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Cerebral Cortex

Michael Jansen, Jianzhong Jin, Xiaobing Li, Reza Lashgari, Jens Kremkow, Yulia Bereshpolova, Harvey A Swadlow, Qasim Zaidi, Jose-Manuel Alonso
The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates is dominated by the OFF visual pathway and responds more strongly to dark than light stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that this cortical OFF dominance is modulated by the size and spatial frequency of the stimulus in awake primates and we uncover a main neuronal mechanism underlying this modulation. We show that large grating patterns with low spatial frequencies drive five times more OFF-dominated than ON-dominated neurons, but this pronounced cortical OFF dominance is strongly reduced when the grating size decreases and the spatial frequency increases, as when the stimulus moves away from the observer...
October 15, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Shangfeng Gao, Tong Zhang, Lei Jin, Dong Liang, Guangwei Fan, Yunnong Song, Paul J Lucassen, Rutong Yu, Dick F Swaab
Aberrant regulation and activity of synaptic proteins may cause synaptic pathology in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mood disorder patients. Carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of NOS1 (CAPON) is a critical scaffold protein linked to synaptic proteins like nitric oxide synthase 1, synapsins. We hypothesized that CAPON is altered together with its interacting synaptic proteins in the PFC in mood disorder patients and may contribute to depression-like behaviors in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Le Sun, Ruiguo Chen, Ye Bai, Jia Li, Qian Wu, Qin Shen, Xiaoqun Wang
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are one of the earliest populations of neurons in the cerebral cortex of rodents and primates, and they play a critical role in corticogenesis and cortical lamination during neocortical development. However, a comprehensive morphological and physiological profile of CR cells in the mouse neocortex has not yet been established. Here, we systematically investigated the dynamic development of CR cells in Tg(Ebf2-EGFP)58Gsat/Mmcd mice. The morphological complexity, membrane activities and presynaptic inputs of CR cells coordinately increase and reach a plateau at P5-P9 before regressing...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
S J Sawiak, Y Shiba, L Oikonomidis, C P Windle, A M Santangelo, H Grydeland, G Cockcroft, E T Bullmore, A C Roberts
With increasing attention on the developmental causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, appropriate animal models are crucial to identifying causes and assessing potential interventions. The common marmoset is an ideal model as it has sophisticated social/emotional behavior, reaching adulthood within 2 years of birth. Magnetic resonance imaging was used in an accelerated longitudinal cohort (n = 41; aged 3-27 months; scanned 2-7 times over 2 years). Splines were used to model nonlinear trajectories of grey matter volume development in 53 cortical areas and 16 subcortical nuclei...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Feixue Liang, Haifu Li, Xiao-Lin Chou, Mu Zhou, Nicole K Zhang, Zhongju Xiao, Ke K Zhang, Huizhong W Tao, Li I Zhang
Sparse representation is considered an important coding strategy for cortical processing in various sensory modalities. It remains unclear how cortical sparseness arises and is being regulated. Here, unbiased recordings from primary auditory cortex of awake adult mice revealed salient sparseness in layer (L)2/3, with a majority of excitatory neurons exhibiting no increased spiking in response to each of sound types tested. Sparse representation was not observed in parvalbumin (PV) inhibitory neurons. The nonresponding neurons did receive auditory-evoked synaptic inputs, marked by weaker excitation and lower excitation/inhibition (E/I) ratios than responding cells...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Tina Zimmermann, Mattia Maroso, Annika Beer, Sarah Baddenhausen, Susann Ludewig, Wenqiang Fan, Constance Vennin, Sebastian Loch, Benedikt Berninger, Clementine Hofmann, Martin Korte, Ivan Soltesz, Beat Lutz, Julia Leschik
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse hippocampus occur in a specific neurogenic niche, where a multitude of extracellular signaling molecules converges to regulate NSC proliferation as well as fate and functional integration. However, the underlying mechanisms how NSCs react to extrinsic signals and convert them to intracellular responses still remains elusive. NSCs contain a functional endocannabinoid system, including the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1). To decipher whether CB1 regulates adult neurogenesis directly or indirectly in vivo, we performed NSC-specific conditional inactivation of CB1 by using triple-transgenic mice...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Qilong Xin, Laura Ortiz-Terán, Ibai Diez, David L Perez, Julia Ginsburg, Georges El Fakhri, Jorge Sepulcre
Individual differences in humans are driven by unique brain structural and functional profiles, presumably mediated in part through differential cortical gene expression. However, the relationships between cortical gene expression profiles and individual differences in large-scale neural network organization remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the magnitude of sequence alterations in regional cortical genes mapped onto brain areas with high degree of functional connectivity variability across individuals...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
William D Hopkins, Robert D Latzman, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro, Aida Gómez-Robles, Chet C Sherwood
Nonhuman primates, and great apes in particular, possess a variety of cognitive abilities thought to underlie human brain and cognitive evolution, most notably, the manufacture and use of tools. In a relatively large sample (N = 226) of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for whom pedigrees are well known, the overarching aim of the current study was to investigate the source of heritable variation in brain structure underlying tool use skills. Specifically, using source-based morphometry (SBM), a multivariate analysis of naturally occurring patterns of covariation in gray matter across the brain, we investigated (1) the genetic contributions to variation in SBM components, (2) sex and age effects for each component, and (3) phenotypic and genetic associations between SBM components and tool use skill...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Jun Hatakeyama, Kenji Shimamura
The development of the mammalian cerebral cortex involves a variety of temporally organized events such as successive waves of neuronal production and the transition of progenitor competence for each neuronal subtype generated. The number of neurons generated in a certain time period, that is, the rate of neuron production, varies across the regions of the brain and the specific developmental stage; however, the underlying mechanism of this process is poorly understood. We have recently found that nascent neurons communicate with undifferentiated progenitors and thereby regulate neurogenesis, through a transiently retained apical endfoot that signals via the Notch pathway...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Liang Han, Neil K Savalia, Micaela Y Chan, Phillip F Agres, Anupama S Nair, Gagan S Wig
Adult aging is associated with differences in structure, function, and connectivity of brain areas. Age-based brain comparisons have typically rested on the assumption that brain areas exhibit a similar spatial organization across age; we evaluate this hypothesis directly. Area parcellation methods that identify locations where resting-state functional correlations (RSFC) exhibit abrupt transitions (boundary-mapping) are used to define cortical areas in cohorts of individuals sampled across a large range of the human adult lifespan (20-93 years)...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Keiko Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Niida, Hidenori Tabata, Tsuyoshi Ito, Yuki Hori, Madoka Hattori, Yoshikazu Johmura, Chisato Yamada, Takashi Ueda, Kosei Takeuchi, Kenichiro Yamada, Koh-Ichi Nagata, Nobuaki Wakamatsu, Masashi Kishi, Y Albert Pan, Shinya Ugawa, Shoichi Shimada, Joshua R Sanes, Yujiro Higashi, Makoto Nakanishi
SAD kinases regulate presynaptic vesicle clustering and neuronal polarization. A previous report demonstrated that Sada-/- and Sadb-/- double-mutant mice showed perinatal lethality with a severe defect in axon/dendrite differentiation, but their single mutants did not. These results indicated that they were functionally redundant. Surprisingly, we show that on a C57BL/6N background, SAD-A is essential for cortical development whereas SAD-B is dispensable. Sada-/- mice died within a few days after birth. Their cortical lamination pattern was disorganized and radial migration of cortical neurons was perturbed...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Judith Nicolas, Aline Bompas, Romain Bouet, Olivier Sillan, Eric Koun, Christian Urquizar, Aurélie Bidet-Caulet, Denis Pélisson
Attention and saccadic adaptation (SA) are critical components of visual perception, the former enhancing sensory processing of selected objects, the latter maintaining the eye movements accuracy toward them. Recent studies propelled the hypothesis of a tight functional coupling between these mechanisms, possibly due to shared neural substrates. Here, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate for the first time the neurophysiological bases of this coupling and of SA per se. We compared visual discrimination performance of 12 healthy subjects before and after SA...
October 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Jivan Khlghatyan, Clémentine Quintana, Martin Parent, Jean-Martin Beaulieu
Cortical D2 dopamine receptor (Drd2) have mostly been examined in the context of cognitive function regulation and neurotransmission modulation of medial prefrontal cortex by principal neurons and parvalbumin positive, fast-spiking, interneurons in schizophrenia. Early studies suggested the presence of D2 receptors in several cortical areas, albeit with major technical limitations. We used combinations of transgenic reporter systems, recombinase activated viral vectors, quantitative translatome analysis, and high sensitivity in situ hybridization to identify D2 receptor expressing cells and establish a map of their respective projections...
October 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Lauren M Reynolds, Leora Yetnikoff, Matthew Pokinko, Michael Wodzinski, Julia G Epelbaum, Laura C Lambert, Marie-Pierre Cossette, Andreas Arvanitogiannis, Cecilia Flores
Psychiatric conditions marked by impairments in cognitive control often emerge during adolescence, when the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its inputs undergo structural and functional maturation and are vulnerable to disruption by external events. It is not known, however, whether there exists a specific temporal window within the broad range of adolescence when the development of PFC circuitry and its related behaviors are sensitive to disruption. Here we show, in male mice, that repeated exposure to amphetamine during early adolescence leads to impaired behavioral inhibition, aberrant PFC dopamine connectivity, and reduced PFC dopamine function in adulthood...
October 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Alexandre Pons-Bennaceur, Vera Tsintsadze, Thi-Thien Bui, Timur Tsintsadze, Marat Minlebaev, Mathieu Milh, Didier Scavarda, Rashid Giniatullin, Raisa Giniatullina, Sergey Shityakov, Michael Wright, Andrew D Miller, Natalia Lozovaya, Nail Burnashev
Epilepsy is a multifactorial disorder associated with neuronal hyperexcitability that affects more than 1% of the human population. It has long been known that adenosine can reduce seizure generation in animal models of epilepsies. However, in addition to various side effects, the instability of adenosine has precluded its use as an anticonvulsant treatment. Here we report that a stable analogue of diadenosine-tetraphosphate: AppCH2ppA effectively suppresses spontaneous epileptiform activity in vitro and in vivo in a Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) mouse model (Tsc1+/-), and in postsurgery cortical samples from TSC human patients...
October 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Emiel Cracco, Christian Keysers, Amanda Clauwaert, Marcel Brass
There is now converging evidence that others' actions are represented in the motor system. However, social cognition requires us to represent not only the actions but also the interactions of others. To do so, it is imperative that the motor system can represent multiple observed actions. The current fMRI study investigated whether this is possible by measuring brain activity from 29 participants while they observed 2 right hands performing sign language gestures. Three key results were obtained. First, brain activity in the premotor and parietal motor cortex was stronger when 2 hands performed 2 different gestures than when 1 hand performed a single gesture...
October 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
M Gudbrandsen, E Daly, C M Murphy, R H Wichers, V Stoencheva, E Perry, D Andrews, C E Blackmore, M Rogdaki, L Kushan, C E Bearden, D G M Murphy, M C Craig, C Ecker
22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic condition associated with a high prevalence of neuropsychiatric conditions that include autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests that clinical phenotypes represent distinct neurodevelopmental outcomes, it remains unknown whether this translates to the level of neurobiology. To fractionate the 22q11.2DS phenotype on the level of neuroanatomy, we examined differences in vertex-wise estimates of cortical volume, surface area, and cortical thickness between 1) individuals with 22q11...
October 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Cynthia M Ortinau, Caitlin K Rollins, Ali Gholipour, Hyuk Jin Yun, Mackenzie Marshall, Borjan Gagoski, Onur Afacan, Kevin Friedman, Wayne Tworetzky, Simon K Warfield, Jane W Newburger, Terrie E Inder, P Ellen Grant, Kiho Im
Fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) have third trimester alterations in cortical development on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the intersulcal relationships contributing to global sulcal pattern remain unknown. This study applied a novel method for examining the geometric and topological relationships between sulci to fetal brain MRIs from 21-30 gestational weeks in CHD fetuses (n = 19) and typically developing (TD) fetuses (n = 17). Sulcal pattern similarity index (SI) to template fetal brain MRIs was determined for the position, area, and depth for corresponding sulcal basins and intersulcal relationships for each subject...
October 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Kirsten M Lynch, Yonggang Shi, Arthur W Toga, Kristi A Clark
The hippocampus is a subcortical structure critical for learning and memory, and a thorough understanding of its neurodevelopment is important for studying these processes in health and disease. However, few studies have quantified the typical developmental trajectory of the structure in childhood and adolescence. This study examined the cross-sectional age-related changes and sex differences in hippocampal shape in a multisite, multistudy cohort of 1676 typically developing children (age 1-22 years) using a novel intrinsic brain mapping method based on Laplace-Beltrami embedding of surfaces...
October 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Oressia Zalucki, Lachlan Harris, Tracey J Harvey, Danyon Harkins, Jocelyn Widagdo, Sabrina Oishi, Elise Matuzelski, Xuan Ling Hilary Yong, Hannes Schmidt, Victor Anggono, Thomas H J Burne, Richard M Gronostajski, Michael Piper
Understanding the migration of newborn neurons within the brain presents a major challenge in contemporary biology. Neuronal migration is widespread within the developing brain but is also important within the adult brain. For instance, stem cells within the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus of the adult rodent brain produce neuroblasts that migrate to the olfactory bulb and granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, respectively, where they regulate key brain functions including innate olfactory responses, learning, and memory...
October 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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