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Cerebral Cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666344/hippocampal-engagement-during-recall-depends-on-memory-content
#1
David A Ross, Patrick Sadil, D Merika Wilson, Rosemary A Cowell
The hippocampus is considered pivotal to recall, allowing retrieval of information not available in the immediate environment. In contrast, neocortex is thought to signal familiarity, contributing to recall only when called upon by the hippocampus. However, this view is not compatible with representational accounts of memory, which reject the mapping of cognitive processes onto brain regions. According to representational accounts, the hippocampus is not engaged by recall per se, rather it is engaged whenever hippocampal representations are required...
June 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655157/neuroinflammation-and-tau-interact-with-amyloid-in-predicting-sleep-problems-in-aging-independently-of-atrophy
#2
Anders Martin Fjell, Ane-Victoria Idland, Roser Sala-Llonch, Leiv Otto Watne, Tom Borza, Anne Brækhus, Tarjei Lona, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Kristine Beate Walhovd
Sleep problems relate to brain changes in aging and disease, but the mechanisms are unknown. Studies suggest a relationship between β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and sleep, which is likely augmented by interactions with multiple variables. Here, we tested how different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for brain pathophysiology, brain atrophy, memory function, and depressive symptoms predicted self-reported sleep patterns in 91 cognitively healthy older adults over a 3-year period. The results showed that CSF levels of total- and phosphorylated (P) tau, and YKL-40-a marker of neuroinflammation/astroglial activation-predicted poor sleep in Aβ positive older adults...
June 26, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655149/neuromodulation-of-axon-terminals
#3
Darpan Chakraborty, Dennis Q Truong, Marom Bikson, Hanoch Kaphzan
Understanding which cellular compartments are influenced during neuromodulation underpins any rational effort to explain and optimize outcomes. Axon terminals have long been speculated to be sensitive to polarization, but experimentally informed models for CNS stimulation are lacking. We conducted simultaneous intracellular recording from the neuron soma and axon terminal (blebs) during extracellular stimulation with weak sustained (DC) uniform electric fields in mouse cortical slices. Use of weak direct current stimulation (DCS) allowed isolation and quantification of changes in axon terminal biophysics, relevant to both suprathreshold (e...
June 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651367/alternative-rna-splicing-associated-with-mammalian-neuronal-differentiation
#4
Jiancheng Liu, Anqi Geng, Xiwei Wu, Ren-Jang Lin, Qiang Lu
Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) produces multiple isoforms of mRNAs and proteins from a single gene. It is most prevalent in the mammalian brain and is thought to contribute to the formation and/or maintenance of functional complexity of the brain. Increasing evidence has documented the significant changes of AS between different regions or different developmental stages of the brain, however, the dynamics of AS and the possible function of it during neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation is less well known...
June 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637203/morphological-diversity-strongly-constrains-synaptic-connectivity-and-plasticity
#5
Michael W Reimann, Anna-Lena Horlemann, Srikanth Ramaswamy, Eilif B Muller, Henry Markram
Synaptic connectivity between neurons is naturally constrained by the anatomical overlap of neuronal arbors, the space on the axon available for synapses, and by physiological mechanisms that form synapses at a subset of potential synapse locations. What is not known is how these constraints impact emergent connectivity in a circuit with diverse morphologies. We investigated the role of morphological diversity within and across neuronal types on emergent connectivity in a model of neocortical microcircuitry...
June 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637171/representation-of-rapid-image-sequences-in-v4-networks
#6
Jose A Fernandez-Leon, Bryan J Hansen, Valentin Dragoi
Natural viewing often consists of sequences of brief fixations to image patches of different structure. Whether and how briefly presented sequential stimuli are encoded in a temporal-position manner is poorly understood. Here, we performed multiple-electrode recordings in the visual cortex (area V4) of nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) viewing a sequence of 7 briefly flashed natural images, and measured correlations between the cue-triggered population response in the presence and absence of the stimulus. Surprisingly, we found significant correlations for images occurring at the beginning and the end of a sequence, but not for those in the middle...
June 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637318/experience-dependent-regulation-of-cajal-retzius-cell-networks-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#7
Max Anstötz, Sun Kyong Lee, Tamra I Neblett, Gabriele M Rune, Gianmaria Maccaferri
In contrast to their near-disappearance in the adult neocortex, Cajal-Retzius cells have been suggested to persist longer in the hippocampus. A distinctive feature of the mature hippocampus, not maintained by other cortical areas, is its ability to sustain adult neurogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether environmental manipulations affecting hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis have a parallel impact on Cajal-Retzius cells. We used multiple mouse reporter lines to unequivocally identify Cajal-Retzius cells and quantify their densities during postnatal development...
June 16, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633369/fine-subdivisions-of-the-semantic-network-supporting-social-and-sensory-motor-semantic-processing
#8
Nan Lin, Xiaoying Wang, Yangwen Xu, Xiaosha Wang, Huimin Hua, Ying Zhao, Xingshan Li
Neuroimaging studies have consistently indicated that semantic processing involves a brain network consisting of multimodal cortical regions distributed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. However, little is known about how semantic information is organized and processed within the network. Some recent studies have indicated that sensory-motor semantic information modulates the activation of this network. Other studies have indicated that this network responds more to social semantic information than to other information...
June 15, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633321/places-in-the-brain-bridging-layout-and-object-geometry-in-scene-selective-cortex
#9
Moira R Dillon, Andrew S Persichetti, Elizabeth S Spelke, Daniel D Dilks
Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633299/structural-covariance-networks-in-children-with-autism-or-adhd
#10
R A I Bethlehem, R Romero-Garcia, E Mak, E T Bullmore, S Baron-Cohen
Background: While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Method: Graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance networks across both conditions and relative to a neurotypical (NT; n = 87) group using data from the ABIDE (autism; n = 62) and ADHD-200 datasets (ADHD; n = 69)...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605513/a-quadrantic-bias-in-prefrontal-representation-of-visual-mnemonic-space
#11
Matthew L Leavitt, Florian Pieper, Adam J Sachs, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Single neurons in primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) are known to encode working memory (WM) representations of visual space. Psychophysical studies have shown that the horizontal and vertical meridians of the visual field can bias spatial information maintained in WM. However, most studies and models have tacitly assumed that dLPFC neurons represent mnemonic space homogenously. The anatomical organization of these representations has also eluded clear parametric description. We investigated these issues by recording from neuronal ensembles in macaque dLPFC with microelectrode arrays while subjects performed an oculomotor delayed-response task...
June 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605410/abstract-representations-of-object-directed-action-in-the-left-inferior-parietal-lobule
#12
Quanjing Chen, Frank E Garcea, Robert A Jacobs, Bradford Z Mahon
Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects...
June 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591851/reduced-fidelity-of-neural-representation-underlies-episodic-memory-decline-in-normal-aging
#13
Li Zheng, Zhiyao Gao, Xiaoqian Xiao, Zhifang Ye, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue
Emerging studies have emphasized the importance of the fidelity of cortical representation in forming enduring episodic memory. No study, however, has examined whether there are age-related reductions in representation fidelity that can explain memory declines in normal aging. Using functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis, we found that older adults showed reduced representation fidelity in the visual cortex, which accounted for their decreased memory performance even after controlling for the contribution of reduced activation level...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591842/children-with-cerebral-palsy-hyper-gate-somatosensory-stimulations-of-the-foot
#14
Max J Kurz, Alex I Wiesman, Nathan M Coolidge, Tony W Wilson
We currently have a substantial knowledge gap in our understanding of the neurophysiological underpinnings of the sensory perception deficits often reported in the clinic for children with cerebral palsy (CP). In this investigation, we have begun to address this knowledge gap by using magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging to evaluate the sensory gating of neural oscillations in the somatosensory cortices. A cohort of children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System II-III) and typically developing children underwent paired-pulse electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve during MEG...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591837/attention-selectively-reshapes-the-geometry-of-distributed-semantic-representation
#15
Samuel A Nastase, Andrew C Connolly, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Yaroslav O Halchenko, J Swaroop Guntupalli, Matteo Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Jason Gors, M Ida Gobbini, James V Haxby
Humans prioritize different semantic qualities of a complex stimulus depending on their behavioral goals. These semantic features are encoded in distributed neural populations, yet it is unclear how attention might operate across these distributed representations. To address this, we presented participants with naturalistic video clips of animals behaving in their natural environments while the participants attended to either behavior or taxonomy. We used models of representational geometry to investigate how attentional allocation affects the distributed neural representation of animal behavior and taxonomy...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591836/focal-cortical-anomalies-and-language-impairment-in-16p11-2-deletion-and-duplication-syndrome
#16
Karen Blackmon, Thomas Thesen, Sophie Green, Emma Ben-Avi, Xiuyuan Wang, Benjamin Fuchs, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky
Individuals with copy number variants (CNV) in the 16p11.2 chromosomal region are at high risk for language disorders. We investigate whether the extent and location of focal cortical anomalies are associated with language impairment in individuals with 16p11.2 CNVs. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans from 30 16p11.2 deletion (16p-del), 25 16p11.2 duplication (16p-dup), and 90 noncarrier controls (NCC) were analyzed to derive personalized cortical anomaly maps through single-case cortical thickness (CT) comparison to age-matched normative samples...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591834/cholinergic-grb2-associated-binding-protein-1-regulates-cognitive-function
#17
Nan-Nan Lu, Chao Tan, Ning-He Sun, Ling-Xiao Shao, Xiu-Xiu Liu, Yin-Ping Gao, Rong-Rong Tao, Quan Jiang, Cheng-Kun Wang, Ji-Yun Huang, Kui Zhao, Guang-Fa Wang, Zhi-Rong Liu, Kohji Fukunaga, Ying-Mei Lu, Feng Han
Grb2-associated-binding protein 1 (Gab1) is a docking/scaffolding molecule known to play an important role in cell growth and survival. Here, we report that Gab1 is decreased in cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in a mouse model of AD. In mice, selective ablation of Gab1 in cholinergic neurons in the medial septum impaired learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation. Gab1 ablation also inhibited SK channels, leading to an increase in firing in septal cholinergic neurons...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591822/neural-sources-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-neural-responses-to-heartbeats-and-their-role-in-bodily-self-consciousness-an-intracranial-eeg-study
#18
Hyeong-Dong Park, Fosco Bernasconi, Roy Salomon, Catherine Tallon-Baudry, Laurent Spinelli, Margitta Seeck, Karl Schaller, Olaf Blanke
Recent research has shown that heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), brain activity in response to heartbeats, are a useful neural measure for investigating the functional role of brain-body interactions in cognitive processes including self-consciousness. In 2 experiments, using intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated (1) the neural sources of HEPs, (2) the underlying mechanisms for HEP generation, and (3) the functional role of HEPs in bodily self-consciousness. In Experiment-1, we found that shortly after the heartbeat onset, phase distributions across single trials were significantly concentrated in 10% of the recording sites, mainly in the insula and the operculum, but also in other regions including the amygdala and fronto-temporal cortex...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591814/abnormal-gray-matter-shape-thickness-and-volume-in-the-motor-cortico-subcortical-loop-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-association-with-clinical-and-motor-features
#19
Shady Rahayel, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Christophe Bedetti, Simona Brambati, Julie Carrier, Oury Monchi, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Malo Gaubert, Jean-François Gagnon
Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591803/temporally-segmented-directionality-in-the-motor-cortex
#20
S B Suway, J Orellana, A J C McMorland, G W Fraser, Z Liu, M Velliste, S M Chase, R E Kass, A B Schwartz
Developing models of the dynamic and complex patterns of information processing that take place during behavior is a major thrust of systems neuroscience. An underlying assumption of many models is that the same set of rules applies across different conditions. This has been the case for directional tuning during volitional movement; a single cosine function has been remarkably robust for describing the encoding of movement direction in different types of neurons, in many locations of the nervous system, and even across species...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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