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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Xue-Feng Chen, Cheng-Peng Yu, Shuangchun Li, Xingwei Li, Qiongguan Liu
Dickeya zeae is a globally important pathogenic bacterium that infects a number of crops, including rice, maize, potato, and banana. Bacterial foot rot of rice caused by D. zeae is one of the most important bacterial diseases of rice in China and some Southeast Asian countries. To investigate the functions of integration host factor (IHF) in D. zeae, we generated knockout mutants of ihfA and ihfB. Phenotypic assays showed that both the ΔihfA and ΔihfB strains had greatly reduced mobility, biofilm formation, extracellular protease and pectinase activities, and toxin production compared with the wild-type strain...
September 18, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zunyong Liu, Na Liu, Huixian Jiang, Leiyan Yan, Zhonghua Ma, Yanni Yin
The type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) are holoenzymes in all eukaryotes but their activators remain unknown in filamentous fungi. Fusarium graminearum contains three PP2As (FgPp2A, FgSit4, and FgPpg1), which play critical roles in fungal growth, development, and virulence. Here, we identified two PP2A activators (PTPAs), FgRrd1 and FgRrd2, and found that they control PP2A activity in a PP2A-specific manner. FgRrd1 interacts with FgPpg1, but FgRrd2 interacts with FgPp2A and very weakly with FgSit4. Furthermore, FgRrd2 activates FgPp2A via regulating FgPp2A methylation...
September 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Morgan E Carter, Adam J Bogdanove, Roger W Innes, Roger P Wise
This letter describes a newly discovered confounding effect of bacterial titer in a previously published type III delivery-based assay of the fungal effector BEC1019. The original publication (Whigham et al. 2015) has been retracted as a consequence of this discovery. Here, we tabulate the affected and unaffected figures and conclusions in the original publication and briefly reflect on potential pitfalls to bear in mind when designing experiments that use bacterial type III secretion to characterize eukaryotic effectors...
September 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Susan Schröpfer, Christoph Böttcher, Thomas Wöhner, Klaus Richter, John Norelli, Erik H A Rikkerink, Magda-Viola Hanke, Henryk Flachowsky
The AvrRpt2EA effector protein of Erwinia amylovora is important for pathogen recognition in the fire blight-resistant crabapple Malus × robusta 5; however, little is known about its role in susceptible apples. To study its function in planta, we expressed a plant-optimized version of AvrRpt2EA driven by a heat shock-inducible promoter in transgenic plants of the fire blight-susceptible cultivar Pinova. After induced expression of AvrRpt2EA , transgenic lines showed shoot necrosis and browning of older leaves, with symptoms similar to natural fire blight infections...
September 11, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Mohammad Djavaheri, Lisong Ma, Daniel F Klessig, Axel Mithöfer, Gordon Gropp, M Hossein Borhan
The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in defense against biothrophic pathogens such as Plasmodiophora brassicae (Pb) which is an obligate pathogen of crucifer species and the causal agent of clubroot disease of canola (Brassica napus). Pb encodes a protein, predicted to be secreted, with very limited homology to benzoic acid (BA)/SA -methyltransferase (MT) designated PbBSMT. PbBSMT has a SA- and an IAA-binding domain, which are also present in Arabidopsis thaliana BSMT1 (AtBSMT1), and these domains in PbBSMT methylate BA and SA...
September 10, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chunting Wang, Tianxin Pu, Wangying Lou, Yujie Wang, Zishu Gao, Baishi Hu, Jiaqin Fan
Hfq is a RNA chaperone and participates in a wide range of cellular processes and pathways. In this study, mutation of hfq gene from Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum PccS1 led to significantly reduced virulence and plant cell wall-degrading enzyme (PCWDE) activities. In addition, the mutant exhibited decreased biofilm formation and motility and greatly attenuated carbapenem production as well as secretion of hemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) as compared with wild-type strain PccS1. Moreover, a higher level of callose deposition was induced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves when infiltrated with the mutant...
September 10, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Miryam Pérez-Cañamás, Carmen Hernández
Despite the fact that replication of plus-strand RNA viruses takes place in the cytoplasm of host cells, different proteins encoded by these infectious agents have been shown to localize in the nucleus, with high accumulation at the nucleolus. In most cases, the molecular determinants or biological significance of such subcellular localization remains elusive. Recently, we reported that protein p37 encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae) acts in both RNA packaging and RNA silencing suppression...
September 10, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chongjing Xia, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Omar E Cornejo, Scot H Hulbert, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici causes devastating stripe (yellow) rust on wheat and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei causes stripe rust on barley. Several P. striiformis f. sp. tritici genomes are available, but no P. striiformis f. sp. hordei genome is available. More genomes of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei are needed to understand the genome evolution and molecular mechanisms of their pathogenicity. We sequenced P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolate 93-210 and P. striiformis f...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ekaterina Gubaeva, Airat Gubaev, Rebecca L J Melcher, Stefan Cord-Landwehr, Ratna Singh, Nour Eddine El Gueddari, Bruno M Moerschbacher
Chitin, a linear polymer of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, and chitosans, fully or partially deacetylated derivatives of chitin, are known to elicit defense reactions in higher plants. We compared the ability of chitin and chitosan oligomers and polymers (chitin oligomers with degree of polymerization [DP] 3 to 8; chitosan oligomers with degree of acetylation [DA] 0 to 35% and DP 3 to 15; chitosan polymers with DA 1 to 60% and DP approximately 1,300) to elicit an oxidative burst indicative of induced defense reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings...
September 5, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Weiwei Rao, Xiaohong Zheng, Bingfang Liu, Qin Guo, Jianping Guo, Yan Wu, Xinxin Shangguan, Huiying Wang, Di Wu, Zhizheng Wang, Liang Hu, Chunxue Xu, Weihua Jiang, Jin Huang, Shaojie Shi, Guangcun He
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a phloem sap-feeding insect. During the feeding on rice plant, BPH secretes salivary proteins with potential effector functions, which may play a critical role in the plant-insect interactions. However, a limited number of BPH effector proteins have been identified to date. Here, we sequenced the salivary gland transcriptomes of five BPH populations and subsequently established a N. lugens secretome consisting of 1140 protein-encoding genes. Secretome analysis revealed the presence of both conserved and rapidly evolving salivary proteins...
August 31, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Nicolas M Cecchini, Suruchi Roychoudhry, Dequantarius J Speed, Kevin Steffes, Arjun Tambe, Kristin Zodrow, Katerina Konstantinoff, Ho Won Jung, Nancy Engle, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Jean Greenberg
Local interactions between individual plant organs and diverse microorganisms can lead to whole plant immunity via the mobilization of defense signals. One such signal is the plastid lipid-derived oxylipin azelaic acid (AZA). Arabidopsis lacking AZI1 or EARLI1, related lipid transfer family proteins, exhibit reduced AZA transport among leaves and cannot mount systemic immunity. AZA has been detected in roots as well as leaves. Therefore, the present study addresses the effects on plants of AZA application to roots...
August 29, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chunyan Zhang, Mingfa Lv, Wenfang Yin, Tingyan Dong, Changqing Chang, Yansong Miao, Yantao Jia, Yinyue Deng
The plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) produces diffusible signal factor (DSF) quorum sensing (QS) signals to regulate its biological functions and virulence. Our previous study showed that Xcc utilizes host plant metabolites to enhance the biosynthesis of DSF-family signals. However, it is unclear how Xcc bene-fits from the metabolic products of the host plant. In this study, we observed that the host plant metabolites not only boosted the production of the DSF-family signals but also modulated the expression levels of DSF-regulated genes in Xcc...
August 29, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Padmaja Nagabhyru, Randy D Dinkins, Christopher Schardl
Epichloë species are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of cool season grasses that transmit vertically via inflorescence primordia (IP), ovaries (OV) and, ultimately, embryos. Epichloë coenophiala, an endophyte of tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus), provides multiple protective benefits to the grass. We conducted transcriptome analysis of the tall fescue-E. coenophiala symbiosis, comparing IP, OV, vegetative pseudostems (PS), and the lemma and palea (bracts) of the young floret (LP). Transcriptomes of host OV and PS exhibited almost no significant differences attributable to endophyte presence or absence...
August 26, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Myeongjin Jo, Kum-Kang So, Yo-Han Ko, Jeesun Chun, Jung-Mi Kim, Dae-Hyuk Kim
We identified a protein spot showing down-regulation in the presence of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) and tannic acid supplementation as a septin subunit with the highest homology to the Aspergillus nidulans aspA gene, an ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc11 gene. To analyze the functional role of this septin component (CpSep1), we constructed its null mutant and obtained a total of eight CpSep1-null mutants from 137 transformants. All CpSep1-null mutants showed retarded growth with fewer aerial mycelia and intense pigmentation on PDAmb plates...
August 22, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Dandan Zhang, Caijuan Tian, Kangquan Yin, Wenyi Wang, Jin-Long Qiu
Stomata are leaf pores that regulate gas exchange and water transpiration in response to environmental cues. They also function in innate immunity by limiting pathogen entry through actively closing in so-called stomatal defense. However, roles of stomata in plant disease resistance are not fully elucidated, especially in monocots. Here we report that non-race-specific resistance of the rice ABA deficient mutant Osaba1 to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzea (Xoo) is due to increased stomatal conductance. Reducing stomatal conductance in the Osaba1 mutant increases its susceptibility to Xoo...
August 20, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kanchan Karmakar, Anindya Kundu, Ahsan Zaigam Rizvi, Emeric Dubois, Dany Severac, Pierre Czernic, Fabienne Cartieaux, Maitrayee DasGupta
In root-nodule symbiosis, rhizobial invasion and nodule organogenesis is host controlled. In most legumes, rhizobia enter through infection-threads and nodule primordium in the cortex is induced from a distance. But in dalbergoid legumes like Arachis hypogaea, rhizobia directly invade cortical cells through epidermal cracks to generate the primordia. Herein we report the transcriptional dynamics with the progress of symbiosis in A. hypogaea at 1dpi: invasion; 4dpi: nodule primordia; 8dpi: spread of infection in nodule-like structure; 12dpi: immature nodules containing rod-shaped rhizobia; and 21dpi: mature nodules with spherical symbiosomes...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Satyanarayana Tatineni, Jeff Alexander, Adarsh K Gupta, Roy French
Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), distinct members in the family Potyviridae, are economically important wheat-infecting viruses in the Great Plains region. Previously, we reported that co-infection of wheat by WSMV and TriMV cause disease synergism with increased concentration of both viruses. The mechanisms of synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV and the effects of prior infection of wheat by either of these 'synergistically interacting partner' (SIP) viruses on the establishment of local and systemic infection by the other SIP virus are not known...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Alberto Carbonell, Carmelo López, José-Antonio Daròs
Artificial small RNAs (sRNAs), including artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs), are used to silence viral RNAs and confer antiviral resistance in plants. Here, the combined use of recent high-throughput methods for generating artificial sRNA constructs and the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)-Nicotiana benthamiana pathosystem allowed for the simple and rapid identification of amiRNAs with high anti-TSWV activity. A comparative analysis between the most effective amiRNA construct and a syn-tasiRNA construct including the four most effective amiRNA sequences showed that both were highly effective against two different TSWV isolates...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Maged M Saad, Sophie Michalet, Romain K Fossou, Marina Putnik-Delić, Michèle Crèvecoeur, Julien Meyer, Chloé De Malézieux, Gérard Hopfgartner, Ivana Maksimovic, Xavier Perret
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation between legumes and rhizobia involves a coordinated expression of many plant and bacterial genes as well as finely tuned metabolic activities of micro- and macro-symbionts. In spite of such complex interactions, symbiotic proficiency remains a resilient process with host plants apparently capable of compensating for some deficiencies in rhizobia. What controls nodule homeostasis is still poorly understood and probably varies between plant species. In this respect, the promiscuous Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii strain NGR234 has become a model to assess the relative contribution of single gene products to many symbioses...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Cécile Monique Thomas, Romain Mabon, Didier Andrivon, Florence Val
Phytophthora infestans causes the devastating potato late blight disease which is widely controlled with fungicides. However, the debate of chemical control is fueling a promotion towards alternative methods. In this context, the enhancement of natural plant immunity could be a strategy for more sustainable protection. We previously demonstrated that a Concentrated Culture Filtrate (CCF) of P.infestans primes defense reactions in potato. They are genotype-dependent, and metabolites produced decrease pathogen growth in vitro but not in vivo on tubers...
July 26, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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