Read by QxMD icon Read

Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal

L Chad Horne
While citizens in a liberal democracy are generally expected to see to their basic needs out of their own income shares, health care is treated differently. Most rich liberal democracies provide their citizens with health care or health care insurance in kind. Is this "special" treatment justified? The predominant liberal account of justice in health care holds that the moral importance of health justifies treating health care as special in this way. I reject this approach and offer an alternative account...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Michael Nair-Collins
The majority of transplantable human organs are retrieved from patients declared dead by neurological criteria, or "brain-dead." Since brain death is considered to be sufficient for death, the procurement of vital organs is not considered to harm or wrong such patients. In this essay I argue that this is not the case. After distinguishing welfare, experiential, and investment interests, and defining precedent autonomy and surviving interests, I argue that brain-dead patients can be, and many are, harmed and wronged by organ procurement as currently practiced...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Tom Walker
Accounts of consent in medical ethics typically assume that consent plays the same role irrespective of the type of treatment. In this paper I argue that this assumption is false. Because of this, obligations to provide information to patients that stem from the need for consent to be valid will not apply to all types of treatment. This does not mean that there are no reasons to provide such information. The second part of the paper maps out what these reasons are and argues that they are grounded in the obligation of beneficence and a duty to warn, not in considerations of respect for autonomy...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Joseph Stramondo
Often, ethical analysis of Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis occupies one of two positions in a moral dichotomy. On the one hand, we have a deep suspicion of the technology as directly leading to eugenics, which is assumed to be a negative consequence; and on the other, we have a vigorous enthusiasm for the technology as a means toward creating better offspring, where "better" is assumed to mean, at minimum, non-disabled. For my part, I eschew both of these positions and attempt to break this dichotomy wide open by maintaining that future parents are not morally required to use PGD to select some vision of an objectively "best" child, but should be permitted to use PGD to select embryos according to their own conception of the good life, even if that conception of the good life includes disability...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Rebecca Kukla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Amanda Roth
In this paper I employ the case of "reciprocal IVF" (R-IVF)-in which a female-female couple uses in vitro fertilization to allow one woman to be the genetic mother and the other the gestational mother of their child(ren)-to illuminate the role sexual identity might productively play in bioethics. Bioethicists who have taken up this issue have largely focused on the moral permissibility and availability of the technology, and so defend R-IVF through analogy to commonly accepted different-sex uses of IVF...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Ariella Binik
Research examining the safe and effective treatment of diseases and disorders affecting children offers one of the best prospects for improving the medical treatment of children. But the inclusion of children in research raises difficult ethical questions, among them: To how much risk is it permissible to expose children in research? Various thresholds have been proposed to constrain research risks that do not offer children the prospect of direct medical benefit. These proposals include limiting research risks to (1) the risks of routine medical examinations, (2) the risks of participation in charitable activities, (3) the risks of family life, and (4) the risks-of-daily-life...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Elise Smith
In academia, authorship on publications confers merit as well as responsibility. The respective disciplines adhere to their "typical" authorship practices: individuals may be named in alphabetical order (e.g., in economics, mathematics), ranked in decreasing level of contribution (e.g., biomedical sciences), or the leadership role may be listed last (e.g., laboratory sciences). However, there is no specific, generally accepted guidance regarding authorship distribution in multidisciplinary teams, something that can lead to significant tensions and even conflict...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Yechiel Michael Barilan
In its Malta Declaration, The World Medical Association prohibits force-feeding of hunger strikers as "degrading and inhuman," even when this is the only way to save their lives. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that lifesaving force-feeding is compatible with the state's duty to protect the lives of prisoners. To understand how such extreme divergence of opinions has become possible, this paper offers a critical examination of the social history of prisoners' hunger strikes, the philosophy of nonviolence, and the debate on its medicalization...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Rebecca Kukla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Rosemarie Garland-Thomson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Rachel Adams
This article explores how visual images of dependency and care reflect and reinforce perceptions of people who are ill, disabled, or otherwise dependent, those who sustain them, and the meaning of the work they do. Scenes of care are a valuable index for understanding cultural assumptions about who is deserving of care, how and where care should be given, and who is obligated to serve as a giver of care. It positions these images in the context of the emphasis, within the disability rights movement, on independence...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Teresa Blankmeyer Burke
This paper carves out a topic space for discussion about the ethical question of whether input from signing Deaf consumers of interpreting services ought to be included in the provision of signed language interpreter accommodations. The first section provides background about disability accommodations and practices, including how signed language interpreting accommodations are similar and dissimilar to other kinds of disability accommodations. In the second section, I offer a personal narrative of my experience as a Deaf academic who has been excluded from the interpreter selection process, highlighting some of the harmful consequences of such exclusion...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Lance Wahlert, Sabrina Gill
This article addresses the precarious place of transgender and gender non-cis persons in relation to their discrimination-protections in recent legal, medical, and ethical policies in the United States. At present, there exists a contradiction such that trans persons are considered "pathological" enough that they are included in the latest iteration of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) as "gender dysphoric," but they are not included in the category of "disabled" under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
David Wasserman
In this paper, I will argue that the moral assessment of the prenatal selection and postnatal modification biotechnologies requires a nuanced approach, which pays close attention to the variety of sometimes conflicting parental roles and reasons involved in decisions for and against their use. I will focus on several related but distinct reasons that parents have, or give, for modifying existing children or selecting future children. Many of these reasons are expressed in terms of more effective parenting. Because there is a plurality of legitimate parental goals, I will conclude that assessing parental interventions requires us to adjudicate conflicts or tradeoffs among those goals...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Eva Feder Kittay
Many bioethicists try to secure a moral requirement to select against disability, while wishing to avoid denigrating disabled people. Dan Brock's arguments are representative of this attempt. Brock argues that the harm of giving birth to a disabled child when an able child could be had in its stead is a "nonperson-affecting harm." The harm is creating a world with less opportunity and more diminishment of opportunity. I argue that the presumptions that a life with disability is ceteris paribus a worse life, and that there is an inherent badness in living with a disability are contestable and fail to provide an argument that avoids the objections that disability scholars have voiced to reproductive selection against disability...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Stephen M Campbell, Joseph A Stramondo
It is widely assumed that disability is typically a bad thing for those who are disabled. Our purpose in this essay is to critique this view and defend a more nuanced picture of the relationship between disability and well-being. We first examine four interpretations of the above view and argue that it is false on each interpretation. We then ask whether disability is thereby a neutral trait. Our view is that most disabilities are neutral in one sense, though we cannot make simple generalizations about disability's relationship to well-being in other important senses...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Erik Parens
There is a long-standing debate between people who can seem to be arguing "for" and "against" disability. Those arguing for have often been disability scholars and those arguing against have often been utilitarian philosophers. At least since the mid-2000s, some on both sides have sought to move beyond that debate, but that has proved difficult. Here I seek two small steps forward. One step is critical, and is aimed at we who line up "for" disability. Specifically, I suggest that the phrase "choosing disability" is misleading in at least two ways...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Lance Wahlert, Stephen M Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Benedict Rumbold, Albert Weale, Annette Rid, James Wilson, Peter Littlejohns
Health systems that aim to secure universal patient access through a scheme of prepayments-whether through taxes, social insurance, or a combination of the two-need to make decisions on the scope of coverage that they guarantee: such tasks often falling to a priority-setting agency. This article analyzes the decision-making processes at one such agency in particular-the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)-and appraises their ethical justifiability. In particular, we consider the extent to which NICE's model can be justified on the basis of Rawls's conception of "reasonableness...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"