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Cerebral Cortex

Julia Böck, Christian W Remmele, Marcus Dittrich, Tobias Müller, Ivanela Kondova, Stephan Persengiev, Ronald E Bontrop, Carsten P Ade, Theo F J Kraus, Armin Giese, Nady El Hajj, Eberhard Schneider, Thomas Haaf
Epigenetic changes have likely contributed to the large size and enhanced cognitive abilities of the human brain which evolved within the last 2 million years after the human-chimpanzee split. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we have compared the methylomes of neuronal and non-neuronal cells from 3 human and 3 chimpanzee cortices. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with genome-wide significance were enriched in specific genomic regions. Intraspecific methylation differences between neuronal and non-neuronal cells were approximately 3 times more abundant than interspecific methylation differences between human and chimpanzee cell types...
August 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Miguel Antonio Xavier de Lima, Marcus Vinicius C Baldo, Newton Sabino Canteras
The ventral part of the anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AMv) receives substantial inputs from hypothalamic sites that are highly responsive to a live predator or its odor trace and represents an important thalamic hub for conveying predatory threat information to the cerebral cortex. In the present study, we begin by examining the cortico-amygdalar-hippocampal projections of the main AMv cortical targets, namely, the caudal prelimbic, rostral anterior cingulate, and medial visual areas, as well as the rostral part of the ventral retrosplenial area, one of the main targets of the anterior cingulate area...
July 31, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
A Manzouri, I Savic
Although frequently discussed in terms of sex dimorphism, the neurobiology of sexual orientation and identity is unknown. We report multimodal magnetic resonance imaging data, including cortical thickness (Cth), subcortical volumes, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, from 27 transgender women (TrW), 40 transgender men (TrM), and 80 heterosexual (40 men) and 60 homosexual cisgender controls (30 men). These data show that whereas homosexuality is linked to cerebral sex dimorphism, gender dysphoria primarily involves cerebral networks mediating self-body perception...
July 31, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Genevieve Z Steiner, Francesca M Fernandez, Madilyn Coles, Diana Karamacoska, Emma Barkus, Samantha J Broyd, Nadia Solowij, Owen T Watson, Christine L Chiu, Joanne M Lind, Robert J Barry
The COMT Val158Met polymorphism affects the availability of synaptic dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and has been widely studied as a genetic risk factor for psychosis. Schizotypy is associated with an increased risk of psychosis, with some studies implicating similar neurobiological mechanisms to schizophrenia. The present study sought to interrogate the link between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and schizotypy using electroencephalogram (EEG) to identify neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning psychosis risk...
July 31, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Mary Abbe Roe, Joel E Martinez, Jeanette A Mumford, W Patrick Taylor, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher, Jenifer Juranek, Jessica A Church
Recent reading research implicates executive control regions as sites of difference in struggling readers. However, as studies often employ only reading or language tasks, the extent of deviation in control engagement in children with reading difficulties is not known. The current study investigated activation in reading and executive control brain regions during both a sentence comprehension task and a nonlexical inhibitory control task in third-fifth grade children with and without reading difficulties. We employed both categorical (group-based) and individual difference approaches to relate reading ability to brain activity...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Seda Cavdaroglu, André Knops
Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is thought to encode and represent the number of objects in a visual scene (i.e., numerosity). Whether this representation is shared for simultaneous and sequential stimuli (i.e., mode independency) is debated. We tested the existence of a common neural substrate for the encoding of these modes using fMRI. While both modes elicited overlapping BOLD response in occipital areas, only simultaneous numerosities significantly activated PPC. Unique activation for sequential numerosities was found in bilateral temporal areas...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Johan N Lundström, Christina Regenbogen, Kathrin Ohla, Janina Seubert
While matched crossmodal information is known to facilitate object recognition, it is unclear how our perceptual systems encode the more gradual congruency variations that occur in our natural environment. Combining visual objects with odor mixtures to create a gradual increase in semantic object overlap, we demonstrate high behavioral acuity to linear variations of olfactory-visual overlap in a healthy adult population. This effect was paralleled by a linear increase in cortical activation at the intersection of occipital fusiform and lingual gyri, indicating linear encoding of crossmodal semantic overlap in visual object recognition networks...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Nicolette Ognjanovski, Christopher Broussard, Michal Zochowski, Sara J Aton
Oscillations in the hippocampal network during sleep are proposed to play a role in memory storage by patterning neuronal ensemble activity. Here we show that following single-trial fear learning, sleep deprivation (which impairs memory consolidation) disrupts coherent firing rhythms in hippocampal area CA1. State-targeted optogenetic inhibition of CA1 parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons during postlearning NREM sleep, but not REM sleep or wake, disrupts contextual fear memory (CFM) consolidation in a manner similar to sleep deprivation...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Stephanie A Gagnon, Michael L Waskom, Thackery I Brown, Anthony D Wagner
Despite decades of science investigating the neural underpinnings of episodic memory retrieval, a critical question remains: how does stress influence remembering and the neural mechanisms of recollection in humans? Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate pattern analyses to examine the effects of acute stress during retrieval. We report that stress reduced the probability of recollecting the details of past experience, and that this impairment was driven, in part, by a disruption of the relationship between hippocampal activation, cortical reinstatement, and memory performance...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Noriya Watanabe, Jamil P Bhanji, Hideki Ohira, Mauricio R Delgado
Preparing for a challenging task can increase physiological arousal, in particular when potential incentives are large (e.g., a solo musical performance in front of an audience). Here, we examine how potential reward and its influence on arousal, measured by pupil dynamics, are represented in the brain while preparing for a challenging task. We further ask how neural representations during preparation relate to actual performance. Trials resulting in performance failure were characterized by increased pupil dilation as a function of increasing reward magnitude during preparation...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Zenas C Chao, Masahiro Sawada, Tadashi Isa, Yukio Nishimura
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the motor-related cortical areas can be a potential substrate for functional recovery in addition to the spinal cord. However, a dynamic description of how motor cortical circuits reorganize after SCI is lacking. Here, we captured the comprehensive dynamics of motor networks across SCI in a nonhuman primate model. Using electrocorticography over the sensorimotor areas in monkeys, we collected broadband neuronal signals during a reaching-and-grasping task at different stages of recovery of dexterous finger movements after a partial SCI at the cervical levels...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Verity Smith, Daniel J Mitchell, John Duncan
A frequently repeated finding is that the default mode network (DMN) shows activation decreases during externally focused tasks. This finding has led to an emphasis in DMN research on internally focused self-relevant thought processes. A recent study, in contrast, implicates the DMN in substantial externally focused task switches. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 24 participants performing a task switch experiment. Whilst replicating previous DMN task switch effects, we also found large DMN increases for brief rests as well as task restarts after rest...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Jérémy Camon, Sandrine Hugues, Melissa A Erlandson, David Robbe, Sabria Lagoun, Emna Marouane, Ingrid Bureau
Whisker-guided decision making in mice is thought to critically depend on information processing occurring in the primary somatosensory cortex. However, it is not clear if neuronal activity in this "early" sensory region contains information about the timing and speed of motor response. To address this question we designed a new task in which freely moving mice learned to associate a whisker stimulus to reward delivery. The task was tailored in such a way that a wide range of delays between whisker stimulation and reward collection were observed due to differences of motivation and perception...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Carla Ramon-Duaso, Thomas Gener, Marta Consegal, Cristina Fernández-Avilés, Juan José Gallego, Laura Castarlenas, Maurice S Swanson, Rafael de la Torre, Rafael Maldonado, M Victoria Puig, Patricia Robledo
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder affecting muscle and central nervous system (CNS) function. The cellular mechanisms underlying CNS alterations are poorly understood and no useful treatments exist for the neuropsychological deficits observed in DM1 patients. We investigated the progression of behavioral deficits present in male and female muscleblind-like 2 (Mbnl2) knockout (KO) mice, a rodent model of CNS alterations in DM1, and determined the biochemical and electrophysiological correlates in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum and hippocampus (HPC)...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
A W de Borst, B de Gelder
Cortical plasticity in congenitally blind individuals leads to cross-modal activation of the visual cortex and may lead to superior perceptual processing in the intact sensory domains. Although mental imagery is often defined as a quasi-perceptual experience, it is unknown whether it follows similar cortical reorganization as perception in blind individuals. In this study, we show that auditory versus tactile perception evokes similar intra-modal discriminative patterns in congenitally blind compared with sighted participants...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
A Santuy, M Turégano-López, J R Rodríguez, L Alonso-Nanclares, J DeFelipe, A Merchán-Pérez
Mitochondria play a key role in energy production and calcium buffering, among many other functions. They provide most of the energy required by neurons, and they are transported along axons and dendrites to the regions of higher energy demands. We have used focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) to obtain stacks of serial sections from the somatosensory cortex of the juvenile rat. We have estimated the volume fraction occupied by mitochondria and their distribution between dendritic, axonal, and nonsynaptic processes...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Y Audrey Hay, Jérémie Naudé, Philippe Faure, Bertrand Lambolez
Sensory processing relies on fast detection of changes in environment, as well as integration of contextual cues over time. The mechanisms by which local circuits of the cerebral cortex simultaneously perform these opposite processes remain obscure. Thalamic "specific" nuclei relay sensory information, whereas "nonspecific" nuclei convey information on the environmental and behavioral contexts. We expressed channelrhodopsin in the ventrobasal specific (sensory) or the rhomboid nonspecific (contextual) thalamic nuclei...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Nicola Del Maschio, Simone Sulpizio, Davide Fedeli, Keerthi Ramanujan, Guosheng Ding, Brendan S Weekes, Arnaud Cachia, Jubin Abutalebi
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a key structure implicated in the regulation of cognitive control (CC). Previous studies suggest that variability in the ACC sulcal pattern-a neurodevelopmental marker unaffected by maturation or plasticity after birth-is associated with intersubject differences in CC performance. Here, we investigated whether bilingual experience modulates the effects of ACC sulcal variability on CC performance across the lifespan. Using structural MRI, we first established the distribution of the ACC sulcal patterns in a large sample of healthy individuals (N = 270) differing on gender and ethnicity...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Emily M Johnson, Alexandra D Ishak, Paige E Naylor, David A Stevenson, Allan L Reiss, Tamar Green
The Ras-MAPK pathway has an established role in neural development and synaptic signaling. Mutations in this pathway are associated with a collection of neurodevelopmental syndromes, Rasopathies; among these, Noonan syndrome (NS) is the most common (1:2000). Prior research has focused on identifying genetic mutations and cellular mechanisms of the disorder, however, effects of NS on the human brain remain unknown. Here, imaging and cognitive data were collected from 12 children with PTPN11-related NS, ages 4...
July 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Haifu Li, Feixue Liang, Wen Zhong, Linqing Yan, Lucas Mesik, Zhongju Xiao, Huizhong W Tao, Li I Zhang
Spatial size tuning in the visual cortex has been considered as an important neuronal functional property for sensory perception. However, an analogous mechanism in the auditory system has remained controversial. In the present study, cell-attached recordings in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake mice revealed that excitatory neurons can be categorized into three types according to their bandwidth tuning profiles in response to band-passed noise (BPN) stimuli: nonmonotonic (NM), flat, and monotonic, with the latter two considered as non-tuned for bandwidth...
July 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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