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Cerebral Cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425353/differential-dependence-of-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-neurons-on-glia-for-the-establishment-of-synaptic-transmission
#1
Paul Turko, Keenan Groberman, Ferdinand Browa, Stuart Cobb, Imre Vida
In the mammalian cortex, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons represent 2 major neuronal classes, which establish inhibitory and excitatory synapses, respectively. Despite differences in their anatomy, physiology and developmental origin, both cell types require support from glial cells, particularly astrocytes, for their growth and survival. Recent experiments indicate that glutamatergic neurons also depend on astrocytes for synapse formation. However, it is not clear if the same holds true for GABAergic neurons...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425270/system-specific-patterns-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-in-early-brain-development-as-revealed-by-structural-and-functional-mri
#2
Silvina L Ferradal, Borjan Gagoski, Camilo Jaimes, Francesca Yi, Clarisa Carruthers, Catherine Vu, Jonathan S Litt, Ryan Larsen, Brad Sutton, P Ellen Grant, Lilla Zöllei
The normal development of thalamocortical connections plays a critical role in shaping brain connectivity in the prenatal and postnatal periods. Recent studies using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in neonates and infants have shown that abnormal thalamocortical connectivity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, all these studies have focused on a single neuroimaging modality, overlooking the dynamic relationship between structure and function at this early stage...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425268/prenatal-stress-mood-and-gray-matter-volume-in-young-adulthood
#3
Klára Marecková, Anja Klasnja, Petra Bencurova, Lenka Andrýsková, Milan Brázdil, Tomáš Paus
This study aimed to determine whether prenatal stress, measured by the number of stressful life events during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, might relate to mood dysregulation and altered brain structure in young adulthood. Participants included 93 young adults from a community-based birth cohort from the Czech Republic. Information on prenatal stress exposure was collected from their mothers in 1990-1992. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and mood-related data were collected from the young adults in 2015...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425267/global-white-matter-diffusion-characteristics-predict-longitudinal-cognitive-change-independently-of-amyloid-status-in-clinically-normal-older-adults
#4
Jennifer S Rabin, Rodrigo D Perea, Rachel F Buckley, Taylor E Neal, Randy L Buckner, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Trey Hedden
White matter degradation has been proposed as one possible explanation for age-related cognitive decline. In the present study, we examined 2 main questions: 1) Do diffusion characteristics predict longitudinal change in cognition independently or synergistically with amyloid status? 2) Are the effects of diffusion characteristics on longitudinal cognitive change tract-specific or global in nature? Cognitive domains of executive function, episodic memory, and processing speed were measured annually (mean follow-up = 3...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425263/determinants-of-optogenetic-cortical-spreading-depolarizations
#5
David Y Chung, Homa Sadeghian, Tao Qin, Sevda Lule, Hang Lee, Fahri Karakaya, Stacy Goins, Fumiaki Oka, Mohammad A Yaseen, Thijs Houben, Else A Tolner, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Michael J Whalen, Sava Sakadžic, Cenk Ayata
Cortical spreading depolarization (SD) is the electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura, and a critical contributor to secondary damage after brain injury. Experimental models of SD have been used for decades in migraine and brain injury research; however, they are highly invasive and often cause primary tissue injury, diminishing their translational value. Here we present a non-invasive method to trigger SDs using light-induced depolarization in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in neurons (Thy1-ChR2-YFP)...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420750/self-face-recognition-begins-to-share-active-region-in-right-inferior-parietal-lobule-with-proprioceptive-illusion-during-adolescence
#6
Tomoyo Morita, Daisuke N Saito, Midori Ban, Koji Shimada, Yuko Okamoto, Hirotaka Kosaka, Hidehiko Okazawa, Minoru Asada, Eiichi Naito
We recently reported that right-side dominance of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in self-body recognition (proprioceptive illusion) task emerges during adolescence in typical human development. Here, we extend this finding by demonstrating that functional lateralization to the right IPL also develops during adolescence in another self-body (specifically a self-face) recognition task. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 60 right-handed healthy children (8-11 years), adolescents (12-15 years), and adults (18-23 years; 20 per group) while they judged whether a presented face was their own (Self) or that of somebody else (Other)...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420702/rab23-regulates-radial-migration-of-projection-neurons-via-n-cadherin
#7
Catherine H H Hor, Eyleen L K Goh
Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism reveals down-regulation of N-cadherin in the Rab23-deficient neurons, which is a cell adhesion protein previously known to modulate radial migration...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420701/cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-term-and-very-preterm-born-infants
#8
Charlotte S Herzmann, Abraham Z Snyder, Jeanette K Kenley, Cynthia E Rogers, Joshua S Shimony, Christopher D Smyser
Cortical resting state networks have been consistently identified in infants using resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Comparable studies in adults have demonstrated cerebellar components of well-established cerebral networks. However, there has been limited investigation of early cerebellar functional connectivity. We acquired non-sedated rs-fMRI data in the first week of life in 57 healthy, term-born infants and at term-equivalent postmenstrual age in 20 very preterm infants (mean birth gestational age 27 ± 2 weeks) without significant cerebral or cerebellar injury...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420697/environmental-influences-on-infant-cortical-thickness-and-surface-area
#9
Shaili C Jha, Kai Xia, Mihye Ahn, Jessica B Girault, Gang Li, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen, Fei Zou, Hongtu Zhu, Martin Styner, John H Gilmore, Rebecca C Knickmeyer
Cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) vary widely between individuals and are associated with intellectual ability and risk for various psychiatric and neurodevelopmental conditions. Factors influencing this variability remain poorly understood, but the radial unit hypothesis, as well as the more recent supragranular cortex expansion hypothesis, suggests that prenatal and perinatal influences may be particularly important. In this report, we examine the impact of 17 major demographic and obstetric history variables on interindividual variation in CT and SA in a unique sample of 805 neonates who received MRI scans of the brain around 2 weeks of age...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420692/neural-representations-of-the-full-spatial-field-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#10
Evan D Remington, Xiaoqin Wang
Unlike visual signals, sound can reach the ears from any direction, and the ability to localize sounds from all directions is essential for survival in a natural environment. Previous studies have largely focused on the space in front of a subject that is also covered by vision and were often limited to measuring spatial tuning along the horizontal (azimuth) plane. As a result, we know relatively little about how the auditory cortex responds to sounds coming from spatial locations outside the frontal space where visual information is unavailable...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420689/pdk1-deficit-impairs-the-development-of-the-dentate-gyrus-in-mice
#11
Min Xu, Xiaoning Han, Rui Liu, Yanjun Li, Cui Qi, Zhongzhou Yang, Chunjie Zhao, Jun Gao
3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is crucial for the development of the dentate gyrus (DG), the first gateway receiving afferent inputs from the entorhinal cortex. However, the role of PDK1 in DG development is unclear. In the present study, by crossing Pdk1fl/fl mice with the Emx1-cre line, we identified that the ablation of PDK1 disrupted the development of DG via decreasing the proliferation, and increasing the differentiation of dentate neural progenitor cells, downregulating AKT activity and upregulating GSK3β signaling...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415274/single-neurons-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-signal-the-need-to-change-action-during-performance-of-a-stop-change-task-that-induces-response-competition
#12
Daniel W Bryden, Adam T Brockett, Elyse Blume, Kendall Heatley, Adam Zhao, Matthew R Roesch
Several human imaging studies have suggested that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is highly active when participants receive competing inputs, and that these signals may be important for influencing the downstream planning of actions. Despite increasing evidence from several neuroimaging studies, no study has examined ACC activity at the level of the single neuron in rodents performing similar tasks. To fill this gap, we recorded from single neurons in ACC while rats performed a stop-change task. We found higher firing on trials with competing inputs (STOP trials), and that firing rates were positively correlated with accuracy and movement speed, suggesting that when ACC was engaged, rats tended to slow down and perform better...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415253/verbal-creativity-correlates-with-the-temporal-variability-of-brain-networks-during-the-resting-state
#13
Jiangzhou Sun, Zhaowen Liu, Edmund T Rolls, Qunlin Chen, Ye Yao, Wenjing Yang, Dongtao Wei, Qinglin Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jianfeng Feng, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is the ability to see the world in new ways. Creative individuals exhibit the ability to switch between different modes of thinking and shift their mental focus. This suggests a connection between creativity and dynamic interactions of brain networks. We report here the first investigation into the relationship between the reconfiguration of dynamic brain networks during the resting state and verbal creativity using two fMRI datasets involving 574 subjects. We find that verbal creativity correlates with temporal variability of the functional-connectivity (FC) patterns of the lateral prefrontal cortex, the precuneus, and the parahippocampal gyrus...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415247/polycomb-protein-eed-is-required-for-neurogenesis-and-cortical-injury-activation-in-the-subventricular-zone
#14
Bin Sun, Eunhyuk Chang, Anna Gerhartl, Francis G Szele
The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) harbors neural stem cells (NSCs) that exhibit robust neurogenesis. However, the epigenetic mechanisms that maintain NSCs and regulate neurogenesis remain unclear. We report that label-retaining SVZ NSCs express Eed, the core component of Polycomb repressive complex 2. In vivo and in vitro conditional knockout and knockdown show Eed is necessary for maintaining NSC proliferation, neurogenesis and neurosphere formation. We discovered that Eed functions to maintain p21 protein levels in NSCs by repressing Gata6 transcription...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415226/temporal-regulation-of-dendritic-spines-through-nrcam-semaphorin3f-receptor-signaling-in-developing-cortical-pyramidal-neurons
#15
Vishwa Mohan, Chelsea S Sullivan, Jiami Guo, Sarah D Wade, Samarpan Majumder, Amit Agarwal, Eva S Anton, Brenda S Temple, Patricia F Maness
Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule NrCAM is a newly identified negative regulator of spine density that genetically interacts with Semaphorin3F (Sema3F), and is implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate a role for NrCAM in spine pruning during the critical adolescent period when networks are established, we generated novel conditional, inducible NrCAM mutant mice (Nex1Cre-ERT2: NrCAMflox/flox). We demonstrate that NrCAM functions cell autonomously during adolescence in pyramidal neurons to restrict spine density in the visual (V1) and medial frontal cortex (MFC)...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415220/eye-movement-reinstatement-and-neural-reactivation-during-mental-imagery
#16
Michael B Bone, Marie St-Laurent, Christa Dang, Douglas A McQuiggan, Jennifer D Ryan, Bradley R Buchsbaum
Half a century ago, Donald Hebb posited that mental imagery is a constructive process that emulates perception. Specifically, Hebb claimed that visual imagery results from the reactivation of neural activity associated with viewing images. He also argued that neural reactivation and imagery benefit from the re-enactment of eye movement patterns that first occurred at viewing (fixation reinstatement). To investigate these claims, we applied multivariate pattern analyses to functional MRI (fMRI) and eye tracking data collected while healthy human participants repeatedly viewed and visualized complex images...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415216/distinct-neocortical-progenitor-lineages-fine-tune-neuronal-diversity-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#17
Teresa Guillamon-Vivancos, William A Tyler, Maria Medalla, Wayne Wei-En Chang, Mayumi Okamoto, Tarik F Haydar, Jennifer I Luebke
How the variety of neurons that organize into neocortical layers and functional areas arises is a central question in the study of cortical development. While both intrinsic and extrinsic cues are known to influence this process, whether distinct neuronal progenitor groups contribute to neuron diversity and allocation is poorly understood. Using in vivo genetic fate-mapping combined with whole-cell patch clamp recording, we show that the firing pattern and apical dendritic morphology of excitatory neurons in layer 4 of the barrel cortex are specified in part by their neural precursor lineage...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415191/training-and-spontaneous-reinforcement-of-neuronal-assemblies-by-spike-timing-plasticity
#18
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Brent Doiron
The synaptic connectivity of cortex is plastic, with experience shaping the ongoing interactions between neurons. Theoretical studies of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) have focused on either just pairs of neurons or large-scale simulations. A simple analytic account for how fast spike time correlations affect both microscopic and macroscopic network structure is lacking. We develop a low-dimensional mean field theory for STDP in recurrent networks and show the emergence of assemblies of strongly coupled neurons with shared stimulus preferences...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415163/genetic-variation-of-a-drd2-co-expression-network-is-associated-with-changes-in-prefrontal-function-after-d2-receptors-stimulation
#19
Pierluigi Selvaggi, Giulio Pergola, Barbara Gelao, Pasquale Di Carlo, Maria Antonietta Nettis, Graziella Amico, Leonardo Fazio, Antonio Rampino, Fabio Sambataro, Giuseppe Blasi, Alessandro Bertolino
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) contribute to the inverted U-shaped relationship between dopamine signaling and prefrontal function. Genetic networks from post-mortem human brain revealed 84 partner genes co-expressed with DRD2. Moreover, eight functional single nucleotide polymorphisms combined into a polygenic co-expression index (PCI) predicted co-expression of this DRD2 network and were associated with prefrontal function in humans. Here, we investigated the non-linear association of the PCI with behavioral and Working Memory (WM) related brain response to pharmacological D2Rs stimulation...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415156/frontoparietal-activity-interacts-with-task-evoked-changes-in-functional-connectivity
#20
Kai Hwang, James M Shine, Mark D'Esposito
Flexible interactions between brain regions enable neural systems to adaptively transfer and process information. However, the neural substrates that regulate adaptive communications between brain regions are understudied. In this human fMRI study, we investigated this issue by tracking time-varying, task-evoked changes in functional connectivity between localized occipitotemporal regions while participants performed different tasks on the same visually presented stimuli. We found that functional connectivity between ventral temporal and the primary visual regions selectively increased during the processing of task-relevant information...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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