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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

B Gourion, Benoit Alunni
This is a short commentary on the article by Wang et al. published in MPMI Vol. 31, No. 2, pages 240-248.
January 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Cécile Lorrain, Clémence Marchal, Stéphane Hacquard, Christine Delaruelle, Jérémy Pétrowski, Benjamin Petre, Arnaud Hecker, Pascal Frey, Sebastien Duplessis
Mechanisms required for broad spectrum or specific host colonization of plant parasites are poorly understood. As a perfect illustration, heteroecious rust fungi require two alternate host plants to complete their life cycles. Melampsora larici populina infects two taxonomically unrelated plants, larch on which sexual reproduction is achieved and poplar on which clonal multiplication occurs leading to severe epidemics in plantations. We applied deep RNA sequencing to three key developmental stages of M. larici-populina infection on larch: basidia, pycnia and aecia; and we performed comparative transcriptomics of infection on poplar and larch hosts using available expression data...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Marta Robledo, Esther Menéndez, Jose Ignacio Jimenez-Zurdo, Raúl Rivas, Encarna Velazquez, Eustoquio Martinez-Molina, Giles Oldroyd, Pedro F Mateos
The infection of legume plants by rhizobia is tightly regulated to ensure accurate bacterial penetration, infection and development of functionally efficient nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Rhizobial Nod Factors (NF) have key roles in the elicitation of nodulation signalling. Infection of white clover roots also involves the tightly regulated specific breakdown of the non-crystalline apex of cell walls in growing root hairs, which is mediated by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii cellulase CelC2. Here, we have analyzed the impact of this endoglucanase on symbiotic signalling in the model legume Medicago truncatula...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Nidhi Singh, Swadhin Swain, Anupriya Singh, Ashis Kumar Nandi
Plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in defense signaling against biotrophic pathogens. Pathogen inoculation leads to SA accumulation in plants. SA activates a transactivator protein NPR1, which, in turn, transcriptionally activates many defense response genes. Reports also suggest the presence of NPR1-independent pathways for SA signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we report the characterization of a zinc-finger protein-coding gene AtOZF1 that positively influences NPR1-independent SA signaling...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Mostafa Rahnama, Richard Johnson, Christine Rosalie Voisey, Wayne R Simpson, Damien J Fleetwood
Epichloë species fungi form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. One of the key global regulators in fungal secondary metabolism and development is the VelA protein. In this study, velA was functionally characterised in vitro and in fungal interaction with its host perennial ryegrass. The velA gene is required for E...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Gengwei Wu, Yunpeng Liu, Yu Xu, Guishan Zhang, Qi-Rong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
Beneficial rhizobacteria have been reported to produce various elicitors that induce plant systemic resistance, but there is little knowledge concerning the relative contribution of multiple elicitors from a single beneficial rhizobacterium on the induced systemic resistance in plants and the interactions of these elicitors with plant signaling pathways. In this study, nine mutants of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 deficient in producing the extracellular compounds, including fengycin, bacillomycin D, surfactin, bacillaene, macrolactin, difficidin, bacilysin, 2,3-butandiol, and exopolysaccharides, were tested for the induction of systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Tally Rosenberg, Bolaji Babajide Salam, Saul Burdman
Acidovorax citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits. We have shown that functional type IV pili (T4P) are required for full virulence of this bacterium. To identify A. citrulli genes required for T4P activity, we screened a library of about 10,000 transposon mutants of A. citrulli strain M6 for altered T4P-mediated twitching motility. This screen led to the identification of 50 mutants impaired in twitching ability due to transposon insertions into 20 different genes. Representative mutants with disruptions in these genes were further characterized...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Raphael Ledermann, Ilka Bartsch, Barbara Müller, Janine Wülser, Hans-Martin Fischer
Phylogenetically diverse bacteria respond to various stress conditions by mounting a general stress response (GSR) resulting in the induction of protecting or damage repair functions. In α-proteobacteria, the GSR is induced by a regulatory cascade consisting of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor σEcfG, its anti-σ factor NepR and the anti-anti-σ factor PhyR. We have reported previously that σEcfG and PhyR of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens (formerly named Bradyrhizobium japonicum), the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiont of soybean and related legumes, are required for efficient symbiosis, however, the precise role of the GSR remained undefined...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Elena García-Cano, Hagit Hak, Shimpei Magori, Sondra Lazarowitz, Vitaly Citovsky
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation not only represents a technology of choice to genetically manipulate plants, but it also serves as a model system to study mechanisms employed by invading pathogens to counter the myriad defenses mounted against them by the host cell. Here, we uncover a new layer of plant defenses that is targeted by Agrobacterium to facilitate infection. We show that the Agrobacterium F-box effector VirF, which is exported into the host cell, recognizes an Arabidopsis transcription factor VFP4 and targets it for proteasomal degradation...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
María-Dolores Ferreiro, Joaquina Nogales, Gabriela A Farias, Adela Olmedilla, Juan Sanjuan, Mari-Trini Gallegos
The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 has a complex Gac-rsm global regulatory pathway which controls virulence, motility, production of secondary metabolites, carbon metabolism and quorum sensing. However, despite the components of this pathway are known, their physiological roles have not been established yet. Regarding the CsrA/RsmA type proteins, five paralogs, three of which are well conserved within the Pseudomonas genus (csrA1, csrA2 and csrA3), have been found in the Pto DC3000 genome...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Claudia A Ramírez-Valdespino, Maria Daniela Porras-Troncoso, Alma Rosa Corrales-Escobosa, Kazimierz Wrobel, Pedro Martínez-Hernández, Vianey Olmedo-Monfil
Secondary metabolites are crucial for the establishment of interactions between plants and microbes, as in the case of Trichoderma-plant interactions. In the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites, specific enzymes participate in the formation of hydroxyl and epoxy groups, belonging to the p450 monooxygenases family. Here, we show that the product of the gene TvCyt2 from Trichoderma virens encodes a new protein homologous to the cytochrome p450, which is down-regulated at the beginning of Trichoderma-Arabidopsis interaction...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zhao Lei, Yujia Chen, Wen Yang, Wenbao Chen, Chaohong Feng, QiaoChun Wang, Yunfeng Wu
Plant viral diseases cause severe economic losses in agricultural production. The development of biosource-derived antiviral agents provides an alternative strategy to efficiently control plant viral diseases. We previously reported that the exogenous application of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) exerts significant inhibitive effects on Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection in Nicotiana tabacum. In this study, we studied the mechanism of how PSP can induce virus resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana in additional detail...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
G Adam Mott, Darrell Desveaux, David S Guttman
The first step in the plant immune response to pathogen challenge involves the perception of conserved epitopes, called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), by cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Given the key roles that MAMPs and PRRs play in plant innate immunity, great effort has been expended to identify these molecules. Current methods for assaying these immune responses are often limited in their resolution and throughput, and consequently, there is a need for medium- to high-throughput methodologies...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hyo-Hyoun Seo, Ae Ran Park, Hyun-Hwa Lee, Sangkyu Park, Yun-Jeong Han, Quyen T N Hoang, Gyung Ja Choi, Jin-Cheol Kim, Yong Soon Kim, Jeong-Il Kim
Colletotrichum species are major fungal pathogens that cause devastating anthracnose diseases in many economically important crops. In this study, we observed the hydrolyzing activity of a fungus-inducible pepper carboxylesterase (PepEST) on cell walls of C. gloeosporioides, causing growth retardation of the fungus by blocking appressorium formation. To determine the cellular basis for the growth inhibition, we observed the localization of PepEST on the fungus and found the attachment of the protein on surfaces of conidia and germination tubes...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zhiwei Huang, Qingxuan Zhou, Pan Sun, Jing Yang, Minliang Guo
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causative agent that causes the crown gall tumor disease on more than 140 species of dicotyledonous plants. Chemotaxis of A. tumefaciens toward the wound sites of the host plant is the first step to recognize the host. CheW is a coupling protein that bridges the histidine kinase CheA and the chemoreceptors to form the chemotaxis core signaling complex and plays a crucial role in the assembly and function of the large chemosensory array. Unlike all the previously reported chemotaxis systems, A...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yuan Hui Liu, Yin Shan Jiao, Li Xue Liu, Dan Wang, Chang Fu Tian, En Tao Wang, Lei Wang, Wen Xin Chen, Shang Ying Wu, Bao Lin Guo, Zha Gen Guan, Véréna Poinsot, Wen Feng Chen
We explored the genetic basis of the promiscuous symbiosis of Sophora flavescens with diverse rhizobia. To determine the impact of Nod factors (NFs) on the symbiosis of S. flavescens, nodulation-related gene mutants of representative rhizobial strains were generated. Strains with mutations in common nodulation genes (nodC, nodM, and nodE) failed to nodulate S. flavescens, indicating that the promiscuous nodulation of this plant is strictly dependent on the basic NF structure. Mutations of the NF decoration genes nodH, nodS, nodZ, and noeI did not affect the nodulation of S...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kaixuan Duan, Christopher Willig, Joann R de Tar, William G Spollen, Zhanyuan Zhang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that causes crown-gall disease. This pathogen is capable of transferring the T-DNA from its Ti-plasmid to the host cell then integrating it into the host genome. To date, this genetic transformation ability has been harnessed as a dominant technology to produce genetically modified plants for both basic research and crop biotechnological applications. However, little is known about the interaction between Agrobacterium and host plants, especially the host responses to Agrobacterium infection and its associated factors...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ronaldo J D Dalio, Heros José Máximo, Tiago Silva Oliveira, Renata Dias, Michele Breton, Henrique Leme Felizatti, Marcos Antonio Antonio Machado
Phytophthora species secrete several classes of effector proteins during interaction with their hosts. These proteins can have multiple functions including modulation of host physiology and immunity. The RxLR effectors have the ability to enter plant cells using the plant machinery. Some of these effectors have been characterized as immunity suppressors; however, very little is known about their functions in the interaction between Phytophthora parasitica and its hosts. Using a bioinformatics pipeline, we have identified 172 candidate RxLR effectors (CREs) in the isolate IAC 01_95 of P...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Wenbo Ma, Yuanchao Wang, John M McDowell
Effector proteins play key roles in the molecular interplay between plants and plant-associated organisms, and effector biology remains one of the most active areas in the research field of molecular plant-microbe Interactions. Using effectors as probes, much has been learned about pathogen virulence and host immunity, which has broad implications in developing disease-resistant crops that are essential for global food security. Thus, the MPMI Editorial Board felt that it is an opportune time to showcase recent progress in this area...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ronaldo J D Dalio, John Herlihy, Tiago S Oliveira, John M McDowell, Marcos Machado
Plant-pathogen interactions are controlled by a multilayered immune system, which is activated by pathogen recognition in the host. Pathogens secrete effector molecules to interfere with the immune recognition or signaling network and reprogram cell structure or metabolism. Understanding the effector repertoires of diverse pathogens will contribute to unraveling the molecular mechanism of virulence and developing sustainable disease-control strategies for crops and natural ecosystems. Effector functionality has been investigated extensively in only a small number of pathogen species...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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