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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Jana A Hassan, Yan-Ming Jane Zhou, Jennifer D Lewis
Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae has historically been controlled by the Pto/Prf gene cluster. Emerging strains like P. syringae pv. tomato (Pst) race 1 overcome resistance conferred by Pto/Prf, and can cause serious crop loss under appropriate environmental conditions. We developed a rapid assay to screen wild tomato seedlings for resistance to Pst race 1. We established the seedling resistance assay using the well-characterized Pst race 0 strain, PstDC3000, that is recognized in tomato cultivars carrying Pto/Prf (PtoR) and causes disease in isogenic lines lacking this cluster (PtoS)...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Paul Dahlin, Marion C Müller, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are plant secondary metabolites known to be toxic to animals and humans and that have putative roles in defense against pests. The proposed mechanisms of SGA toxicity are sterol-mediated disruption of membranes and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in neurons. It has been suggested that phytopathogenic microorganisms can overcome SGA toxicity by enzymatic deglycosylation of SGAs. Here, we have explored SGA-mediated toxicity toward the invasive oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of the late blight disease in potato and tomato, as well as the potential for SGA deglycosylation by this species...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Nabil Killiny, Yasser Nehela
Huanglongbing, a destructive disease of citrus, is caused by the fastidious bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. The impact of CLas-infection and/or D. citri-infestation on Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) leaf metabolites was investigated using GC-MS, followed by gene expression analysis for 37 genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and proline-glutamine pathways. The total amino acid abundance increased after CLas-infection, while the total fatty acids increased dramatically after infestation with D...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yao Liu, Samira Hassan, Brendan N Kidd, Gagan Garg, Ulrike Mathesius, Karam B Singh, Jonathan Anderson
The root-infecting necrotrophic fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani causes significant disease to all the world's major food crops. As a model for pathogenesis of legumes, we have examined the interaction of R. solani AG8 with Medicago truncatula. RNAseq analysis of the moderately resistant M. truncatula accession A17 and highly susceptible sickle (skl) mutant (defective in ethylene sensing) identified major early transcriptional reprogramming in A17. Responses specific to A17 included components of ethylene signalling, reactive oxygen species metabolism and consistent up-regulation of the isoflavonoid biosynthesis pathway...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Vidhyavathi Raman, Stacey A Simon, Feray Demirci, Mayumi Nakano, Blake C Meyers, Nicole M Donofrio
RNA interference (RNAi) is conserved in eukaryotic organisms, and it has been well studied in many animal and plant species and some fungal species, yet it is not well studied in fungal plant pathogens. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we examined small RNA (sRNA) and their biogenesis in the context of growth and pathogenicity. Through genetic and genomic analyses, we demonstrate that loss of a single gene encoding Dicer, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, or Argonaute reduces sRNA levels. These three proteins are required for the biogenesis of sRNA-matching genome-wide regions (coding regions, repeats, and intergenic regions)...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Milija Jovanovic, Christopher Waite, Ellen James, Nicholas Synn, Timothy Simpson, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Martin Buck
The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, uses a Type III secretion system (T3SS) to transfer effector proteins into the host. The expression of T3SS proteins is controlled by the HrpL sigma factor. Transcription of hrpL is sigma54-dependent and bacterial enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS co-activate the hrpL promoter. The HrpV protein imposes negative control upon HrpRS through direct interaction with HrpS. HrpG interacts with HrpV and relieves such negative control. The sequence alignments across Hrp Group I-type plant pathogens revealed conserved HrpV and HrpG amino acids...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jinyun Li, Zhiqian Pang, Pankaj Trivedi, Xiaofeng Zhou, Xiaobao Ying, Hongge Jia, Nian Wang
Pathogens from the fastidious, phloem-restricted 'Candidatus Liberibacter' species cause the devastating Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus worldwide and cause diseases on many solanaceous crops and plants in the Apiaceae family. However, little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms due to the difficulty in culturing the corresponding Liberibacters. Here we report that the citrus HLB pathogen 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (CLas) uses an active salicylate (SA) hydroxylase SahA to degrade SA and suppress plant defenses...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ying-Wen Huang, Chung-Chi Hu, Ching-Hsiu Tsai, Na-Sheng Lin, Yau-Heiu Hsu
Plant viruses may exhibit age-dependent tissue preference in their hosts, but the underlying mechanism(s) are not well understood. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence to reveal the determining role of a protein of the Nicotiana benthamiana chloroplast Hsp70 (NbcpHsp70) family, NbcpHsp70-2, involved in the preference of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) to infect older tissues. NbcpHsp70 family proteins were identified in complexes pulled down with BaMV replicase as the bait. Among the isoforms of NbcpHsp70, only the specific silencing of NbcpHsp70-2 resulted in the significant decrease of BaMV RNA in N...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Prem Prasad Kandel, Rodrigo P P Almeida, Paul Anthony Cobine, Leonardo De La Fuente
Xylella fastidiosa, an etiological agent of emerging crop diseases around the world, is naturally competent for the uptake of DNA from the environment that is incorporated into its genome by homologous recombination. Homologous recombination between subspecies of X. fastidiosa was inferred by in silico studies and was hypothesized to cause disease emergence. However, no experimental data are available on the degree to which X. fastidiosa strains are capable of competence and whether recombination can be experimentally demonstrated between subspecies...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Elena E Ganusova, J Hollis Rice, Timothy S Carlew, Akshita Patel, Emmanuel Perrodin-Njoku, Tarek Hewezi, Tessa M Burch-Smith
The chloroplast-resident RNA helicase ISE2 (INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2) can modulate the formation and distribution of plasmodesmata and intercellular trafficking. We have determined that ISE2 expression is induced by viral infection. Therefore, the responses of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with varying levels of ISE2 expression to infection by Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip mosaic virus were examined. Surprisingly, increased or decreased ISE2 expression led to faster viral systemic spread and, in some cases, enhanced systemic necrosis...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Deborah A Barton, Elke F Roovers, Quentin Gouil, Guilherme C da Fonseca, Rodrigo S Reis, Craig Jackson, Robyn L Overall, Adriana F Fusaro, Peter M Waterhouse
Viral infection triggers a range of plant responses such as the activation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The double-stranded RNA binding (DRB) proteins DRB3 and DRB4 are part of this pathway and aid in defending against DNA and RNA viruses, respectively. Using live cell imaging, we show that DRB2, DRB3, and DRB5 relocate from their uniform cytoplasmic distribution to concentrated accumulation in nascent viral replication complexes (VRC) that develop following cell invasion by viral RNA. Inactivation of the DRB3 gene in Arabidopsis by T-DNA insertion rendered these plants less able to repress RNA viral replication...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jun Wang, Dongsheng Tian, Keyu Gu, Xiaobei Yang, Lanlan Wang, Xuan Zeng, Zhongchao Yin
Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases throughout the major rice-growing regions in the world. The rice disease resistance (R) gene Xa10 confers race-specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the corresponding transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrXa10. Upon bacterial infection, AvrXa10 binds specifically to the effector binding element in the promoter of the R gene and activates its expression...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sunde Xu, Nan Yang, Shiyu Zheng, Fang Yan, Chunhao Jiang, Yiyang Yu, Jianhua Guo, Yunrong Chai, Yun Chen
The rhizosphere bacterium Bacillus cereus AR156 is capable of forming biofilms, killing nematodes, and protecting plants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these processes are not well understood. In this study, we found that the isogenic mutants ΔBcspo0A and ΔBcsinI have significantly reduced colonization and nematicidal activity in vitro and biological control efficacy on the tomato plant under greenhouse conditions. We further investigated the role of the spo0A-sinI-sinR regulatory circuit in biofilm formation, killing against nematodes, and biological control in AR156...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Nieves Calatrava-Morales, Joaquina Nogales, Kinia Ameztoy, Bart van Steenbergen, María José Soto
Sinorhizobium meliloti can translocate over surfaces. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that control this trait and its relevance for establishing symbiosis with alfalfa plants. To gain insights into this field, we isolated Tn5 mutants of S. meliloti GR4 with impaired surface motility. In mutant strain GRS577, the transposon interrupted the ntrY gene encoding the sensor kinase of the NtrY/NtrX two-component regulatory system. GRS577 is impaired in flagella synthesis, and overproduces succinoglycan which is responsible for increased biofilm formation...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Nabil Killiny, Yasser Nehela
Huanglongbing is currently the largest threat to global citrus production. We examined the effect of HLB pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infection and/or its vector, Diaphorina citri-infestation on Valencia sweet orange leaf pigments using HPLC, followed by gene expression analysis for 46 involved genes in carotenoids- and chlorophylls-biosynthesis pathways. Both CLas and D. citri alter the total citrus leaf pigments balance with a greater impact by CLas. While zeaxanthin was accumulated in CLas-infected leaves, chlorophyllide a was increased in D...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Nan Zhang, Boqi Zhang, Weiliang Zuo, Yuexian Xing, Suvimon Konlasuk, Guoqing Tan, Qianqian Zhang, Jianrong Ye, Mingliang Xu
Head smut, caused by the fungal pathogen Sporisorium reilianum, poses a threat to maize production worldwide. ZmWAK, a cell wall-associated receptor kinase, confers quantitative resistance to head-smut disease. Here, two near-isogenic lines, susceptible line Huangzao4 and its ZmWAK-converted resistant line Huangzao4R were used to decipher the role of ZmWAK in head smut resistance. Cytological and molecular characterization in response to S. reilianum infection was compared between 2 NILs. Upon S. reilianum infection, the growth of pathogen hyphae was severely arrested in the ZmWAK-converted resistant line Huangzao4R relative to its susceptible parental line Huangzao4...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Stefan Kusch, Ralph Panstruga
Loss-of-function mutations of one or more of the appropriate Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) genes are an apparently reliable "weapon" to protect plants from infection by powdery mildew fungi, as they confer durable broad-spectrum resistance. Originally detected as a natural mutation in an Ethiopian barley landrace, this so-called mlo-based resistance has been successfully employed in European barley agriculture for nearly four decades. More recently, mlo-mediated resistance was discovered to be inducible in virtually every plant species of economic or scientific relevance...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hay Anne-Emmanuelle, Boubakri Hasna, Buonomo Antoine, Rey Marjolaine, Meiffren Guillaume, Cotin-Galvan Laetitia, Comte Gilles, Herrera-Belaroussi Aude
A unique case of microbial symbiont capable of dormancy within its living host cells has been reported in actinorhizal symbioses. Some Frankia strains, named Sp+, are able to sporulate inside plant cells, contrarily to Sp- strains. The presence of metabolically slowed-down bacterial structures in host cells alters our understanding of symbiosis based on reciprocal benefits between both partners, and its impact on the symbiotic processes remains unknown. The present work reports a metabolomic study of Sp+ and Sp- nodules (from Alnus glutinosa), in order to highlight variabilities associated with in-planta sporulation...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Alexander Taylor, Yin-Long Qiu
Subtilases, a family of proteases involved in a variety of developmental processes in land plants, are also involved in both mutualistic symbiosis and host-pathogen interactions in different angiosperm lineages. We examined the evolutionary history of subtilase genes across land plants through a phylogenetic analysis integrating amino acid sequence data from full genomes, transcriptomes, and characterized subtilases of 341 species of diverse green algae and land plants, along with subtilases from 12 species of other eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria...
March 29, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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