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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144205/lessons-in-effector-and-nlr-biology-of-plant-microbe-systems
#1
Aleksandra Białas, Erin K Zess, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Marina Franceschetti, Helen G Pennington, Kentaro Yoshida, Jessica L Upson, Emilie Chanclud, Chih-Hang Wu, Thorsten Langner, Abbas Maqbool, Freya A Varden, Lida Derevnina, Khaoula Belhaj, Koki Fujisaki, Hiromasa Saitoh, Ryohei Terauchi, Mark J Banfield, Sophien Kamoun
A diversity of plant-associated organisms secrete effectors-proteins and metabolites that modulate plant physiology to favor host infection and colonization. However, effectors can also activate plant immune receptors, notably nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat region (NLR)-containing proteins, enabling plants to fight off invading organisms. This interplay between effectors, their host targets, and the matching immune receptors is shaped by intricate molecular mechanisms and exceptionally dynamic coevolution...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144204/specific-hypersensitive-response-associated-recognition-of-new-apoplastic-effectors-from-cladosporium-fulvum-in-wild-tomato
#2
Carl H Mesarich, Bilal Ӧkmen, Hanna Rovenich, Scott A Griffiths, Changchun Wang, Mansoor Karimi Jashni, Aleksandar Mihajlovski, Jérôme Collemare, Lukas Hunziker, Cecilia H Deng, Ate van der Burgt, Henriek G Beenen, Matthew D Templeton, Rosie E Bradshaw, Pierre J G M de Wit
Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes that encode receptor-like proteins (RLPs). These RLPs recognize specific SSP effectors to initiate a hypersensitive response (HR) that renders the pathogen avirulent. C. fulvum strains capable of overcoming one or more of all cloned Cf genes have now emerged...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144203/suppression-or-activation-of-immune-responses-by-predicted-secreted-proteins-of-the-soybean-rust-pathogen-phakopsora-pachyrhizi
#3
Mingsheng Qi, James P Grayczyk, Janina M Seitz, Youngsill Lee, Tobias I Link, Doil Choi, Kerry F Pedley, Ralf T Voegele, Thomas J Baum, Steven A Whitham
Rust fungi, such as the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, are major threats to crop production. They form specialized haustoria that are hyphal structures intimately associated with host-plant cell membranes. These haustoria have roles in acquiring nutrients and secreting effector proteins that manipulate host immune systems. Functional characterization of effector proteins of rust fungi is important for understanding mechanisms that underlie their virulence and pathogenicity. Hundreds of candidate effector proteins have been predicted for rust pathogens, but it is not clear how to prioritize these effector candidates for further characterization...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143556/datalbase-a-database-for-genomic-and-transcriptomic-data-related-to-tal-effectors
#4
Alvaro L Pérez-Quintero, Léo Lamy, Carlos A Zarate, Sébastien Cunnac, Erin L Doyle, Adam J Bogdanove, Boris Szurek, Alexis Derepeer
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins found in the genus Xanthomonas of phytopathogenic bacteria. These proteins enter the nucleus of cells in the host plant and can induce the expression of susceptibility S genes, triggering disease. TALEs bind the promoter region of S genes following a specific code, which allows the prediction of binding sites based on TALEs' amino acid sequence. New candidate susceptibility genes can then be discovered by finding the intersection between genes induced in the presence of TALEs and genes containing predicted effector binding elements (EBEs)...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140168/revisiting-the-roles-of-tobamovirus-replicase-complex-proteins-in-viral-replication-and-silencing-suppression
#5
Nachelli Malpica-López, Rajendran Rajeswaran, Daria Beknazariants, Jonathan Seguin, Victor Golyaev, Laurent Farinelli, Mikhail M Pooggin
Tobamoviral replicase possesses an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) domain and is translated from genomic (g)RNA via a stop codon readthrough mechanism at a one-to-ten ratio relative to a shorter protein lacking the RDR domain. The two proteins share methyltransferase and helicase domains and form a heterodimer implicated in gRNA replication. The shorter protein is also implicated in suppressing RNA silencing-based antiviral defenses. Using a stop codon mutant of Oilseed rape mosaic tobamovirus (ORMV), we demonstrate that the readthrough replicase (p182) is sufficient for gRNA replication and for subgenomic RNA transcription during systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140163/hsp70s-enhance-a-phytophthora-infestans-effector-induced-cell-death-via-a-mapk-cascade-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#6
Joohyun Lee, So Eui Lee, SooHyun Oh, Eunyoung Seo, Doil Choi
A destructive pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, secretes hundreds of effectors for successful survival in its host plants. The effectors modulate plant defense system at diverse cellular compartments to take an advantage of pathogen survivals. There were a few researches shown the mode-of-action of each effectors and their interacting proteins in plant cells. Here, we investigated the mode-of-action of a P. infestans effector, Pi23226, which induces cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. To identify its host factors, we performed co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and selected members of HSP70 as candidates...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135338/convergent-and-divergent-signaling-in-pamp-triggered-immunity-and-effector-triggered-immunity
#7
Yujun Peng, Rowan van Wersch, Yuelin Zhang
Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as MAP kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130376/the-cuticle-mutant-eca2-modifies-the-plant-defense-responses-to-biotrophic-and-necrotrophic-pathogens-and-herbivory-insects
#8
Catherine Blanc, Fania Coluccia, Floriane L'Haridon, Martha Torres, Marlene Ortiz-Berrocal, Elia Stahl, Philippe Reymond, Lukas Schreiber, Christiane Nawrath, Jean-Pierre Metraux, Mario Serrano
We isolated previously several Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with constitutive expression of the early MAMP-induced gene ATL2, named eca (expresión constitutiva de ATL2). Here we further explored the interaction of eca mutants with pest and pathogens. Of all eca mutants, eca2 was more resistant to a fungal (Botrytis cinerea) and a bacterial (Pseudomonas syringae) pathogen, as well as to a generalist herbivorous insect (Spodoptera littoralis). Permeability of the cuticle is increased in eca2; chemical characterization shows that eca2 has a significant reduction of both cuticular wax and cutin...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125028/molecular-basis-of-citrus-sunki-susceptibility-and-poncirus-trifoliata-resistance-upon-phytophthora-parasitica-attack
#9
Ronaldo J D Dalio, Heros José Máximo, Tiago Silva Oliveira, Thamara Azevedo, Henrique Leme Felizatti, Magnólia Araújo Campos, Marcos Antonio Antonio Machado
Coevolution has shaped the molecular basis of an extensive number of defense mechanisms in plant-pathogen interactions. Phytophthora parasitica, a hemibiothrophic oomycete pathogen and the causal agent of citrus root rot and gummosis, interacts differently with Citrus sunki and Poncirus trifoliata; two commonly favored citrus rootstocks that are recognized as susceptible and resistant, respectively, to P. parasitica. The molecular core of these interactions remains elusive. Here, we provide evidences on the defense strategies employed by both susceptible and resistant citrus rootstocks, in parallel with P...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117782/a-proteomic-network-for-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-efficiency-in-bradyrhizobium-elkanii
#10
Bret Cooper, Kimberly B Campbell, Hunter Beard, Wesley M Garrett, Joseph Mowery, Gary R Bauchan, Patrick Elia
Rhizobia colonize legumes and reduce N2 to NH3 in root nodules. The current model is that symbiotic rhizobia bacteroids avoid assimilating this NH3. Instead, host legume cells form glutamine from NH3, and the nitrogen is returned to the bacteroid as dicarboxylates, peptides, and amino acids. In soybean cells surrounding bacteroids, glutamine also is converted to ureides. One problem for soybean cultivation is inefficiency in symbiotic N2 fixation, the biochemical basis of which is unknown. Here, the proteomes of bacteroids of Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA76 isolated from N2 fixation-efficient Peking and inefficient Williams 82 soybean nodules were analyzed by mass spectrometry...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106332/conserved-rxlr-effectors-from-oomycetes-hyaloperonospora-arabidopsidis-and-phytophthora-sojae-suppress-pamp-and-effector-triggered-immunity-in-diverse-plants
#11
Devdutta Deb, Ryan Anderson, Theresa How Yew Kin, Brett M Tyler, John M McDowell
Effector proteins are exported to the interior of host cells by diverse plant pathogens. Many oomycete pathogens maintain large families of candidate effector genes, encoding proteins with a secretory leader followed by an RxLR motif. Although most of these genes are very divergent between oomycete species, several genes are conserved between Phytophthora species and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), suggesting that they play important roles in pathogenicity. We describe a pair of conserved effector candidates, HaRxL23 and PsAvh73, from Hpa and P...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094648/a-gene-family-coding-for-salivary-proteins-shot-of-the-polyphagous-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-exhibits-fast-host-dependent-transcriptional-plasticity
#12
Wim Jonckheere, Wannes Dermauw, Mousaalreza Khalighi, Nena Pavlidi, Wim Reubens, Geert Baggerman, Luc Tirry, Gerben Menschaert, Merijn R Kant, Bartel Vanholme, Thomas Van Leeuwen
The salivary protein repertoire released by the herbivorous pest Tetranychus urticae is assumed to hold keys to its success on diverse crops. We report on a spider mite-specific protein family that is expanded in T. urticae. The encoding genes have an expression pattern restricted to the anterior podocephalic glands, while peptide fragments were found in the T. urticae secretome, supporting the salivary nature of these proteins. As peptide fragments were identified in a host-dependent manner, we designated this family as the SHOT (secreted host-responsive protein of Tetranychidae) family...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090656/trick-or-treat-microbial-pathogens-evolved-apoplastic-effectors-modulating-plant-susceptibility-to-infection
#13
Yan Wang, Yuanchao Wang
The apoplastic space between the plant cell wall and the plasma membrane constitutes a major battleground for plant-pathogen interactions. To survive in harsh conditions in the plant apoplast, pathogens must cope with various immune responses. During infection, plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of effector proteins into the apoplast milieu, some of which are detected by the plant surveillance system and, thus, activate plant innate immunity. Effectors that evade plant perception act in modulating plant apoplast immunity to favor successful pathogen infection...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090655/potyviral-gene-silencing-suppressor-hcpro-interacts-with-salicylic-acid-sa-binding-protein-3-to-weaken-sa-mediated-defense-responses
#14
Sylvain Poque, Hui-Wen Wu, Chung-Hao Huang, Hao-Wen Cheng, Wen-Chi Hu, Jun-Yi Yang, David Wang, Shyi-Dong Yeh
The viral infection process is a battle between host defense response and pathogen antagonizing action. Several studies have established a tight link between the viral RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) and the repression of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense responses, nonetheless host factors directly linking an RSS and the SA pathway remains unidentified. From yeast two-hybrid analysis, we identified an interaction between the potyviral RSS helper-component proteinase (HCPro) and SA-binding protein SABP3. Co-localization and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses validated the direct in vivo interaction between Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) HCPro and the Arabidopsis homologue of SABP3, AtCA1...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090631/bacillus-cereus-ar156-activates-defense-responses-to-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-similarly-to-flg22
#15
Shune Wang, Ying Zheng, Chun Gu, Chan He, Mengying Yang, Xin Zhang, Jianhua Guo, Hongwei Zhao, Dongdong Niu
Bacillus cereus AR156 (AR156) is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium capable of inducing systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Here we show that when applied to Arabidopsis leaves, AR156 acted similarly to flg22, a typical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), in initiating PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). AR156-elicited PTI responses included phosphorylation of MPK3 and MPK6, induction of the expression of defense-related genes PR1, FRK1, WRKY22, and WRKY29; production of reactive oxygen species; and callose deposition...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090630/comparative-transcriptomics-reveals-how-wheat-responds-to-infection-by-zymoseptoria-tritici
#16
Xin Ma, Beat Keller, Bruce A McDonald, Javier Palma-Guerrero, Thomas Wicker
The fungus Zymoseptoria tritici causes septoria tritici blotch on wheat, an important disease globally and the most damaging wheat disease in Europe. Despite the global significance of septoria tritici blotch, the molecular basis of wheat defense against Z. tritici is poorly understood. Here we use a comparative transcriptomic study to investigate how wheat responds to infection by four distinct strains of Z. tritici. We examined the response of wheat across the entire infection cycle, identifying both shared responses to the four strains and strain-specific responses...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077520/marr-family-transcription-factor-hpar-controls-expression-of-the-vgrr-vgrs-operon-of-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#17
Yue Pan, Fang Liang, Ru-Jiao Li, Wei Qian
MarR-family transcription factors (TFs), which regulate the expression of virulence factors and other physiological pathways in pathogenic bacteria, are regarded as ideal molecular targets for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies. In the plant bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, HpaR, a typical MarR-family TF, is associated with bacterial virulence, but its mechanism of virulence regulation remains unclear. Here, we dissected the HpaR regulon using high-throughput RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068240/a-verticillium-dahliae-extracellular-cutinase-modulates-plant-immune-responses
#18
Yuejing Gui, Wenqi Zhang, Dandan Zhang, Lei Zhou, Dylan P G Short, Jie Wang, Xuefeng Ma, Tinggang Li, Zhiqiang Kong, Bao-Li Wang, Dan Wang, Nanyang Li, Krishna Subbarao, Jie-Yin Chen, Xiaofeng Dai
Cutinases have been implicated as important enzymes during the process of fungal infection of aerial plant organs. The function of cutinases in the disease cycle of fungal pathogens that invade plants through the roots has been less studied. Here, functional analysis of thirteen cutinase (carbohydrate esterase family 5 domain-containing) genes (VdCUTs) in the highly virulent vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae Vd991 was performed. Significant sequence divergence in cutinase family members was observed in the genome of V...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068239/a-phytophthora-palmivora-extracellular-cystatin-like-protease-inhibitor-targets-papain-to-contribute-to-virulence-on-papaya
#19
Rebecca Gumtow, Dongliang Wu, Janice Uchida, Miaoying Tian
Papaya fruits, stems and leaves are rich in papain, a cysteine protease that has been shown to mediate plant defense against pathogens and insects. Yet the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora is a destructive pathogen that infects all parts of papaya plants, suggesting that it has evolved cysteine protease inhibitors to inhibit papain to enable successful infection. Out of five putative cystatin-like extracellular protease inhibitors (PpalEPICs) from P. palmivora transcriptomic sequence data, PpalEPIC8 appeared to be unique to P...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059009/inappropriate-expression-of-an-nlp-effector-in-colletotrichum-orbiculare-impairs-infection-on-cucurbitaceae-cultivars-via-plant-recognition-of-the-c-terminal-region
#20
Nur Sabrina Ahmad Azmi, Suthitar Singkaravanit-Ogawa, Kyoko Ikeda, Saeko Kitakura, Yoshihiro Inoue, Yoshihiro Narusaka, Ken Shirasu, Masanori Kaido, Kazuyuki Mise, Yoshitaka Takano
The hemibiotrophic pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare preferentially expresses a necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like protein named NLP1 during the switch to necrotrophy. Here, we report that the constitutive expression of NLP1 in C. orbiculare blocks pathogen infection in multiple Cucurbitaceae cultivars via their enhanced defense responses. NLP1 has a cytotoxic activity that induces cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, C. orbiculare transgenic lines constitutively expressing a mutant NLP1 lacking the cytotoxic activity still failed to infect cucumber, indicating no clear relationship between cytotoxic activity and the NLP1-dependent enhanced defense...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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