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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Chantal Brosseau, Mohamed El Oirdi, Ayooluwa Adurogbangba, Xiaofang Ma, Peter Moffett
In plants, RNA silencing regulates gene expression through the action of Dicer-like (DCL) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins via micro RNAs and RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM). In addition, RNA silencing functions as an anti-viral defense mechanism by targeting virus-derived double stranded RNA. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins with specialized functions, including AGO4-like proteins, which effect RdDM and AGO2, AGO5 and AGO1, which have antiviral activities. We show here that AGO4 is also required for defense against Plantago asiatica mosaic potexvirus (PlAMV), most likely independent of RdDM components such as DCL3, Pol IV and Pol V...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hari Bhupathi Krishnan, Alaa Alaswad, Nathan Wayne Oehrle, Jason Gillman
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Mengsheng Gao, Hanh T Nguyen, Isai Salas Gonzalez, Max Teplitski
The RNA-binding chaperone Hfq plays a critical role in the establishment and functionality of the symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and its legume hosts. A mutation in hfq reduces symbiotic efficiency resulting in a Fix- phenotype, characterized by the inability of the bacterium to fix nitrogen. At least in part, this is due to the ability of Hfq to regulate the fixLJ operon, which encodes a sensor kinase-response regulator pair that controls expression of the nitrogenase genes. The ability of Hfq to bind fixLJ in vitro and in planta was demonstrated with gel shift and co-immunoprecipitation experiments...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Stefano Pavan, Adalgisa Schiavulli, Angelo Raffaele Marcotrigiano, Nicoletta Bardaro, Valentina Bracuto, Francesca Ricciardi, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Concetta Lotti, Harro Bouwmeester, Luigi Ricciardi
Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a devastating parasitic weed threatening the cultivation of legumes around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East. So far, only moderate levels of resistance were reported to occur in pea (Pisum sativum L.) natural germplasm, and most commercial cultivars are prone to severe infestation. Here, we describe the selection of a pea line highly resistant to O. crenata, following the screening of local genetic resources. Time series observations show that delayed emergence of the parasite is an important parameter associated with broomrape resistance...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
A A Blacutt, T R Mitchell, C W Bacon, S E Gold
The mycotoxigenic pathogen Fusarium verticillioides threatens the quality and utility of maize across industrial and agricultural purposes. Chemical control is complicated by the intimate endophytic lifestyle of the pathogen with its host. Bacillus mojavensis RRC101, a maize-endophytic bacterium, has been observed to reduce F. verticillioides disease severity and fumonisin accumulation when coinoculated to maize. Genome sequencing and annotation identified a number of biocontrol-relevant pathways in RRC101...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ghulam Sahi, Peter E Hedley, Jenny Morris, Gary J Loake, Stuart MacFarlane
Field-grown tubers of potato were examined for infection by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and consequent production of corky ringspot or spraing symptoms. A microarray study identified genes that are differentially expressed in tuber tissue in response to TRV infection and to spraing production, suggesting that hypersensitive response (HR) pathways are activated in spraing-symptomatic tubers. This was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) of a selected group of HR-related genes and by histochemical staining of excised tuber tissue with spraing symptoms...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Silvio Tundo, Michela Janni, Ilaria Moscetti, Giulia Mandalà, Daniel Savatin, Ann Blechl, Francesco Favaron, Renato D'Ovidio
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat worldwide. The pathogen infects the spike at flowering time and causes severe yield losses, deterioration of grain quality, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The understanding of the precise means of pathogen entry and colonization of floral tissue is crucial to providing effective protection against FHB. Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the activity of polygalacturonases (PGs), a class of pectin-depolymerizing enzymes secreted by microbial pathogens, including Fusaria...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Emily E Helliwell, Qin Wang, Yinong Yang
Recent studies have suggested that ethylene enhances host resistance to fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. Among the six ACS genes in rice, OsACS1 and OsACS2 are induced within 24 hours of inoculation by M. oryzae. This induction occurs simultaneously with an increase in ethylene production that is noticeable 12 hours post inoculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the dynamics of ethylene production and signaling in wild type and RNAi-mediated suppression lines deficient in ethylene production (acs2) or signaling (eil1) after challenge with M...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Tianhong Zhou, Chunyan Yin, Yingchao Zhang, Heng Shi, Jingru Wang, Linbo Sun, Xiaolong Shao, Ruxia Gao, Wei Wang, Xin Deng
Pseudomonas syringae depends on the type III secretion system (T3SS) to directly translocate effectors into host cells. Previously, we reported a nonpathogenic rhpS mutant, suggesting that the two-component transduction system rhpRS is an important regulator of T3SS in P. syringae. rhpRS regulates itself and a variety of downstream genes under an inverted repeat element promoter in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Here we identify lon as a suppressor of the rhpS mutant through transposon screening. A lon/rhpS double mutant restored the phenotypes of the rhpS mutant...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Montserrat López-Coria, José Luis Hernández-Mendoza, Sobeida Sanchez-Nieto
Although Trichoderma spp. has beneficial effects on numerous plants, there is not enough knowledge about the mechanism by which it improves plant growth. In this study, we evaluated the participation of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, a key enzyme involved in promoting cell growth, in the elongation induced by T. asperellum and compared it to the effect of 10 µM indol acetic-acid (IAA) because IAA promotes elongation and PM H(+)-ATPase activation. Two seed treatments were tested: biopriming and non-contact...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Aya Shimomura, Ayumi Naka, Nobuyuki Miyazaki, Sayaka Moriuchi, Susumu Arima, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Makoto Hayashi, Maskit Maymon, Ann M Hirsch, Akihiro Suzuki
In many legumes, roots that are exposed to light do not form nodules. Here, we report that blue light inhibits nodulation in Lotus japonicus roots inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti. Using RNA interference, we suppressed the expression of phototropin and cryptochrome genes in L. japonicus hairy roots. Under blue light, plants transformed with an empty vector did not develop nodules, whereas plants exhibiting suppressed expression of cry1 and cry2 genes formed nodules. We also measured rhizobial growth to investigate whether the inhibition of nodulation could be caused by a reduced population of rhizobia in response to light...
September 9, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Qian Zhao, Man Li, Zhenhua Jia, Fang Liu, Hong Ma, Yali Huang, Shuishan Song
N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules used by many Gram-negative bacteria to coordinate their collective behavior in a population. Recent evidences demonstrate their roles in plant root growth and defense responses. AtMYB44 is a multi-faceted transcriptional factor that functions in many physiological processes in plants, but if AtMYB44 modulates the plant response to AHLs with aspect of primary root elongation remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression of AtMYB44 was up-regulated upon treatment with N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL)...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jenjira Wongdee, Pongpan Songwattana, Nico Nouwen, Rujirek Noisangiam, Joël Fardoux, Clemence Chaintreuil, Neung Teaumroong, Panlada Tittabutr, Eric Giraud
Bradyrhizobium sp. strain DOA9 contains two copies of the nifDK genes, nifDKc, located on the chromosome, and nifDKp, located on a symbiotic megaplasmid. Unlike most rhizobia, this bacterium displays nitrogenase activity under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. Transcriptional analysis using gusA reporter strains showed that both nifDK operons were highly expressed under symbiosis, whereas nifDKc was the most abundantly expressed under free-living conditions. During free-living growth, the nifDKp mutation did not affect nitrogenase activity, whereas nitrogenase activity was drastically reduced with the nifDKc mutant...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Omar Paul Arias Gaguancela, Lizbeth Peña Zúñiga, Alexis Vela Arias, Dennis Halterman, Francisco Javier Flores, Ida Elisabeth Johansen, Aiming Wang, Yasuyuki Yamaji, Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz
The inositol requiring enzyme (IRE1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor. When activated, it splices the bZIP60 mRNA producing a truncated transcription factor that upregulates genes involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR). Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1) is another ER stress sensor that regulates cell death in response to environmental assaults. The potyvirus 6K2 and potexvirus TGB3 proteins are known to reside in the ER, serving respectively as anchors for the viral replicase and movement protein complex...
August 31, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Satyanarayana Tatineni, Everlyne N Wosula, Melissa Bartels, Gary L Hein, Robert A Graybosch
Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are economically important viral pathogens of wheat. Wheat cvs. Mace, carrying the Wsm1 gene, is resistant to WSMV and TriMV, and Snowmass, with Wsm2, is resistant to WSMV. Viral resistance in both cultivars is temperature sensitive and is effective at 18°C or below but not at higher temperatures. The underlying mechanisms of viral resistance of Wsm1 and Wsm2, nonallelic single dominant genes, are not known. In this study, we found that fluorescent protein-tagged WSMV and TriMV elicited foci that were approximately similar in number and size at 18 and 24°C, on inoculated leaves of resistant and susceptible wheat cultivars...
September 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yogendra Bordiya, Yi Zheng, Ji-Chul Nam, April C Bonnard, Hyong Woo Choi, Bum-Kyu Lee, Jonghwan Kim, Daniel F Klessig, Zhangjun Fei, Hong-Gu Kang
To assess the role of MORC1 in epigenetics in relation to plant immunity, genome-wide chromatin accessibility was compared between mock- or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato-inoculated wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, the morc1/2 double mutant, or both. Most changes in chromatin accessibility, scored by DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs), were located in the promoters of genes and transposable elements (TEs). Comparisons between morc1/2 and WT receiving the same treatment revealed differential DHSs (dDHSs) predominantly associated with heterochromatic TEs...
September 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sebastián Acosta-Jurado, Cynthia Alias-Villegas, Pilar Navarro-Gómez, Susanne Zehner, Piedad Del Socorro Murdoch, Miguel A Rodríguez-Carvajal, María J Soto, Francisco-Javier Ollero, José E Ruiz-Sainz, Michael Göttfert, José-María Vinardell
Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 is a rhizobial strain showing a broad host range of nodulation. In addition to the induction of bacterial nodulation genes, transition from a free-living to a symbiotic state requires complex genetic expression changes with the participation of global regulators. We have analyzed the role of the zinc-finger transcriptional regulator MucR1 from S. fredii HH103 under both free-living conditions and symbiosis with two HH103 host plants, Glycine max and Lotus burttii. Inactivation of HH103 mucR1 led to a severe decrease in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis but enhanced production of external cyclic glucans (CG)...
September 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
María Isabel Bianco, Laila Toum, Pablo Marcelo Yaryura, Natalia Mielnichuk, Gustavo Eduardo Gudesblat, Roxana Roeschlin, María Rosa Marano, Luis Ielpi, Adrián A Vojnov
Xanthan, the main exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by Xanthomonas spp., contributes to bacterial stress tolerance and enhances attachment to plant surfaces by helping in biofilm formation. Therefore, xanthan is essential for successful colonization and growth in planta and has also been proposed to be involved in the promotion of pathogenesis by calcium ion chelation and, hence, in the suppression of the plant defense responses in which this cation acts as a signal. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between xanthan structure and its role as a virulence factor...
September 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Gholamreza Khaksar, Dian Siswanto, Chairat Treesubsuntorn, Paitip Thiravetyan
This study was conducted to assess the effect of plant-native endophytic bacteria interactions on indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene levels, and hormonal balance of Euphorbia milii under different airborne pollutants. IAA levels and airborne formaldehyde removal by E. milii enhanced when inoculated with endophytic isolates. However, one isolate, designated as root endophyte 4, with the highest levels of IAA production individually, declined gaseous formaldehyde removal of plant, since it disturbed hormonal balance of E...
September 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Georgy Popov, Malou Fraiture, Frederic Brunner, Guido Sessa
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. X. euvesicatoria bacteria interfere with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion (T3S) system. About 35 T3S effectors have been identified in X. euvesicatoria 85-10, and a few of them were implicated in suppression of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). We used an Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify X. euvesicatoria 85-10 effectors that interfere with PTI signaling induced by the bacterial peptide flg22...
August 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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