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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Chantal E McCabe, Silvia R Cianzio, Jamie A O'Rourke, Michelle A Graham
Brown stem rot (BSR), caused by the fungus Phialophora gregata, reduces soybean yield by up to 38%. While three dominant resistance loci have been identified (Rbs1-Rbs3), the gene networks responsible for pathogen recognition and defense remain unknown. Further, identification and characterization of resistant and susceptible germplasm remains difficult. We conducted RNA-Seq of infected and mock-infected leaf, stem, and root tissues of a resistant (PI 437970, Rbs3) and susceptible (Corsoy 79) genotype. Combining historical mapping data with genotype expression differences allowed us to identify a cluster of receptor like proteins (RLPs) that are candidates for the Rbs3 resistance gene...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Manuela Campa, Stefano Piazza, Laura Righetti, Chang-Sik Oh, Lorenza Conterno, Ewa Borejsza-Wysocka, Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Steven V Beer, Herb Aldwinckle, Mickael Malnoy
Fire blight, a devastating disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a major threat to apple crop production. To improve our understanding of the fire blight disease, and to identify potential strategies to control the pathogen, we studied the apple protein "HrpN-interacting protein from Malus" (HIPM), which has previously been identified as interacting with the E. amylovora effector protein HrpN. Transgenic apple plants were generated with reduced HIPM expression using an RNAi construct, and were subsequently analysed for susceptibility to E...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Shusheng Zhu, Jean-Benoît Morel
Many reports indicate that intercropping, which usually consists in growing two species next to each other, reduces the incidence of microbial diseases. Besides mechanisms operating at the field level like inoculum dilution, there is recent evidence that plant-centered mechanisms with identified plant molecules and pathways are also involved. First, plants may trigger the induction of resistance in neighboring plants by the well-known mechanism of induced resistance. Second, molecules produced by one plant, either above or below ground, can directly inhibit pathogens or indirectly trigger resistance through the induction of the plant immune system in neighboring plants...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Reza Behzadi Amin, Akbar Karegar, Alireza Afsharifar, Ali Niazi, Mansour Karimi
The beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii causes serious damage and yield losses in numerous important crops worldwide. This study examines the efficacy of three types of transgenic Arabidopsis RNAi lines to decrease the biological activity of this devastating nematode. The first RNAi construct (E1 E2 -RNAi) targets two nematode endoglucanase genes, which are involved in BCN pathogenicity, the second construct (MSP-RNAi) contains a fragment corresponding to the major sperm protein transcript necessary for BCN development and reproduction, and the third construct (E1 E2 MSP-RNAi) comprises all three target fragments...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Vicente Ramirez, Beatriz Gonzalez, Ana Lopez, María José Castelló, María José Gil, Bo Zheng, Peng Chen, Pablo Vera Vera
tRNA is the most highly modified class of RNA species in all living organisms. Recent discoveries have revealed unprecedented complexity in the tRNA chemical structures, modification patterns, regulation and function, suggesting that each modified nucleoside in tRNA may have its own specific function. However, in plants, our knowledge on the role of individual tRNA modifications and how they are regulated is very limited. In a genetic screen designed to identify factors regulating disease resistance in Arabidopsis, we identified SUPPRESSOR OF CSB3 9 (SCS9)...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Stefan Ciaghi, Sigrid Neuhauser, Arne Schwelm
The Plasmodiophorida (Phytomyxea, Rhizaria) are a group of protist that infect plants. Of this group, Spongospora subterranea causes major problems for the potato industry by causing powdery scab and root galling of potatoes and as vector for the Potato mop top virus (PMTV, Pomovirus, Virgaviridae). A single tuber isolate (SSUBK13) of this uncultivable protist was used to generate DNA for Illumina sequencing. The data were assembled to a draft genome of 28.08 Mb consisting of 2340 contigs and an L50 of 280...
July 3, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yuanzheng Wang, Yansha Li, Tabata Rosas-Diaz, Carlos Caceres-Moreno, Rosa Lozano-Durán, Alberto P Macho
A robust regulation of plant immune responses requires multitude of positive and negative regulators that act in concert. The immune-associated nucleotide-binding (IAN) gene family members are associated with immunity in different organisms, although no characterization of their function has been carried out to date in plants. In this work, we analyzed the expression patterns of IAN genes and found that IAN9 is repressed upon pathogen infection or treatment with immune elicitors. IAN9 encodes a plasma membrane-localized protein that genetically behaves as a negative regulator of immunity...
June 29, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jo Ann E Asselin, Jean M Bonasera, Steven V Beer
Pantoea ananatis, a cause of center rot of onion, is problematic in the USA and elsewhere. The bacterium lacks disease determinants common to most other bacterial pathogens of plants. A genomic island containing the gene pepM was detected within many onion-pathogenic strains of P. ananatis of diverse origins. The pepM gene of P. ananatis putatively encodes a protein that converts phosphoenolpyruvate to phosphonopyruvate, the first step in the biosynthesis of phosphonates and related molecules. This gene appears to be essential for center rot disease...
June 28, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Mukesh Jain, Alejandra Munoz-Bodnar, Shujian Zhang, Dean W Gabriel
The oxidative (H2 O2 ) burst is a seminal feature of the basal plant defense response to attempted pathogen invasions. In 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' strain UF506, expression of the SC2 prophage-encoded secreted peroxidase (F489_gp15) likely increases bacterial fitness and delays symptom progression in citrus. Two chromosomal 1-Cys peroxiredoxins genes, CLIBASIA_RS00940 (Lasprx5) and CLIBASIA_RS00445 (Lasbcp), are conserved among all sequenced 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' strains, including those lacking prophages...
June 28, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zoe Dubrow, Sukumaran Sunitha, Jung-Gun Kim, Christopher Aakre, Anil Madhusoodana Girija, Guy Sobol, Doron Teper, Yun-Chu Chen, Nejla Ozbaki-Yagan, Hilary Vance, Guido Sessa, Mary Beth Mudgett
14-3-3s are phospho-binding proteins with scaffolding activity that play central roles in the regulation of enzymes and signaling complexes in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 isoforms are required for disease resistance and key targets of pathogen effectors. Here, we examined the requirement of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 14-3-3 (TFT) protein family for Xv3 disease resistance in response to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. In addition, we determined if tomato 14-3-3 proteins interact with the repertoire of X...
June 27, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chunda Feng, Kurt Lamour, Burton Bluhm, Sandeep Sharma, Sandesh Shrestha, Braham Deep Singh Dhillon, James Correll
Downy mildew disease, caused by the obligate oomycete pathogen Peronospora effusa, is the most important economic constraint for spinach production. Three races (races 12, 13, and 14) of P. effusa have been sequenced and assembled. The draft genomes of these three races have been deposited to GenBank and provide useful resources for dissecting the interaction between the host and the pathogen and may provide a framework for determining the mechanism by which new races of the pathogen are rapidly emerging.
June 26, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Xiayan Pan, Jian Wu, Shu Xu, Tingting Duan, Yabing Duan, Jianxin Wang, Feng Zhang, Mingguo Zhou
OxyR and SoxR are two transcriptional regulators in response to oxidative stress in most bacteria, and SoxR has been reported to be activated by the endogenous redox-cycling compound phenazines in phenazine-producing organisms. However, which transcriptional regulator is activated in pathogens treated with the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) has not been determined. In this study, we found that PCA treatment activated OxyR rather than SoxR in the phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yi-Shu Chiu, Pi-Yu Chen, Tung Kuan, Po-Chuan Wang, Ying-Ju Chen, Yu-Liang Yang, Hsin-Hung Yeh
Plant viruses cause devastating diseases in plants, yet not effective viricide is available for agricultural application. We screened cultured filtrates derived from various soil microorganisms cultured in vegetable broth that enhanced plant viral resistance. A cultured filtrate, designated F8-culture filtrate, derived from a fungus belonging to the genus Trichosporon, induced strong resistance to various viruses on different plants. In some of our inoculation assay, the infection rate of TMV-inoculated N. benthamiana with F8-culture filtrate pretreatment may decrease to 0%, whereas salicylic acid (SA) pretreated N...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Raksha Singh, Seonghee Lee, Laura Ortega, Elison Blancaflor, Vemanna S Ramu, Muthappa Senthil-Kumar, Clemencia M Rojas, Kirankumar S Mysore
Plants are naturally resistant to most pathogens through a broad and durable defense response called nonhost disease resistance. Nonhost disease resistance is a complex process that includes preformed physical and chemical barriers and induced responses. In spite of its importance, many components of nonhost disease resistance remain to be identified and characterized. Using virus-induced gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana, we discovered a novel gene that we named NbNHR2 (N. benthamiana nonhost resistance 2)...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zunyong Liu, Na Liu, Huixian Jiang, Leiyan Yan, Zhonghua Ma, Yanni Yin
The type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) are holoenzymes in all eukaryotes but their activators remain unknown in filamentous fungi. Fusarium graminearum contains three PP2As (FgPp2A, FgSit4 and FgPpg1), which play critical roles in fungal growth, development and virulence. Here, we identified two PP2A activators (PTPAs) FgRrd1 and FgRrd2, and found that they control PP2A activity in a PP2A-specific manner. FgRrd1 interacts with FgPpg1, but FgRrd2 interacts with FgPp2A and very weakly with FgSit4. Furthermore, FgRrd2 activates FgPp2A via regulating FgPp2A methylation...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Xiaochen Jia, Haihong Zeng, Wenxia Wang, Fuyun Zhang, Heng Yin
Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is an effective plant immunity elicitor; however, its induction mechanism in plants is complex, still need further investigation. In this study, Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) interaction was used to investigate the induction effect and the underlying mechanisms of COS. COS is effective in inducing resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis, and our results demonstrate that treatment with COS 3 days before Pst DC3000 inoculation provided the most effective resistance...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jie Yang, Muxing Liu, Xinyu Liu, Ziyi Yin, Yi Sun, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase MoMkk1 governs the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. To understand the underlying mechanism, we have identified MoSsb1 as one of the MoMkk1-interacting proteins. MoSsb1 is a stress-seventy subfamily B (Ssb) protein homolog, sharing high amino acid sequence homology with the 70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s). Hsp70 proteins are a family of conserved and ubiquitously expressed chaperones that regulate protein biogenesis by promoting protein folding, preventing protein aggregation and controlling protein degradation...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Seomun Kwon, Jaejoon Lee, Jongbum Jeon, Seongbeom Kim, Sook-Young Park, Junhyun Jeon, Yong-Hwan Lee
Acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) by the fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 plays important roles in maintaining genome integrity and surviving DNA damage. Here we investigated the implications of Rtt109-mediated response to DNA damage on development and pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae). The ortholog of Rtt109 in M. oryzae (MoRtt109) was found via sequence homology and its functionality confirmed by phenotypic complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtt109 deletion strain...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Celica Cagide, Braulio Riviezzi, Manuel Minteguiaga, Maria Morel, Susana Castro-Sowinski
Delftia sp. JD2 is a Betaproteobacterium characterized as a plant growth-promoting bacterium with a "helper" function, enhancing the performance of rhizobial inoculant strains during the co-inoculation of alfalfa and clover. In this work we analyzed: (i) the effect of the co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Delftia sp. JD2 strains on the performance of soybean plants and, (ii) the production of a few secondary plant metabolites that would explain the positive effect of co-inoculation on the growth and development of soybean plants...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chongjing Xia, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Omar E Cornejo, Scot Hulbert, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) causes devastating stripe (yellow) rust on wheat and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) causes stripe rust on barley. Several Pst genomes are available, but no Psh genome is available. More genomes of Pst and Psh are needed to understand the genome evolution and molecular mechanisms of their pathogenicity. We sequenced Pst isolate 93-210 and Psh isolate 93TX-2 using PacBio and Illumina technologies, and RNA sequencing. Their genomic sequences were assembled to contigs with high continuity and showed significant structural differences...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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