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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

Joseph J Shenker, Sarojini M Sengupta, Ridha Joober, Ashok Malla, M Mallar Chakravarty, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Despite being diagnostically associated uniquely with schizophrenia, negative symptoms are also observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered a number of shared risk genes between schizophrenia and BD. The objectives of this study were to examine whether previously identified risk genes for BD are associated with negative symptom severity within a first-episode schizophrenia (FES) cohort and to examine whether such genes influence brain morphology...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Daniela Mier, Josef Bailer, Julia Ofer, Tobias Kerstner, Vera Zamoscik, Fred Rist, Michael Witthöft, Carsten Diener
BACKGROUND: An attentional bias to health-threat stimuli is assumed to represent the primary pathogenetic factor for the development and maintenance of pathological health anxiety (PHA; formerly termed "hypochondriasis"). However, little is known about the neural basis of this attentional bias in individuals with PHA. METHODS: A group of patients with PHA, a group of depressed patients and a healthy control group completed an emotional Stroop task with health-threat (body symptom and illness) words and neutral control words while undergoing functional MRI...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Lily R Aleksandrova, Anthony G Phillips, Yu Tian Wang
The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder remain poorly understood, and current antidepressant treatments have many shortcomings. The recent discovery that a single intravenous infusion of ketamine at a subanesthetic dose had robust, rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in individuals with treatment-resistant depression inspired tremendous interest in investigating the molecular mechanisms mediating ketamine's clinical efficacy as well as increased efforts to identify new targets for antidepressant action...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
New Fei Ho, Zhengjun Li, Fang Ji, Mingyuan Wang, Carissa N Kuswanto, Min Yi Sum, Han Ying Tng, Yih Yian Sitoh, Kang Sim, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Hemispheric lateralization of the brain occurs during development and underpins specialized functions. It is posited that aberrant neurodevelopment leads to abnormal brain lateralization in individuals with psychotic illnesses. Here, we sought to examine whether white matter hemispheric lateralization is abnormal in individuals with the psychotic spectrum disorders of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. METHODS: We examined the white matter microstructure lateralization in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features and healthy controls by measuring the laterality indices of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Logue, Andrew Reagan, David Salat, Erika J Wolf, Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Emily Sperbeck, Scott M Hayes, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Mieke Verfaellie, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
BACKGROUND: Memory-based alterations are among the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may be associated with the integrity of the hippocampus. However, neuroimaging studies of hippocampal volume in individuals with PTSD have yielded inconsistent results, raising the possibility that various moderators, such as genetic factors, may influence this association. We examined whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which has previously been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume in healthy individuals, moderates the association between PTSD and hippocampal volume...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Dennis van der Meer, Catharina A Hartman, Daan van Rooij, Barbara Franke, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by impaired response inhibition; both have been associated with aberrant dopamine signalling. Given that prenatal exposure to alcohol or smoking is known to affect dopamine-rich brain regions, we hypothesized that individuals carrying the ADHD risk alleles of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes may be especially sensitive to their effects. METHODS: Functional MRI data, information on prenatal adversities and genetic data were available for 239 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicentre ADHD cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age 17...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Matthew D Sacchet, M Catalina Camacho, Emily E Livermore, Ewart A C Thomas, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by accelerated biological aging, including greater age-related changes in physiological functioning. The disorder is also associated with abnormal neural reward circuitry, particularly in the basal ganglia (BG). Here we assessed age-related changes in BG volume in both patients with MDD and healthy control participants. METHODS: We obtained whole-brain T1-weighted images from patients with MDD and healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Tingting Duan, Ning Gu, Ying Wang, Feng Wang, Jie Zhu, Yiru Fang, Yuan Shen, Jing Han, Xia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pathological anxiety is the most common type of psychiatric disorder. The current first-line anti-anxiety treatment, selective serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, produces a delayed onset of action with modest therapeutic and substantial adverse effects, and long-term use of the fast-acting anti-anxiety benzodiazepines causes severe adverse effects. Inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) degradative enzyme, produces anti-anxiety effects without substantial "unwanted effects" of cannabinoids, but its anti-anxiety mechanism is unclear...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Michael Van Ameringen, Beth Patterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Tzyy-Nan Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
BACKGROUND: Human genetic studies have indicated that mutations in calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) result in X-linked mental retardation and autism-spectrum disorders. We aimed to establish a mouse model to study how Cask regulates mental ability. METHODS: Because Cask encodes a multidomain scaffold protein, a possible strategy to dissect how CASK regulates mental ability and cognition is to disrupt specific protein-protein interactions of CASK in vivo and then investigate the impact of individual specific protein interactions...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Zhong Yi Sun, Josselin Houenou, Delphine Duclap, Samuel Sarrazin, Julia Linke, Claire Daban, Nora Hamdani, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Pamela Guevara, Marine Delavest, Frank Bellivier, Frank Bellivier, Jorge Almeida, Amelia Versace, Cyril Poupon, Marion Leboyer, Mary Phillips, Michèle Wessa, Jean-François Mangin
BACKGROUND: Abnormal maturation of brain connectivity is supposed to underlie the dysfunctional emotion regulation in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). To test this hypothesis, white matter integrity is usually investigated using measures of water diffusivity provided by MRI. Here we consider a more intuitive aspect of the morphometry of the white matter tracts: the shape of the fibre bundles, which is associated with neurodevelopment. We analyzed the shape of 3 tracts involved in BD: the cingulum (CG), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and arcuate fasciculus (AF)...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Paul R Albert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Julian Koenig, Lena Rinnewitz, Marco Warth, Thomas K Hillecke, Romuald Brunner, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity and alterations in top-down processing of nociceptive information. The experience of acute pain is characterized by reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which to our knowledge has not been systematically investigated in the context of NSSI. METHODS: Adolescents fulfilling DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI and matched healthy controls received cold pain stimulation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jing Jiang, You-Jin Zhao, Xin-Yu Hu, Ming-Ying Du, Zi-Qi Chen, Min Wu, Kai-Ming Li, Hong-Yan Zhu, Poornima Kumar, Qi-Yong Gong
BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, owing to inclusion of medicated patients in these studies, it is difficult to conclude whether these reported alterations are associated with MDD or confounded by medication effects. A meta-analysis of DTI studies on medication-free (medication-naive and medication washout) patients with MDD would therefore be necessary to disentangle MDD-specific effects...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Martin Alda, Flavio Kapczinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jai Shah, Jan Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Karim Tabbane, Soumeyya Halayem, Ridha Joober
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Johannes Fuss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon Maier, Stefan Klöppel, Erika Graf, Carola Killius, Marthe Rump, Esther Sobanski, Dieter Ebert, Mathias Berger, Andreas Warnke, Swantje Matthies, Evgeniy Perlov, Alexandra Philipsen
BACKGROUND: Based on animal research several authors have warned that the application of methylphenidate, the first-line drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), might have neurotoxic effects potentially harming the brain. We investigated whether methylphenidate application, over a 1-year period, results in cerebral volume decrease. METHODS: We acquired structural MRIs in a double-blind study comparing methylphenidate to placebo...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Glaucia C Akutagava-Martins, Angelica Salatino-Oliveira, Christian Kieling, Julia P Genro, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Luciana Anselmi, Ana M B Menezes, Helen Gonçalves, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Fernando C Barros, Sidia M Callegari-Jacques, Luis A Rohde, Mara H Hutz
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are dimensionally distributed in the population. This study aimed to assess the role of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes on ADHD symptoms in the general population. METHODS: We investigated 4101 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at ages 11 and 15 years...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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