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Cerebral Cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668872/microglial-pruning-of-synapses-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-adolescence
#1
Allyson P Mallya, Hui-Dong Wang, Han Noo Ri Lee, Ariel Y Deutch
Exaggerated synaptic elimination in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during adolescence has been suggested to contribute to the neuropathological changes of schizophrenia. Recent data indicate that microglia (MG) sculpt synapses during early postnatal development. However, it is not known if MG contribute to the structural maturation of the PFC, which has a protracted postnatal development. We determined if MG are involved in developmentally specific synapse elimination in the PFC, focusing on adolescence. Layer 5 PFC pyramidal cells (PCs) were intracellularly filled with Lucifer Yellow for dendritic spine measurements in postnatal day (P) 24, P30, P35, P39, and P50 rats...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668866/distinct-interplay-between-atrophy-and-hypometabolism-in-alzheimer-s-versus-semantic-dementia
#2
Alexandre Bejanin, Renaud La Joie, Brigitte Landeau, Serge Belliard, Vincent de La Sayette, Francis Eustache, Béatrice Desgranges, Gaël Chételat
Multimodal neuroimaging analyses offer additional information beyond that provided by each neuroimaging modality. Thus, direct comparisons and correlations between neuroimaging modalities allow revealing disease-specific topographic relationships. Here, we compared the topographic discrepancies between atrophy and hypometabolism in two neurodegenerative diseases characterized by distinct pathological processes, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus semantic dementia (SD), to unravel their specific influence on local and global brain structure-function relationships...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668865/association-between-brain-activation-and-functional-connectivity
#3
Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668862/evidence-that-default-network-connectivity-during-rest-consolidates-social-information
#4
Meghan L Meyer, Lila Davachi, Kevin N Ochsner, Matthew D Lieberman
Brain regions engaged during social inference, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and tempoparietal junction (TPJ), are also known to spontaneously engage during rest. While this overlap is well known, the social cognitive function of engaging these regions during rest remains unclear. Building on past research suggesting that new information is committed to memory during rest, we explored whether one function of MPFC and TPJ engagement during rest may be to consolidate new social information. MPFC and TPJ regions significantly increased connectivity during rest after encoding new social information (relative to baseline and post nonsocial encoding rest periods)...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668858/densities-and-laminar-distributions-of-kv3-1b-pv-gaba-and-smi-32-immunoreactive-neurons-in-macaque-area-v1
#5
Jenna G Kelly, Virginia García-Marín, Bernardo Rudy, Michael J Hawken
The Kv3.1b potassium channel subunit is associated with narrow spike widths and fast-spiking properties. In macaque primary visual cortex (V1), subsets of neurons have previously been found to be Kv3.1b-immunoreactive (ir) but not parvalbumin (PV)-ir or not GABA-ir, suggesting that they may be both fast-spiking and excitatory. This population includes Meynert cells, the large layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons that are also labeled by the neurofilament antibody SMI-32. In the present study, triple immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy were used to measure the distribution of Kv3...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668852/meg-working-memory-n-back-task-reveals-functional-deficits-in-combat-related-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Ming-Xiong Huang, Sharon Nichols, Ashley Robb-Swan, Annemarie Angeles-Quinto, Deborah L Harrington, Angela Drake, Charles W Huang, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Victoria B Risbrough, Scott Matthews, Royce Clifford, Chung-Kuan Cheng, Jeffrey W Huang, Anusha Sinha, Kate A Yurgil, Zhengwei Ji, Imanuel Lerman, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained cognitive impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent cognitive deficits including working memory (WM) dysfunction is not fully understood in mTBI. Few studies of WM deficits in mTBI have taken advantage of the temporal and frequency resolution afforded by electromagnetic measurements. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and an N-back WM task, we investigated functional abnormalities in combat-related mTBI...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668850/altered-neocortical-gene-expression-brain-overgrowth-and-functional-over-connectivity-in-chd8-haploinsufficient-mice
#7
Philipp Suetterlin, Shaun Hurley, Conor Mohan, Kimberley L H Riegman, Marco Pagani, Angela Caruso, Jacob Ellegood, Alberto Galbusera, Ivan Crespo-Enriquez, Caterina Michetti, Yohan Yee, Robert Ellingford, Olivier Brock, Alessio Delogu, Philippa Francis-West, Jason P Lerch, Maria Luisa Scattoni, Alessandro Gozzi, Cathy Fernandes, M Albert Basson
Truncating CHD8 mutations are amongst the highest confidence risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified to date. Here, we report that Chd8 heterozygous mice display increased brain size, motor delay, hypertelorism, pronounced hypoactivity, and anomalous responses to social stimuli. Whereas gene expression in the neocortex is only mildly affected at midgestation, over 600 genes are differentially expressed in the early postnatal neocortex. Genes involved in cell adhesion and axon guidance are particularly prominent amongst the downregulated transcripts...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668848/adult-onset-hearing-impairment-induces-layer-specific-cortical-reorganization-evidence-of-crossmodal-plasticity-and-central-gain-enhancement
#8
Ashley L Schormans, Marei Typlt, Brian L Allman
Adult-onset hearing impairment can lead to hyperactivity in the auditory pathway (i.e., central gain enhancement) as well as increased cortical responsiveness to nonauditory stimuli (i.e., crossmodal plasticity). However, it remained unclear to what extent hearing loss-induced hyperactivity is relayed beyond the auditory cortex, and thus, whether central gain enhancement competes or coexists with crossmodal plasticity throughout the distinct layers of the audiovisual cortex. To that end, we investigated the effects of partial hearing loss on laminar processing in the auditory, visual and audiovisual cortices of adult rats using extracellular electrophysiological recordings performed 2 weeks after loud noise exposure...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668846/movement-decomposition-in-the-primary-motor-cortex
#9
Naama Kadmon Harpaz, David Ungarish, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Tamar Flash
A complex action can be described as the composition of a set of elementary movements. While both kinematic and dynamic elements have been proposed to compose complex actions, the structure of movement decomposition and its neural representation remain unknown. Here, we examined movement decomposition by modeling the temporal dynamics of neural populations in the primary motor cortex of macaque monkeys performing forelimb reaching movements. Using a hidden Markov model, we found that global transitions in the neural population activity are associated with a consistent segmentation of the behavioral output into acceleration and deceleration epochs with directional selectivity...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659730/an-information-driven-2-pathway-characterization-of-occipitotemporal-and-posterior-parietal-visual-object-representations
#10
Maryam Vaziri-Pashkam, Yaoda Xu
Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of rich visual representations in both occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Using fMRI decoding and a bottom-up data-driven approach, we showed that although robust object category representations exist in both OTC and PPC, there is an information-driven 2-pathway separation among these regions in the representational space, with occipitotemporal regions arranging hierarchically along 1 pathway and posterior parietal regions along another pathway...
April 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659741/formin-2-regulates-lysosomal-degradation-of-wnt-associated-%C3%AE-catenin-in-neural-progenitors
#11
Gewei Lian, Anjen Chenn, Victor Ekuta, Sneha Kanaujia, Volney Sheen
Although neural progenitor proliferation along the ventricular zone is regulated by β-catenin through Wnt signaling, the cytoskeletal mechanisms that regulate expression and localization of these proteins are not well understood. Our prior studies have shown that loss of the actin-binding Filamin A (FlnA) and actin-nucleating protein Formin 2 (Fmn2) impairs endocytosis of low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6), thereby disrupting β-catenin activation, resulting in decreased brain size. Here, we report that activated RhoA-GTPase disengages Fmn2 N- to C-terminal binding to promote Fmn2 activation and redistribution into lysosomal vesicles...
April 5, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608677/regional-gaba-concentrations-modulate-inter-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#12
Xi Chen, Xiaoying Fan, Yuzheng Hu, Chun Zuo, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Daphne Holt, Qiyong Gong, Yihong Yang, Diego A Pizzagalli, Fei Du, Dost Ongur
Coordinated activity within and differential activity between large-scale neuronal networks such as the default mode network (DMN) and the control network (CN) is a critical feature of brain organization. The CN usually exhibits activations in response to cognitive tasks while the DMN shows deactivations; in addition, activity between the two networks is anti-correlated at rest. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to measure whole-brain BOLD signal during resting-state and task-evoked conditions, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify GABA and glutamate concentrations, in nodes within the DMN and CN (MPFC and DLPFC, respectively) in 19 healthy individuals at 3 Tesla...
March 28, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608671/working-memory-load-modulates-neuronal-coupling
#13
Dimitris A Pinotsis, Timothy J Buschman, Earl K Miller
There is a severe limitation in the number of items that can be held in working memory. However, the neurophysiological limits remain unknown. We asked whether the capacity limit might be explained by differences in neuronal coupling. We developed a theoretical model based on Predictive Coding and used it to analyze Cross Spectral Density data from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), frontal eye fields (FEF), and lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Monkeys performed a change detection task. The number of objects that had to be remembered (memory load) was varied (1-3 objects in the same visual hemifield)...
March 28, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608644/prefrontal-oxytocin-is-involved-in-impairments-in-prefrontal-plasticity-and-social-memory-following-acute-exposure-to-high-fat-diet-in-juvenile-animals
#14
Aseel Yaseen, Kuldeep Shrivastava, Zohar Zuri, Ossama A Hatoum, Mouna Maroun
Juvenility represents a critical developmental phase during which exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) can severely modify cognitive and emotional functioning. The purpose of this study was to address how short and acute exposure to a HFD during juvenility affects social memory recognition and prefrontal long-term potentiation (LTP). As LTP and social memory depend on the neuromodulator oxytocin (OXY) and due to its role in metabolism, we also examined the effects of OXY in mediating HFD-induced alterations in social memory and LTP...
March 28, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554231/hippocampus-retrosplenial-and-parahippocampal-cortices-encode-multicompartment-3d-space-in-a-hierarchical-manner
#15
Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
Humans commonly operate within 3D environments such as multifloor buildings and yet there is a surprising dearth of studies that have examined how these spaces are represented in the brain. Here, we had participants learn the locations of paintings within a virtual multilevel gallery building and then used behavioral tests and fMRI repetition suppression analyses to investigate how this 3D multicompartment space was represented, and whether there was a bias in encoding vertical and horizontal information. We found faster response times for within-room egocentric spatial judgments and behavioral priming effects of visiting the same room, providing evidence for a compartmentalized representation of space...
March 15, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522178/non-perceptual-regions-in-the-left-inferior-parietal-lobe-support-phonological-short-term-memory-evidence-for-a-buffer-account
#16
Qiuhai Yue, Randi C Martin, A Cris Hamilton, Nathan S Rose
Buffer versus embedded processes accounts of short-term memory (STM) for phonological information were addressed by testing subjects' perception and memory for speech and non-speech auditory stimuli. Univariate and multivariate (MVPA) approaches were used to assess whether brain regions recruited in recognizing speech were involved in maintaining speech representations over a delay. As expected, a left superior temporal region was found to support speech perception. However, contrary to the embedded processes approach, this region failed to show a load effect, or any sustained activation, during a maintenance delay...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522177/mir-214-3p-targets-%C3%AE-catenin-to-regulate-depressive-like-behaviors-induced-by-chronic-social-defeat-stress-in-mice
#17
Zhi-Fang Deng, Hui-Ling Zheng, Jian-Guo Chen, Yi Luo, Jun-Feng Xu, Gang Zhao, Jia-Jing Lu, Hou-Hong Li, Shuang-Qi Gao, Deng-Zheng Zhang, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Yong-Hui Zhang, Fang Wang
β-Catenin has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD), which is associated with synaptic plasticity and dendritic arborization. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides and involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological process, but their roles in MDD remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and function of miRNAs in the mouse model of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). The regulation of β-catenin by selected miRNA was validated by silico prediction, target gene luciferase reporter assay, and transfection experiment in neurons...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522129/neural-cell-adhesion-molecule-2-ncam2-induced-c-src-dependent-propagation-of-submembrane-ca2-spikes-along-dendrites-inhibits-synapse-maturation
#18
Lifu Sheng, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk
The neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2) is encoded by a gene on chromosome 21 in humans. NCAM2 accumulates in synapses, but its role in regulation of synapse formation remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that an increase in NCAM2 levels results in increased instability of dendritic protrusions and reduced conversion of protrusions to dendritic spines in mouse cortical neurons. NCAM2 overexpression induces an increase in the frequency of submembrane Ca2+ spikes localized in individual dendritic protrusions and promotes propagation of submembrane Ca2+ spikes over segments of dendrites or the whole dendritic tree...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522112/toward-leveraging-human-connectomic-data-in-large-consortia-generalizability-of-fmri-based-brain-graphs-across-sites-sessions-and-paradigms
#19
Hengyi Cao, Sarah C McEwen, Jennifer K Forsyth, Dylan G Gee, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Ricardo E Carrión, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Alan Anticevic, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon
While graph theoretical modeling has dramatically advanced our understanding of complex brain systems, the feasibility of aggregating connectomic data in large imaging consortia remains unclear. Here, using a battery of cognitive, emotional and resting fMRI paradigms, we investigated the generalizability of functional connectomic measures across sites and sessions. Our results revealed overall fair to excellent reliability for a majority of measures during both rest and tasks, in particular for those quantifying connectivity strength, network segregation and network integration...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522092/neuronal-origin-of-the-temporal-dynamics-of-spontaneous-bold-activity-correlation
#20
Teppei Matsui, Tomonari Murakami, Kenichi Ohki
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has become a major functional magnetic resonance imaging method to study network organization of human brains. There has been recent interest in the temporal fluctuations of FC calculated using short time windows ("dynamic FC") because this method could provide information inaccessible with conventional "static" FC, which is typically calculated using the entire scan lasting several tens of minutes. Although multiple studies have revealed considerable temporal fluctuations in FC, it is still unclear whether the fluctuations of FC measured in hemodynamics reflect the dynamics of underlying neural activity...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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