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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Jinbin Wu, Aranka van der Burgh, Guozhi Bi, Lisha Zhang, James Robert Alfano, Gregory Martin, Matthieu Haj Joosten
Receptor-like proteins (RLPs) and receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are cell surface receptors that are essential for detecting invading pathogens and subsequent activation of plant defence responses. RLPs lack a cytoplasmic kinase domain to trigger downstream signalling leading to host resistance. The RLK SOBIR1 constitutively interacts with the tomato RLP Cf-4, thereby providing Cf-4 with a kinase domain. SOBIR1 is required for Cf-4-mediated resistance to strains of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum that secrete the effector Avr4...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Anindya Kundu, Maitrayee DasGupta
Rhizobia-legume interaction activates SYM-pathway that recruits cytokinin signaling for induction of nodule primordia in the cortex. In Arachis hypogaea, bradyrhizobia invade through natural cracks developed in the lateral root base and are directly endocytosed in the cortical cells to generate the nodule primordia. To unravel the role of cytokinin signaling in Arachis hypogaea, RNA-interference (RNAi) of cytokinin receptor Histidine-Kinase1 (AhHK1) was done. AhHK1-RNAi downregulated the expression of Type-A Response Regulators like AhRR5 and AhRR3 along with several symbiotic genes indicating both cytokinin signaling and SYM-Pathway was affected...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Justin P Hawkins, Barney A Geddes, Ivan John Oresnik
In this work, the hypothesis that exopolysaccharide plays a role in the survival of S. meliloti at low pH is addressed. When S. meliloti was grown at pH 5.75 the synthesis of succinoglycan increased, whereas the synthesis of galactoglucan decreased. Succinoglycan that was isolated from cultures grown at low pH had a lower degree of polymerization relative to that which was isolated from cultures grown at neutral pH, suggesting that low molecular weight (LMW) succinoglycan might play a role in adaptation to low pH...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Cristina Rioja, Vladimir Zhurov, Kristie Bruinsma, Miodrag Grbic, Vojislava Grbic
Plant-herbivore interactions evolved over long periods of time resulting in an elaborate arms race between interacting species. While specialist herbivores evolved specific strategies to cope with the defenses of a limited number of hosts, our understanding of how generalist herbivores deal with the defenses of a plethora of diverse host plants is largely unknown. Understanding the interaction between a plant host and a generalist herbivore requires an understanding of the plant's mechanisms aimed at defending itself and the herbivore's mechanisms intended to counteract diverse defenses...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yan Zhang, Xing Fen Wang, Wei Rong, Jun Yang, Zhi Kun Li, Li Qiang Wu, Gui Yin Zhang, Zhi Ying Ma
Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., is a serious threat to cotton (Gossypium spp.) crop production. To enhance our understanding of the plant's complex defensive mechanism, we examined colonization patterns and interactions between V. dahliae and two cotton species, the resistant G. barbadense and the susceptible G. hirsutum. Microscopic examinations and grafting experiments showed that the progression of infection was restricted within G. barbadense. At all pre- and post-inoculation sampling times, levels of salicylic acid (SA) were also higher in that species than in G...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Quan Zeng, Jie Wang, Frederic Bertels, Paul R Giordano, Martin I Chilvers, Regan B Huntley, Joseph M Vargas, George W Sundin, Janette L Jacobs, Ching-Hong Yang
Bacterial etiolation and decline (BED), caused by Acidovorax avenae, is an emerging disease of creeping bentgrass on golf courses in the United States. We performed the first comprehensive analysis of A. avenae on a nationwide collection of turfgrass- and maize-pathogenic A. avenae. Surprisingly, our results reveal that the turfgrass-pathogenic A. avenae in North America are not only highly divergent but also belong to two distinct phylogroups. Both phylogroups specifically infect turfgrass but are more closely related to maize pathogens than to each other...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Maryline Magnin-Robert, Marielle Adrian, Sophie Trouvelot, Alessandro Spagnolo, Lucile Jacquens, Patricia Letousey, Fanja Rabenoelina, Mourad Harir, Chloé Roullier-Gall, Christophe Clément, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Armelle Vallat, Eliane Abou-Mansour, Florence Fontaine
Esca disease is one of the major grapevine trunk diseases in Europe and the aetioloy is complex since several inhabiting fungi are identified to be associated with this disease. Among the foliar symptom expression, apoplectic form may be distinguished and characterized by sudden dieback of shoots, leaf drop and shriveling of grape clusters in few days that can ultimately induce the plant death. To further understand this drastic event, we conducted transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to characterize responses of leaves during the period preceding symptom appearance (twenty and seven days before foliar symptoms expression) and at the day of apoplexy expression...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Shaoliang Mou, Zhiqin Liu, Feng Gao, Sheng Yang, Meixia Su, Lei Shen, Yang Wu, Shuilin He
Homeodomain-leucine zipper class I (HD-Zip I) transcription factors (TFs) have been functionally characterized in plant responses to abiotic stresses, but their roles in plant immunity are poorly understood. Here, a HD-Zip I gene, CaHZ27, was isolated from pepper (Capsicum annum) and characterized for its role in pepper immunity. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that CaHDZ27 was transcriptionally induced by Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation and exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), or ethephon (ETH)...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Saumik Basu, Suresh Varsani, Joe Louis
Chewing herbivores, such as caterpillars and beetles, while feeding on the host plant cause extensive tissue damage and release a wide array of cues to alter plant defenses. Consequently, the cues can have both beneficial and detrimental impacts on the chewing herbivores. Herbivore-Associated Molecular Patterns (HAMPs) are molecules produced by herbivorous insects that aids them to elicit plant defenses leading to impairment of insect growth, while effectors suppress plant defenses and contribute to increased susceptibility to subsequent feeding by chewing herbivores...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Haibin Lu, Saul Lema, Marc Planas, Alejandro Alonso, Marc Valls, Nuria Sanchez Coll
The causing agent of bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, is a soilborne pathogen that invades plants through their roots, traversing many tissue layers until it reaches the xylem, where it multiplies and causes plant collapse. The effects of R. solanacearum infection are devastating and no effective approach to fight the disease is so far available. The early steps of infection, essential for colonization, as well as the early plant defense responses, remain mostly unknown. Here, we have set up a simple in vitro Arabidopsis-R...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Satyanarayana Tatineni, Christian ELowsky, Robert Graybosch
Previously, we reported that coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) tolerates deletion of amino acids 36 to 84 for efficient systemic infection of wheat. In this study, we demonstrated that WSMV mutants with deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84, but not 36 to 57, induced severe chlorotic streaks and spots, followed by acute chlorosis in wheat, maize, barley, and rye compared to mild to moderate chlorotic streaks and mosaic symptoms by wild-type virus. Deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 from WSMV genome accelerated cell-to-cell movement with increased accumulation of genomic RNAs and CP compared to wild-type virus...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Madhu Kappagantu, Jeff M Bullock, Mark E Nelson, Kenneth C Eastwell
Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens that exploit host systems for their replication and cause diseases in many hosts. In this study, the host response of hop plants to Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) infection was studied through transcriptome analysis. RNA sequence analysis of hop leaves infected with HSVd revealed dynamic changes in hop gene expression. Defense-related genes and genes involved in lipid and terpenoid metabolism are the major categories that showed differential expression due to HSVd infection...
August 23, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yasuhiro Ishiga, Mutsumi Watanabe, Takako Ishiga, Takayuki Tohge, Takakazu Matsuura, Yoko Ikeda, Rainer Hoefgen, Alisdair R Fernie, Kirankumar S Mysore
Chloroplasts have a crucial role in plant immunity against pathogens. Increasing evidence suggests that phytopathogens target chloroplast homeostasis as a pathogenicity mechanism. In order to regulate the performance of chloroplasts under stress conditions, chloroplasts produce retrograde signals to alter nuclear gene expression. Many signals for the chloroplast retrograde pathway have been identified, including chlorophyll intermediates, reactive oxygen species, and metabolic retrograde signals. Although there is a reasonably good understanding of chloroplast retrograde signaling in plant immunity, some signals are not well-understood...
August 22, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Javier F Tabima, Brent A Kronmiller, Caroline M Press, Brett M Tyler, Inga A Zasada, Niklaus J Grünwald
Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely, raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of these two Phytophthora species as a first step toward understanding the genomic processes underlying plant host adaptation in these pathogens.
August 22, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Shree P Thapa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Michael G Hahn, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Robert L Gilbertson, Gitta Coaker
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen that proliferates in the xylem vessels of tomato, causing bacterial canker disease. In this study, we sequenced and assembled genomes of 11 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains isolated from infected tomato fields in California as well as five Clavibacter strains that colonize tomato endophytically but are not pathogenic in this host. The analysis of the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis genomes supported the monophyletic nature of this pathogen but revealed genetic diversity among strains, consistent with multiple introduction events...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Xueyan Wang, Yulin Jia, Yeshi Wamishe, Melissa H Jia, Barbara Valent
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. Field isolates of M. oryzae rapidly adapt to their hosts and climate. Tracking the genetic and pathogenic variability of field isolates is essential to understand how M. oryzae interacts with hosts and environments. In this study, a total of 1,022 United States field isolates collected from 1959 to 2015 were analyzed for pathogenicity toward eight international rice differentials. A subset of 457 isolates was genotyped with 10 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Daniel C Wilson, Christine J Kempthorne, Philip Carella, David K Liscombe, Robin Cameron
Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits a developmentally regulated disease-resistance response known as Age-Related Resistance (ARR), a process that requires intercellular accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), which is thought to act as an antimicrobial agent. ARR is characterized by enhanced resistance to some pathogens at the late adult-vegetative and reproductive stages. While the transition to flowering does not cause the onset of ARR, both processes involve the MADS-domain transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Maria Chiara Paccanaro, Luca Sella, Carla Castiglioni, Francesca Giacomello, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Renato D'Ovidio, Wilhelm Schäfer, Francesco Favaron
Endo-polygalacturonases (PGs) and xylanases have been shown to play an important role during pathogenesis of some fungal pathogens of dicot plants, whilst their role in monocot pathogens is less defined. Pg1 and xyr1 genes of the wheat pathogen Fusarium graminearum encode the main PG and the major regulator of xylanase production, respectively. Single and double disrupted mutants for these genes were obtained to assess their contribution to fungal infection. Compared to wild-type strain, the ∆pg mutant showed a nearly abolished PG activity, slight reduced virulence on soybean seedlings but no significant difference in disease symptoms on wheat spikes; the ∆xyr mutant was strongly reduced in xylanase activity and moderately reduced in cellulase activity but was as virulent as wild-type on both soybean and wheat plants...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hongyu Chen, Prem Prasad Kandel, Luisa Fernanda Cruz, Paul Anthony Cobine, Leonardo De La Fuente
MopB is a major outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterial plant pathogen that causes losses on many economically important crops. Based on in silico analysis, the uncharacterized MopB protein of X. fastidiosa contains a β-barrel structure with an OmpA-like domain and a predicted calcium-binding motif. Here, MopB function was studied by mutational analysis taking advantage of the natural competence of X. fastidiosa. Mutants of mopB were constructed in two different X. fastidiosa strains, the type strain 'Temecula' and the more virulent 'WM1-1'...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Denise Pereira Torres, Reinhard Korbinian Proels, Harald Schempp, Ralph Huckelhoven
Plant RBOH (RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUES)-type NADPH oxidases produce superoxide radical anions and have a function in developmental processes and in response to environmental challenges. Barley RBOHF2 has different reported functions in interaction with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Here we analysed in detail, plant leaf level- and leaf age-specific susceptibility of stably RBOHF2-silenced barley plants. This revealed enhanced susceptibility to fungal penetration of young RBOHF2-silenced leaf tissue but strongly reduced susceptibility of older leaves when compared to controls...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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