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Raul Chavez-Valdez, Paul Emerson, Janasha Goffigan-Holmes, Alfredo Kirkwood, Lee J Martin, Frances J Northington
Delayed hippocampal injury and memory impairments follow neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) despite the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Death of hippocampal pyramidal cells occurs acutely after HI, but characterization of delayed cell death and injury of interneurons (INs) is unknown. We hypothesize that injury of INs after HI is: i) asynchronous to that of pyramidal cells, ii) independent of injury severity, and iii) unresponsive to TH. HI was induced in C57BL6 mice at p10 with unilateral right carotid ligation and 45 min of hypoxia (FiO2 =0...
May 21, 2018: Hippocampus
Blake S Porter, Robert Schmidt, David K Bilkey
Effective navigation relies on knowledge of one's environment. A challenge to effective navigation is accounting for the time and energy costs of routes. Irregular terrain in ecological environments poses a difficult navigational problem as organisms ought to avoid effortful slopes to minimize travel costs. Route planning and navigation have previously been shown to involve hippocampal place cells and their ability to encode and store information about an organism's environment. However, little is known about how place cells may encode the slope of space and associated energy costs as experiments are traditionally carried out in flat, horizontal environments...
May 21, 2018: Hippocampus
Fernanda Troyner, Maira A Bicca, Leandro J Bertoglio
The thalamic nucleus reuniens (NR) has been shown to support bidirectional medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampus communication and synchronization relevant for cognitive processing. Using non-selective or prolonged inactivation of the NR, previous studies reported its activity positively modulates aversive memory consolidation. Here we examined the NR's role in consolidating contextual fear memories with varied strength, at both recent and more remote time points, using muscimol-induced temporary inactivation in rats...
May 10, 2018: Hippocampus
Mary Youssef, Varsha S Krish, Greer S Kirshenbaum, Piray Atsak, Tamara J Lass, Sophie R Lieberman, E David Leonardo, Alex Dranovsky
Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
S C Barnett, B A L Perry, J C Dalrymple-Alford, L C Parr-Brownlie
Technology allowing genetically targeted cells to be modulated by light has revolutionised neuroscience in the past decade, and given rise to the field of optogenetic stimulation. For this, non-native, light activated proteins (e.g. channelrhodopsin) are expressed in a specific cell phenotype (e.g. glutamatergic neurons) in a subset of central nervous system nuclei, and short pulses of light of a narrow wavelength (e.g. blue, 473 nm) are used to modulate cell activity. Cell activity can be increased or decreased depending on which light activated protein is used...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
John C Dalrymple-Alford, Brook A L Perry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
Claire R Galloway, Kaushik Ravipati, Suyashi Singh, Evan P Lebois, Robert M Cohen, Allan I Levey, Joseph R Manns
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that disproportionately impacts memory and the hippocampus. However, it is unclear how AD pathology influences the activity of surviving neurons in the hippocampus to contribute to the memory symptoms in AD. One well-understood connection between spatial memory and neuronal activity in healthy brains is the activity of place cells, neurons in the hippocampus that fire preferentially in a specific location of a given environment (the place field of the place cell)...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
Kenneth Kay, Loren M Frank
Contemporary brain research seeks to understand how cognition is reducible to neural activity. Crucially, much of this effort is guided by a scientific paradigm that views neural activity as essentially driven by external stimuli. In contrast, recent perspectives argue that this paradigm is by itself inadequate, and that understanding patterns of activity intrinsic to the brain is needed to explain cognition. Yet despite this critique, the stimulus-driven paradigm still dominates - possibly because a convincing alternative has not been clear...
May 3, 2018: Hippocampus
Gabriel Herrera-López, Emilio J Galván
In addition to its prominent role as an energetic substrate in the brain, lactate is emerging as a signaling molecule capable of controlling neuronal excitability. The finding that the lactate-activated receptor (hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1; HCA1) is widely expressed in the brain opened up the possibility that lactate exerts modulation of neuronal activity via a transmembranal receptor-linked mechanism. Here, we show that lactate causes biphasic modulation of the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells...
April 27, 2018: Hippocampus
Sergej Wuethrich, Deborah E Hannula, Fred W Mast, Katharina Henke
Our episodic memory stores what happened when and where in life. Episodic memory requires the rapid formation and flexible retrieval of where things are located in space. Consciousness of the encoding scene is considered crucial for episodic memory formation. Here, we question the necessity of consciousness and hypothesize that humans can form unconscious episodic memories. Participants were presented with subliminal scenes, i.e., scenes invisible to the conscious mind. The scenes displayed objects at certain locations for participants to form unconscious object-in-space memories...
April 27, 2018: Hippocampus
Bihua Bie, Jiang Wu, Joseph F Foss, Mohamed Naguib
Silent glutamatergic synapses lacking functional AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionate) receptors exist in several brain regions including the hippocampus. Their involvement in the dysfunction of hippocampal glutamatergic transmission in the setting of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown. The present study demonstrated a decrease in the percentage of silent synapses in rats microinjected with amyloid fibrils (Aβ1-40 ) into the hippocampal CA1. Also, pairing low-frequency electric stimuli failed to induce activation of the hippocampal silent synapses in the modeled rats...
April 27, 2018: Hippocampus
Martin Riemer, Jonathan Shine, Thomas Wolbers
Cross-dimensional interference between spatial and temporal processing is well documented in humans, but the direction of these interactions remains unclear. The theory of metaphoric structuring states that space is the dominant concept influencing time perception, whereas time has little effect upon the perception of space. In contrast, theories proposing a common neuronal mechanism representing magnitudes argue for a symmetric interaction between space and time perception. Here, we investigated space-time interactions in realistic, large-scale virtual environments...
April 23, 2018: Hippocampus
Seralynne Vann, Andrew Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Hippocampus
Anne Rifkin-Graboi, Jeffry Quan, Jenny Richmond, Shaun Kok Yew Goh, Lit Wee Sim, Yap Seng Chong, Jean Francois-Bureau, Helen Chen, Anqi Qiu
Poor early life care often relates to cognitive difficulties. However, newer work suggests that in early-life, adversity may associate with enhanced or accelerated neurodevelopment. We examine associations between postnatal caregiving risks (i.e., higher self-reported postnatal-anxiety and lower observed maternal sensitivity) and infant relational memory (i.e. via deferred imitation and relational binding). Using subsamples of 67-181 infants (aged 433-477 post-conceptual days, or roughly five to seven months since birth) taking part in the GUSTO study, we found such postnatal caregiving risk significantly predictive of "better" performance on a relational binding task following a brief delay, after Bonferroni adjustments...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Rose-Marie Karlsson, Alice S Wang, Anup N Sonti, Heather A Cameron
Decreased motivation to seek rewards is a key feature of mood disorders that correlates with severity and treatment outcome. This anhedonia, or apathy, likely reflects impairment in reward circuitry, but the specific neuronal populations controlling motivation are unclear. Granule neurons generated in the adult hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, but are not generally considered as part of reward circuits. We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Ina P Pavlova, Shannon C Shipley, Marcos Lanio, René Hen, Christine A Denny
Recent genetic tools have allowed researchers to visualize and manipulate memory traces (i.e. engrams) in small brain regions. However, the ultimate goal is to visualize memory traces across the entire brain in order to better understand how memories are stored in neural networks and how multiple memories may coexist. Intact tissue clearing and imaging is a new and rapidly growing area of focus that could accomplish this task. Here, we utilized the leading protocols for whole-brain clearing and applied them to the ArcCreERT2 mice, a murine line that allows for the indelible labeling of memory traces...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Yutaka Kosaki, John M Pearce, Anthony McGregor
Previous studies have suggested that spatial navigation can be achieved with at least two distinct learning processes, involving either cognitive map-like representations of the local environment, referred to as the "place strategy", or simple stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the "response strategy". A similar distinction between cognitive/behavioural processes has been made in the context of non-spatial, instrumental conditioning, with the definition of two processes concerning the sensitivity of a given behaviour to the expected value of its outcome as well as to the response-outcome contingency ("goal-directed action" and "S-R habit")...
April 10, 2018: Hippocampus
Saichiro Yagi, Hideyoshi Igata, Yu Shikano, Yuki Aoki, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
Spike rates of a hippocampal place cell are not constant and vary even when an animal visits an identical place field with nearly identical behavior. As one potential neurophysiological source underlying place cell spiking variability, we focused on the temporally fluctuating activity states of neuronal ensembles. Spike patterns of hippocampal neurons were recorded from rats performing a linear track task. Within a single consummatory period, similar sets of neurons were more frequently recruited in synchronous firing events, whereas different synchronized firing patterns of neuronal populations tended to be identified in different consummatory periods...
April 10, 2018: Hippocampus
Jesvin S Madan, Kanika Gupta, Sumantra Chattarji, Aditi Bhattacharya
Stress is known to cause contrasting patterns of morphological and physiological plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. An obligatory cellular process underlying such neural changes is de novo translation and alterations in protein expression. Yet the nature of the translational response to stress in neurons remains largely unexplored. Even less is known about how glia are affected. Using a click-chemistry-based method to label the de novo proteome in live brain slices, we monitored translation in neurons and astrocytes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampal area CA3 (dCA3) in rats at different time-points after a single 2-hour exposure to immobilization stress...
April 7, 2018: Hippocampus
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