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Ethnicity & Disease

George A Mensah
This inaugural memorial lecture provides an opportunity to celebrate the life of Elijah B. Saunders, MD, FACC and pays tribute to his pioneering spirit in the quest to advance health equity in the prevention and control of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. It also enables an assessment of the state of the global burden of hypertension and related disparities. Despite the remarkable biomedical research progress made over the last half-century, hypertension remains the leading risk factor for global disease burden and the major preventable contributor to cardiovascular and all-cause mortality...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Nao Hagiwara, Courtney J Alderson, Briana Mezuk
OBJECTIVE: Racial/ethnic minorities in the United States not only experience discrimination personally but also witness or hear about fellow in-group members experiencing discrimination (ie, group-level discrimination). The objective of our study was to examine whether the effects of group-level discrimination on mental and physical health are different from those of personal-level discrimination among Black Americans by drawing upon social psychology research of the Personal/Group Discrimination Discrepancy...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Jay J Shen, Christopher R Cochran, Olena Mazurenko, Charles B Moseley, Guogen Shan, Robin Mukalian, Scott Neishi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between patient race/ethnicity, insurance status, and their interaction with patient safety indicators among hospitalized patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were extracted from the 2009 National Inpatient Sample. A total of 3,052,268 patient safety indicator-related discharges were identified. Dependent variables were 11 patient safety indicators (PSI) whereas independent variables included race/ethnicity and insurance status...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Ana C Talavera, Christina Buelna, Rebeca Espinoza Giacinto, Sheila F Castañeda, Aida Giachello, Madeline Crespo-Figueroa, Johanne B Hernández, Rosalinda Rodriguez, Maria de Los Angeles Abreu, Carlos M Sanchez, Krista Perreira
OBJECTIVE: This study examined perceived satisfaction among Hispanic/Latino individuals who participated in a baseline examination for the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a large cohort study of 16,415 adults living in four selected communities. METHOD: An estimated 22% (n= 3,584) of participants completed a questionnaire regarding satisfaction with staff attention, the overall experience during the study examination, and the influence of the informed consent digital video disc (DVD)...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Sabrina Strings, Yamini K Ranchod, Barbara Laraia, Amani Nuru-Jeter
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the relationship between food insecurity (FI) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) varies by race/ethnicity and sex. METHODS: We analyzed data from low-income adults participating in the 2009 and 2011 waves of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) (N=22,596). We used logistic regression models to estimate the sex and race-specific associations between FI and T2D. RESULTS: We observed positive associations between low food security and T2D for White men (AOR: 1...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Femia Hayek, Bouchra Berro, Wissam Fayad
OBJECTIVE: To detect and screen growth anomaly among children in North Lebanon, raise awareness on the importance of regular height check, and establish recommendations for the authorities. DESIGN: 18-month campaign. SETTING: 230 public schools in North Lebanon. PARTICIPANTS: 41,347 children, aged 5-15 years. INTERVENTIONS: Weight was measured using a standardized stadiometer and compared with French curves of height-for-age...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Nicholas S Costantino, Benjamin Freeman, Craig D Shriver, Rachel E Ellsworth
PURPOSE: Breast cancer mortality rates are higher for African American women (AAW) than for any other ethnic group in the United States. Recent reports suggest that outcome disparities between AAW and European American women (EAW) are present in the ER+HER2- subtype. To improve our understanding, pathological characteristics, mortality and molecular profiles from women treated within an equal-access health care system were evaluated. PROCEDURES: All AAW (n=90) and EAW (n=308) with ER+HER2- tumors were identified...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Wendy Brown White, Asoka Srinivasan, Cheryl Nelson, Nimr Fahmy, Frances Henderson
OBJECTIVE: This article chronicles the building of individual student capacity as well as faculty and institutional capacity, within the context of a population-based, longitudinal study of African Americans and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this article is to present preliminary data documenting the results of this approach. DESIGN: The JHS Scholars program is designed, under the organizational structure of the Natural Sciences Division at Tougaloo College, to provide solid preparation in quantitative skills through: good preparation in mathematics and the sciences; a high level of reading comprehension; hands-on learning experiences; and mentoring and counseling to sustain the motivation of the students to pursue further studies...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Emmanuel Peprah, Maria Lopez-Class, Susan Shero, Joylene John-Sowah, Michael Engelgau
Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, imposes a significant public health burden and challenge to address it worldwide. Scaling up delivery of proven, effective interventions for hypertension could significantly advance the goal of reducing the global burden. Although significant progress has been made in many countries, some lament that large-scale initiatives focused on reducing blood pressure in global populations have not effectively addressed this challenge. Late-stage implementation research plays a critical role in determining effective and sustainable scale-up of these initiatives...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Maria Lopez-Class, Emmanuel Peprah, Xinzhi Zhang, Peter G Kaufmann, Michael M Engelgau
Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Josephine E A Boyington, Nita J Maihle, Treva K Rice, Juan E Gonzalez, Caryl A Hess, Levi H Makala, Donna B Jeffe, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Dabeeru C Rao, Victor G Dávila-Román, Betty S Pace, Girardin Jean-Louis, Mohamed Boutjdir
Aspiring junior investigators from groups underrepresented in the biomedical sciences face various challenges as they pursue research independence. However, the biomedical research enterprise needs their participation to effectively address critical research issues such as health disparities and health inequities. In this article, we share a research education and mentoring initiative that seeks to address this challenge: Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health Related Research (PRIDE), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Lisa A Cooper, Tanjala S Purnell, Chidinma A Ibe, Jennifer P Halbert, Lee R Bone, Kathryn A Carson, Debra Hickman, Michelle Simmons, Ann Vachon, Inez Robb, Michelle Martin-Daniels, Katherine B Dietz, Sherita Hill Golden, Deidra C Crews, Felicia Hill-Briggs, Jill A Marsteller, L Ebony Boulware, Edgar R Iii Miller, David M Levine
Cardiovascular health disparities persist despite decades of recognition and the availability of evidence-based clinical and public health interventions. Racial and ethnic minorities and adults in urban and low-income communities are high-risk groups for uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), a major contributor to cardiovascular health disparities, in part due to inequitable social structures and economic systems that negatively impact daily environments and risk behaviors. This commentary presents the Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities as a case study for highlighting the evolution of an academic-community partnership to overcome HTN disparities...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Donald Harris, Elena Klyushnenkova, Richa Kalsi, Danon Garrido, Abhishek Bhardwaj, Joseph Rabin, Shahab Toursavadkohi, Jose Diaz, Robert Crawford
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial differences in the burden of aortic dissection. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a comprehensive state-wide inpatient database. SETTING: Acute care hospitals in the state of Maryland, 2009 - 2014. PARTICIPANTS: All hospitalized adults with aortic dissection (AD), stratified by race. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Statewide and county-level population adjusted hospitalization rates, access to specialty aortic care, and mortality...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Bradley Deere, Michael Griswold, Seth Lirette, Ervin Fox, Mario Sims
OBJECTIVES: African Americans experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lower childhood and adult socioeconomic position (SEP). Research that examines the associations of multiple measures of SEP with subclinical CVD markers among African Americans is limited. METHODS: Data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) were used to examine cross-sectional associations of childhood SEP and adult SEP with subclinical markers among 4,756 African American participants (mean age 54, 64% female), adjusting for age, health behaviors and CVD risk factors...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Baqar A Husaini, Robert S Levine, Keith C Norris, Van Cain, Mohsen Bazargan, Majaz Moonis
OBJECTIVE: We examined variation in rates of hospitalization, risk factors, and costs by race/ethnicity, gender and age among heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS: We analyzed California hospital discharge data for patients in 2007 (n=58,544) and 2010 (n=57,219) with a primary diagnosis of HF (ICD-9 codes: 402, 404, 428). HF cases included African Americans (Blacks; 14%), Hispanic/Latinos (21%), and non-Hispanic Whites (65%). Age-adjusted prevalence rates per 100,000 US population were computed per CDC methodology...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Ashley E Giambrone, Linda M Gerber, Jesica S Rodriguez-Lopez, Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Nadia Islam, Lorna E Thorpe
OBJECTIVE: Using 2004 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NYC HANES) data, we sought to examine variation in hypertension (HTN) prevalence across eight Asian and Hispanic subgroups. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: New York City, 2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Logistic regression was performed to identify differences in HTN prevalence between ethnic subgroups controlling for age, sex, education and BMI...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Kellee White, John E Stewart, Ana Lòpez-DeFede, Rebecca C Wilkerson
OBJECTIVES: To examine within-state geographic heterogeneity in hypertension prevalence and evaluate associations between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual characteristics for Black and White South Carolina Medicaid enrollees in urban vs rural areas. DESIGN: Ecological. SETTING: South Carolina, United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hypertension prevalence. METHODS: Data representing adult South Carolina Medicaid recipients enrolled in fiscal year 2013 (N=409,907) and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level contextual measures (racial segregation, rurality, poverty, educational attainment, unemployment and primary care physician adequacy) were linked in a spatially referenced database...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Hannah Gardener, Teshamae Monteith, Tatjana Rundek, Clinton B Wright, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between migraine and hypertension in the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), a multiethnic community-based sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 1338 NOMAS participants (mean age 68.1 ± 9.6 years, 37% male, 15% non-Hispanic White, 19% non-Hispanic Black, 67% Hispanic). SETTING: Northern Manhattan community. INTERVENTION: Participants were assessed for migraine symptoms using a self-report questionnaire based on criteria from the International Classification of Headache Disorders...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Rajesh Vedanthan, Nelly Tuikong, Claire Kofler, Evan Blank, Jemima H Kamano, Violet Naanyu, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Thomas S Inui, Carol R Horowitz, Valentin Fuster
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading global risk for mortality. Poor treatment and control of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries is due to several reasons, including insufficient human resources. Nurse management of hypertension is a novel approach to address the human resource challenge. However, specific barriers and facilitators to this strategy are not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate barriers and facilitators to nurse management of hypertensive patients in rural western Kenya, using a qualitative research approach...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Keith C Norris, George A Mensah, L Ebony Boulware, Jun L Lu, Jennie Z Ma, Elani Streja, Miklos Z Molnar, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
BACKGROUND: In the general population, compared wtih their White peers, African Americans suffer premature all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) deaths, attributed in part to reduced access to care and lower socioeconomic status. Prior reports indicated younger (aged 35 to 44 years) African Americans had a signficantly greater age-adjusted risk of death. Recent studies suggest that in a more egalitarian health care structure than typical United States (US) health care structures, African Americans may have similar or even better CV outcomes, but the impact of age is less well-known...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
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