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Melanoma Research

Kejia Wu, Wen Wang, Yaqi Ye, Junhong Huang, Yinghui Zhou, Yue Zhang, Xuewenjun Zhang, Wenyu Wu
Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer that causes death worldwide. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of melanoma genesis and progression, there is also increasing appreciation for the continuing discovery of melanoma genes to improve the genetic understanding of this malignancy. In the present study, melanoma candidate genes were identified by analysis of the common network from cancer type-specific RNA-Seq co-expression data and protein-protein interaction profiles...
November 16, 2018: Melanoma Research
Simona Romano, Paolo D'Arrigo, Martina Tufano, Stefania Staibano, Anna Rea, Francesco Merolla, Gennaro Ilardi, Antonello Petrella, Maria F Romano
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine, whose role in melanoma is controversial. Although high-dose TNF-α is approved for the treatment of patients with in transit-metastatic melanoma confined to the limb, diverse preclinical models of melanoma have shown that TNF-α can induce cell invasion. Biomarkers that can differentiate between the dual role of TNF-α are needed. TRAF2 is critical to TNF receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), allowing shifting from death to survival-signaling cascades...
November 16, 2018: Melanoma Research
Vincas Urbonas, Giedre Smailyte, Greta V Urbonaite, Audrius Dulskas, Neringa Burokiene, Vytautas Kasiulevicius
Changes in the expression of proteins on cancer cell surface are a typical outcome of malignant transformation. Natural killers (NKs) utilize a set of activating and inhibitory receptors that enable them to recognize altered protein expression and then destroy 'stressed' cells such as cancer or virus-infected cells. Major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence A and B (MICA and MICB, respectively) are expressed by various human tumors and can be recognized by activating NK cell receptor NKG2D...
November 16, 2018: Melanoma Research
Marco Mascitti, Andrea Santarelli, Davide Sartini, Corrado Rubini, Giuseppe Colella, Eleonora Salvolini, Giulia Ganzetti, Annamaria Offidani, Monica Emanuelli
Oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is an aggressive tumour, and shows deep tissue invasion at initial presentation. The prognosis is worse than that for cutaneous melanoma (CM), and the overall 5-year survival rate is 10-25%. A study of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of OMM is necessary to identify new prognostic markers. In this study, we evaluated the possible role of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) in OMM. We carried out immunohistochemical analyses to evaluate the expression of NNMT in 15 OMM and 15 CM, measuring the percentage of positive cells and the value of NNMT expression intensity...
November 13, 2018: Melanoma Research
Pavel Dundr, Karol Simon, Kristýna Němejcová, Michaela Bártů, Ivana Tichá, Romana Michálková, Radek Jakša, Zuzana Věcková, Ondřej Kodet
In several solid tumors, an increased stathmin expression is associated with both poor prognosis and resistance to certain chemotherapy types. However, the data regarding melanocytic lesions are very limited. The goals of our study are as follows: the assessment of stathmin expression in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions, and the significance of its expression for the differential diagnostics between benign and malignant lesions; the analysis of the prognostic significance of stathmin expression in melanoma; and the evaluation of stathmin expression in melanoma and melanoma metastases with respect to possible therapeutic targeting...
November 12, 2018: Melanoma Research
Satu Salmi, Hanna Siiskonen, Reijo Sironen, Kristiina Tyynelä-Korhonen, Benjamin Hirschovits-Gerz, Mari Valkonen, Päivi Auvinen, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen
The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in cutaneous melanoma is controversial. TAMs include immunogenic and immunosuppressive subtypes, and have distinct functions according to their microanatomical localization. Our aim was to investigate TAMs in benign, premalignant, and malignant melanocytic lesions to determine possible associations with tumor progression and clinicopathological characteristics. In total, 184 tissue samples, including benign and dysplastic nevi, in-situ melanomas, superficial (Breslow's depth <1 mm), and deep (Breslow's depth >4 mm) invasive melanomas and lymph node metastases, were analyzed for macrophage content...
November 5, 2018: Melanoma Research
Nianqin Yang, Jidong Lu, Yongning Lu, Jianming Guo, Hang Wang
The incidence of primary malignant melanoma (MM) of female urethra is extremely low, leading to paucity of recommendations on management. The objectives of our study were to gain more insight into the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this rare type of tumor. We carried out a retrospective analysis of all four cases who underwent an operation in our hospital since 1980. Moreover, other 32 cases of MM that have been reported in Chinese papers were also included for further review. The age of the patients ranged from 38 to 81 years...
November 2, 2018: Melanoma Research
Romaana Mir, Heather M Shaw, Paul D Nathan
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (IO) induced colitis is primarily managed with corticosteroids. Most patients have a rapid resolution of symptoms and do not require additional immunosuppressants. Many patients, however, require prolonged corticosteroid courses to maintain control of toxicity. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is the prodrug of mycophenolic acid; which in turn directly inhibits activated T and B lymphocytes. MMF, in addition to corticosteroids, may enable reduction of corticosteroids without precipitating resurgence of colitis...
November 2, 2018: Melanoma Research
Teofila Seremet, Amaryllis Haccuria, Danielle Lienard, Véronique Del Marmol, Bart Neyns
The combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors is a standard therapeutic option for patients with metastatic melanoma with BRAF-mutated tumors. This type of targeted therapy improved patient survival, having a manageable toxicity profile. Nevertheless, potentially life-threatening severe toxicity as anaphylaxis-like reactions was observed in two reported cases. No confirmatory testing was performed for these two patients. We report a case of anaphylactic reaction to the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib administered as a first-line treatment...
October 31, 2018: Melanoma Research
François Pépin, Anne-Sophie Julien, Ioana Fugaru, Nadia Lihimdi, Juliette Thariat, Solange Landreville, Frédéric Mouriaux
Nearly half of choroidal melanomas progress to the metastatic stage at 15 years. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of tumour-height regression rate in medium-sized choroidal melanomas treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 128 patients with medium-sized choroidal melanoma who were treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy. Tumour characteristics including tumour apical height at baseline and after irradiation, recurrence, metastasis and mortality were collected from patients' records...
October 31, 2018: Melanoma Research
Jamie L Abbott, Muhammad M Qureshi, Minh T Truong, Debjani Sahni
Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) due to its rare and locally aggressive nature, can be difficult to study and to treat effectively. Whether the optimal treatment approach for these tumors should include adjuvant radiation has been unclear in the literature. In this retrospective study of the National Cancer Database, 2390 patients with localized DM were included for analysis. 2082 were treated with wide local excision (WLE) and 308 were treated with wide local excision and adjuvant radiation therapy (WLE+RT). Overall survival (OS) in these groups was compared on crude and adjusted analyses utilizing Cox proportional hazards regression modeling...
October 31, 2018: Melanoma Research
Dongxiao Zhang, Zhe Wang, Dongping Shang, Jinming Yu, Shuanghu Yuan
Brain metastases (BM) from cutaneous melanoma are associated with poor prognosis. Population-based data describing the associated factors of incidence and prognosis of BM from melanoma are still lacking. We identified 121 255 melanoma patients diagnosed during 2010-2015 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, and identified predictive factors for incidence and survival of BM patients by using multivariable logistic and Cox's proportional hazard regression, respectively. We identified 1547 patients with BM at the time of diagnosis of malignant cutaneous melanoma, representing 1...
October 30, 2018: Melanoma Research
Joshua Z Drago, Donald Lawrence, Elisabeth Livingstone, Lisa Zimmer, Tianqi Chen, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Valerie C Amann, Joanna Mangana, Marco Siano, Alfred Zippelius, Reinhard Dummer, Simone M Goldinger, Ryan J Sullivan
BRAF and MEK kinase inhibitors can be highly effective in treating BRAF-mutant melanomas, but their safety and activity in patients with active/symptomatic brain metastases are unclear. We sought to shed light on this open clinical question. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study on real-life patients with melanoma and active brain metastases treated with combination BRAF/MEK inhibitors. A total of 65 patients were included (38 men and 27 women; median age: 49 years). Of them, 53 patients received dabrafenib/trametinib, 10 received vemurafenib/cobimetinib, one received encorafenib/binimetinib, and one received vemurafenib/trametinib...
October 29, 2018: Melanoma Research
Sema Büyükkapu Bay, Rejin Kebudi, Bülent Zülfikar
Malignant melanoma is very rare in childhood. The approach to diagnosis and treatment in children has been adopted from adult guidelines. Vemurafenib is indicated in adults with BRAF V600 mutation-positive stage IIIc/IV melanoma and causes cutaneous adverse events. We report on a 3-year-old child with recurrent, metastatic (bone) BRAF mutation-positive melanoma. He also had severe factor X deficiency. Four days after vemurafenib treatment, bilateral palpebral edema and violet-colored hyperpigmentation were observed...
October 29, 2018: Melanoma Research
Igor Vujic, Sara Gandini, Ignazio Stanganelli, Maria T Fierro, Klemens Rappersberger, Maria Sibilia, Giulio Tosti, Pier F Ferrucci, Saverio Caini, Maria B De Felici, Calogero Pagliarello, Pietro Quaglino, Martina Sanlorenzo
Industrial workers are exposed to occupational pollutants, which may cause diseases such as cancer, but links to melanoma are not established. The identification of industry-related risk factors for melanoma incidence and mortality might be of importance for workers, health providers, and insurance companies. To assess melanoma incidence and mortality among oil/petroleum, chemical, and electrical industry workers. All studies reporting standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and/or standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of melanoma in workers employed in oil/petroleum, chemical, and electrical industries were included...
October 26, 2018: Melanoma Research
Joaquim Marcoval, Aida Sabaté-Llobera, Josep Bermejo, Rosa Fornons-Servent
Despite being benign tumors, hibernomas show intense fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, as they are derived from brown fat, which is frequently seen as hypermetabolic fatty areas on PET/CT. We present the case of a patient with cutaneous melanoma, diagnosed with a cervical hibernoma mimicking a metastatic lymph node at fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT. Being aware of the metabolic behavior and radiologic appearance of this entity may prevent reporting false-positive lesions, especially in an oncologic setting...
October 24, 2018: Melanoma Research
Omar Abdel-Rahman
The aim of the current study is to assess the performance of some of the imaging scans recommended in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines as part of baseline staging for cutaneous melanoma, regarding the detection of lung, brain, bone, and liver metastases. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2010-2015) was used to extract the data, and cases with cutaneous melanoma and complete information about TN stages and sites of distant metastases were explored. Performance parameters assessed in the current study included positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, number needed to investigate (NNI), and accuracy...
October 22, 2018: Melanoma Research
David Bellocq, Pascal Roy, Laurent Kodjikian, Thibaud Mathis, Anh-Minh Nguyen, Joël Herault, Michel Rivoire, Sylvie Négrier, Juliette Thariat, Jean-Daniel Grange
The aim of this study was to evaluate metastatic latency and survival after the occurrence of metastases in patients with choroidal/ciliary body melanoma treated with proton therapy. This was a retrospective cohort study. All consecutive patients with choroidal/ciliary body melanoma treated with proton therapy between 1991 and 2010 were included. Overall survival, specific survival (SS), local recurrence-free interval, and metastasis-free interval (MFI) were calculated. There were 508 patients. The mean follow-up was 239...
October 12, 2018: Melanoma Research
Ryan K van Laar, Mitchel T Lincoln, Barton J van Laar
New tools for monitoring response to primary melanoma treatment are needed to reduce recurrence rates and patient anxiety. A previously developed plasma-based microRNA signature (MEL38) was measured in four melanoma patient samples obtained before and 12-14 days after treatment (i.e. surgical excision), as well as in two nonmelanoma controls. The value of the MEL38 score and selected individual genes were compared between the time points. The MEL38 scores of the four patients with melanoma became more 'normal like' after tumour excision, with a statistically significant 15% mean reduction...
October 12, 2018: Melanoma Research
Fausto Petrelli, Raffaele Ardito, Barbara Merelli, Veronica Lonati, Mary Cabiddu, Silvia Seghezzi, Sandro Barni, Antonio Ghidini
Levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are a recognized prognostic factor in malignant melanoma (MM). It is relevant to confirm its prognostic role in patients treated with targeted therapies [BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) and MEK inhibitors (MEKi)] and immunotherapy (IT). Furthermore, its role as a predictive marker in patients treated with these drugs had still not been investigated. We performed an electronic search for studies reporting information on overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) according to LDH levels and on their predictive effect in patients treated with targeted therapies (BRAFi and MEKi) and IT...
October 10, 2018: Melanoma Research
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