Jimenez-Mateos, Ingemar Björkhem, Javier DeFelipe, Angel Cedazo-Minguez
Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, but how high blood cholesterol levels are linked to neurodegeneration is still unknown. Here, we show that an excess of the blood-brain barrier permeable cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH) impairs neuronal morphology and reduces hippocampal spine density and the levels of the postsynaptic protein PSD95. Dendritic spines are the main postsynaptic elements of excitatory synapses and are crucial structures for memory and cognition...
November 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Mor Regev, Erez Simony, Katherine Lee, Kean Ming Tan, Janice Chen, Uri Hasson
How does attention route information from sensory to high-order areas as a function of task, within the relatively fixed topology of the brain? In this study, participants were simultaneously presented with 2 unrelated stories-one spoken and one written-and asked to attend one while ignoring the other. We used fMRI and a novel intersubject correlation analysis to track the spread of information along the processing hierarchy as a function of task. Processing the unattended spoken (written) information was confined to auditory (visual) cortices...
November 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Francesca Strappini, Meytal Wilf, Ofer Karp, Hagar Goldberg, Michal Harel, Edna Furman-Haran, Tal Golan, Rafael Malach
A major limitation of conventional human brain research has been its basis in highly artificial laboratory experiments. Due to technical constraints, little is known about the nature of cortical activations during ecological real life. We have previously proposed the "spontaneous trait reactivation (STR)" hypothesis arguing that resting-state patterns, which emerge spontaneously in the absence of external stimulus, reflect the statistics of habitual cortical activations during real life. Therefore, these patterns can serve as a window into daily life cortical activity...
November 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Belinda P P Lay, Melissa Nicolosi, Alexandra A Usypchuk, Guillem R Esber, Mihaela D Iordanova
Behavioral change is paramount to adaptive behavior. Two ways to achieve alterations in previously established behavior are extinction and overexpectation. The infralimbic (IL) portion of the medial prefrontal cortex controls the inhibition of previously established aversive behavioral responses in extinction. The role of the IL cortex in behavioral modification in appetitive Pavlovian associations remains poorly understood. Here, we seek to determine if the IL cortex modulates overexpectation and extinction of reward learning...
October 29, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Lihui Wang, Wenshuo Chang, Ruth M Krebs, C Nico Boehler, Jan Theeuwes, Xiaolin Zhou
Reward-predictive stimuli can increase an automatic response tendency, which needs to be counteracted by effortful response inhibition when this tendency is inappropriate for the current task. Here we investigated how the human brain implements this dynamic process by adopting a reward-modulated Simon task while acquiring EEG and fMRI data in separate sessions. In the Simon task, a lateral target stimulus triggers an automatic response tendency of the spatially corresponding hand, which needs to be overcome if the activated hand is opposite to what the task requires, thereby delaying the response...
October 25, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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