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Ethnicity & Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116099/commentary-critical-race-theory-training-to-eliminate-racial-and-ethnic-health-disparities-the-public-health-critical-race-praxis-institute
#1
EDITORIAL
James Butler, Craig S Fryer, Mary A Garza, Sandra C Quinn, Stephen B Thomas
Racism is a fundamental cause of racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. Researchers have a critical role to play in confronting racism by understanding it and intervening on its impact on the health and well-being of minority populations. This requires new paradigms and theoretical frameworks that are responsive to structural racism's present-day influence on health, health disparities, and research. To address the complexity with which racism influences both health and the production of knowledge about minority populations, the field must accelerate the professional development of researchers who are committed to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities and achieving health equity...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116098/developing-a-medical-school-curriculum-on-racism-multidisciplinary-multiracial-conversations-informed-by-public-health-critical-race-praxis-phcrp
#2
Rachel R Hardeman, Diana Burgess, Katy Murphy, David J Satin, Julie Nielsen, Teddie M Potter, J'Mag Karbeah, Makeda Zulu-Gillespie, Antonia Apolinario-Wilcoxon, Christopher Reif, Brooke A Cunningham
Background: To fight racism and its potential influence on health, health care professionals must recognize, name, understand and talk about racism. These conversations are difficult, particularly when stakes feel high-in the workplace and in interracial groups. We convened a multidisciplinary, multi-racial group of professionals in two phases of this exploratory project to develop and pilot an intervention to promote effective dialogues on racism for first year medical students at the University of Minnesota Medical School...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116097/commentary-can-critical-race-theory-enhance-the-field-of-public-health-a-student-s-perspective
#3
EDITORIAL
Rebekah Israel Cross
Critical race theory (CRT) is a body of work that seeks to understand and change the relationship between race, racism, and power. While relatively new to the health sciences, CRT is increasingly used as a conceptual framework to examine the role of racism in health inequalities. In this commentary, I outline ways in which CRT can also be used to enhance public health education, methodology, and practice.
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116096/anti-racism-methods-for-big-data-research-lessons-learned-from-the-hiv-testing-linkage-retention-in-care-hiv-tlr-study
#4
Chandra L Ford, Lois M Takahashi, P Paul Chandanabhumma, Maria Elena Ruiz, William E Cunningham
Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) contributes three functional elements to health equity studies: a race conscious orientation; an antiracism lexicon based on Critical Race Theory (CRT); and an integrated, reflexive approach. Few big data studies employ all three functional elements. Therefore, this article describes the application of PHCRP to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Linkage and Retention in care (HIV TLR) study (N=3,476,741), which connects multiple large datasets to electronic medical records to examine contextual determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in HIV care continuum outcomes in southern California...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116095/the-intersectionality-of-racial-and-gender-discrimination-among-teens-exposed-to-dating-violence
#5
Lynn Roberts, Mahader Tamene, Olivia R Orta
Objective: Driven by intersectionality, a central tenet of Critical Race Theory, this study examines the combined associations of racial and gender discrimination, which are interlocking, macro-level social forces, and teen dating violence (TDV). Design: Self-report surveys were administered via Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) equipment. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between racial and gender discrimination and TDV...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116094/commentary-the-invention-of-aboriginal-diabetes-the-role-of-the-thrifty-gene-hypothesis-in-canadian-health-care-provision
#6
EDITORIAL
Travis Hay
The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which the 'thrifty gene hypothesis' remains embedded within regimes of Canadian health care. The thrifty gene hypothesis, formulated by the American geneticist and travelling scientist James V. Neel in 1962, proposed that Indigenous peoples were genetically predisposed to Type 2 diabetes due to the foodways of their ancestors. The hypothesis was functionally racist and based on what biological anthropologists now call 'the myth of forager food insecurity...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116093/-i-think-that-s-all-a-lie%C3%A2-i-think-it-s-genocide-applying-a-critical-race-praxis-to-youth-perceptions-of-flint-water-contamination
#7
Michael Muhammad, E Hill De Loney, Cassandra L Brooks, Shervin Assari, DeWaun Robinson, Cleopatra H Caldwell
Background: In April 2014, the emergency manager of Flint, Michigan switched the city's water supplier from Detroit's water department to the Flint River. The change in water source resulted in the Flint Water Crisis (FWC) in which lead (Pb) from the city's network of old pipes leached into residents' tap water. Residents of Flint reported concerns about the water to officials; however, the concerns were ignored for more than a year. Objective: This study sought to understand how Black youth in Flint conceptualize, interpret, and respond to racism they perceive as part of the normal bureaucracy contributing to the FWC...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116092/ensnared-by-colorblindness-discourse-on-health-care-disparities
#8
Brooke A Cunningham, Andre S M Scarlato
Objective: Race consciousness serves as the foundation for Critical Race Theory (CRT) methodology. Colorblindness minimizes racism as a determinant of outcomes. To achieve the emancipatory intent of CRT and to reduce health care disparities, we must understand: 1) how colorblindness "shows up" when health care professionals aim to promote equity; 2) how their colorblindness informs (and is informed by) clinical practice; and 3) ways to overcome colorblindness through strategies grounded in CRT...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116091/toward-the-science-and-practice-of-anti-racism-launching-a-national-campaign-against-racism
#9
EDITORIAL
Camara Phyllis Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116090/commentary-just-what-is-critical-race-theory-and-what-s-it-doing-in-a-progressive-field-like-public-health
#10
EDITORIAL
Chandra L Ford, Collins O Airhihenbuwa
Gloria Ladson-Billings cautiously promotes the use of Critical Race Theory (CRT) to address racism's contribution to educational disparities. Nearly a decade ago, we issued a similar call to the multidisciplinary field of public health. Public health touts its progressive roots and focus on equity, but do those efforts draw on CRT? To answer this question, we define CRT, describe its origin in the field of law, and review the ways its use has grown in the field of public health. Public health interventions and policies rely heavily on evidence; therefore, we re-introduce the semi-structured research method we developed to facilitate empirical application of CRT, ie, the Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP)...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116089/editorial-critical-race-theory-we-are-all-others
#11
EDITORIAL
Collins O Airhihenbuwa, Chandra L Ford
Over the past two years, the persistence of racism in the United States has been particularly pronounced in the policies and actions of the administration of President Donald J. Trump; however, the structure of the United States has been racialized since its inception. This supplement of Ethnicity & Disease uses Critical Race Theory (CRT) to explore several implications for public health and public health research. We intend for it to spark conversations in the classroom and among researchers on how racial phenomena operate and how we as a field can address racism...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116088/editorial-critical-race-theory-why-should-we-care-about-applying-it-in-our-research
#12
EDITORIAL
Luisa N Borrell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038483/intersectionality-of-race-gender-and-common-mental-disorders-in-northeastern-brazil
#13
Jenny Rose Smolen, Edna Maria de Araújo, Nelson Fernandes de Oliveira, Tânia Maria de Araújo
This study applies the perspective of intersectionality, defined as social identities combining with one another and with structural societal factors to produce health inequities, to assess the interaction between race, gender, and common mental disorders (CMD) in northeastern Brazil. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire was used to assess CMD among a representative sample of adults in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil (N=3273). Four groups (Black men, Black women, White women, White men) represented the intersection of race and gender...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038482/do-socioeconomic-conditions-explain-ethnic-inequalities-in-tooth-loss-among-us-adults
#14
Fatma W Nazer, Wael Sabbah
Objective: To assess whether there are ethnic differences in tooth loss among adult Americans aged <40 years and whether socioeconomic position attenuates these differences if they exist. Methods: Data were from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a health-related telephone cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of US adults. Tooth loss (one tooth or more) was used as the outcome variable. Ethnicity was the main explanatory variable...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038481/sleep-disorders-and-symptoms-in-blacks-with-metabolic-syndrome-the-metabolic-syndrome-outcome-study-metso
#15
Natasha J Williams, Chimene Castor, Azizi Seixas, Joseph Ravenell, Girardin Jean-Louis
Introduction: Sleep disturbance is a major public health issue and is comorbid with the cluster of conditions associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our study explored the presence of sleep disturbance, including daytime sleepiness, the risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and insomnia symptoms, in a cohort of adult Black men and women with MetS. Methods: Patients (n=1,013) from the Metabolic Syndrome Outcome Study (MetSO), 2009-2012, met criteria for MetS based on guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel and provided sociodemographic data and the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) questionnaire to assess OSA risk, sleep characteristics, and physician-reported diagnosis of a sleep disorder...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038480/commentary-educational-and-clinical-training-for-addressing-tobacco-related-cancer-health-disparities
#16
EDITORIAL
Christine E Sheffer, Monica Webb Hooper, Jamie S Ostroff
In the United States, tobacco use is a leading contributor to inequities in cancer health among individuals for many ethnic, racial, sexual minority, and other minority groups as well as individuals in lower socioeconomic groups and other underserved populations. Despite remarkable decreases in tobacco use prevalence rates in the United States over the past 50 years, the benefits of tobacco control efforts are not equitably distributed. Tobacco-related disparities include higher prevalence rates of smoking, lower rates of quitting, less robust responses to standard evidence-based treatments, substandard tobacco treatment delivery by health care providers, and an increased burden of tobacco-related cancers and other diseases...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038479/the-association-between-menthol-perceptions-and-support-for-a-policy-ban-among-us-smokers
#17
Jessica M Rath, Marisa Greenberg, Lindsay Pitzer, Brittany Emelle, Molly Green, Shiyang Michael Liu, Jeffrey Willett, Shyanika W Rose, Elizabeth C Hair, Donna Vallone
Objective: To examine the relationship between menthol perceptions and support for a national menthol ban. Participants: Data were collected from a nationally representative probability-based panel of adults aged ≥18 years during June 21, 2016 through July 18, 2016. A total of 1,303 respondents, including an oversample of 300 African Americans, completed the survey. Main Outcome Measures: Weighted logistic regression models examined the relationship between menthol perceptions, specifically related to health and addiction, and the outcome measure: support for a menthol ban, by menthol smoking status...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038478/educating-hispanic-women-about-cervical-cancer-prevention-feasibility-of-a-promotora-led-charla-intervention-in-a-farmworker-community
#18
Khaliah Fleming, Vani N Simmons, Shannon M Christy, Steven K Sutton, Margarita Romo, John S Luque, Kristen J Wells, Clement K Gwede, Cathy D Meade
Hispanic women suffer disproportionately from cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared with non-Hispanic Whites in the United States. Peer-led health education and coaching via charlas (talking circles) may improve cervical cancer screening and early detection rates among specific sub-groups such as farmworker communities. This pilot study sought to collect preliminary evaluation data about the feasibility of implementing a promotora-led cervical cancer education intervention among women from a farmworker community...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038477/to-text-or-not-to-text-technology-based-cessation-communication-preferences-among-urban-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-smokers
#19
Kassandra I Alcaraz, Kara Riehman, Rhyan Vereen, Jeuneviette Bontemps-Jones, J Lee Westmaas
Objective: Effective smoking cessation interventions are needed to reduce tobacco-related disparities. Communication technology-based interventions are increasingly being employed to help smokers quit, with controlled research demonstrating efficacy of text messaging and email in increasing abstinence. Understanding preferences for such strategies among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers can inform targeted intervention planning. The aims of this study were to: 1) examine socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' use of and access to communication technology; and 2) elucidate preferences for receiving quitting information and support via email and text message...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038476/comparison-of-e-cigarette-use-among-menthol-and-non-menthol-smokers-findings-from-a-community-based-sample
#20
Monica Webb Hooper, Sabrina L Smiley
Objective: E-cigarette use is increasing among adult cigarette smokers. With the availability and variety of appealing characteristics, including menthol flavor, e-cigarette use patterns may differ among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. This study compared e-cigarette knowledge and use between current menthol and non-menthol smokers aged ≥18 years. Design: Current adult cigarette smokers (N=223; M=42.1 years; SD=12.2; 68% menthol smokers) recruited in South Florida completed an interviewer-administered survey via telephone during June to November 2014...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
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