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Cerebral Cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077515/medial-prefrontal-cortex-pontine-nuclei-projections-modulate-suboptimal-cue-induced-associative-motor-learning
#1
Guang-Yan Wu, Shu-Lei Liu, Juan Yao, Lin Sun, Bing Wu, Yi Yang, Xuan Li, Qian-Quan Sun, Hua Feng, Jian-Feng Sui
Diverse and powerful mechanisms have evolved to enable organisms to modulate learning and memory under a variety of survival conditions. Cumulative evidence has shown that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is closely involved in many higher-order cognitive functions. However, when and how the medial PFC (mPFC) modulates associative motor learning remains largely unknown. Here, we show that delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC) with the weak conditioned stimulus (wCS) but not the strong CS (sCS) elicited a significant increase in the levels of c-Fos expression in caudal mPFC...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077514/representational-similarity-mapping-of-distributional-semantics-in-left-inferior-frontal-middle-temporal-and-motor-cortex
#2
Francesca Carota, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Hamed Nili, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language comprehension engages a distributed network of frontotemporal, parietal, and sensorimotor regions, but it is still unclear how meaning of words and their semantic relationships are represented and processed within these regions and to which degrees lexico-semantic representations differ between regions and semantic types. We used fMRI and representational similarity analysis to relate word-elicited multivoxel patterns to semantic similarity between action and object words. In left inferior frontal (BA 44-45-47), left posterior middle temporal and left precentral cortex, the similarity of brain response patterns reflected semantic similarity among action-related verbs, as well as across lexical classes-between action verbs and tool-related nouns and, to a degree, between action verbs and food nouns, but not between action verbs and animal nouns...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077513/cognitive-control-structures-in-the-imitation-learning-of-spatial-sequences-and-rhythms-an-fmri-study
#3
Katrin Sakreida, Satomi Higuchi, Cinzia Di Dio, Michael Ziessler, Martine Turgeon, Neil Roberts, Stefan Vogt
Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077512/differential-contribution-of-low-and-high-level-image-content-to-eye-movements-in-monkeys-and-humans
#4
Niklas Wilming, Tim C Kietzmann, Megan Jutras, Cheng Xue, Stefan Treue, Elizabeth A Buffalo, Peter König
Oculomotor selection exerts a fundamental impact on our experience of the environment. To better understand the underlying principles, researchers typically rely on behavioral data from humans, and electrophysiological recordings in macaque monkeys. This approach rests on the assumption that the same selection processes are at play in both species. To test this assumption, we compared the viewing behavior of 106 humans and 11 macaques in an unconstrained free-viewing task. Our data-driven clustering analyses revealed distinct human and macaque clusters, indicating species-specific selection strategies...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077511/altered-connectivity-and-synapse-maturation-of-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
F Scharkowski, Michael Frotscher, David Lutz, Martin Korte, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse
The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as the most common monogenetic cause of cognitive impairment and autism indicates how tightly the dysregulation of synapse development is linked to cognitive deficits. Symptoms of FXS include excessive adherence to patterns that point to compromised hippocampal network formation. Surprisingly, one of the most complex hippocampal synapses connecting the dentate gyrus (DG) to CA3 pyramidal neurons has not been analyzed in FXS yet. Intriguingly, we found altered synaptic function between DG and CA3 in a mouse model of FXS (fmr1 knockout [KO]) demonstrated by increased mossy fiber-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency at CA3 pyramidal neurons together with increased connectivity between granule cells and CA3 neurons...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069762/orbitofrontal-cortex-neurons-respond-to-sound-and-activate-primary-auditory-cortex-neurons
#6
Daniel E Winkowski, Daniel A Nagode, Kevin J Donaldson, Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory environments change over a wide dynamic range and sensory processing can change rapidly to facilitate stable perception. While rapid changes may occur throughout the sensory processing pathway, cortical changes are believed to profoundly influence perception. Prior stimulation studies showed that orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can modify receptive fields and sensory coding in A1, but the engagement of OFC during listening and the pathways mediating OFC influences on A1 are unknown. We show in mice that OFC neurons respond to sounds consistent with a role of OFC in audition...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069761/functional-and-quantitative-mri-mapping-of-somatomotor-representations-of-human-supralaryngeal-vocal-tract
#7
Daniel Carey, Saloni Krishnan, Martina F Callaghan, Martin I Sereno, Frederic Dick
Speech articulation requires precise control of and coordination between the effectors of the vocal tract (e.g., lips, tongue, soft palate, and larynx). However, it is unclear how the cortex represents movements of and contact between these effectors during speech, or how these cortical responses relate to inter-regional anatomical borders. Here, we used phase-encoded fMRI to map somatomotor representations of speech articulations. Phonetically trained participants produced speech phones, progressing from front (bilabial) to back (glottal) place of articulation...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069760/axotomized-corticospinal-neurons-increase-supra-lesional-innervation-and-remain-crucial-for-skilled-reaching-after-bilateral-pyramidotomy
#8
Alice C Mosberger, Jenifer C Miehlbradt, Nadja Bjelopoljak, Marc P Schneider, Anna-Sophia Wahl, Benjamin V Ineichen, Miriam Gullo, Martin E Schwab
Skilled upper limb function heavily depends on the corticospinal tract. After bilateral lesions to this tract, motor control is disrupted but can be partially substituted by other motor systems to allow functional recovery. However, the remaining roles of motor cortex and especially of axotomized corticospinal neurons (CSNs) are not well understood. Using the single pellet retrieval task in adult rats, we induced significant recovery of skilled reaching after bilateral pyramidotomy by rehabilitative reaching training, and show that reach-related motor cortex activity, recorded in layer V, topographically reappeared shortly after axotomy...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062515/joint-attention-and-brain-functional-connectivity-in-infants-and-toddlers
#9
Adam T Eggebrecht, Jed T Elison, Eric Feczko, Alexandre Todorov, Jason J Wolff, Sridhar Kandala, Chloe M Adams, Abraham Z Snyder, John D Lewis, Annette M Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kelly N Botteron, Robert C McKinstry, John N Constantino, Alan Evans, Heather C Hazlett, Stephen Dager, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Guido Gerig, Samir Das, Penelope Kostopoulos, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett
Initiating joint attention (IJA), the behavioral instigation of coordinated focus of 2 people on an object, emerges over the first 2 years of life and supports social-communicative functioning related to the healthy development of aspects of language, empathy, and theory of mind. Deficits in IJA provide strong early indicators for autism spectrum disorder, and therapies targeting joint attention have shown tremendous promise. However, the brain systems underlying IJA in early childhood are poorly understood, due in part to significant methodological challenges in imaging localized brain function that supports social behaviors during the first 2 years of life...
January 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057726/reduced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-during-episodic-memory-retrieval-in-autism
#10
Rose A Cooper, Franziska R Richter, Paul M Bays, Kate C Plaisted-Grant, Simon Baron-Cohen, Jon S Simons
Increasing recent research has sought to understand the recollection impairments experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we tested whether these memory deficits reflect a reduction in the probability of retrieval success or in the precision of memory representations. We also used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural mechanisms underlying memory encoding and retrieval in ASD, focusing particularly on the functional connectivity of core episodic memory networks...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057725/the-neuro-computational-architecture-of-value-based-selection-in-the-human-brain
#11
Philippe Domenech, Jérôme Redouté, Etienne Koechlin, Jean-Claude Dreher
Current neural models of value-based decision-making consider choices as a 2-stage process, proceeding from the "valuation" of each option under consideration to the "selection" of the best option on the basis of their subjective values. However, little is known about the computational mechanisms at play at the selection stage and its implementation in the human brain. Here, we used drift-diffusion models combined with model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging, effective connectivity, and multivariate pattern analysis to characterize the neuro-computational architecture of value-based decisions...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057724/preference-for-cocaine-is-represented-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-by-an-increased-proportion-of-cocaine-use-coding-neurons
#12
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
Cocaine addiction is a harmful preference for drug use over and at the expense of other nondrug-related activities. Here we identify in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) a mechanism that explains individual preferences between cocaine use and an alternative, nondrug action. OFC neuronal activity was recorded while rats performed each of these 2 actions separately or while they chose between them. First, we found that these actions are encoded by 2 nonoverlapping neuronal populations and that the relative size of the cocaine population represented individual preferences...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057723/how-the-brain-converts-negative-evaluation-into-performance-facilitation
#13
Charlotte Prévost, Hakwan Lau, Dean Mobbs
Surpassing negative evaluation is a recurrent theme of success stories. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the counterintuitive idea that negative evaluation might not only motivate people, but also enhance performance. To address this question, we designed a task that required participants to decide whether taking up a risky challenge after receiving positive or negative evaluations from independent judges. Participants believed that these evaluations were based on their prior performance on a related task...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057722/causal-evidence-of-motion-signals-in-macaque-middle-temporal-area-weighted-pooled-for-global-heading-perception
#14
Xuefei Yu, Han Hou, Lothar Spillmann, Yong Gu
Accurate heading perception relies on visual information integrated across a wide field, that is, optic flow. Numerous computational studies have speculated how local visual information might be pooled by the brain to compute heading, but these hypotheses lack direct neurophysiological support. In the current study, we instructed human and monkey subjects to judge heading directions based on global optic flow. We showed that a local perturbation cue applied within only a small part of the visual field could bias the subjects' heading judgments, and shift the neuronal tuning in the macaque middle temporal (MT) area at the same time...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057721/in-vivo-evidence-of-reduced-integrity-of-the-gray-white-matter-boundary-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Derek Sayre Andrews, Thomas A Avino, Maria Gudbrandsen, Eileen Daly, Andre Marquand, Clodagh M Murphy, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Amber N V Ruigrok, Steven C Williams, Edward T Bullmore, The Mrc Aims Consortium, John Suckling, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael C Craig, Declan G M Murphy, Christine Ecker
Atypical cortical organization and reduced integrity of the gray-white matter boundary have been reported by postmortem studies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are no in vivo studies that examine these particular features of cortical organization in ASD. Hence, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in tissue contrast between gray and white matter in 98 adults with ASD and 98 typically developing controls, to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASD have significantly reduced tissue contrast...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052922/who-s-that-knocking-at-my-door-neural-bases-of-sound-source-identification
#16
Guillaume Lemaitre, John A Pyles, Andrea R Halpern, Nicole Navolio, Matthew Lehet, Laurie M Heller
When hearing knocking on a door, a listener typically identifies both the action (forceful and repeated impacts) and the object (a thick wooden board) causing the sound. The current work studied the neural bases of sound source identification by switching listeners' attention toward these different aspects of a set of simple sounds during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning: participants either discriminated the action or the material that caused the sounds, or they simply discriminated meaningless scrambled versions of them...
January 3, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052921/the-circadian-oscillator-of-the-cerebral-cortex-molecular-biochemical-and-behavioral-effects-of-deleting-the-arntl-clock-gene-in-cortical-neurons
#17
Tenna Bering, Mikkel Bloss Carstensen, Gitta Wörtwein, Pia Weikop, Martin Fredensborg Rath
A molecular circadian oscillator resides in neurons of the cerebral cortex, but its role is unknown. Using the Cre-LoxP method, we have here abolished the core clock gene Arntl in those neurons. This mouse represents the first model carrying a deletion of a circadian clock component specifically in an extrahypothalamic cell type of the brain. Molecular analyses of clock gene expression in the cerebral cortex of the Arntl conditional knockout mouse revealed disrupted circadian expression profiles, whereas clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus was still rhythmic, thus showing that Arntl is required for normal function of the cortical circadian oscillator...
January 3, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031177/dmrt5-together-with-dmrt3-directly-controls-hippocampus-development-and-neocortical-area-map-formation
#18
Sarah De Clercq, Marc Keruzore, Elodie Desmaris, Charlotte Pollart, Stavroula Assimacopoulos, Julie Preillon, Sabrina Ascenzo, Clinton K Matson, Melody Lee, Xinsheng Nan, Meng Li, Yasushi Nakagawa, Tino Hochepied, David Zarkower, Elizabeth A Grove, Eric J Bellefroid
Mice that are constitutively null for the zinc finger doublesex and mab-3 related (Dmrt) gene, Dmrt5/Dmrta2, show a variety of patterning abnormalities in the cerebral cortex, including the loss of the cortical hem, a powerful cortical signaling center. In conditional Dmrt5 gain of function and loss of function mouse models, we generated bidirectional changes in the neocortical area map without affecting the hem. Analysis indicated that DMRT5, independent of the hem, directs the rostral-to-caudal pattern of the neocortical area map...
December 27, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031176/evidence-for-an-optimal-algorithm-underlying-signal-combination-in-human-visual-cortex
#19
Daniel H Baker, Alex R Wade
How does the cortex combine information from multiple sources? We tested several computational models against data from steady-state electroencephalography (EEG) experiments in humans, using periodic visual stimuli combined across either retinal location or eye-of-presentation. A model in which signals are raised to an exponent before being summed in both the numerator and the denominator of a gain control nonlinearity gave the best account of the data. This model also predicted the pattern of responses in a range of additional conditions accurately and with no free parameters, as well as predicting responses at harmonic and intermodulation frequencies between 1 and 30 Hz...
December 27, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013234/age-and-sex-dependent-impact-of-repeated-social-stress-on-intrinsic-and-synaptic-excitability-of-the-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Kimberly R Urban, Rita J Valentino
Stress is implicated in psychiatric illnesses that are characterized by impairments in cognitive functions that are mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Because sex and age determine stress vulnerability, the effects of repeated social stress occurring during early adolescence, mid-adolescence, or adulthood on the cellular properties of male and female rat mPFC Layer V neurons in vitro were examined. Repeated resident-intruder stress produced age- and sex-specific effects on mPFC intrinsic and synaptic excitability...
December 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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