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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

Matthew D Sacchet, M Catalina Camacho, Emily E Livermore, Ewart A C Thomas, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by accelerated biological aging, including greater age-related changes in physiological functioning. The disorder is also associated with abnormal neural reward circuitry, particularly in the basal ganglia (BG). Here we assessed age-related changes in BG volume in both patients with MDD and healthy control participants. METHODS: We obtained whole-brain T1-weighted images from patients with MDD and healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Matthew J Hill, Richard Killick, Katherinne Navarrete, Aleksandra Maruszak, Gemma M McLaughlin, Brenda P Williams, Nicholas J Bray
BACKGROUND: Common variants in the TCF4 gene are among the most robustly supported genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Rare TCF4 deletions and loss-of-function point mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a developmental disorder associated with severe intellectual disability. METHODS: To explore molecular and cellular mechanisms by which TCF4 perturbation could interfere with human cortical development, we experimentally reduced the endogenous expression of TCF4 in a neural progenitor cell line derived from the developing human cerebral cortex using RNA interference...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Sabine E Mous, Tonya White, Ryan L Muetzel, Hanan El Marroun, Jolien Rijlaarsdam, Tinca J C Polderman, Vincent W Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Danielle Posthuma, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms have repeatedly been associated with poor cognitive functioning. Genetic studies have demonstrated a shared etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive ability, suggesting a common underlying neurobiology of ADHD and cognition. Further, neuroimaging studies suggest that altered cortical development is related to ADHD. In a large population-based sample we investigated whether cortical morphology, as a potential neurobiological substrate, underlies the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and cognitive problems...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Olivier Gay, Marion Plaze, Catherine Oppenheim, Raphael Gaillard, Jean-Pierre Olié, Marie-Odile Krebs, Arnaud Cachia
BACKGROUND: Several clinical and radiological markers of early neurodevelopmental deviations have been independently associated with cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to test the cumulative and/or interactive effects of these early neurodevelopmental factors on cognitive control (CC) deficit, a core feature of schizophrenia. METHODS: We recruited patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, who underwent structural MRI...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Mari Paz Serrano, Raquel Herrero-Labrador, Hunter S Futch, Julia Serrano, Alejandro Romero, Ana Patricia Fernandez, Abdelouahid Samadi, Mercedes Unzeta, Jose Marco-Contelles, Ricardo Martínez-Murillo
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease requires the development of multitarget drugs for treating the symptoms of the disease and its progression. Both cholinergic and monoamine oxidase dysfunctions are involved in the pathological process. Thus, we hypothesized that the development of therapies focused on these targets might be effective. We have developed and assessed a new product, coded ASS234, a multipotent acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase/monoamine oxidase A-B inhibitor with a potent inhibitory effect on amyloid-β aggregation as well as antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Mason M Silveira, Wendy K Adams, Maria Morena, Matthew N Hill, Catharine A Winstanley
BACKGROUND: Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Martin Alda, Flavio Kapczinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jai Shah, Jan Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Karim Tabbane, Soumeyya Halayem, Ridha Joober
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Johannes Fuss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon Maier, Stefan Klöppel, Erika Graf, Carola Killius, Marthe Rump, Esther Sobanski, Dieter Ebert, Mathias Berger, Andreas Warnke, Swantje Matthies, Evgeniy Perlov, Alexandra Philipsen
BACKGROUND: Based on animal research several authors have warned that the application of methylphenidate, the first-line drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), might have neurotoxic effects potentially harming the brain. We investigated whether methylphenidate application, over a 1-year period, results in cerebral volume decrease. METHODS: We acquired structural MRIs in a double-blind study comparing methylphenidate to placebo...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Glaucia C Akutagava-Martins, Angelica Salatino-Oliveira, Christian Kieling, Julia P Genro, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Luciana Anselmi, Ana M B Menezes, Helen Gonçalves, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Fernando C Barros, Sidia M Callegari-Jacques, Luis A Rohde, Mara H Hutz
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are dimensionally distributed in the population. This study aimed to assess the role of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes on ADHD symptoms in the general population. METHODS: We investigated 4101 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at ages 11 and 15 years...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Xianyong Yin, Nathan E Wineinger, Kai Wang, Weihua Yue, Nina Norgren, Ling Wang, Weiyi Yao, Xiaoyun Jiang, Bo Wu, Yong Cui, Changbing Shen, Hui Cheng, Fusheng Zhou, Gang Chen, Xianbo Zuo, Xiaodong Zheng, Xing Fan, Hongyan Wang, Lifang Wang, Jimmy Lee, Max Lam, E Shyong Tai, Zheng Zhang, Qiong Huang, Liangdan Sun, Jinhua Xu, Sen Yang, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, Jianjun Liu, Nicholas J Schork, Xuejun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia have a greater risk for psoriasis than a typical person. This suggests that there might be a shared genetic etiology between the 2 conditions. We aimed to characterize the potential shared genetic susceptibility between schizophrenia and psoriasis using genome-wide marker genotype data. METHODS: We obtained genetic data on individuals with psoriasis, schizophrenia and control individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Sarah M Clark, Ana Pocivavsek, James D Nicholson, Francesca M Notarangelo, Patricia Langenberg, Robert P McMahon, Joel E Kleinman, Thomas M Hyde, John Stiller, Teodor T Postolache, Robert Schwarcz, Leonardo H Tonelli
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory processes are increasingly believed to participate in the pathophysiology of a number of major psychiatric diseases, including depression. Immune activation stimulates the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to kynurenine, leading to the formation of neuroactive metabolites, such as quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid. These compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission, which plays a prominent role in depressive pathology. Increased tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway (KP) has been proposed to contribute to disease etiology...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Sarah M Burke, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Dick J Veltman, Daniel T Klink, Julie Bakker
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). METHODS: Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ilka Boehm, Daniel Geisler, Friederike Tam, Joseph A King, Franziska Ritschel, Maria Seidel, Fabio Bernardoni, Julia Murr, Thomas Goschke, Vince D Calhoun, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown increased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the frontoparietal network (FPN) and the default mode network (DMN) in patients with acute anorexia nervosa. Based on these findings we investigated within-network rsFC in patients recovered from anorexia nervosa to examine whether these abnormalities are a state or trait marker of the disease. To extend the understanding of functional connectivity in patients with anorexia nervosa, we also estimated rsFC between large-scale networks...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
André Schmidt, Lena Palaniyappan, Renata Smieskova, Andor Simon, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Philip McGuire, Stefan J Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that psychosis is associated with abnormal reward processing. Imaging studies in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) have revealed reduced activity in diverse brain regions, including the ventral striatum, insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during reward prediction. However, whether these reductions in local brain activity are due to altered connectivity has rarely been explored. METHODS: We applied dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection to fMRI data during the Salience Attribution Task to investigate whether patients with FEP showed abnormal modulation of connectivity between the ventral striatum, insula and ACC induced by rewarding cues and whether these changes were related to positive psychotic symptoms and atypical antipsychotic medication...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Amy Gough, Jason Morrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Mandy Skunde, Stephan Walther, Joe J Simon, Mudan Wu, Martin Bendszus, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Impaired inhibitory control is considered a behavioural phenotype in patients with bulimia nervosa. However, the underlying neural correlates of impaired general and food-specific behavioural inhibition are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated brain activation during the performance of behavioural inhibition to general and food-related stimuli in adults with bulimia nervosa. METHODS: Women with bulimia and healthy control women underwent event-related fMRI while performing a general and a food-specific no-go task...
August 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Martin Alda, Flavio Kapczinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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