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Ethnicity & Disease

Lauren Brown, Reginald Tucker-Seeley
The recent trend of premature death among Whites in the United States has garnered attention in both the popular and academic literature. This attention has focused on the plight of low socioeconomic status Whites in non-urban areas. The population health literature in general and the health disparities literature more specifically has struggled to describe differences in health when White groups present worse health outcomes or worsening trends compared with racial/ethnic minority groups. There remain many open questions as population health/health disparities research attempts to explain the increasing mortality rates for low socioeconomic status Whites in non-urban areas in relationship to other racial/ethnic groups...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Bettina M Beech, Marino A Bruce, Roland J Thorpe, Elizabeth Heitman, Derek M Griffith, Keith C Norris
Mentoring has been consistently identified as an important element for career advancement in many biomedical and health professional disciplines and has been found to be critical for success and promotion in academic settings. Early-career faculty from groups underrepresented in biomedical research, however, are less likely to have mentors, and in general, receive less mentoring than their majority-group peers, particularly among those employed in teaching-intensive institutions. This article describes Obesity Health Disparities (OHD) PRIDE, a theoretically and conceptually based research training and mentoring program designed for early-career faculty who trained or are employed at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Kim Pulvers, A Paula Cupertino, Taneisha S Scheuermann, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Yen-Yi Ho, Nicole L Nollen, Ruby Cuellar, Jasjit S Ahluwalia
Background: Higher smoking prevalence and quantity (cigarettes per day) has been linked to acculturation in the United States among Latinas, but not Latino men. Our study examines variation between a different and increasingly important target behavior, smoking level (nondaily vs daily) and acculturation by sex. Methods: An online English-language survey was administered to 786 Latino smokers during July through August 2012. The Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II) and other acculturation markers were used...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Sonia G Ponce, Jeffrey Norris, Diane Dodendorf, Melissa Martinez, Bart Cox, Warren Laskey
Background: Hispanics are a fast-growing minority in the United States and have a high risk for the development of heart failure (HF). Hispanics have higher HF-related hospital readmission rates compared with non-Hispanics. However, the risk of readmission in a largely disadvantaged and majority Hispanic population has not been evaluated. Methods: We analyzed data for patients discharged with a principal discharge diagnosis of HF from the University of New Mexico Hospital from 2010-2014...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Anniza de Villiers, Marjanne Senekal, Johanna Nel, Catherine E Draper, Estelle Lambert, Nelia P Steyn
Background: The HealthKick (HK) study showed that educators (teachers) had a high prevalence of risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Little data are available on parents or other primary caregivers of learners from disadvantaged schools. Aim: The aim of our study was to determine modifiable risk factors for the development of NCDs in a sample of caregivers of schools included in the HK intervention program. Participants: Caregivers of grade 4 children from 25 schools were invited to take part in the study and 175 participated...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Amy Nunn, Sharon Parker, Katryna McCoy, Mauda Monger, Melverta Bender, Joanna Poceta, Julia Harvey, Gladys Thomas, Kendra Johnson, Yusuf Ransome, Cassandra Sutten Coats, Phil Chan, Leandro Mena
Mississippi has some of the most pronounced racial disparities in HIV infection in the country; African Americans comprised 37% of the Mississippi population but represented 80% of new HIV cases in 2015. Improving outcomes along the HIV care continuum, including linking and retaining more individuals and enhancing adherence to medication, may reduce the disparities faced by African Americans in Mississippi. Little is understood about clergy's views about the HIV care continuum. We assessed knowledge of African American pastors and ministers in Jackson, Mississippi about HIV and the HIV care continuum...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Malcolm Bevel, Oluwole A Babatunde, Sue P Heiney, Heather M Brandt, Michael D Wirth, Thomas G Hurley, Samira Khan, Hiluv Johnson, Cassandra M Wineglass, Tatiana Y Warren, E Angela Murphy, Erica Sercy, Amanda S Thomas, James R Hébert, Swann Arp Adams
Introduction: Recruiting racial, ethnic, and other underserved minorities into conventional clinic-based and other trials is known to be challenging. The Sistas Inspiring Sistas Through Activity and Support (SISTAS) Program was a one-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) to promote physical activity and healthy eating among AA women in SC to reduce inflammatory biomarkers, which are linked to increased breast cancer (BrCa) risk and mortality. This study describes the development, recruitment, and implementation of the SISTAS clinical trial and provides baseline characteristics of the study participants...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Tony N Brown, Julian Culver, Asia Bento
Objective: To build upon research that investigates the health significance of familial and former incarceration with special emphasis on obesity risk among native-born Black (ie, African American) men. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL), focusing on native-born Black men (n=1140), the demographic group that bears the brunt of mass incarceration. The outcome of interest was obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI)>30...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Robert J Adams, Charles Ellis, Gayenell Magwood, Mark S Kindy, Leonardo Bonilha, Daniel T Lackland
Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are well-established in the United States but the underlying causes are not well-understood. The typical assumption that racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are explained by health care access inequities may be simplistic as access to stroke-related rehabilitation, for example, does not adequately explain the observed disparities. To approach the problem in a more comprehensive fashion, the Wide Spectrum Investigation of Stroke Outcome Disparities on Multiple Levels (WISSDOM) was developed to bring together scientists from Regenerative Medicine, Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Nursing to examine disparities in stroke "recovery...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Jessica Tobin, Kimberly A Miller, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Jennifer B Unger, Ann S Hamilton, Joel E Milam
Objective: Acculturation appears to be an important aspect of the association between ethnicity and disease, but it has not been explored in depth among childhood cancer survivors (CCS). The purpose of our study was to identify distinct acculturative profiles among Hispanic CCS and to assess differences in quality of life and depressive symptoms. Design: Latent class analysis was used to identify distinct acculturative profiles using 9 indicator items reflecting Hispanic and Anglo cultural orientation...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Raquel Rodrigues Ferreira Rocha de Alencar, Tais Freire Galvao, Bruno Vianei Real Antonio, Marcus Tolentino Silva
Objectives: To assess the prevalence of, and associated factors to, self-reported chronic diseases and health care utilization by ethnicity in the Manaus Metropolitan Region. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey from May through August 2015. Using probabilistic sampling in three stages, we recruited adults aged ≥18 years. Ethnicity was self-identified as White, Black, Yellow, Brown (Brazilian mixed-race), and Indigenous. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CI of chronic diseases and health service utilization for each ethnic minority and compared the data using Poisson regression with data from White respondents...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Loneke T Blackman Carr, Carmen Samuel-Hodge, Dianne Stanton Ward, Kelly R Evenson, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Deborah F Tate
Objective: We set out to determine if a primarily Internet-delivered behavioral weight loss intervention produced differential weight loss in African American and non-Hispanic White women, and to identify possible mediators. Design: Data for this analysis were from a randomized controlled trial, collected at baseline and 4-months. Setting: The intervention included monthly face-to-face group sessions and an Internet component that participants were recommended to use at least once weekly...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Gabriela R Oates, Janice M Phillips, Lori B Bateman, Monica L Baskin, Mona N Fouad, Isabel C Scarinci
Objective: In the search of solutions to the rising rates of obesity, community perspectives are important because they highlight areas of need and help determine the level of community support for potential interventions. This study aimed to identify community perceptions of factors associated with obesity in two urban municipalities - one racially mixed and one predominantly African American - and to explore community-driven solutions to the problem of obesity. Methods: The study used Photovoice methodology to understand what community members perceived as obesity-promoting factors in their residential environments...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Olayinka O Shiyanbola, Earlise Ward, Carolyn Brown
Objective: Illness representations, known as patients' beliefs and expectations about an illness, may be influenced by cultural beliefs and personal experiences. This study explored African Americans' perceptions of the sociocultural factors that influence their representations of diabetes. Design: Six semi-structured focus groups. Setting: Private space at a convenient site. Participants: Forty African Americans, aged 45-60 years with type 2 diabetes for at least one year prior...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Rosaley Prakaschandra, Datshanna Prakesh Naidoo
Objectives: There is no definitive consensus on the screening algorithm in high-risk communities for diabetes. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in a high-risk community using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), as well as determine the value of anthropometric measurements and other measures of glycemia in the detection of diabetes. Method: All participants from the Phoenix Lifestyle project without known diabetes, and who had undergone an OGTT were selected for study...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Mercedes M Morales-Alemán, Artisha Moore, Isabel C Scarinci
African Americans are disproportionately affected by diabetes and colorectal cancer. Although studies have shown the effectiveness of spiritually based health interventions delivered by community health workers to African Americans, few have described the development of the capacity-building component. This article describes this process. The development of the Healthy Congregations Healthy Communities Program (HCHC) was guided through a community-based participatory research lens and included: 1) establishment of a community coalition; 2) identification by coalition members of churches as the best venues for health promotion strategies among African Americans; 3) recruitment of churches; 4) development of a training manual; 5) recruitment and training of congregational health leaders (CHLs); and 6) "Passing of the torch" from the coalition to the CHLs who implemented the intervention in their congregations...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Jamboor K Vishwanatha, Harlan P Jones
Eliminating disparities in health can benefit from the inclusion of diverse populations pursuing health disparity research careers. A goal of the Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD) is to provide opportunities for underrepresented minority faculty to become successful health disparity researchers. The TCHD created the Steps Toward Academic Research (STAR) fellowship program to provide faculty and community partners a yearlong face-to-face and online hybrid curriculum focused on acquiring fundamental concepts in biomedical and behavioral health disparity research, basics in grantsmanship as well as professional development skills...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Bettina M Beech, Keith C Norris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Briana Mezuk, Jeannie B Concha, Paul Perrin, Tiffany Green
A substantial gap remains between what we know about type 2 diabetes prevention and our ability to apply that knowledge in socially disadvantaged populations at highest risk. This gap results, in part, from a lack of integration between epidemiologic science and social psychology theory, particularly regarding the intersections of stress, self-regulatory health behaviors, and the biological mechanisms underlying the development of diabetes. In this commentary, we describe the utility of a theoretical framework that focuses on the intersection of biological, psychosocial, and environmental contexts as they apply to diabetes disparities, and how such a framework could inform a translational research agenda to reorient prevention efforts to address these inequalities...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
Otis L Owens, Daniela B Friedman, James Hébert
African American (AA) men have significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify strategies for promoting informed PrCA screening decisions among this population. This article details the community-driven, social and behavioral research being implemented by a Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program (CPCP) to support the development of person-to-person and technological interventions to improve the dissemination of PrCA information to AA men and their families...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
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