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Dainan Zhang, Baozhe Jin, Tomas Ondrejcak, Michael J Rowan
Aggregated amyloid ß-protein (Aß) is pathognomonic of Alzheimer's disease and certain assemblies of Aß are synaptotoxic. Excess glutamate or diminished glutathione reserve are both implicated in mediating or modulating Aß-induced disruption of synaptic plasticity. The system xc- antiporter promotes Na(+) -independent exchange of cystine with glutamate thereby providing a major source of extracellular glutamate and intracellular glutathione concentrations. Here we probed the ability of two drugs with opposite effects on system xc-, the inhibitor sulfasalazine and facilitator N-acetylcysteine, to modulate the ability of Aß1-42 to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the anaesthetized rat...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Fatemeh S Mojabi, Atoossa Fahimi, Shahrzad Moghadam, Sarah Moghadam, M Windy McNerneny, Ravikumar Ponnusamy, Alexander Kleschevnikov, William C Mobley, Ahmad Salehi
It has been suggested that increased GABAergic innervation in the hippocampus plays a significant role in cognitive dysfunction in Down syndrome (DS). Bolstering this notion, are studies linking hyper-innervation of the dentate gyrus (DG) by GABAergic terminals to failure in LTP induction in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Here, we used extensive morphometrical methods to assess the status of GABAergic interneurons in the DG of young and old Ts65Dn mice and their 2N controls. We detected an age-dependent increase in GABAergic innervation of dentate granule cells (DGCs) in Ts65Dn mice...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Edith Lesburguères, Fraser T Sparks, Kally C O'Reilly, André A Fenton
Training in the active place avoidance task changes hippocampus synaptic function, the dynamics of hippocampus local field potentials, place cell discharge, and active place avoidance memory is maintained by persistent PKMζ activity. The extent to which these changes reflect memory processes and/or stress responses is unknown. We designed a study to assess stress within the active place avoidance task by measuring serum corticosterone (CORT) at different stages of training. CORT levels did not differ between trained mice that learned to avoid the location of the mild foot shock, and untrained no-shock controls exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Marna Eliana Sakalem, Thomas Seidenbecher, Mingyue Zhang, Roja Saffari, Mykola Kravchenko, Stephanie Wördemann, Kai Diederich, Jens C Schwamborn, Weiqi Zhang, Oliver Ambrée
It is well known that adult neurogenesis occurs in two distinct regions, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone along the walls of the lateral ventricles. Until now, the contribution of these newly born neurons to behavior and cognition is still uncertain. The current study tested the functional impacts of diminished hippocampal neurogenesis on emotional and cognitive functions in transgenic Gfap-tk mice. Our results showed that anxiety-related behavior evaluated both in the elevated plus maze as well as in the open field, social interaction in the sociability test, and spatial working memory in the spontaneous alternation test were not affected...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
J M Reichel, B T Bedenk, M Czisch, C T Wotjak
Even in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases, progressing age often coincides with cognitive decline and morphological changes. However, longitudinal studies that directly link these two processes are missing. In this proof-of-concept study we therefore performed repeated within-subject testing of healthy male R26R mice in a spatial learning task in combination with manganese-enhanced volumetric MRI analyses at the ages of 8, 16, and 24 months. We grouped the mice into good and poor performers (n = 6, each), based on their spatial learning abilities at the age of 24 months...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Rizwan Ul Haq, Marlene Anderson, Agustin Liotta, Maria Shafiq, Muhammad Azhar Sherkheli, Uwe Heinemann
Norepinephrine, is involved in the enhancement of learning and memory formation by regulating synaptic mechanisms through its ability to activate pre- and post-synaptic adrenergic receptors. Here we show that β-agonists of norepinephrine facilitate the induction of both associational LTP and sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) in acute slices of rat hippocampus in area CA3. Surprisingly, this facilitating effect persists when slices are only pretreated with β-receptor agonists followed by wash out and application of the unspecific β-adrenoreceptor (βAR) antagonist propranolol...
October 3, 2016: Hippocampus
Enrique I Gracian, David C Osmon, Katie E Mosack
Transverse patterning is a learning and memory adaptation of the 'rock/paper/scissors' problem that has been though to depend on the hippocampus, is sensitive to aging, and requires pattern separation to solve. Previous investigators dichotomized cognitively normal older adults who passed a cognitive screening into impaired and unimpaired subsets, and found that impaired older adults were disproportionately deficient in pattern separation abilities. However, this variability in pattern separation ability has not been examined using a transverse patterning task...
September 22, 2016: Hippocampus
Jenny Molet, Pamela M Maras, Eli Kinney-Lang, Neil G Harris, Faisal Rashid, Autumn S Ivy, Ana Solodkin, Andre Obenaus, Tallie Z Baram
Memory and related cognitive functions are progressively impaired in a subgroup of individuals experiencing childhood adversity and stress. However, it is not possible to identify vulnerable individuals early, a crucial step for intervention. In this study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intra-hippocampal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were employed to examine for structural signatures of cognitive adolescent vulnerabilities in a rodent model of early-life adversity. These methods were complemented by neuroanatomical and functional assessments of hippocampal network integrity during adolescence, adulthood and middle-age...
September 22, 2016: Hippocampus
Yasuro Atoji, Sonjoy Sarkar, J Martin Wild
The avian hippocampal formation differs considerably from that of mammals both in terms of position and cytoarchitecture. On the basis of fiber connections in pigeons, however, we previously proposed that the dorsomedial subdivision (DM) and the V-shaped layer of the hippocampal formation correspond to Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus of mammals, respectively. In the present study, we provide evidence in support of this hypothesis by double staining hippocampal neurons using tract-tracing and gene expression...
September 22, 2016: Hippocampus
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, György Buzsáki, Antal Berényi
It is well-established that the feed-forward connected main hippocampal areas, CA3, CA2 and CA1 work cooperatively during spatial navigation and memory. These areas are similar in terms of the prevalent types of neurons; however, they display different spatial coding and oscillatory dynamics. Understanding the temporal dynamics of these operations requires simultaneous recordings from these regions. However, simultaneous recordings from multiple regions and subregions in behaving animals have become possible only recently...
September 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Celia O Fidalgo, Alana T Changoor, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Andy C H Lee, Morgan D Barense
There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of memory deficits that occur in the early stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI has been associated with atrophy to regions that process objects, namely perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortices. However, it is currently unclear whether older adults with early MCI will show memory deficits that are specific to objects, or whether they will also show memory deficits for other stimulus classes, such as scenes. We tested 75 older adults using an object and scene recognition task with stimulus-specific interference (i...
September 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Kazuki Okamoto, Yuki Takagi, Yuji Ikegaya
The CA2 region is unique in the hippocampus; it receives direct synaptic innervations from several hypothalamic nuclei and expresses various receptors of neuromodulators, including adenosine, vasopressin, and oxytocin. Furthermore, the CA2 region may have distinct brain functions, such as the control of instinctive and social behaviors; however, little is known about the dynamics of the subthreshold membrane potentials of CA2 neurons in vivo. We conducted whole-cell current-clamp recordings from CA2 pyramidal cells in urethane-anesthetized mice and monitored the intrinsic fluctuations in their membrane potentials...
September 20, 2016: Hippocampus
L Matthew Law, David A Bulkin, David M Smith
Hippocampal neurons exhibit spatially localized firing patterns that, at the population level, represent a particular environment or context. Many studies have examined how hippocampal neurons switch from an existing representation to a new one when the environment is changed, a process referred to as remapping. New representations were commonly thought to emerge rapidly, within a few minutes and then remain remarkably stable thereafter. However, a number of recent studies suggest that hippocampal representations may be more fluid than previously thought and most of the previous studies only required that subjects switch from a familiar environment to a novel one...
September 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Stylianos Kouvaros, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The hippocampal synapses display a conspicuous ability for long-term plasticity, which is thought to contribute to learning and memory. Previous research has shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) greatly differs between the dorsal (DH) and ventral (VH) CA1 hippocampal synapses when induced by high-frequency stimulation. In this study, using rat hippocampal slices and more physiologically relevant activity patterns based on the frequency of the theta rhythm (i.e., theta-burst stimulation, TBS) we found that the DH compared with the VH displayed a higher ability for induction and stability of NMDA receptor-dependent LTP of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential...
September 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Eric D Melonakos, John A White, Fernando R Fernandez
Hippocampal network oscillations are important for learning and memory. Theta rhythms are involved in attention, navigation, and memory encoding, whereas sharp wave-ripple complexes are involved in memory consolidation. Cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DB) influence both types of hippocampal oscillations, promoting theta rhythms and suppressing sharp wave-ripples. They also receive frequency-dependent hyperpolarizing feedback from hippocamposeptal connections, potentially affecting their role as neuromodulators in the septohippocampal circuit...
September 2, 2016: Hippocampus
Maya Sapiurka, Larry R Squire, Robert E Clark
In earlier work, patients with hippocampal damage successfully path integrated, apparently by maintaining spatial information in working memory. In contrast, rats with hippocampal damage were unable to path integrate, even when the paths were simple and working memory might have been expected to support performance. We considered possible ways to understand these findings. We tested rats with either hippocampal lesions or lesions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on three tasks of spatial or nonspatial memory: path integration, spatial alternation, and a nonspatial alternation task...
August 31, 2016: Hippocampus
Dávid Csabai, László Seress, Zsófia Varga, Hajnalka Ábrahám, Attila Miseta, Ove Wiborg, Boldizsár Czéh
Stress can alter the number and morphology of excitatory synapses in the hippocampus, but nothing is known about the effect of stress on inhibitory synapses. Here, we used an animal model for depression, the chronic mild stress model, and quantified the number of perisomatic inhibitory neurons and their synapses. We found reduced density of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons in response to stress, while the density of cholecystokinin-immunoreactive (CCK+) neurons was unaffected. We did a detailed electron microscopic analysis to quantify the frequency and morphology of perisomatic inhibitory synapses in the hippocampal CA1 area...
August 29, 2016: Hippocampus
Timothy J Schoenfeld, Hayley C McCausland, Anup N Sonti, Heather A Cameron
Physical exercise reduces anxiety-like behavior in adult mice. The specific mechanisms that mediate this anxiolytic effect are unclear, but adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus has been implicated because it is robustly increased by running and has been linked to anxiodepressive-like behavior. We therefore tested the effects of long-term wheel running on anxiety-like behavior in GFAP-TK (TK) mice, a transgenic mouse with completely ablated neurogenesis. Five weeks of running reduced anxiety-like behavior equally in both TK mice and wild type (WT) control mice on two tests of anxiety-like behavior, elevated plus-maze and novelty-suppressed feeding...
August 29, 2016: Hippocampus
Phillip Aitken, Alice Benoit, Yiwen Zheng, Bruno Philoxene, Anne Le Gall, Pierre Denise, Stephane Besnard, Paul F Smith
Permanent vestibular loss has detrimental effects on the hippocampus, resulting in a disruption to spatial learning and memory, hippocampal theta rhythm and place cell field spatial coherence. Little is known about the vestibular system-related hippocampal cholinergic transmission. Since the pharmacological blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors within the hippocampus produces deficits in learning and memory, we hypothesized that ACh receptors may at least partly support the integration of vestibular input...
August 29, 2016: Hippocampus
Fabian C Roth, Katinka M Beyer, Martin Both, Andreas Draguhn, Alexei V Egorov
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a critical component of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system. Local networks within the MTL express a variety of state-dependent network oscillations that are believed to organize neuronal activity during memory formation. The peculiar pattern of sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) entrains neurons by a very fast oscillation at ∼200 Hz in the hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 and then propagates through the "output loop" into the EC. The precise mechanisms of SPW-R propagation and the resulting cellular input patterns in the mEC are, however, largely unknown...
August 1, 2016: Hippocampus
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