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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812948/age-related-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-involves-the-mads-domain-transcription-factor-short-vegetative-phase-and-direct-action-of-salicylic-acid-on-pseudomonas-syringae
#1
Daniel C Wilson, Christine J Kempthorne, Philip Carella, David K Liscombe, Robin Cameron
Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits a developmentally regulated disease-resistance response known as Age-Related Resistance (ARR), a process that requires intercellular accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), which is thought to act as an antimicrobial agent. ARR is characterized by enhanced resistance to some pathogens at the late adult-vegetative and reproductive stages. While the transition to flowering does not cause the onset of ARR, both processes involve the MADS-domain transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800710/synergistic-effect-of-different-plant-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-is-important-for-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#2
Maria Chiara Paccanaro, Luca Sella, Carla Castiglioni, Francesca Giacomello, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Renato D'Ovidio, Wilhelm Schäfer, Francesco Favaron
Endo-polygalacturonases (PGs) and xylanases have been shown to play an important role during pathogenesis of some fungal pathogens of dicot plants, whilst their role in monocot pathogens is less defined. Pg1 and xyr1 genes of the wheat pathogen Fusarium graminearum encode the main PG and the major regulator of xylanase production, respectively. Single and double disrupted mutants for these genes were obtained to assess their contribution to fungal infection. Compared to wild-type strain, the ∆pg mutant showed a nearly abolished PG activity, slight reduced virulence on soybean seedlings but no significant difference in disease symptoms on wheat spikes; the ∆xyr mutant was strongly reduced in xylanase activity and moderately reduced in cellulase activity but was as virulent as wild-type on both soybean and wheat plants...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800709/the-major-outer-membrane-protein-mopb-is-required-for-twitching-movement-and-affects-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-two-xylella-fastidiosa-strains
#3
Hongyu Chen, Prem Prasad Kandel, Luisa Fernanda Cruz, Paul Anthony Cobine, Leonardo De La Fuente
MopB is a major outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterial plant pathogen that causes losses on many economically important crops. Based on in silico analysis, the uncharacterized MopB protein of X. fastidiosa contains a β-barrel structure with an OmpA-like domain and a predicted calcium-binding motif. Here, MopB function was studied by mutational analysis taking advantage of the natural competence of X. fastidiosa. Mutants of mopB were constructed in two different X. fastidiosa strains, the type strain 'Temecula' and the more virulent 'WM1-1'...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795634/silencing-of-rbohf2-causes-leaf-age-dependent-accelerated-senescence-salicylic-acid-accumulation-and-powdery-mildew-resistance-in-barley
#4
Denise Pereira Torres, Reinhard Korbinian Proels, Harald Schempp, Ralph Huckelhoven
Plant RBOH (RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUES)-type NADPH oxidases produce superoxide radical anions and have a function in developmental processes and in response to environmental challenges. Barley RBOHF2 has different reported functions in interaction with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Here we analysed in detail, plant leaf level- and leaf age-specific susceptibility of stably RBOHF2-silenced barley plants. This revealed enhanced susceptibility to fungal penetration of young RBOHF2-silenced leaf tissue but strongly reduced susceptibility of older leaves when compared to controls...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786312/pathogen-and-pest-responses-are-altered-in-glycoalkaloid-metabolism4-rnai-solanum-tuberosum
#5
Jamuna Risal Paudel, Charlotte Davidson, Jun Song, Itkin Maxim, Asaph Aharoni, Helen H Tai
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are major secondary metabolites constitutively produced in cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, and α-solanine and α-chaconine are the most abundant SGAs. SGAs are toxic to humans at high level but their role in plant protection against pests and pathogens is yet to be established. In this study, levels of SGAs in potato were reduced by RNAi-mediated silencing of GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 4 (GAME4) - a gene encoding cytochrome P450, involved in an oxidation step in the conversion of cholesterol to SGA aglycones...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777044/ectopic-expression-of-xylella-fastidiosa-rpff-conferring-production-of-diffusible-signal-factor-in-transgenic-tobacco-and-citrus-alters-pathogen-behavior-and-reduces-disease-severity
#6
Raquel Caserta, Reinaldo Rodrigues Souza-Neto, Marco Aurelio Takita, Steven Lindow, Alessandra De Souza
The pathogenicity of Xylella fastidiosa is associated with its ability to colonize the xylem of host plants. Expression of genes contributing to xylem colonization are suppressed, while those necessary for insect vector acquisition are increased, with increasing concentrations of diffusible signal factor (DSF) whose production is dependent on RpfF. We previously demonstrated that transgenic citrus plants ectopically expressing rpfF from a citrus strain of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca exhibited less susceptibility to Xanthomonas citri subsp...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771395/the-type-iii-secretion-chaperone-hpab-controls-the-translocation-of-effector-and-non-effector-proteins-from-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria
#7
Felix Scheibner, Nadine Hartmann, Jens Hausner, Christian Lorenz, Anne-Katrin Hoffmeister, Daniela Buettner
Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates effector proteins into plant cells. Effector proteins contain N-terminal T3S and translocation signals and interact with the T3S chaperone HpaB, which presumably escorts effectors to the secretion apparatus. The molecular mechanisms underlying the recognition of effectors by the T3S system are not yet understood. In the present study, we analysed T3S and translocation signals in the type III effectors XopE2 and XopJ from X...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745538/sinorhizobium-meliloti-chemotaxis-to-multiple-amino-acids-is-mediated-by-the-chemoreceptor-mcpu
#8
Benjamin A Webb, K Karl Compton, Julia S Martin Del Campo, Doris Taylor, Pablo Sobrado, Birgit E Scharf
The legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is chemoattracted to compounds exuded by germinating seeds of its host alfalfa. This response is mainly mediated by the S. meliloti chemoreceptor McpU. McpU also has a prominent contribution in sensing a synthetic amino acid (aa) mixture mimicking the amounts and composition observed in seed exudate. Here, we used the hydrogel capillary assay to quantify chemotactic responses of S. meliloti to individual aa exuded by germinating alfalfa seeds and to define the role of McpU in this behavior...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657425/the-regulatory-network-controlling-ethanol-induced-expression-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-in-the-endophyte-azoarcus-sp-strain-bh72
#9
Andrea Krause, Henrike Julich, Manasee Mankar, Barbara Reinhold-Hurek
The habitat of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is grass roots grown under waterlogged conditions that produce, under these conditions, ethanol. Strain BH72 is well equipped to metabolize ethanol, with eight alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), of which ExaA2 and ExaA3 are the most relevant ones. exaA2 and exaA3 cluster and are surrounded by genes encoding two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) termed ExaS-ExaR and ElmS-GacA. Functional genomic analyses revealed that i) expression of the corresponding genes was induced by ethanol, ii) the genes were also expressed in the rhizoplane or even inside of rice roots, iii) both TCSs were indispensable for growth on ethanol, and iv) they were important for competitiveness during rice root colonization...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726589/proteomic-study-of-sumoylation-during-solanum-tuberosum-phytophthora-infestans-in-compatible-interactions
#10
Bertrand Colignon, Marc Dieu, Catherine Demazy, Edouard Delaive, Yordan Muhovski, Martine Raes, Sergio Mauro
Invasive plant pathogens have developed the ability to modify the metabolism of their host, promoting metabolic processes which facilitate the growth of the pathogen; at the general expense of the host. The particular enzymatic process SUMOylation which performs post-translational modification of target proteins, leading to changes in many aspects of protein activity and hence metabolism has been demonstrated to be active in many eukaryotic organisms, both animals and plants. Here we provide experimental evidence which indicates that in leaves of Solanum tuberosum which have been infected by Phytophthora infestans, the SUMO pathway enzymes of the host are partially under transcriptional control exerted by the oomycete...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703029/hop-stunt-viroid-effect-on-host-humulus-lupulus-transcriptome-and-its-interactions-with-hop-powdery-mildew-podospheara-macularis
#11
Madhu Kappagantu, Jeff M Bullock, Mark Elmer Nelson, Kenneth C Eastwell
Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens that exploit host systems for their replication, and cause diseases in many hosts. In this study, the host response of hop plants to Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) infection was studied through transcriptome analysis. RNA sequence analysis of hop leaves infected with HSVd revealed dynamic changes in hop gene expression. Defense-related genes, genes involved in lipid and terpenoid metabolism are the major categories that showed differential expression due to HSVd infection...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703028/the-sal-pap-chloroplast-retrograde-pathway-contributes-to-plant-immunity-by-regulating-glucosinolate-pathway-and-phytohormone-signaling
#12
Yasuhiro Ishiga, Mutsumi Watanabe, Takako Ishiga, Takayuki Tohge, Takakazu Matsuura, Yoko Ikeda, Rainer Hofgen, Alisdair R Fernie, Kirankumar S Mysore
Chloroplasts have a crucial role in plant immunity against pathogens. Increasing evidence suggests that phytopathogens target chloroplast homeostasis as a pathogenicity mechanism. In order to regulate the performance of chloroplasts under stress conditions, chloroplasts produce retrograde signals to alter nuclear gene expression. Many signals for the chloroplast retrograde pathway have been identified including chlorophyll intermediates, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and metabolic retrograde signals. Although there is reasonably a good understanding of chloroplast retrograde signaling in plant immunity, some signals are not well understood...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682158/recombination-of-virulence-genes-in-divergent-acidovorax-avenae-strains-that-infect-a-common-host
#13
Quan Zeng, Jie Wang, Frederic Bertels, Paul Giordano, Martin I Chilvers, Regan B Huntley, Joseph M Vargas, George W Sundin, Janette L Jacobs, Ching-Hong Yang
Bacterial etiolation and decline (BED), caused by Acidovorax avenae, is an emerging disease of creeping bentgrass on golf courses in the United States of America. We performed the first comprehensive analysis of A. avenae on a nationwide collection of turfgrass and maize pathogenic A. avenae. Surprisingly, our results reveal that the turfgrass pathogenic A. avenae in North America are not only highly divergent but also belong to two distinct phylogroups. Both phylogroups specifically infect turfgrass but are more closely related to maize pathogens, than to each other...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682157/whole-genome-sequences-of-the-raspberry-and-strawberry-pathogens-phytophthora-rubi-and-p-fragariae
#14
Javier Tabima, Brent Kronmiller, Caroline Press, Brett M Tyler, Inga Zasada, Niklaus J Grünwald
Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of these two Phytophthora species as a first step towards understanding the genomic processes underlying plant host adaptation in these pathogens.
July 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677494/genomic-analysis-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-reveals-insight-into-virulence-strategies-and-genetic-diversity-of-a-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogen
#15
Shree P Thapa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Michael Hahn, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Bob Gilbertson, Gitta Coaker
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that proliferates in the xylem vessels of tomato, causing bacterial canker disease. In this study, we sequenced and assembled genomes of 11 Cmm strains isolated from infected tomato fields in California as well as five Clavibacter strains that colonize tomato endophytically but are not pathogenic in this host. The analysis of the Cmm genomes supported the monophyletic nature of this pathogen, but revealed genetic diversity among strains, consistent with multiple introduction events...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677493/dynamic-changes-in-the-rice-blast-population-in-the-usa-over-six-decades
#16
Xueyan Wang, Yulin Jia, Yeshi Wamishe, Melissa H Jia, Barbara Valent
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (Mo) is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. Field isolates of Mo rapidly adapt to their hosts and climate. Tracking the genetic and pathogenic variability of field isolates is essential to understand how Mo interacts with hosts and environments. In this study, a total of 1022 US field isolates collected from 1959 to 2015 were analyzed for pathogenicity toward 8 international rice differentials (IRD). A sub-set of 457 isolates was genotyped with 10 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635519/the-elicitor-protein-ases-induces-a-sar-response-accompanied-by-systemic-microbursts-and-micro-hrs-in-fragaria-ananassa
#17
Verónica Hael Conrad, Silvia Marisa Perato, Marta Elena Arias, Martín Gustavo Martínez Zamora, Pía de Los Ángeles Di Peto, Gustavo Gabriel Martos, Atilio Pedro Castagnaro, Juan Carlos Diaz-Ricci, Nadia Regina Chalfoun
The elicitor AsES (Acremonium strictum Elicitor Subtilisin) is a 34 KDa subtilisin-like protein secreted by the opportunistic fungus Acremonium strictum. AsES activates the innate immunity and confers resistance against anthracnose and grey mold diseases in strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and the last disease also in Arabidopsis. In the present work, we show that upon AsES recognition, a cascade of defense responses is activated, including: calcium influx, biphasic oxidative burst (O2(.-) and H2O2), HR response, accumulation of autofluorescent compounds, cell wall reinforcement with callose and lignin deposition, salicylic acid accumulation, and expression of defense-related genes such as FaPR1, FaPG1, FaMYB30, FaRBOH-D, FaRBOH-F, FaCHI23 and FaFLS...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609214/the-potyvirus-particle-recruits-the-plant-translation-initiation-factor-eif4e-by-means-of-the-vpg-covalently-linked-to-the-viral-rna
#18
Geneviève Tavert-Roudet, Agnès Anne, Amandine Barra, Arnaud Chovin, Christophe Demaille, Thierry Michon
The viral protein genome-linked (VPg) of potyviruses is a protein covalently linked to the 5' end of viral RNA. It interacts with eIF4E, a component of the cellular translation initiation complex. It has been suggested that the 5' RNA-linked VPg could mimic the cellular mRNA cap, promoting synthesis of viral proteins. Here, we report evidence for recruitment of the plant eIF4E by Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, potyvirus) particles via the 5' RNA-linked VPg. Analysis of the viral population was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based tests, either with crude extracts of LMV-infected tissues or purified viral particles...
September 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598263/the-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-gene-ljpal1-is-involved-in-plant-defense-responses-to-pathogens-and-plays-diverse-roles-in-lotus-japonicus-rhizobium-symbioses
#19
Yaping Chen, Fengjiao Li, Lu Tian, Mingchao Huang, Rufang Deng, Xueliu Li, Wei Chen, Pingzhi Wu, Meiru Li, Huawu Jiang, Guojiang Wu
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is important in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites that regulate growth responses. Although its function is well-established in various plants, the functional significance of PAL genes in nodulation is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Lotus japonicus PAL (LjPAL1) gene is induced by Mesorhizobium loti infection and methyl-jasmonate (Me-JA) treatment in roots. LjPAL1 altered PAL activity, leading to changes in lignin contents and thicknesses of cell walls in roots and nodules of transgenic plants and, hence, to structural changes in roots and nodules...
September 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598262/strigolactones-in-the-rhizosphere-friend-or-foe
#20
Carolien De Cuyper, Sofie Goormachtig
Strigolactones are well-known endogenous plant hormones that play a major role in planta by influencing different physiological processes. Moreover, ex planta, strigolactones are important signaling molecules in root exudates and function as host detection cues to launch mutualistic interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. However, parasitic plants belonging to the Orobanchaceae family hijacked this communication system to stimulate their seed germination when in close proximity to the roots of a suitable host...
September 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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