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Ethnicity & Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467568/commentary-addressing-racial-disparities-in-stroke-the-wide-spectrum-investigation-of-stroke-outcome-disparities-on-multiple-levels-wissdom
#1
EDITORIAL
Robert J Adams, Charles Ellis, Gayenell Magwood, Mark S Kindy, Leonardo Bonilha, Daniel T Lackland
Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are well-established in the United States but the underlying causes are not well-understood. The typical assumption that racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are explained by health care access inequities may be simplistic as access to stroke-related rehabilitation, for example, does not adequately explain the observed disparities. To approach the problem in a more comprehensive fashion, the Wide Spectrum Investigation of Stroke Outcome Disparities on Multiple Levels (WISSDOM) was developed to bring together scientists from Regenerative Medicine, Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Nursing to examine disparities in stroke "recovery...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467567/acculturation-mental-health-and-quality-of-life-among-hispanic-childhood-cancer-survivors-a-latent-class-analysis
#2
Jessica Tobin, Kimberly A Miller, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Jennifer B Unger, Ann S Hamilton, Joel E Milam
Objective: Acculturation appears to be an important aspect of the association between ethnicity and disease, but it has not been explored in depth among childhood cancer survivors (CCS). The purpose of our study was to identify distinct acculturative profiles among Hispanic CCS and to assess differences in quality of life and depressive symptoms. Design: Latent class analysis was used to identify distinct acculturative profiles using 9 indicator items reflecting Hispanic and Anglo cultural orientation...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467566/prevalence-of-self-reported-chronic-diseases-and-health-services-utilization-by-ethnic-minorities-in-manaus-metropolitan-region
#3
Raquel Rodrigues Ferreira Rocha de Alencar, Tais Freire Galvao, Bruno Vianei Real Antonio, Marcus Tolentino Silva
Objectives: To assess the prevalence of, and associated factors to, self-reported chronic diseases and health care utilization by ethnicity in the Manaus Metropolitan Region. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey from May through August 2015. Using probabilistic sampling in three stages, we recruited adults aged ≥18 years. Ethnicity was self-identified as White, Black, Yellow, Brown (Brazilian mixed-race), and Indigenous. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CI of chronic diseases and health service utilization for each ethnic minority and compared the data using Poisson regression with data from White respondents...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467565/racial-differences-in-weight-loss-mediated-by-engagement-and-behavior-change
#4
Loneke T Blackman Carr, Carmen Samuel-Hodge, Dianne Stanton Ward, Kelly R Evenson, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Deborah F Tate
Objective: We set out to determine if a primarily Internet-delivered behavioral weight loss intervention produced differential weight loss in African American and non-Hispanic White women, and to identify possible mediators. Design: Data for this analysis were from a randomized controlled trial, collected at baseline and 4-months. Setting: The intervention included monthly face-to-face group sessions and an Internet component that participants were recommended to use at least once weekly...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467564/determinants-of-obesity-in-two-urban-communities-perceptions-and-community-driven-solutions
#5
Gabriela R Oates, Janice M Phillips, Lori B Bateman, Monica L Baskin, Mona N Fouad, Isabel C Scarinci
Objective: In the search of solutions to the rising rates of obesity, community perspectives are important because they highlight areas of need and help determine the level of community support for potential interventions. This study aimed to identify community perceptions of factors associated with obesity in two urban municipalities - one racially mixed and one predominantly African American - and to explore community-driven solutions to the problem of obesity. Methods: The study used Photovoice methodology to understand what community members perceived as obesity-promoting factors in their residential environments...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467563/sociocultural-influences-on-african-americans-representations-of-type-2-diabetes-a-qualitative-study
#6
Olayinka O Shiyanbola, Earlise Ward, Carolyn Brown
Objective: Illness representations, known as patients' beliefs and expectations about an illness, may be influenced by cultural beliefs and personal experiences. This study explored African Americans' perceptions of the sociocultural factors that influence their representations of diabetes. Design: Six semi-structured focus groups. Setting: Private space at a convenient site. Participants: Forty African Americans, aged 45-60 years with type 2 diabetes for at least one year prior...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467562/fasting-plasma-glucose-and-the-hba1c-are-not-optimal-screening-modalities-for-the-diagnosis-of-new-diabetes-in-previously-undiagnosed-asian-indian-community-participants
#7
Rosaley Prakaschandra, Datshanna Prakesh Naidoo
Objectives: There is no definitive consensus on the screening algorithm in high-risk communities for diabetes. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in a high-risk community using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), as well as determine the value of anthropometric measurements and other measures of glycemia in the detection of diabetes. Method: All participants from the Phoenix Lifestyle project without known diabetes, and who had undergone an OGTT were selected for study...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467561/development-of-a-participatory-capacity-building-program-for-congregational-health-leaders-in-african-american-churches-in-the-us-south
#8
Mercedes M Morales-Alemán, Artisha Moore, Isabel C Scarinci
African Americans are disproportionately affected by diabetes and colorectal cancer. Although studies have shown the effectiveness of spiritually based health interventions delivered by community health workers to African Americans, few have described the development of the capacity-building component. This article describes this process. The development of the Healthy Congregations Healthy Communities Program (HCHC) was guided through a community-based participatory research lens and included: 1) establishment of a community coalition; 2) identification by coalition members of churches as the best venues for health promotion strategies among African Americans; 3) recruitment of churches; 4) development of a training manual; 5) recruitment and training of congregational health leaders (CHLs); and 6) "Passing of the torch" from the coalition to the CHLs who implemented the intervention in their congregations...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467560/implementation-of-the-steps-toward-academic-research-star-fellowship-program-to-promote-underrepresented-minority-faculty-into-health-disparity-research
#9
Jamboor K Vishwanatha, Harlan P Jones
Eliminating disparities in health can benefit from the inclusion of diverse populations pursuing health disparity research careers. A goal of the Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD) is to provide opportunities for underrepresented minority faculty to become successful health disparity researchers. The TCHD created the Steps Toward Academic Research (STAR) fellowship program to provide faculty and community partners a yearlong face-to-face and online hybrid curriculum focused on acquiring fundamental concepts in biomedical and behavioral health disparity research, basics in grantsmanship as well as professional development skills...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467559/perspective-person-environment-congruence-a-call-for-increased-precision-in-matching-research-mentors-and-mentees
#10
EDITORIAL
Bettina M Beech, Keith C Norris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115823/commentary-reconsidering-the-role-of-context-in-diabetes-prevention
#11
EDITORIAL
Briana Mezuk, Jeannie B Concha, Paul Perrin, Tiffany Green
A substantial gap remains between what we know about type 2 diabetes prevention and our ability to apply that knowledge in socially disadvantaged populations at highest risk. This gap results, in part, from a lack of integration between epidemiologic science and social psychology theory, particularly regarding the intersections of stress, self-regulatory health behaviors, and the biological mechanisms underlying the development of diabetes. In this commentary, we describe the utility of a theoretical framework that focuses on the intersection of biological, psychosocial, and environmental contexts as they apply to diabetes disparities, and how such a framework could inform a translational research agenda to reorient prevention efforts to address these inequalities...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115822/commentary-building-an-evidence-base-for-promoting-informed-prostate-cancer-screening-decisions-an-overview-of-a-cancer-prevention-and-control-program
#12
EDITORIAL
Otis L Owens, Daniela B Friedman, James Hébert
African American (AA) men have significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify strategies for promoting informed PrCA screening decisions among this population. This article details the community-driven, social and behavioral research being implemented by a Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program (CPCP) to support the development of person-to-person and technological interventions to improve the dissemination of PrCA information to AA men and their families...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115821/insulin-detemir-in-combination-with-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-improves-glycemic-control-in-persons-with-type-2-diabetes-in-near-east-countries-results-from-the-lebanese-subgroup
#13
Akram Echtay, Emile Andari, Paola Atallah, Roland Moufarrege, Rita Nemr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of insulin detemir treatment as add-on therapy in a real-world setting of Lebanese insulin naïve persons, with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: Our study was a prospective, observational study representing the Lebanese arm of the multinational prospective and observational study involving 2,155 persons across Near East countries, Lebanon, Pakistan, Israel and Jordan...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115820/emergent-dialysis-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-undocumented-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#14
Andrew N Hogan, William R Fox, Lynn P Roppolo, Robert E Suter
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the ethnographic composition and assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a large population of undocumented patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) seeking emergent dialysis in the emergency department (ED) of a large public hospital in the United States. DESIGN: All ESRD patients presenting to the hospital's main ED were identified during a 4-week consecutive enrollment period. Consenting patients completed two surveys-an ethnographic questionnaire and the validated kidney disease quality of life-36 (KDQOL-36) instrument...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115819/factors-related-to-differences-in-retention-among-african-american-and-white-participants-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study-aric-prospective-cohort-1987-2013
#15
Kristen M George, Aaron R Folsom, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Tom H Mosley, Gerardo Heiss
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed retention of minorities, particularly African Americans, in longitudinal research. Our aim was to determine whether there was differential retention between African Americans and Whites in the ARIC cohort and identify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) associated with these retention differences. METHODS: 15,688 participants, 27% African American and 73% White, were included from baseline, 1987-1989, and classified as having died, lost or withdrew from study contact, or remained active in study calls through 2013...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115818/the-development-of-health-for-hearts-united-a-longitudinal-church-based-intervention-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-mid-life-and-older-african-americans
#16
Penny A Ralston, Iris Young-Clark, Catherine Coccia
This article describes Health for Hearts United, a longitudinal church-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in mid-life and older African Americans. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches and undergirded by both the Socio-ecological Theory and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change, the 18-month intervention was developed in six north Florida churches, randomly assigned as treatment or comparison. The intervention was framed around three conceptual components: awareness building (individual knowledge development); clinical learning (individual and small group educational sessions); and efficacy development (recognition and sustainability)...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115817/determinants-of-raised-blood-pressure-in-urban-uganda-a-community-based-case-control-study
#17
Jerome H Chin, Aska Twinobuhungiro, Alexander Sandhu, Norbert Hootsmans, James Kayima, Robert Kalyesubula
OBJECTIVE: Rapid urbanization is changing the epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to identify the determinants of raised blood pressure in urban Uganda to highlight targets for preventive interventions. DESIGN: Case-control. SETTING: Three community-based sites in Kampala, the capital of Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were eligible to enroll if they were aged ≥18 years and not pregnant...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115816/sickle-cell-trait-and-renal-function-in-hispanics-in-the-united-states-the-northern-manhattan-study
#18
Nicole D Dueker, David Della-Morte, Tatjana Rundek, Ralph L Sacco, Susan H Blanton
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a common hematological disorder among individuals of African descent in the United States; the disorder results in the production of abnormal hemoglobin. It is caused by homozygosity for a genetic mutation in HBB; rs334. While the presence of a single mutation (sickle cell trait, SCT) has long been considered a benign trait, recent research suggests that SCT is associated with renal dysfunction, including a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115815/spirituality-and-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-among-latino-men-and-women-in-massachusetts
#19
Valerie J Silfee, Christina F Haughton, Stephenie C Lemon, Vilma Lora, Milagros C Rosal
INTRODUCTION: To examine the relationships between spirituality and physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of Latino adults in Massachusetts. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Lawrence Health and Well Being Study; a study that was conducted among patients at the Greater Lawrence Family Health Center (GLFHC) in Lawrence, Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS: 602 Latino or Hispanic adults aged 21 to 85 years completed the study...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115814/perspective-longevity-stress-genes-and-african-americans
#20
EDITORIAL
Keith E Whitfield, Roland J Thorpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
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