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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Giulia Mandalà, Silvio Tundo, Sara Francesconi, Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Carla Ceoloni, Renato D'Ovidio
Fusarium diseases, including Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Fusarium crown rot (FCR), reduce crop yield and grain quality and are major agricultural problems worldwide. These diseases also affect food safety, through fungal production of hazardous mycotoxins. Among these, deoxynivalenol (DON) acts as a virulence factor during pathogenesis on wheat. The principal mechanism underlying plant tolerance to DON is glycosylation by specific UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs), through which DON-3-β-D-glucoside (D3G) is produced...
November 13, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Bharat Mishra, Nilesh Kumar, M Shahid Mukhtar
Systems biology is an inclusive approach to study the static and dynamic emergent properties on a global scale by integrating multiomics datasets to establish qualitative and quantitative associations among multiple biological components. With an abundance of improved high throughput -omics datasets, network-based analyses and machine learning technologies are playing a pivotal role in comprehensive understanding of biological systems. Network topological features reveal most important nodes within a network as well as prioritize significant molecular components for diverse biological networks, including coexpression, protein-protein interaction, and gene regulatory networks...
November 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Tania Y Toruño, Mingzhe Shen, Gitta Coaker, David Mackey
RIN4 is an intensively studied immune regulator in Arabidopsis and is involved in perception of microbial features outside and bacterial effectors inside plant cells. Furthermore, RIN4 is conserved in land plants and is targeted for posttranslational modifications by several virulence proteins from the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Despite the important roles of RIN4 in plant immune responses, its molecular function is not known. RIN4 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), except at regions where pathogen-induced posttranslational modifications take place...
November 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chunyan Zhang, Mingfa Lv, Wenfang Yin, Tingyan Dong, Changqing Chang, Yansong Miao, Yantao Jia, Yinyue Deng
The plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces diffusible signal factor (DSF) quorum sensing (QS) signals to regulate its biological functions and virulence. Our previous study showed that X. campestris pv. campestris utilizes host plant metabolites to enhance the biosynthesis of DSF family signals. However, it is unclear how X. campestris pv. campestris benefits from the metabolic products of the host plant. In this study, we observed that the host plant metabolites not only boosted the production of the DSF family signals but also modulated the expression levels of DSF-regulated genes in X...
November 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Manuela Campa, Stefano Piazza, Laura Righetti, Chang-Sik Oh, Lorenza Conterno, Ewa Borejsza-Wysocka, Kanchiswamy Chidananda Nagamangala, Steven Vincent Beer, Herbert Sanders Aldwinckle, Mickael Malnoy
Fire blight, a devastating disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a major threat to apple crop production. To improve our understanding of the fire blight disease and to identify potential strategies to control the pathogen, we studied the apple protein HIPM (for HrpN-interacting protein from Malus spp.), which has previously been identified as interacting with the E. amylovora effector protein HrpN. Transgenic apple plants were generated with reduced HIPM expression, using an RNA interference construct, and were subsequently analyzed for susceptibility to E...
November 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Drishti Mandal, Senjuti Sinharoy
Mesorhizobium sp. produces root nodules in chickpea. Chickpea and model legume Medicago truncatula are members of inverted repeat lacking clade (IRLC). The rhizobia after internalization into the plant cell are called 'bacteroid'. Nodule Specific Cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides in IRLC legumes guide bacteroids to a 'terminally differentiated swollen (TDS)' form. Bacteroids in chickpea are less TDS than those in Medicago. Nodule development in chickpea indicates recent evolutionary diversification and merits further study...
November 6, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sayo Kodama, Takumi Nishiuchi, Yasuyuki Kubo
The cucumber anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum orbiculare, forms a specialized infection structure, called an appressorium. Appressorium differentiation relies on fungal perception of physical and biochemical signals at the plant surface. Our previous report showed that the morphogenesis-related NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) kinase pathway (MOR) is crucial for translating plant-derived signals for appressorium development. Here, we focused on identifying transcriptional regulators downstream of MOR that are involved in plant signal sensing and transduction for appressorium development...
November 6, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Viviana Escudero, Miguel Angel Torres, Magdalena Delgado, Sara Sopeña-Torres, Sanjay Swami, Jorge Morales, Antonio Muñoz-Barrios, Hugo Mélida, Alan Jones, Lucia Jordá, Antonio Molina
Genetic ablation of the β-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex in agb1-2 confers defective activation of Molecular-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity, resulting in agb1-2 enhanced susceptibility to pathogens, like the fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina BMM (PcBMM). A mutant screen for suppressors of agb1-2 susceptibility (sgb) to PcBMM identified sgb10, a new null allele ( mkp1-2) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP1). The enhanced susceptibility of agb1-2 to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv...
November 2, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
R V Chowda-Reddy, Nathan Palmer, Serge Edme, Gautham Sarath, Frank Kovacs, Gary Y Yuen, Robert Mitchell, Satyanarayana Tatineni
Panicum mosaic virus (PMV; genus Panicovirus; family Tombusviridae) and its molecular parasite, Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV), synergistically interact in co-infected proso and pearl millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) plants resulting in a severe symptom phenotype. In this study, we examined synergistic interactions between the isolates of PMV and SPMV by using PMV-NE, PMV85, SPMV-KS, and SPMV-Type as interacting partner viruses in different combinations. Co-infection of proso millet plants by PMV-NE and SPMV-KS elicited severe mosaic, chlorosis, stunting, and eventual plant death compared with moderate mosaic, chlorotic streaks, and stunting by PMV85 and SPMV-Type...
October 31, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yuanzheng Wang, Yansha Li, Tabata Rosas-Diaz, Carlos Caceres-Moreno, Rosa Lozano-Duran, Alberto P Macho
A robust regulation of plant immune responses requires a multitude of positive and negative regulators that act in concert. The immune-associated nucleotide-binding (IAN) gene family members are associated with immunity in different organisms, although no characterization of their function has been carried out to date in plants. In this work, we analyzed the expression patterns of IAN genes and found that IAN9 is repressed upon pathogen infection or treatment with immune elicitors. IAN9 encodes a plasma membrane-localized protein that genetically behaves as a negative regulator of immunity...
October 31, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Cécile Thomas, Romain Mabon, Didier Andrivon, Florence Val
Phytophthora infestans causes the devastating potato late blight disease, which is widely controlled with fungicides. However, the debate about chemical control is fueling a promotion toward alternative methods. In this context, the enhancement of natural plant immunity could be a strategy for more sustainable protection. We previously demonstrated that a concentrated culture filtrate (CCF) of P. infestans primes defense reactions in potato. They are genotype-dependent and metabolites produced decrease pathogen growth in vitro but not in vivo on tubers...
October 30, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Pai Li, Brad Day
The plant immune system comprises a complex network of signaling processes, regulated not only by classically defined immune components (e.g., resistance genes) but also by a suite of developmental, environmental, abiotic, and biotic-associated factors. In total, it is the sum of these interactions-the connectivity to a seemingly endless array of environments-that ensures proper activation, and control, of a system that is responsible for cell surveillance and response to threats presented by invading pests and pathogens...
October 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Reza Behzadi Amin, Akbar Karegar, Alireza Afsharifar, Ali Niazi, Mansour Karimi
The beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii causes serious damage and yield losses in numerous important crops worldwide. This study examines the efficacy of three types of transgenic Arabidopsis RNA interference (RNAi) lines to decrease the biological activity of this devastating nematode. The first RNAi construct (E1 E2 -RNAi) targets two nematode endoglucanase genes, which are involved in BCN pathogenicity, the second construct (MSP-RNAi) contains a fragment corresponding to the major sperm protein transcript necessary for BCN development and reproduction, and the third construct (E1 E2 MSP-RNAi) comprises all three target fragments...
October 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Vicente Ramírez, Beatriz González, Ana López, Maria Jose Castelló, Maria José Gil, Bo Zheng, Peng Chen, Pablo Vera
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the most highly modified class of RNA species in all living organisms. Recent discoveries have revealed unprecedented complexity in the tRNA chemical structures, modification patterns, regulation, and function, suggesting that each modified nucleoside in tRNA may have its own specific function. However, in plants, our knowledge of the role of individual tRNA modifications and how they are regulated is very limited. In a genetic screen designed to identify factors regulating disease resistance in Arabidopsis, we identified SUPPRESSOR OF CSB3 9 (SCS9)...
October 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jo Ann E Asselin, Jean M Bonasera, Steven V Beer
Pantoea ananatis, a cause of center rot of onion, is problematic in the United States and elsewhere. The bacterium lacks disease determinants common to most other bacterial pathogens of plants. A genomic island containing the gene pepM was detected within many onion-pathogenic strains of P. ananatis of diverse origins. The pepM gene of P. ananatis putatively encodes a protein that converts phosphoenolpyruvate to phosphonopyruvate, the first step in the biosynthesis of phosphonates and related molecules. This gene appears to be essential for center rot disease...
October 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Longjiao Hu, Xiaoqin Wu, Haiyang Li, Qun Zhao, Yuanchao Wang, Jian-Ren Ye
The pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused serious damage to pine forests in China. Effectors secreted by phytonematodes play a role in host infection. We identified and characterized an effector, BxSapB1, based on the B. xylophilus transcriptome at the early stages of infection and the transient expression of proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. BxSapB1 triggered cell death in N. benthamiana when secreted into the apoplast, and this effect was independent of N. benthamiana brassinosteroid-insensitive 1-associated kinase 1 (NbBAK1) and suppressor of BIR1-1 (NbSOBIR1)...
October 23, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
In Sun Hwang, Eom-Ji Oh, Han Beoyl Lee, Chang-Sik Oh
Diverse plant pathogens secrete cellulases to degrade plant cell walls. Previously, the plasmid-borne cellulase gene, celA was shown to be important for the virulence of the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis in tomato. However, details of the contribution of cellulases to the development of wilting in tomato have not been well determined. To better understand the contribution of cellulases to the virulence of C. michiganensis in tomato, a mutant lacking cellulase activity was generated and complemented with truncated forms of certain cellulase genes, and virulence of those strain was examined...
October 22, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kerry F Pedley, Ajay K Pandey, Amy Ruck, Lori M Lincoln, Steven A Whitham, Michelle A Graham
Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the causal agent of Asian soybean rust. Susceptible soybean plants infected by virulent isolates of P. pachyrhizi are characterized by tan-colored lesions and erumpent uredinia on the leaf surface. Germplasm screening and genetic analyses have led to the identification of seven loci, Rpp1 - Rpp7, that provide varying degrees of resistance to P. pachyrhizi (Rpp). Two genes, Rpp1 and Rpp1b, map to the same region on soybean chromosome 18. Rpp1 is unique among the Rpp genes in that it confers an immune response (IR) to avirulent P...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Melissa Bredow, Jacqueline Monaghan
Activation of Ca2+ signaling is a universal response to stress that allows cells to quickly respond to environmental cues. Fluctuations in cytosolic calcium are decoded in plants by calcium-sensing proteins such as Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). The perception of microbes results in an influx of calcium that activates numerous CDPKs that propagate immune signals required for resistance against disease-causing pathogens. This review describes our current understanding of CDPK activation and regulation, and provides a comprehensive overview of CDPK-mediated immune signaling through interaction with various substrates...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chika Tateda, Kazue Obara, Yoshiko Abe, Reiko Sekine, Syuuichi Nekoduka, Takashi Hikage, Masahiro Nishihara, Ken-Taro Sekine, Koki Fujisaki
Plant stomata represent the main battlefield for host plants and the pathogens that enter plant tissues via stomata. Septoria spp., a group of ascomycete fungi, use host plant stomata for invasion and cause serious damage to agricultural plants. There is no evidence, however, showing the involvement of stomata in defense systems against Septoria infection. In this study, we isolated S. gentianae 20-35 (Sg20-35) from Gentiana triflora (G. triflora) showing gentian leaf blight disease symptoms in the field. Establishment of an infection system using gentian plants cultured in vitro enabled us to observe the Sg20-35 infection process and estimate its virulence in several gentian cultivars/lines...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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