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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Md Shakhawat Hossain, Arina Shrestha, Sihui Zhong, Mandana Miri, Ryan S Austin, Shusei Sato, Loretta Ross, Terry Huebert, Alexandre Tromas, Ivone Torres-Jerez, Yuhong Tang, Michael Udvardi, Jeremy Dale Murray, Krzysztof Szczyglowski
Legume plants engage in intimate relationships with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules, root-derived organs that accommodate the micro-symbiont. Members of the Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) gene family, which have undergone significant expansion and functional diversification during plant evolution, are essential for this symbiotic liaison. Acting in a partially redundant manner, NF-Ys were shown previously to regulate bacterial infection, including selection of a superior rhizobial strain, and to mediate nodule structure formation...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hidekazu Iwakawa, Benjamin C Carter, Brett C Bishop, Joe Ogas, Stanton B Gelvin
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a core technology for basic plant science and agricultural biotechnology. Improving transformation frequency is a major goal for plant transgenesis. We previously showed that T-DNA insertions in some histone genes decreased transformation susceptibility, whereas overexpression of several Arabidopsis H2A and H4 isoforms increased transformation. Overexpression of several histone H2B and H3 isoforms had little effect on transformation frequency. However, overexpression of histone H3-11 (HTR11) enhanced transformation...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hyun-Ah Lee, Hye-Young Lee, Eunyoung Seo, Joohyun Lee, Saet-Byul Kim, SooHyun Oh, Eunbi Choi, Eunhye Choi, So Eui Lee, Doil Choi
Nonhost resistance, a resistance of plant species against all non-adapted pathogens, is considered the most durable and efficient immune system of plants but yet remains elusive. The underlying mechanism of nonhost resistance has been investigated at multiple levels of plant defense for several decades. In this review, we have comprehensively surveyed the latest literature on nonhost resistance in terms of pre-invasion, metabolic defense, pattern-triggered immunity, effector-triggered immunity, defense signaling, and possible application in crop protection...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Matthew S Nelson, Chan Lan Chun, Michael Jay Sadowsky
In this study, we investigated genetic elements of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) found in Sinorhizobium and the role they play in symbiosis. Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae each contain a putative T4SS, similar to that used by Agrobacterium tumefaciens during pathogenesis. The Cre reporter assay for translocation (CRAfT) system was used to validate potential effector proteins. Both S. meliloti and S. medicae contained the effector protein TfeA, which was translocated into the host plant. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a nod box, involved in transcriptional activation of symbiosis-related genes, upstream of the transcriptional regulator (virG) in the Sinorhizobium T4SS...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Anil Madhusoodana Girija, Bipin Kumar Kumar, Madhavi B Mylavarapu, Palaparthi Ramesh, Sridivya Vungarala, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Ramesh Sonti
Treatment of rice leaves with isolated Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the production of callose deposits, reactive oxygen species and enhanced resistance against subsequent bacterial infection. Expression profiling of X. oryzae pv. oryzae LPS treated rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) leaves showed that genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways for lignins, phenylpropanoids, chorismate, phenylalanine, salicylic acid and ethylene as well as a number of pathogenesis related proteins are up regulated...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chantal Brosseau, Mohamed El Oirdi, Ayooluwa Adurogbangba, Xiaofang Ma, Peter Moffett
In plants, RNA silencing regulates gene expression through the action of Dicer-like (DCL) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins via micro RNAs and RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM). In addition, RNA silencing functions as an antiviral defense mechanism by targeting virus-derived double-stranded RNA. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins with specialized functions, including AGO4-like proteins that affect RdDM and AGO2, AGO5, and AGO1, which have antiviral activities. Here, we show that AGO4 is also required for defense against the potexvirus Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), most likely independent of RdDM components such as DCL3, Pol IV, and Pol V...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jidong Cao, Chao Yang, Lingjuan Li, Lan Jiang, Yao Wu, Chuanwan Wu, Qingyun Bu, Guixian Xia, Xiaoyun Liu, Yuanming Luo, Jun Liu
Plant plasma membrane (PM) plays important roles in immune response. Here, we utilized quantitative mass spectrometry to explore rice PM protein composition and dynamic changes during Magnaporthe oryzae infection. We report, thus far, the largest rice PM proteome dataset with 3,906 identified proteins, among which 484 proteins were differentially expressed after M. oryzae infection. One third of the identified proteins are predicted to have at least one transmembrane domain. Half of the identified proteins are predicted to have binding functions and over one third of the proteins have enzyme-related functions...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Xiaodong Wang, Baoju Yang, Kun Li, Zhensheng Kang, Dario Cantu, Jorge Dubcovsky
In Arabidopsis, NPR1 is a key transcriptional co-regulator of systemic acquired resistance. Upon pathogen challenge, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it interacts with TGA-bZIP transcription factors to activate the expression of several Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes. In a screen of a yeast two-hybrid library from wheat leaves infected with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, we identified a conserved rust protein that interacts with wheat NPR1 and named it Puccinia NPR1 interactor (PNPi)...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hua Li, Zhanquan Zhang, Chang He, Guozheng Qin, Shiping Tian
The NADPH oxidase complex (NOX) has been shown to play a crucial role in stress response and in the virulence of various fungal pathogens. The underlying molecular mechanisms of NOX, however, remain largely unknown. In the present study, a comparative proteomic analysis compared changes in protein abundance in wild-type Botrytis cinerea and ΔbcnoxR mutants in which the regulatory subunit of NOX was deleted. The ΔbcnoxR mutants exhibited reduced growth, sporulation, and impaired virulence. A total of 60 proteins, representing 49 individual genes, were identified in ΔbcnoxR mutants that exhibited significant differences in abundance relative to wild-type...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Mengsheng Gao, Hahn Nguyen, Isai Salas González, Max Teplitski
The RNA-binding chaperone Hfq plays critical roles in the establishment and functionality of the symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and its legume hosts. A mutation in hfq reduces symbiotic efficiency resulting in a Fix(-) phenotype, characterized by the inability of the bacterium to fix nitrogen. At least in part, this is due to the ability of Hfq to regulate the fixLJ operon, which encodes a sensor kinase-response regulator pair that controls expression of the nitrogenase genes. The ability of Hfq to bind fixLJ in vitro and in planta was demonstrated with gel shift and coimmunoprecipitation experiments...
November 18, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sam T Mugford, Elaine Barclay, Claire Drurey, Kim C Findlay, Saskia A Hogenhout
Herbivore selection of plant hosts and plant responses to insect colonization have been subjects of intense investigations. A growing body of evidence suggests that, for successful colonization to occur, (effector/virulence) proteins in insect saliva must modulate plant defense responses to the benefit of the insect. A range of insect saliva proteins that modulate plant defense responses have been identified, but there is no direct evidence that these proteins are delivered into specific plant tissues and enter plant cells...
November 10, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sebastian Acosta-Jurado, Dulce N Rodríguez-Navarro, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Juan Fernández-Perea, Antonio Gil-Serrano, Haojie Jin, Qi An, Miguel A Rodriguez-Carvajal, Stig U Andersen, Niels Sandal, Jens Stougaard, Jose M Vinardell, Jose Enrique Ruiz-Sainz
Sinorhizobium fredii HH103-Rifr, a broad host-range rhizobial strain, induces nitrogen-fixing nodules in Lotus burttii but ineffective nodules in L. japonicus. Confocal microscopy studies showed that Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and S. fredii HH103-Rifr invade L. burttii roots through infection threads or epidermal cracks, respectively. Infection threads in root hairs were not observed in L. burttii plants inoculated with S. fredii HH103-Rifr. A S. fredii HH103-Rifr nodA mutant failed to nodulate L. burttii, demonstrating that Nod-factors are strictly necessary for this crack-entry mode and a noeL mutant was also severely impaired in L...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hari Bhupathi Krishnan, Alaa Alaswad, Nathan Wayne Oehrle, Jason Gillman
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Stefano Pavan, Adalgisa Schiavulli, Angelo Raffaele Marcotrigiano, Nicoletta Bardaro, Valentina Bracuto, Francesca Ricciardi, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Concetta Lotti, Harro Bouwmeester, Luigi Ricciardi
Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a devastating parasitic weed threatening the cultivation of legumes around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East. So far, only moderate levels of resistance were reported to occur in pea (Pisum sativum L.) natural germplasm, and most commercial cultivars are prone to severe infestation. Here, we describe the selection of a pea line highly resistant to O. crenata, following the screening of local genetic resources. Time series observations show that delayed emergence of the parasite is an important parameter associated with broomrape resistance...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
A A Blacutt, T R Mitchell, C W Bacon, S E Gold
The mycotoxigenic pathogen Fusarium verticillioides threatens the quality and utility of maize across industrial and agricultural purposes. Chemical control is complicated by the intimate endophytic lifestyle of the pathogen with its host. Bacillus mojavensis RRC101, a maize-endophytic bacterium, has been observed to reduce F. verticillioides disease severity and fumonisin accumulation when coinoculated to maize. Genome sequencing and annotation identified a number of biocontrol-relevant pathways in RRC101...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ghulam Sahi, Peter E Hedley, Jenny Morris, Gary J Loake, Stuart MacFarlane
Field-grown tubers of potato were examined for infection by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and consequent production of corky ringspot or spraing symptoms. A microarray study identified genes that are differentially expressed in tuber tissue in response to TRV infection and to spraing production, suggesting that hypersensitive response (HR) pathways are activated in spraing-symptomatic tubers. This was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) of a selected group of HR-related genes and by histochemical staining of excised tuber tissue with spraing symptoms...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Silvio Tundo, Michela Janni, Ilaria Moscetti, Giulia Mandalà, Daniel Savatin, Ann Blechl, Francesco Favaron, Renato D'Ovidio
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat worldwide. The pathogen infects the spike at flowering time and causes severe yield losses, deterioration of grain quality, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The understanding of the precise means of pathogen entry and colonization of floral tissue is crucial to providing effective protection against FHB. Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the activity of polygalacturonases (PGs), a class of pectin-depolymerizing enzymes secreted by microbial pathogens, including Fusaria...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Emily E Helliwell, Qin Wang, Yinong Yang
Recent studies have suggested that ethylene enhances host resistance to fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. Among the six ACS genes in rice, OsACS1 and OsACS2 are induced within 24 hours of inoculation by M. oryzae. This induction occurs simultaneously with an increase in ethylene production that is noticeable 12 hours post inoculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the dynamics of ethylene production and signaling in wild type and RNAi-mediated suppression lines deficient in ethylene production (acs2) or signaling (eil1) after challenge with M...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Tianhong Zhou, Chunyan Yin, Yingchao Zhang, Heng Shi, Jingru Wang, Linbo Sun, Xiaolong Shao, Ruxia Gao, Wei Wang, Xin Deng
Pseudomonas syringae depends on the type III secretion system (T3SS) to directly translocate effectors into host cells. Previously, we reported a nonpathogenic rhpS mutant, suggesting that the two-component transduction system rhpRS is an important regulator of T3SS in P. syringae. rhpRS regulates itself and a variety of downstream genes under an inverted repeat element promoter in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Here we identify lon as a suppressor of the rhpS mutant through transposon screening. A lon/rhpS double mutant restored the phenotypes of the rhpS mutant...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Montserrat López-Coria, José Luis Hernández-Mendoza, Sobeida Sanchez-Nieto
Although Trichoderma spp. has beneficial effects on numerous plants, there is not enough knowledge about the mechanism by which it improves plant growth. In this study, we evaluated the participation of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, a key enzyme involved in promoting cell growth, in the elongation induced by T. asperellum and compared it to the effect of 10 µM indol acetic-acid (IAA) because IAA promotes elongation and PM H(+)-ATPase activation. Two seed treatments were tested: biopriming and non-contact...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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