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Ethnicity & Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115823/commentary-reconsidering-the-role-of-context-in-diabetes-prevention
#1
EDITORIAL
Briana Mezuk, Jeannie B Concha, Paul Perrin, Tiffany Green
A substantial gap remains between what we know about type 2 diabetes prevention and our ability to apply that knowledge in socially disadvantaged populations at highest risk. This gap results, in part, from a lack of integration between epidemiologic science and social psychology theory, particularly regarding the intersections of stress, self-regulatory health behaviors, and the biological mechanisms underlying the development of diabetes. In this commentary, we describe the utility of a theoretical framework that focuses on the intersection of biological, psychosocial, and environmental contexts as they apply to diabetes disparities, and how such a framework could inform a translational research agenda to reorient prevention efforts to address these inequalities...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115822/commentary-building-an-evidence-base-for-promoting-informed-prostate-cancer-screening-decisions-an-overview-of-a-cancer-prevention-and-control-program
#2
EDITORIAL
Otis L Owens, Daniela B Friedman, James Hébert
African American (AA) men have significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify strategies for promoting informed PrCA screening decisions among this population. This article details the community-driven, social and behavioral research being implemented by a Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program (CPCP) to support the development of person-to-person and technological interventions to improve the dissemination of PrCA information to AA men and their families...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115821/insulin-detemir-in-combination-with-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-improves-glycemic-control-in-persons-with-type-2-diabetes-in-near-east-countries-results-from-the-lebanese-subgroup
#3
Akram Echtay, Emile Andari, Paola Atallah, Roland Moufarrege, Rita Nemr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of insulin detemir treatment as add-on therapy in a real-world setting of Lebanese insulin naïve persons, with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: Our study was a prospective, observational study representing the Lebanese arm of the multinational prospective and observational study involving 2,155 persons across Near East countries, Lebanon, Pakistan, Israel and Jordan...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115820/emergent-dialysis-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-undocumented-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#4
Andrew N Hogan, William R Fox, Lynn P Roppolo, Robert E Suter
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the ethnographic composition and assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a large population of undocumented patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) seeking emergent dialysis in the emergency department (ED) of a large public hospital in the United States. DESIGN: All ESRD patients presenting to the hospital's main ED were identified during a 4-week consecutive enrollment period. Consenting patients completed two surveys-an ethnographic questionnaire and the validated kidney disease quality of life-36 (KDQOL-36) instrument...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115819/factors-related-to-differences-in-retention-among-african-american-and-white-participants-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study-aric-prospective-cohort-1987-2013
#5
Kristen M George, Aaron R Folsom, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Tom H Mosley, Gerardo Heiss
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed retention of minorities, particularly African Americans, in longitudinal research. Our aim was to determine whether there was differential retention between African Americans and Whites in the ARIC cohort and identify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) associated with these retention differences. METHODS: 15,688 participants, 27% African American and 73% White, were included from baseline, 1987-1989, and classified as having died, lost or withdrew from study contact, or remained active in study calls through 2013...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115818/the-development-of-health-for-hearts-united-a-longitudinal-church-based-intervention-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-mid-life-and-older-african-americans
#6
Penny A Ralston, Iris Young-Clark, Catherine Coccia
This article describes Health for Hearts United, a longitudinal church-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in mid-life and older African Americans. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches and undergirded by both the Socio-ecological Theory and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change, the 18-month intervention was developed in six north Florida churches, randomly assigned as treatment or comparison. The intervention was framed around three conceptual components: awareness building (individual knowledge development); clinical learning (individual and small group educational sessions); and efficacy development (recognition and sustainability)...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115817/determinants-of-raised-blood-pressure-in-urban-uganda-a-community-based-case-control-study
#7
Jerome H Chin, Aska Twinobuhungiro, Alexander Sandhu, Norbert Hootsmans, James Kayima, Robert Kalyesubula
OBJECTIVE: Rapid urbanization is changing the epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to identify the determinants of raised blood pressure in urban Uganda to highlight targets for preventive interventions. DESIGN: Case-control. SETTING: Three community-based sites in Kampala, the capital of Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were eligible to enroll if they were aged ≥18 years and not pregnant...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115816/sickle-cell-trait-and-renal-function-in-hispanics-in-the-united-states-the-northern-manhattan-study
#8
Nicole D Dueker, David Della-Morte, Tatjana Rundek, Ralph L Sacco, Susan H Blanton
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a common hematological disorder among individuals of African descent in the United States; the disorder results in the production of abnormal hemoglobin. It is caused by homozygosity for a genetic mutation in HBB; rs334. While the presence of a single mutation (sickle cell trait, SCT) has long been considered a benign trait, recent research suggests that SCT is associated with renal dysfunction, including a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115815/spirituality-and-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-among-latino-men-and-women-in-massachusetts
#9
Valerie J Silfee, Christina F Haughton, Stephenie C Lemon, Vilma Lora, Milagros C Rosal
INTRODUCTION: To examine the relationships between spirituality and physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of Latino adults in Massachusetts. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Lawrence Health and Well Being Study; a study that was conducted among patients at the Greater Lawrence Family Health Center (GLFHC) in Lawrence, Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS: 602 Latino or Hispanic adults aged 21 to 85 years completed the study...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115814/perspective-longevity-stress-genes-and-african-americans
#10
EDITORIAL
Keith E Whitfield, Roland J Thorpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773983/protection-from-cardiovascular-disease-due-to-increased-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-african-black-populations-myth-or-reality
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas J Woudberg, Julia H Goedecke, Sandrine Lecour
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773982/review-hemodynamic-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-sickle-cell-disease-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Alem Mehari, Alvin V Thomas, Alicia N Thomas, Mark S Johnson
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a leading cause of morbidity and early mortality in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the prevalence, hemodynamic profile and prognosis of SCD-PH remain controversial and need frequent updates. Pulmonary hypertension determined by right heart catheterization (RHC) occurs in 6% to 10% of adults with SCD. Hemodynamically, SCD-PH may be pre-capillary or post-capillary in nature. The exact etiology is unknown and often multifactorial; hence a thorough diagnostic evaluation following established PH guidelines is essential to determine disease prevalence, etiology and outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773981/identifying-spanish-language-competent-physicians-the-diabetes-study-of-northern-california-distance
#13
Claudia Chaufan, Andrew J Karter, Howard H Moffet, Judy Quan, Melissa M Parker, Jenna Kruger, Dean Schillinger, Alicia Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: Language barriers negatively impact health care access and quality for US immigrants. Latinos are the second largest immigrant group and the largest, fastest growing minority. Health care systems need simple, low cost and accurate tools that they can use to identify physicians with Spanish language competence. We sought to address this need by validating a simple and low-cost tool already in use in a major health plan. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS: A web-based survey conducted in 2012 among physicians caring for patients in a large, integrated health care delivery system...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773980/explaining-racial-ethnic-dietary-patterns-in-relation-to-type-2-diabetes-an-analysis-of-nhanes-2007-2012
#14
Sarah Y Nowlin, Charles M Cleland, Maya Vadiveloo, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Niyati Parekh, Holly Hagan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to examine sociodemographic and health behavior factors associated with dietary intake as measured by the healthy eating index (HEI-2010) for persons with and without diabetes (T2D). DESIGN: A secondary data analysis of three NHANES data cycles spanning 2007-2012. Multiple linear regression assessed racial/ethnic differences in HEI-2010 scores in those without T2D, with T2D, and with undiagnosed T2D. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years who had two days of reliable dietary recall data...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773979/self-reported-sleep-in-older-african-americans-and-white-americans
#15
Arlener D Turner, Andrew S Lim, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Lisa L Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Assess the relationship of self-reported sleep quality and possible sleep disorders with disability in a racially diverse sample of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Participants included 943 non-demented older African Americans (n=452) and Whites (n=491) from two cohort studies, the Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP). Participants completed a 32-item questionnaire assessing sleep quality and the possible presence of three sleep disorders (sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome [RLS] and REM behavior disorder [RBD])...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773978/insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-black-women-with-and-without-breast-cancer-cause-for-concern
#16
Kathleen A Griffith, Seon-Yoon Chung, Shijun Zhu, Alice S Ryan
OBJECTIVE: After chemotherapy for breast cancer, Black women gain more weight and have an increased mortality rate compared with White women. Our study objective was to compare biomarkers associated with obesity in Black women with and without a history of breast cancer. DESIGN: Case-control. SETTING: Academic/federal institution. PARTICIPANTS: Black women with a history of breast cancer (cases) and age-matched controls...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773977/dimensions-of-racial-identity-and-perceived-discrimination-in-health-care
#17
Irena Stepanikova, Gabriela R Oates
OBJECTIVE: Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). METHODS: We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773976/association-between-race-household-income-and-grip-strength-in-middle-and-older-aged-adults
#18
Roland J Jr Thorpe, Eleanor Simonsick, Alan Zonderman, Michelle K Evans
BACKGROUND: Poor grip strength is an indicator of frailty and a precursor to functional limitations. Although poor grip strength is more prevalent in older disabled African American women, little is known about the association between race and poverty-related disparities and grip strength in middle-aged men and women. METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional relationship between race, socioeconomic status as assessed by household income, and hand grip strength in men and women in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773975/the-association-of-body-fat-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-called-into-question-for-asian-indians
#19
Stéphane Sinnapah, Sophie Antoine-Jonville, Olivier Hue
OBJECTIVE: Thrifty genotypes may predispose to type 2 diabetes and body fat (%BF) excess through a differentiated relationship between physical activity and body fat. We explored this hypothesis in Asian Indians, a population thought to be thrifty. METHODS: Three hundred and nine Guadeloupian adolescents responded to the modifiable activity questionnaire. Their body fat was assessed by bioimpedancemetry. We first studied the relationship between %BF and leisure time physical activity (LTPA)...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773974/pparg-lyplal1-multi-allelic-combination-associated-with-obesity-and-overweight-in-mexican-adolescent-females
#20
Esther Alhelí Hernández-Tobías, Luisa Torres-Sánchez, Gino Noris, Carla Santana, María Reyna Samano, José Arellano-Galindo, María de la Luz Arenas-Sordo, Daniel Brooks, Ana Lilia Rodríguez-Ventura, Marco Antonio Meraz-Ríos, Rocío Gómez
OBJECTIVE: We studied multi-loci variants to identify the contribution of six candidate genes (ADIPOQ, CDH13, LYPLAL1, MC4R, PPARG and PGC1A) in the development of obesity and overweight. DESIGN: We genotyped 404 chromosomes with eleven SNPs in Mexican female adolescents, who were subdivided into two groups (obesity-overweight and normal-weight) using the World Health Organization parameters. Genomic (800 chromosomes) and ancestral (208 chromosomes) controls were included to reduce the population bias...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
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