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Ethnicity & Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115823/commentary-reconsidering-the-role-of-context-in-diabetes-prevention
#1
EDITORIAL
Briana Mezuk, Jeannie B Concha, Paul Perrin, Tiffany Green
A substantial gap remains between what we know about type 2 diabetes prevention and our ability to apply that knowledge in socially disadvantaged populations at highest risk. This gap results, in part, from a lack of integration between epidemiologic science and social psychology theory, particularly regarding the intersections of stress, self-regulatory health behaviors, and the biological mechanisms underlying the development of diabetes. In this commentary, we describe the utility of a theoretical framework that focuses on the intersection of biological, psychosocial, and environmental contexts as they apply to diabetes disparities, and how such a framework could inform a translational research agenda to reorient prevention efforts to address these inequalities...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115822/commentary-building-an-evidence-base-for-promoting-informed-prostate-cancer-screening-decisions-an-overview-of-a-cancer-prevention-and-control-program
#2
EDITORIAL
Otis L Owens, Daniela B Friedman, James Hébert
African American (AA) men have significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify strategies for promoting informed PrCA screening decisions among this population. This article details the community-driven, social and behavioral research being implemented by a Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program (CPCP) to support the development of person-to-person and technological interventions to improve the dissemination of PrCA information to AA men and their families...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115821/insulin-detemir-in-combination-with-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-improves-glycemic-control-in-persons-with-type-2-diabetes-in-near-east-countries-results-from-the-lebanese-subgroup
#3
Akram Echtay, Emile Andari, Paola Atallah, Roland Moufarrege, Rita Nemr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of insulin detemir treatment as add-on therapy in a real-world setting of Lebanese insulin naïve persons, with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: Our study was a prospective, observational study representing the Lebanese arm of the multinational prospective and observational study involving 2,155 persons across Near East countries, Lebanon, Pakistan, Israel and Jordan...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115820/emergent-dialysis-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-undocumented-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#4
Andrew N Hogan, William R Fox, Lynn P Roppolo, Robert E Suter
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the ethnographic composition and assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a large population of undocumented patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) seeking emergent dialysis in the emergency department (ED) of a large public hospital in the United States. DESIGN: All ESRD patients presenting to the hospital's main ED were identified during a 4-week consecutive enrollment period. Consenting patients completed two surveys-an ethnographic questionnaire and the validated kidney disease quality of life-36 (KDQOL-36) instrument...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115819/factors-related-to-differences-in-retention-among-african-american-and-white-participants-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study-aric-prospective-cohort-1987-2013
#5
Kristen M George, Aaron R Folsom, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Tom H Mosley, Gerardo Heiss
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed retention of minorities, particularly African Americans, in longitudinal research. Our aim was to determine whether there was differential retention between African Americans and Whites in the ARIC cohort and identify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) associated with these retention differences. METHODS: 15,688 participants, 27% African American and 73% White, were included from baseline, 1987-1989, and classified as having died, lost or withdrew from study contact, or remained active in study calls through 2013...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115818/the-development-of-health-for-hearts-united-a-longitudinal-church-based-intervention-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-mid-life-and-older-african-americans
#6
Penny A Ralston, Iris Young-Clark, Catherine Coccia
This article describes Health for Hearts United, a longitudinal church-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in mid-life and older African Americans. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches and undergirded by both the Socio-ecological Theory and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change, the 18-month intervention was developed in six north Florida churches, randomly assigned as treatment or comparison. The intervention was framed around three conceptual components: awareness building (individual knowledge development); clinical learning (individual and small group educational sessions); and efficacy development (recognition and sustainability)...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115817/determinants-of-raised-blood-pressure-in-urban-uganda-a-community-based-case-control-study
#7
Jerome H Chin, Aska Twinobuhungiro, Alexander Sandhu, Norbert Hootsmans, James Kayima, Robert Kalyesubula
OBJECTIVE: Rapid urbanization is changing the epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to identify the determinants of raised blood pressure in urban Uganda to highlight targets for preventive interventions. DESIGN: Case-control. SETTING: Three community-based sites in Kampala, the capital of Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were eligible to enroll if they were aged ≥18 years and not pregnant...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115816/sickle-cell-trait-and-renal-function-in-hispanics-in-the-united-states-the-northern-manhattan-study
#8
Nicole D Dueker, David Della-Morte, Tatjana Rundek, Ralph L Sacco, Susan H Blanton
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a common hematological disorder among individuals of African descent in the United States; the disorder results in the production of abnormal hemoglobin. It is caused by homozygosity for a genetic mutation in HBB; rs334. While the presence of a single mutation (sickle cell trait, SCT) has long been considered a benign trait, recent research suggests that SCT is associated with renal dysfunction, including a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115815/spirituality-and-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-among-latino-men-and-women-in-massachusetts
#9
Valerie J Silfee, Christina F Haughton, Stephenie C Lemon, Vilma Lora, Milagros C Rosal
INTRODUCTION: To examine the relationships between spirituality and physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of Latino adults in Massachusetts. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Lawrence Health and Well Being Study; a study that was conducted among patients at the Greater Lawrence Family Health Center (GLFHC) in Lawrence, Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS: 602 Latino or Hispanic adults aged 21 to 85 years completed the study...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115814/perspective-longevity-stress-genes-and-african-americans
#10
EDITORIAL
Keith E Whitfield, Roland J Thorpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225448/commentary-de-implementation-science-a-virtuous-cycle-of-ceasing-and-desisting-low-value-care-before-implementing-new-high-value-care
#11
EDITORIAL
Karina W Davidson, Siqin Ye, George A Mensah
Implementation science has traditionally focused on increasing the delivery of evidence-based care. The science of systematically stopping low-value and wasteful care is substantially under-recognized, and if successful, may decrease the workload of clinicians. De-implementation science identifies problem areas of low-value and wasteful practice, carries out rigorous scientific examination of the factors that initiate and maintain such behaviors, and then employs evidence-based interventions to cease these practices...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225447/engaging-african-americans-in-research-the-recruiter-s-perspective
#12
Nadine J Barrett, Kearston L Ingraham, Tracey Vann Hawkins, Patricia G Moorman
Purpose: To examine barriers recruiters encounter when enrolling African American study participants, identify motivating factors to increase research participation, and provide recommendations to facilitate successful minority recruitment. Background: Recruiters are often the first point of contact between the research study and potential African American participants. While challenges in enrolling African Americans into clinical and epidemiologic research has been reported in numerous studies the non-physician recruiter's role as a determinant of overall participation rates has received minimal attention...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225446/use-of-internet-for-general-and-dental-health-along-acculturation-features-in-a-sample-of-mexican-americans
#13
Odette Aguirre, Rodrigo Mariño, Carlo Medina-Solís, Gerardo Maupomé
The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported Internet and electronic platforms used to search for and store medical and dental information among people of Mexican origin. A sample of adults self-identified as European American (250) and as Mexican American (255), residing in Central Indiana, answered a one-time survey that included technology use questions and measured acculturation via the Psychological-Behavioral Acculturation Scale. Overall use of information technologies was estimated through an Information and Communication Technology score...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225445/-they-have-said-that-i-was-slightly-depressed-but-there-are-circumstances-that-bring-that-on-how-middle-aged-and-older-african-american-men-describe-perceived-stress-and-depression
#14
Emily K Cornish, Erin M Bergner, Derek M Griffith
Objective: Few studies have focused on how men perceive stress and depression, and even fewer have examined how men of a specific racial or ethnic group describe their experiences of these conditions. African American men tend to define health in ways that are inclusive of their physical health, health behaviors, and mental health, but research has largely failed to explore how men put their health and mental health in social contexts. The objective of this article is to explore how middle-aged and older African American men who self-identify as having depression: 1) differentiate stress from depression; and 2) describe depression...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225444/prevalence-and-correlates-of-major-depressive-symptoms-among-black-men-with-prostate-cancer
#15
Ballington L Kinlock, Lauren J Parker, Daniel L Howard, Janice V Bowie, Thomas A LaVeist, Roland J Thorpe
Objectives: The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of major depressive symptoms and identify factors that are associated with major depressive symptoms among Black men with prostate cancer (PCa). Design: This study consisted of 415 Black men aged 40-81 years that entered the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry during the years 2007-2008. The primary outcome variable was depressive symptoms (CES-D). Factors included age, income, education, insurance status, treatment received, time between diagnosis and treatment, Gleason score, medical mistrust and experience with racism/discrimination...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225443/perceived-stress-in-black-and-latino-male-firefighters-associations-with-risk-and-protective-factors
#16
Consuelo Arbona, Christine Pao, Amanda Long, Norma Olvera
Objective: To compare the prevalence of work-related protective and risk factors among Black and Latino male firefighters and to examine the association of these factors to perceived stress among both ethnic groups. Design Setting Participants: Participants included 1,036 male, career firefighters who self-identified as Black (n=477) or Latino (n=559) from a large fire department in a major metropolitan city in the southwestern United States. As part of a department-wide suicide prevention program conducted in 2008, participants completed an anonymous and voluntary mental health needs survey...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225442/increasing-physical-activity-in-black-women-results-from-a-randomized-trial-conducted-in-faith-based-settings
#17
Melicia C Whitt-Glover, Moses V Goldmon, Ziya Gizlice, Marie Sillice, Lyndsey Hornbuckle, Daniel P Heil
Objective: The Learning and Developing Individual Exercise Skills (L.A.D.I.E.S.) for a Better Life study compared a faith-integrated (FI) and a secular (SEC) intervention for increasing physical activity with a self-guided (SG) control group among African American women. Design/Setting/Participants: L.A.D.I.E.S. was a cluster randomized, controlled trial. Churches (n=31) were randomized and women within each church (n=12 - 15) received the same intervention. Interventions: FI and SEC participants received 24 group-based sessions, delivered over 10 months...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225441/a-racial-comparison-of-differences-between-self-reported-and-objectively-measured-physical-activity-among-us-adults-with-diabetes
#18
Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Jeffrey S Arroyo, Stanley Hsia, Neda Rouhi Brojeni, Deyu Pan
Objective: To investigate: 1) the racial/ethnic disparities in meeting the recommended physical activity as measured by subjective vs objective measures in a national sample of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus; and 2) the racial/ethnic differences with respect to the magnitude of the discrepancy between self-reported and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity (MVPA). Methods: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-06 to calculate and compare the percentage of individuals with diabetes who achieved the recommended levels of physical activity as measured by subjective self-report (500 metabolic equivalents (MET)-minutes/week) and objective accelerometer measurement (150 minutes per week of MVPA) across racial/ethnic groups...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225440/smoking-urges-during-treatment-and-long-term-cessation-among-low-income-african-americans
#19
Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A Dietz, Joseph C Wilson
Objective: The urge to smoke is a predictor of smoking relapse. Little research has focused on the impact of acute urges during treatment among African Americans. This study examined the relationship between smoking urges and long-term abstinence among treatment seekers. Design: Longitudinal prospective investigation. Urges to smoke were assessed at the initial (session 1) and final (session 8) sessions among adult smokers (N=308) enrolled in a 4-week group intervention trial...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225439/exploring-the-obesity-paradox-as-a-correlate-of-cognitive-and-physical-function-in-community-dwelling-black-and-white-older-adults
#20
Jeannine S Skinner, Willie Mae Abel, Katryna McCoy, Consuelo H Wilkins
Objective: The obesity paradox has been documented in aged populations, yet it remains unclear if this paradox persists for physical and cognitive outcomes in community-dwelling older adult populations. Our study examines associations between body mass index (BMI) classification, cognitive function, and physical function. We also investigate whether these associations are modified by race or age. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Senior residential sites and community centers in Saint Louis, Missouri...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
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