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Cerebral Cortex

Milan Stoiljkovic, Craig Kelley, Bernardo Stutz, Tamas L Horvath, Mihály Hajós
Current findings suggest that accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain disrupt synaptic function in hippocampal-cortical neuronal networks leading to impairment in cognitive and affective functions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Development of new disease-modifying AD drugs are challenging due to the lack of predictive animal models and efficacy assays. In the present study we recorded neural activity in TgF344-AD rats, a transgenic model with a full array of AD pathological features, including age-dependent Aβ accumulation, tauopathy, neuronal loss, and cognitive impairments...
June 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Coralie Berthoux, Alexander Barre, Joël Bockaert, Philippe Marin, Carine Bécamel
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in many high-level cognitive processes. It is densely innervated by serotonergic neurons originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, which profoundly influence PFC activity. Among the 5-HT receptors abundantly expressed in PFC, 5-HT2A receptors located in dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons control neuronal excitability and mediate the psychotropic effects of psychedelic hallucinogens, but their impact on glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity remains poorly characterized...
June 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
A D Iordan, S Dolcos, F Dolcos
Emotional distraction may come from the external world and from our mind, as internal distraction. Although external emotional distraction has been extensively investigated, less is known about the mechanisms associated with the impact of internal emotional distraction on cognitive performance, and those involved in coping with such distraction. These issues were investigated using a working memory task with emotional distraction, where recollected unpleasant autobiographical memories served as internal emotional distraction...
June 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Puiu F Balan, Annelies Gerits, Qi Zhu, Hauke Kolster, Guy A Orban, Claire Wardak, Wim Vanduffel
The brain has a remarkable capacity to recover after lesions. However, little is known about compensatory neural adaptations at the systems level. We addressed this question by investigating behavioral and (correlated) functional changes throughout the cortex that are induced by focal, reversible inactivations. Specifically, monkeys performed a demanding covert spatial attention task while the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) was inactivated with muscimol and whole-brain fMRI activity was recorded. The inactivation caused LIP-specific decreases in task-related fMRI activity...
June 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Young-Cho Kim, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Considerable evidence has shown that prefrontal neurons expressing D1-type dopamine receptors (D1DRs) are critical for working memory, flexibility, and timing. This line of work predicts that frontal neurons expressing D1DRs mediate cognitive processing. During timing tasks, one form this cognitive processing might take is time-dependent ramping activity-monotonic changes in firing rate over time. Thus, we hypothesized the prefrontal D1DR+ neurons would strongly exhibit time-dependent ramping during interval timing...
June 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Prejaas Tewarie, Benjamin A E Hunt, George C O'Neill, Aine Byrne, Kevin Aquino, Markus Bauer, Karen J Mullinger, Stephen Coombes, Matthew J Brookes
Event-related fluctuations of neural oscillatory amplitude are reported widely in the context of cognitive processing and are typically interpreted as a marker of brain "activity". However, the precise nature of these effects remains unclear; in particular, whether such fluctuations reflect local dynamics, integration between regions, or both, is unknown. Here, using magnetoencephalography, we show that movement induced oscillatory modulation is associated with transient connectivity between sensorimotor regions...
June 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Ghootae Kim, Kenneth A Norman, Nicholas B Turk-Browne
We frequently encounter the same item in different contexts, and when that happens, memories of earlier encounters can get reactivated. We examined how existing memories are changed as a result of such reactivation. We hypothesized that when an item's initial and subsequent neural representations overlap, this allows the initial item to become associated with novel contextual information, interfering with later retrieval of the initial context. Specifically, we predicted a negative relationship between representational similarity across repeated experiences of an item and subsequent source memory for the initial context...
June 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Jet M J Vonk, Batool Rizvi, Patrick J Lao, Mariana Budge, Jennifer J Manly, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
Verbal fluency tasks are generally thought to be mediated by frontal brain regions for letter fluency and temporal regions for category fluency. This idea, however, is primarily based on lesion studies and adapted versions of the fluency tasks in functional neuroimaging, without fundamental evidence from structural neuroimaging in healthy individuals. We investigated the cortical structural correlates of letter and category fluency, including overlapping and different regions, in 505 individuals who participated in a community-based study of healthy aging...
June 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Mohammad-Reza A Dehaqani, Abdol-Hossein Vahabie, Mohammadbagher Parsa, Behrad Noudoost, Alireza Soltani
An ensemble of neurons can provide a dynamic representation of external stimuli, ongoing processes, or upcoming actions. This dynamic representation could be achieved by changes in the activity of individual neurons and/or their interactions. To investigate these possibilities, we simultaneously recorded from ensembles of prefrontal neurons in non-human primates during a memory-guided saccade task. Using both decoding and encoding methods, we examined changes in the information content of individual neurons and that of ensembles between visual encoding and saccadic target selection...
June 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Francesca Garbarini, Luca Cecchetti, Valentina Bruno, Angela Mastropasqua, Carlotta Fossataro, Giuseppe Massazza, Katiuscia Sacco, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Emiliano Ricciardi, Anna Berti
Anatomo-clinical evidence from motor-awareness disorders after brain-damages suggests that the premotor cortex (PMC) is involved in motor-monitoring of voluntary actions. Indeed, PMC lesions prevent patients from detecting the mismatch between intended, but not executed, movements with the paralyzed limb. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared, in healthy subjects, free movements against blocked movements, precluded by a cast. Cast-related corticospinal excitability changes were investigated by using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
June 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Zhidong Liu, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Susan Lindtner, Zhenmeiyu Li, Zhejun Xu, Song Wei, Qifei Liang, Yan Wen, Guangxu Tao, Yan You, Bin Chen, Yanling Wang, John L Rubenstein, Zhengang Yang
Immature neurons generated by the subpallial MGE tangentially migrate to the cortex where they become parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) and somatostatin (SST+) interneurons. Here, we show that the Sp9 transcription factor controls the development of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. SP9 is expressed in the MGE subventricular zone and in MGE-derived migrating interneurons. Sp9 null and conditional mutant mice have approximately 50% reduction of MGE-derived cortical interneurons, an ectopic aggregation of MGE-derived neurons in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, and an increased ratio of SST+/PV+ cortical interneurons...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Nolwenn Pasquet, Sara Douceau, Mickael Naveau, Flavie Lesept, Morgane Louessard, Laurent Lebouvier, Yannick Hommet, Denis Vivien, Isabelle Bardou
Modifications of neuronal migration during development, including processes that control cortical lamination are associated with functional deficits at adult stage. Here, we report for the first time that the lack of the serine protease tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (tPA), previously characterized as a neuromodulator and a gliotransmitter, leads to an altered cortical lamination in adult. This results in a neuronal migration defect of tPA deficient neurons which are stopped in the intermediate zone at E16...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Ru Kong, Jingwei Li, Csaba Orban, Mert R Sabuncu, Hesheng Liu, Alexander Schaefer, Nanbo Sun, Xi-Nian Zuo, Avram J Holmes, Simon B Eickhoff, B T Thomas Yeo
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) offers the opportunity to delineate individual-specific brain networks. A major question is whether individual-specific network topography (i.e., location and spatial arrangement) is behaviorally relevant. Here, we propose a multi-session hierarchical Bayesian model (MS-HBM) for estimating individual-specific cortical networks and investigate whether individual-specific network topography can predict human behavior. The multiple layers of the MS-HBM explicitly differentiate intra-subject (within-subject) from inter-subject (between-subject) network variability...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Caterina Gratton, Jonathan M Koller, William Shannon, Deanna J Greene, Abraham Z Snyder, Steven E Petersen, Joel S Perlmutter, Meghan C Campbell
The hallmark pathology underlying Parkinson disease (PD) is progressive synucleinopathy, beginning in caudal brainstem that later spreads rostrally. However, the primarily subcortical pathology fails to account for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in PD. To reconcile these observations, resting-state functional dysfunction across connectivity (FC) can be used to examine dysfunction across distributed brain networks. We measured FC in a large, single-site study of nondemented PD (N = 107; OFF medications) and healthy controls (N = 46) incorporating rigorous quality control measures and comprehensive sampling of cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Grace E Rice, Helen Caswell, Perry Moore, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Paul Hoffman
One critical feature of any well-engineered system is its resilience to perturbation and minor damage. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how resilience is achieved in higher cognitive systems, which we explored through the domain of semantic cognition. Convergent evidence implicates the bilateral anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as a conceptual knowledge hub. While bilateral damage to this region produces profound semantic impairment, unilateral atrophy/resection or transient perturbation has a limited effect...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Laurène Save, Agnès Baude, Rosa Cossart
The dentate gyrus, the entry gate to the hippocampus, comprises 3 types of glutamatergic cells, the granule, the mossy and the semilunar granule cells. Whereas accumulating evidence indicates that specification of subclasses of neocortical neurons starts at the time of their final mitotic divisions, when cellular diversity is specified in the Dentate Gyrus remains largely unknown. Here we show that semilunar cells, like mossy cells, originate from the earliest stages of developmental neurogenesis and that early born neurons form age-matched circuits with each other...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Taiji Ueno, Lotte Meteyard, Paul Hoffman, Kou Murayama
An influential account of reading holds that words with exceptional spelling-to-sound correspondences (e.g., PINT) are read via activation of their lexical-semantic representations, supported by the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). This account has been inconclusive because it is based on neuropsychological evidence, in which lesion-deficit relationships are difficult to localize precisely, and functional neuroimaging data, which is spatially precise but cannot demonstrate whether the ATL activity is necessary for exception word reading...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Naoki Yamawaki, Kevin A Corcoran, Anita L Guedea, Gordon M G Shepherd, Jelena Radulovic
Learning to associate stressful events with specific environmental contexts depends on excitatory transmission in the hippocampus, but how this information is transmitted to the neocortex for lasting memory storage is unclear. We identified dorsal hippocampal (DH) projections to the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which arise mainly from the subiculum and contain either the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) or vGlut2. Both vGlut1+ and vGlut2+ axons strongly excite and disynaptically inhibit RSC pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, but vGlut2+ axons trigger greater inhibition that spreads to deep layers, indicating that these pathways engage RSC circuits via partially redundant, partially differentiated cellular mechanisms...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Gwyneth A Lewis, David Poeppel, Gregory L Murphy
Recent studies of semantic memory have focused on dissociating the neural bases of two foundational components of human thought: taxonomic categories, which group similar objects like dogs and seals based on features, and thematic categories, which group dissimilar objects like dogs and leashes based on events. While there is emerging consensus that taxonomic concepts are represented in the anterior temporal lobe, there is disagreement over whether thematic concepts are represented in the angular gyrus (AG)...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Loïc Magrou, Pascal Barone, Nikola T Markov, Herbert P Killackey, Pascale Giroud, Michel Berland, Kenneth Knoblauch, Colette Dehay, Henry Kennedy
There is little understanding of the structural underpinnings of the functional reorganization of the cortex in the congenitally blind human. Taking advantage of the extensive characterization of the macaque visual system, we examine in macaque the influence of congenital blindness resulting from the removal of the retina during in utero development. This effectively removes the normal influence of the thalamus on cortical development leading to an induced hybrid cortex (HC) combining features of primary visual and extrastriate cortex...
May 30, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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