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Ethnicity & Disease

Nicholas J Woudberg, Julia H Goedecke, Sandrine Lecour
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Alem Mehari, Alvin V Thomas, Alicia N Thomas, Mark S Johnson
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a leading cause of morbidity and early mortality in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the prevalence, hemodynamic profile and prognosis of SCD-PH remain controversial and need frequent updates. Pulmonary hypertension determined by right heart catheterization (RHC) occurs in 6% to 10% of adults with SCD. Hemodynamically, SCD-PH may be pre-capillary or post-capillary in nature. The exact etiology is unknown and often multifactorial; hence a thorough diagnostic evaluation following established PH guidelines is essential to determine disease prevalence, etiology and outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Claudia Chaufan, Andrew J Karter, Howard H Moffet, Judy Quan, Melissa M Parker, Jenna Kruger, Dean Schillinger, Alicia Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: Language barriers negatively impact health care access and quality for US immigrants. Latinos are the second largest immigrant group and the largest, fastest growing minority. Health care systems need simple, low cost and accurate tools that they can use to identify physicians with Spanish language competence. We sought to address this need by validating a simple and low-cost tool already in use in a major health plan. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS: A web-based survey conducted in 2012 among physicians caring for patients in a large, integrated health care delivery system...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Sarah Y Nowlin, Charles M Cleland, Maya Vadiveloo, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Niyati Parekh, Holly Hagan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to examine sociodemographic and health behavior factors associated with dietary intake as measured by the healthy eating index (HEI-2010) for persons with and without diabetes (T2D). DESIGN: A secondary data analysis of three NHANES data cycles spanning 2007-2012. Multiple linear regression assessed racial/ethnic differences in HEI-2010 scores in those without T2D, with T2D, and with undiagnosed T2D. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years who had two days of reliable dietary recall data...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Arlener D Turner, Andrew S Lim, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Lisa L Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Assess the relationship of self-reported sleep quality and possible sleep disorders with disability in a racially diverse sample of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Participants included 943 non-demented older African Americans (n=452) and Whites (n=491) from two cohort studies, the Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP). Participants completed a 32-item questionnaire assessing sleep quality and the possible presence of three sleep disorders (sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome [RLS] and REM behavior disorder [RBD])...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Kathleen A Griffith, Seon-Yoon Chung, Shijun Zhu, Alice S Ryan
OBJECTIVE: After chemotherapy for breast cancer, Black women gain more weight and have an increased mortality rate compared with White women. Our study objective was to compare biomarkers associated with obesity in Black women with and without a history of breast cancer. DESIGN: Case-control. SETTING: Academic/federal institution. PARTICIPANTS: Black women with a history of breast cancer (cases) and age-matched controls...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Irena Stepanikova, Gabriela R Oates
OBJECTIVE: Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). METHODS: We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Roland J Jr Thorpe, Eleanor Simonsick, Alan Zonderman, Michelle K Evans
BACKGROUND: Poor grip strength is an indicator of frailty and a precursor to functional limitations. Although poor grip strength is more prevalent in older disabled African American women, little is known about the association between race and poverty-related disparities and grip strength in middle-aged men and women. METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional relationship between race, socioeconomic status as assessed by household income, and hand grip strength in men and women in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Stéphane Sinnapah, Sophie Antoine-Jonville, Olivier Hue
OBJECTIVE: Thrifty genotypes may predispose to type 2 diabetes and body fat (%BF) excess through a differentiated relationship between physical activity and body fat. We explored this hypothesis in Asian Indians, a population thought to be thrifty. METHODS: Three hundred and nine Guadeloupian adolescents responded to the modifiable activity questionnaire. Their body fat was assessed by bioimpedancemetry. We first studied the relationship between %BF and leisure time physical activity (LTPA)...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Esther Alhelí Hernández-Tobías, Luisa Torres-Sánchez, Gino Noris, Carla Santana, María Reyna Samano, José Arellano-Galindo, María de la Luz Arenas-Sordo, Daniel Brooks, Ana Lilia Rodríguez-Ventura, Marco Antonio Meraz-Ríos, Rocío Gómez
OBJECTIVE: We studied multi-loci variants to identify the contribution of six candidate genes (ADIPOQ, CDH13, LYPLAL1, MC4R, PPARG and PGC1A) in the development of obesity and overweight. DESIGN: We genotyped 404 chromosomes with eleven SNPs in Mexican female adolescents, who were subdivided into two groups (obesity-overweight and normal-weight) using the World Health Organization parameters. Genomic (800 chromosomes) and ancestral (208 chromosomes) controls were included to reduce the population bias...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Luisa N Borrell, Lisa Graham, Sharon P Joseph
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of neighborhood safety and support with overweight and obesity and whether these associations vary with age, sex, and race/ethnicity among children and adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Childhood overweight and obesity. METHODS: We used data from the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health, a representative sample of US children and adolescents, for the analyses (N=40,730)...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Ana C Talavera, Christina Buelna, Rebeca Espinoza Giacinto, Sheila F Castañeda, Aida Giachello, Madeline Crespo-Figueroa, Johanne B Hernández, Rosalinda Rodriguez, Maria de Los Angeles Abreu, Carlos M Sanchez, Krista Perreira
OBJECTIVE: This study examined perceived satisfaction among Hispanic/Latino individuals who participated in a baseline examination for the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a large cohort study of 16,415 adults living in four selected communities. METHOD: An estimated 22% (n= 3,584) of participants completed a questionnaire regarding satisfaction with staff attention, the overall experience during the study examination, and the influence of the informed consent digital video disc (DVD)...
July 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Wendy Brown White, Asoka Srinivasan, Cheryl Nelson, Nimr Fahmy, Frances Henderson
OBJECTIVE: This article chronicles the building of individual student capacity as well as faculty and institutional capacity, within the context of a population-based, longitudinal study of African Americans and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this article is to present preliminary data documenting the results of this approach. DESIGN: The JHS Scholars program is designed, under the organizational structure of the Natural Sciences Division at Tougaloo College, to provide solid preparation in quantitative skills through: good preparation in mathematics and the sciences; a high level of reading comprehension; hands-on learning experiences; and mentoring and counseling to sustain the motivation of the students to pursue further studies...
July 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Bradley Deere, Michael Griswold, Seth Lirette, Ervin Fox, Mario Sims
OBJECTIVES: African Americans experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lower childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP). Research that examines the associations of multiple measures of SEP with subclinical CVD markers among African Americans is limited. METHODS: Data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) were used to examine cross-sectional associations of childhood SEP and adult SEP with subclinical markers among 4,756 African American participants (mean age 54, 64% female), adjusting for age, health behaviors and CVD risk factors...
July 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Rajesh Vedanthan, Nelly Tuikong, Claire Kofler, Evan Blank, Jemima H Kamano, Violet Naanyu, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Thomas S Inui, Carol R Horowitz, Valentin Fuster
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading global risk for mortality. Poor treatment and control of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries is due to several reasons, including insufficient human resources. Nurse management of hypertension is a novel approach to address the human resource challenge. However, specific barriers and facilitators to this strategy are not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate barriers and facilitators to nurse management of hypertensive patients in rural western Kenya, using a qualitative research approach...
July 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Anjail Z Sharrief, Brenda Johnson, Sharon Abada, Victor C Urrutia
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the state of knowledge in regard to stroke literacy in African Americans. This topic is important for assessing the specific gaps in stroke knowledge for this population, as well as to evaluate the methodology that has been used to assess stroke literacy. METHODS: This narrative review includes studies that evaluated and reported stroke knowledge in African Americans and were published between January 2000 and October 2015...
April 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Emorcia V Hill, Michael Wake, René Carapinha, Sharon-Lise Normand, Robert E Wolf, Keith Norris, Joan Y Reede
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Women of color (WOC) (African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaskan Native, and Asian American) faculty remain disproportionately underrepresented among medical school faculty and especially at senior ranks compared with White female faculty. The barriers or facilitators to the career advancement of WOC are poorly understood. The Women and Inclusion in Academic Medicine (WIAM) study was developed to characterize individual, institutional and sociocultural factors that influence the entry, progression and persistence, and advancement of women faculty in academic medical careers with a focus on WOC...
April 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Francine Gachupin, Michael D Romero, Willa J Ortega, Rita Jojola, Hugh Hendrie, Eddie Paul Sr Torres, Frank Lujan, Michael Lente, Barbara Sanchez, Verna Teller, Fernando Beita, Ulysses Abeita, Beatrice Lente, Deborah Ruth Gustafson
OBJECTIVE: Few data exist on cognitive and depressive symptoms and vascular factors in American Indian (AI) elders. Since vascular risk factors increase risk for cognitive impairments, depression and dementia, and since AI elders are at high vascular risk, it is timely to assess the interplay of these factors in comprehensive studies of aging in this population. To begin, pilot studies must be conducted to show these types of data can be collected successfully. DESIGN: A cross-sectional pilot study, the Southwest Heart Mind Study (SHMS)...
April 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Stephania T Miller, Jennifer Cunningham-Erves, Sylvie A Akohoue
OBJECTIVE: Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) includes benchmarks for diabetes management. The objective of our study was to describe diabetes management among African American women, a patient group that carries a disproportionate diabetes burden. PARTICIPANTS: African American women with type 2 diabetes enrolled in dietary and weight management interventions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-report assessments of diabetes education, specialty care, self-care behaviors and advice...
April 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Jaime A Davidson, Richard Aguilar, Fernando J Lavalle González, Angelina Trujillo, Maria Alba, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, Gary Meininger
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin in patients of different ethnicities. DESIGN SETTING AND PATIENTS: Post hoc analysis of data pooled from four randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies of adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). INTERVENTIONS: Once daily oral canagliflozin 100 mg or 300 mg, or placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy endpoints included change from baseline in HbA1c, body weight (BW), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and lipids at week 26; safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse event reports...
April 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
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