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Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI

Chongjing Xia, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Omar E Cornejo, Scot Hulbert, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) causes devastating stripe (yellow) rust on wheat and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) causes stripe rust on barley. Several Pst genomes are available, but no Psh genome is available. More genomes of Pst and Psh are needed to understand the genome evolution and molecular mechanisms of their pathogenicity. We sequenced Pst isolate 93-210 and Psh isolate 93TX-2 using PacBio and Illumina technologies, and RNA sequencing. Their genomic sequences were assembled to contigs with high continuity and showed significant structural differences...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Bradford J Condon, Candace E Elliott, Jonathan Gonzalez, Sung-Hwan Yun, Yasunori Akagi, Tyr Wiesner-Hanks, Motoichiro Kodama, Gillian Turgeon
The Southern Corn Leaf Blight epidemic of 1970 devastated fields of T-cytoplasm corn planted in monoculture throughout the eastern US. The epidemic was driven by race T, a previously unseen race of Cochliobolus heterostrophus. A second fungus, Phyllosticta zeae-maydis, with the same biological specificity, appeared coincidentally. Race T produces T-toxin, while P. zeae-maydis produces PM-toxin, both host selective polyketide toxins necessary for supervirulence. Present abundance of genome sequences offers an opportunity to tackle the evolutionary origins of T- and PM- toxin biosynthetic genes, previously thought unique to these species...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ekaterina Gubaeva, Airat Gubaev, Rebacca Melcher, Stefan Cord-Landwehr, Ratna Singh, Nour Eddine El Gueddari, Bruno Maria Moerschbacher
Chitin, a linear polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and chitosans, fully or partially deacetylated derivatives of chitin, are known to elicit defense reactions in higher plants. We compared the ability of chitin and chitosan oligomers and polymers (chitin oligomers with degree of polymerization 3 to 8; chitosan oligomers with degree of acetylation 0% to 35% and degree of polymerization 3 to 15; chitosan polymers with degree of acetylation 1% to 60% and degree of polymerization ~1300) to elicit an oxidative burst indicative of induced defense reactions in A...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Miryam Pérez-Cañamás, Carmen Hernández
Despite replication of plus strand RNA viruses takes place in the cytoplasm of host cells, different proteins encoded by these infectious agents have been shown to localize in the nucleus, with high accumulation at the nucleolus. In most cases, the molecular determinants and/or biological significance of such subcellular localization remain elusive. Recently, we reported that protein p37 encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae) acts in both RNA packaging and RNA silencing suppression...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Daniel F Klessig, Hyong Woo Choi, D'Maris Amick Dempsey
Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that regulates numerous aspects of plant growth and development, as well as the activation of defenses against biotic and abiotic stress. Here we present a historical overview of the progress that has been made to date in elucidating SA's role in signaling plant immune responses. The ability of plants to develop acquired immunity after pathogen infection was first proposed in 1933. However, most of our knowledge about plant immune signaling was generated over the last three decades, following the discovery that SA is an endogenous defense signal...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Morgan E Carter, Adam J Bogdanove, Roger Innes, Roger Philip Wise
This letter describes a newly discovered confounding effect of bacterial titer in a previously published type III delivery-based assay of the fungal effector BEC1019. The original publication has been retracted as a consequence of this discovery. The letter tabulates the affected and unaffected figures and conclusions in the original publication, and briefly reflects on potential pitfalls to bear in mind when designing experiments that use bacterial type III secretion to characterize eukaryotic effectors.
May 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Stacy L DeBlasio, Ana Rita Rebelo, Katherine Parks, Stewart Gray, Michelle Cilia
Chloroplasts play a central role in pathogen defense in plants. However, the majority of studies explaining the relationship between pathogens and chloroplasts have focused on pathogens that infect mesophyll cells. In contrast, the family Luteoviridae comprises RNA viruses that replicate and traffic exclusively in the phloem. Recently, our lab has shown that Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), the type species in the genus Polerovirus, forms an extensive interaction network with chloroplast-localized proteins, which is partially dependent on the PLRV capsid readthrough domain (RTD)...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ningxiao Li, Wenzhao Wang, Vasileios Bitas, Krishna Subbarao, Xingzhong Liu, Seogchan Kang
Some volatile compounds (VCs) play critical roles in intra- and inter-species interactions. To investigate roles of VCs in fungal ecology, we characterized how VCs produced by Verticillium, a group of broad host range soilborne fungal pathogens, affect plant growth and development. VCs produced by 19 strains corresponding to 10 species significantly enhanced the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Analysis of VCs produced by four species revealed the presence of diverse compounds, including those previously shown to affect plant growth...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jingru Wang, Xiaolong Shao, Yingchao Zhang, Yanan Zhu, Pan Yang, Jian Yuan, Tingting Wang, Chunyan Yin, Wei Wang, Sheng Chen, Haihua Liang, Xin Deng
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is the main machinery for Pseudomonas syringae and other Gram-negative bacteria to invade plant cells. HrpR and HrpS form a hetero-hexamer, which activates the expression of HrpL that induces all T3SS genes by binding to a 'hrp box' in promoters. However, the individual molecular mechanism of HrpR or HrpS has not been fully understood. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found that HrpR, HrpS, and HrpL had 4, 47, and 31 targets on the genome, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Haichao Feng, Nan Zhang, Wenbin Du, Huihui Zhang, Yunpeng Liu, Ruixin Fu, Jiahui Shao, Guishan Zhang, Qi-Rong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
Chemotaxis-mediated response to root exudates, initiated by sensing-specific ligands through methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), is very important for root colonization and beneficial functions of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs). Systematic identification of chemoattractants in complex root exudates and their sensing chemoreceptors in PGPRs is helpful for enhancing their recruitment and colonization. In this study, 39 chemoattractants and 5 chemorepellents, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars, were identified from 98 tested components of root exudates for the well-studied PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jennifer Mae Lorang, Christina H Hagerty, Rian Lee, Phillip McClean, Thomas Wolpert
Cochliobolus victoria, the causal agent of Victoria blight, is pathogenic due to its production of a toxin called victorin. Victorin sensitivity in oats, barley, Brachypodium, and Arabidopsis has been associated with nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes, a class of genes known for conferring disease resistance. In this work we investigated the sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris to victorin. We found that victorin sensivity in Phaseolus vulgaris is a developmentally regulated, quantitative trait...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Pablo Ibort, Sonia Molina, Juan Manuel Ruiz-Lozano, Ricardo Aroca
Management of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can be implemented to deal with sustainable intensification of agriculture. Ethylene is an essential component for plant growth and development and in response to drought. However, little is known about the effects of bacterial inoculation on ethylene transduction pathway. Thus, the present study sought to establish whether ethylene perception is critical for growth induction by two different PGPB strains under drought conditions and the analysis of bacterial effects on ethylene production and gene expression in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum)...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Stefania Bertazzoni, Angela Williams, Darcy A B Jones, Robert A Syme, Kar-Chun Tan, James Kyawzwar Hane
Fungal pathogen genomes can often be divided into core and accessory regions. Accessory regions may be comprised of either accessory regions (ARs) within core chromosomes (CCs), or wholly-dispensable (accessory) chromosomes (ACs). Fungal ACs and ARs typically accumulate mutations and structural rearrangements more rapidly over time than CCs, and many harbour genes relevant to host-pathogen interactions. These regions are of particular interest in plant pathology and include host-specific virulence factors and secondary metabolite synthesis gene clusters...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Eder Alves Barbosa, Mauro Ferreira Bonfim Junior, Carlos Bloch, Thales Lima Rocha, Gilbert Engler, Janice de Almeida Engler
Nematodes are devastating pests that infect most cultivated plant species and cause considerable agricultural losses worldwide. The understanding of metabolic adjustments induced during plant-nematode interaction is crucial to generate resistant plants or to select more efficient molecules to fight against this pest. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has been used herein for in situ detection and mapping endogenous polypeptides and secondary metabolites from nematode-induced gall tissue...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Saet-Byul Kim, Hye-Young Lee, Eun-Hye Choi, Eunsook Park, Jihyun Kim, Ki-Beom Moon, Hyun-Soon Kim, Doil Choi
The pepper Pvr4 encoding coiled-coil (CC) nucleotide-binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein (CC-NLR) confer hypersensitive resistance (HR) to potyviruses, including Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) by recognizing the viral avirulence protein, NIb. To figure out the Pvr4-mediated HR mechanism, we analyzed the signaling component genes and structure-function relationships of Pvr4 using chimeras and deletion mutants in Nicotiana benthamiana. Molecular chaperone components including HSP90, SGT1 and RAR1 were required, while plant hormones and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling components had little effect on Pvr4-NIb-mediated HR cell death...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yue Hu, Jian Jiao, Li Xue Liu, Yan Wei Sun, Wenfeng Chen, Xinhua Sui, Wenxin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Phosphate homeostasis is tightly modulated in all organisms including bacteria, which harbor both high- and low-affinity transporters acting under conditions of fluctuating phosphate levels. It was thought that nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, named as bacteroids, inhabiting root nodules of legumes are not phosphate limited. Here we show that the high-affinity phosphate transporter PstSCAB other than the low-affinity phosphate transporter Pit is essential for effective nitrogen fixation of Sinorhizobium fredii in soybean nodules...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Huwei Hou, Ya Hu, Qian Wang, Xiongbiao Xu, Yajuan Qian, Xueping Zhou
In this study, we used high-throughput deep nucleotide sequencing to characterize the global transcriptional response of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to transient expression of the RepA protein from Oat dwarf virus (ODV). We identified 7,878 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that mapped to 125 pathways, suggesting that comprehensive networks are involved in regulation of RepA-induced cell death. Of the DEGs, 202 DEGs associated with photosynthesis, expression of 195 was found out to be down-regulated, indicating a significant inhibition of photosynthesis in response to RepA expression, which is associated with chloroplast disruption and physiological changes...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Riccardo Baroncelli, Serenella Sukno, Sabrina Sarrocco, Giovanni Cafà, Gaetan Le Floch, Michael R Thon
Colletotrichum orchidophilum is a plant pathogenic fungus infecting a wide range of plant species belonging to the family Orchidaceae. Besides its economic impact, C. orchidophilum has been used in recent years in evolutionary studies as it represents the closest related species to the C. acutatum species complex. Here we present the first draft whole-genome sequence of C. orchidophilum IMI 309357, providing a resource for future research on anthracnose of Orchidaceae and other hosts.
April 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chihiro Miura, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Ryohei Miyahara, Tatsuki Yamamoto, Masako Fuji, Takahiro Yagame, Haruko Imaizumi-Anraku, Masahide Yamato, Shuji Shigenobu, Hironori Kaminaka
Achlorophylous and early developmental stages of chorolophylous orchids are highly dependent on carbon and other nutrients provided by mycorrhizal fungi, in a nutritional mode termed mycoheterotrophy. Previous findings have implied that some common properties at least partially underlie the mycorrhizal symbioses of mycoheterotrophic orchids and that of autotrophic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants; however, information about the molecular mechanisms of the relationship between orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi is limited...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Javier F Tabima, Michael D Coffey, Inga A Zazada, Niklaus J Grünwald
Population genetics is a powerful tool to understand patterns and evolutionary processes that are involved in plant-pathogen emergence and adaptation to agricultural ecosystems. We are interested in studying the population dynamics of Phytophthora rubi, the causal agent of Phytophthora root rot in raspberry. P. rubi is found in the western United States, where most of the fresh and processed raspberries are produced. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to characterize genetic diversity in populations of P. rubi sampled in the United States and other countries...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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