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Ethnicity & Disease

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[This corrects the article on p. 60 in vol. 20, PMID: 20521387.].
October 18, 2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Lisa A Cooper
During August 30-31, 2017, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science (CTRIS) hosted a two-day workshop with thought leaders and experts in the fields of implementation science, prevention science, health inequities research, and training and research workforce development. The workshop addressed critical challenges and compelling questions from the NHLBI Strategic Vision, as well as the Department of Health and Human Services' Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Athena Starlard-Davenport, Alisa Rich, Titilope Fasipe, Eboni I Lance, Kehinde Adekola, Ariadna Forray, Mesia Steed, Ashley Fitzgerald, Scharri Walker, Betty S Pace
In this perspective, we describe our experience as women of color scientists from diverse backgrounds and similar struggles embarking upon the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-funded program called PRIDE (Programs to Increase Diversity among Underrepresented Minorities Engaged in Health-Related Research). Under the leadership of our mentor and friend, Betty Pace, MD, a renowned and successful African American physician-scientist, the PRIDE Program was designed to address the difficulties experienced by junior-level minority investigators in establishing independent research programs and negotiating tenure and full professor status at academic institutions...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Reina Haque, Xiaoqing Xu, Jiaxiao Shi, Marilyn L Kwan, Rowan T Chlebowski
Background: It is unknown how subsequent breast cancer outcomes vary by biologic subtype and race/ethnicity in a diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6,154 insured breast cancer survivors (AJCC TNM stages 0-IV) diagnosed between 1996-2007 and followed them through 1/1/2010 for subsequent breast cancer events (recurrence, contralateral breast cancer, metastasis, mortality). We compared subsequent breast cancer rates by race/ethnicity groups and biologic subtype (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and triple negative)...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Dame Idossa, Narjust Duma, Katerina Chekhovskiy, Ronald Go, Sikander Ailawadhi
The use of race and ethnicity in biomedical research has been a subject of debate for the past three decades. Initially the two major race categories were: White and Black, leaving other minorities uncounted or inappropriately misclassified. As the science of health disparities evolves, more sophisticated and detailed information has been added to large databases. Despite the addition of new racial classifications, including multi-racial denominations, the quality of the data is limited to the data collection process and other social misconceptions...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Neomie C Congello, Deborah Koniak-Griffin
Objective: Global recommendations on physical activity for noncommunicable disease prevention can be promoted using partner support strategies among women of Mexican descent and other ethnicities. Design/Methods: This systematic review utilized a multifaceted ecological approach by focusing comprehensively on community, individual, and social factors influencing physical activity. PubMed, SAGE Publications, EBSCO, ResearchGate, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar search engines were used to find research on physical activity, with inclusion criteria of Mexican American women, aged ≥ 18 years, comprising at least 50% of study population sizes...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Francine C Gachupin, Rene Harbaugh, Alex Amarillas, Frances Cupis, Jason Lockwood, Shanna J Tautolo
Objective: The objective was to identify and treat segments of the local population at greatest risk for viral hepatitis C (HCV) infections. Design: The tribal-based HCV initiatives included community involvement and outreach and HCV data were mined and analyzed. Medical records were reviewed, and new HCV tribal health policies and procedures were developed. Results: A total of 251 tribal members (63.7% male) were diagnosed with HCV and had a positive confirmatory test between the years 2009 and 2014...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Gildete Barreto Lopes, Sherman A James, Marcelo Barreto Lopes, Carolina Cartaxo Penalva, Camila Tavares Joau E Silva, Cacia Mendes Matos, Márcia Tereza Silva Martins, Antonio Alberto Lopes
Purpose: John Henryism (JH) is a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high-effort coping with difficult socioenvironmental stressors. We investigated associations between JH and perceived general health (GH) among maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients in a multiracial Brazilian population. Design: The 12-item John Henryism Acting Coping (JHAC) Scale was completed by 525 patients enrolled in The Prospective Study of the Prognosis of Hemodialysis Patients (PROHEMO) in Salvador (Bahia) Brazil...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Sina Kianoush, Andrew P DeFilippis, Carlos J Rodriguez, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Emelia J Benjamin, Michael E Hall, Pamela Ouyang, Matthew A Allison, Michael J Blaha
Objective: Smoking is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor associated with weight loss. We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, serum leptin levels, and abdominal fat. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Data from examinations 2 or 3 (2002-2005) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Participants: 1,875 asymptomatic, community-dwelling adults. Main Outcome Measures: We used multivariable linear regression models to assess the race/ethnicity-specific associations between smoking, serum loge leptin levels, and computed tomography ascertained abdominal fat...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Lovejeet Kaur, Priyanka Rani Garg, Pradeep Kumar Ghosh, Kallur Nava Saraswathy
Background: Impaired homocysteine metabolism (IHM; hyperhomocysteinemia) has been linked with many complex disorders like cardiovascular diseases and immunological disturbances. However, studies understanding IHM in light of pro- and anti- atherogeneic markers like Interleukin-17A & -10 (IL-17A & IL-10) and Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3, a master transcription factor) are scarce. Aim: In our present study, we aimed to understand the relation of IHM with plasma IL-17A and IL-10 levels and Foxp3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an endogamous population (Jats of Haryana, North India) with high prevalence of IHM without the concurrence of significant adverse cardiovascular outcomes...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Samuel W Reinhardt, Adefolakemi Babatunde, Eric Novak, David L Brown
Objective: To examine racial differences in outcomes with coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) vs standard emergency department (ED) evaluation for chest pain. Design: Retrospective analysis of the prospective, randomized, multicenter Rule Out Myocardial Ischemia/Infarction by Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT-II) trial. Setting: ED at nine hospitals in the United States. Participants: 940 patients who were Caucasian or African American (AA) presenting to the ED with chest pain...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Gregory A Harshfield, Coral D Hanevold, Allison Jasti, Santu Ghosh, Jennifer Pollock, David Pollock, Frank A Treiber, Yanbin Dong, Varghese George
Objective: To test the hypothesis that Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a contributing factor to the response pattern in African Americans (AAs) who retain rather than excrete sodium during mental stress. Design/Study Participants: Double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial of 87 healthy AAs aged 18 to 50 years. Interventions: The study participants received either a placebo or irbesartan, (150 mg PO), an Ang II receptor antagonist, for seven days prior to stress testing...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Loretta Jones, Kenneth Wells, Henry J Lin, Christina Wang, Audrey Kawaiopua Alo, Pluscedia Williams, Felica Jones, Patricia I Dickson, Sophia Han, Dominga Pardo, Keith Norris, Andrea Jones, Aziza Wright, Kawen Young, Jerome I Rotter
Background: Patient and community engagement in under-resourced communities is a key issue for precision medicine research. We report proceedings from a community-academic partnered conference in Los Angeles to promote community understanding of precision medicine and generate engagement recommendations. Methods: Planning group review of planning, presentations, and audience discussions from facilitator notes and participant survey data from a one-day conference...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Armen C Arevian, Jennifer O'Hora, Felica Jones, Joseph Mango, Loretta Jones, Pluscedia G Williams, Juanita Booker-Vaughns, Andrea Jones, Esmeralda Pulido, Denishia Banner-Jackson, Kenneth B Wells
Objective: To assess the feasibility of a novel, partnered technology development process to co-create mobile health applications (apps) addressing community health priorities, using psychoeducation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles for enhancing resilience as an example. Design: Stakeholder engagement, workgroups, pilot feasibility study using mixed methods during October 2013 through January 2016 over three phases: 1) defining the vision of the project and increasing technical capacity, 2) co-development and pilot testing of the app, and 3) planning for sustainability...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Dawn Edge, Paul Grey
Objective: To determine how to improve the cultural appropriateness and acceptability of an extant evidence-based model of family intervention (FI), a form of 'talking treatment,' for use with African Caribbean service users diagnosed with schizophrenia and their families. Design: Community partnered participatory research (CPPR) using four focus groups comprising 31 key stakeholders. Setting: Community locations and National Health Service (NHS) mental health care settings in northwest England, UK...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Adriana Izquierdo, Michael Ong, Felica Jones, Loretta Jones, David Ganz, Lisa Rubenstein
Background: Little has been written about engaging potentially eligible members of a health care system who are not accessing the care to which they are entitled. Knowing more about the experiences of African American Veterans who regularly experience health care access challenges may be an important step toward equitable, coordinated Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. This article explores the experiences of African American Veterans who are at risk of experiencing poor care coordination...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Sidney H Hankerson, Kenneth Wells, Martha Adams Sullivan, Joyce Johnson, Laura Smith, La'Shay Crayton, Faith Miller-Sethi, Clarencetine Brooks, Alana Rule, Jaylaan Ahmad-Llewellyn, Doris Rhem, Xavier Porter, Raymond Croskey, Eugena Simpson, Charles Butler, Samuel Roberts, Alicia James, Loretta Jones
Community partnered participatory research (CPPR) emphasizes community engagement, respect, and empowerment as guiding principles to promote mental health equity. This article describes the "Vision" stage of a CPPR-informed model to implement evidence-based practices for depression in two African American churches in Harlem, New York. Essential parts of the Vision include engagement of stakeholders and collaborative planning. The engagement process increased awareness about the project via a community-focused mental health symposium...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Sandra Contreras, Lorena Porras-Javier, Bonnie T Zima, Neelkamal Soares, Christine Park, Alpa Patel, Paul J Chung, Tumaini R Coker
Objective: To develop an intervention to improve the mental health referral and care process for children referred by primary care providers (PCPs) to community mental health clinics (MHCs) using a community partnered approach. Design: A Project Working Group (PWG) with representatives from each partner organization met monthly for 6 months. Setting: Multi-site federally qualified health center (FQHC) and two community MHCs in Los Angeles county...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Bonnie T Zima, Michael McCreary, Kristen Kenan, Michelle Churchey-Mims, Hannah Chi, Madeline Brady, Jewel Davies, Vikki Rompala, Bennett Leventhal
Objective: To describe the development and evaluation of two integrated care models using a partnered formative evaluation approach across a private foundation, clinic leaders, providers and staff, and a university-based research center. Design: Retrospective cohort study using multiple data sources. Setting: Two federal qualified health care centers serving low-income children and families in Chicago. Participants: Private foundation, clinic and academic partners...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Roya Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Kacy Bonnet, Sophie Feller, Kathleen Nagaran, Maryjane Puffer, Sheryl Kataoka
Objective: Schools and school-based health centers (SBHCs) play an important role in reducing disparities in access to mental health treatment. However, there is a need to increase student engagement in school mental health services. This study sought to understand the perceptions of low-income minority youth on help-seeking and barriers to mental health services at SBHC sites. Setting: A network of SBHCs, called Wellness Centers, developed as part of a strategic plan to serve students and community members in under-resourced areas of a large urban school district...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
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