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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

Renato Polimanti, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, Hongyu Zhao, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis to identify genetic variants that interact with cannabis dependence (CaD) in influencing risky sexual behaviours (RSB). METHODS: Our sample included cannabis-exposed and sexually experienced African-American and European-American participants. A DSM-IV CaD diagnosis and RSB were evaluated using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We analyzed RSBs as a score that takes into account experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Tracy Bhikram, Elia Abi-Jaoude, Paul Sandor
Recent research has identified the important role of disgust in the symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Exaggerated and inappropriate disgust reactions may drive some of the symptoms of OCD, and in some cases, may even eclipse feelings of anxiety. This paper reviews behavioural and neuroimaging research that recognizes the prominent role of disgust in contributing to OCD symptoms, especially contamination-based symptoms. We discuss how elevated behavioural and biological markers of disgust reported in OCD populations support the need for alternative clinical treatment strategies and theoretical models of OCD...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Marina Weiler, Brunno Machado de Campos, Camila Vieira de Ligo Teixeira, Raphael Fernandes Casseb, Ana Flávia Mac Knight Carletti-Cassani, Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Thamires Naela Cardoso Magalhães, Leda Leme Talib, Orestes Vicente Forlenza, Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, many studies have reported abnormal connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with Alzheimer disease. Few studies, however, have investigated other networks and their association with pathophysiological proteins obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: We performed 3 T imaging in patients with mild Alzheimer disease, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls, and we collected CSF samples from the patients with aMCI and mild Alzheimer disease...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Joseph J Shenker, Sarojini M Sengupta, Ridha Joober, Ashok Malla, M Mallar Chakravarty, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Despite being diagnostically associated uniquely with schizophrenia, negative symptoms are also observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered a number of shared risk genes between schizophrenia and BD. The objectives of this study were to examine whether previously identified risk genes for BD are associated with negative symptom severity within a first-episode schizophrenia (FES) cohort and to examine whether such genes influence brain morphology...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Daniela Mier, Josef Bailer, Julia Ofer, Tobias Kerstner, Vera Zamoscik, Fred Rist, Michael Witthöft, Carsten Diener
BACKGROUND: An attentional bias to health-threat stimuli is assumed to represent the primary pathogenetic factor for the development and maintenance of pathological health anxiety (PHA; formerly termed "hypochondriasis"). However, little is known about the neural basis of this attentional bias in individuals with PHA. METHODS: A group of patients with PHA, a group of depressed patients and a healthy control group completed an emotional Stroop task with health-threat (body symptom and illness) words and neutral control words while undergoing functional MRI...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Lily R Aleksandrova, Anthony G Phillips, Yu Tian Wang
The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder remain poorly understood, and current antidepressant treatments have many shortcomings. The recent discovery that a single intravenous infusion of ketamine at a subanesthetic dose had robust, rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in individuals with treatment-resistant depression inspired tremendous interest in investigating the molecular mechanisms mediating ketamine's clinical efficacy as well as increased efforts to identify new targets for antidepressant action...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
New Fei Ho, Zhengjun Li, Fang Ji, Mingyuan Wang, Carissa N Kuswanto, Min Yi Sum, Han Ying Tng, Yih Yian Sitoh, Kang Sim, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Hemispheric lateralization of the brain occurs during development and underpins specialized functions. It is posited that aberrant neurodevelopment leads to abnormal brain lateralization in individuals with psychotic illnesses. Here, we sought to examine whether white matter hemispheric lateralization is abnormal in individuals with the psychotic spectrum disorders of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. METHODS: We examined the white matter microstructure lateralization in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features and healthy controls by measuring the laterality indices of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Venkat Bhat, Howard C Margolese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Mason M Silveira, Wendy K Adams, Maria Morena, Matthew N Hill, Catharine A Winstanley
BACKGROUND: Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Marco M Picchioni, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Timothea Toulopoulou, Christopher Chaddock, James H Cole, Ulrich Ettinger, Ana Oses, Hugo Metcalfe, Robin M Murray, Philip McGuire
BACKGROUND: Reductions in whole brain and grey matter volumes are robust features of schizophrenia, yet their etiological influences are unclear. METHODS: We investigated the association between the genetic and environmental risk for schizophrenia and brain volumes. Whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes were established from structural MRIs from twins varying in their zygosity and concordance for schizophrenia. Hippocampal volumes were measured manually...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Olivier Gay, Marion Plaze, Catherine Oppenheim, Raphael Gaillard, Jean-Pierre Olié, Marie-Odile Krebs, Arnaud Cachia
BACKGROUND: Several clinical and radiological markers of early neurodevelopmental deviations have been independently associated with cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to test the cumulative and/or interactive effects of these early neurodevelopmental factors on cognitive control (CC) deficit, a core feature of schizophrenia. METHODS: We recruited patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, who underwent structural MRI...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Muhammad A Parvaz, Scott J Moeller, Pias Malaker, Rajita Sinha, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Increased attention bias toward drug-related cues over non-drug-related intrinsically pleasant reinforcers is a hallmark of drug addiction. In this study we used the late positive potential (LPP) to investigate whether such increased attention bias toward drug-related relative to non-drug-related cues changes over a protracted period of reduced drug use in treatment-seeking individuals with a cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHODS: Treatment-seeking individuals with CUD and matched healthy controls passively viewed a series of pleasant, neutral and drug-related pictures while their event-related potentials were recorded at baseline (≤ 3 weeks after treatment initiation) and at 6-month follow-up (only CUD)...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Glenda MacQueen, Michael Surette, Paul Moayyedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Logue, Andrew Reagan, David Salat, Erika J Wolf, Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Emily Sperbeck, Scott M Hayes, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Mieke Verfaellie, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
BACKGROUND: Memory-based alterations are among the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may be associated with the integrity of the hippocampus. However, neuroimaging studies of hippocampal volume in individuals with PTSD have yielded inconsistent results, raising the possibility that various moderators, such as genetic factors, may influence this association. We examined whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which has previously been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume in healthy individuals, moderates the association between PTSD and hippocampal volume...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Dennis van der Meer, Catharina A Hartman, Daan van Rooij, Barbara Franke, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by impaired response inhibition; both have been associated with aberrant dopamine signalling. Given that prenatal exposure to alcohol or smoking is known to affect dopamine-rich brain regions, we hypothesized that individuals carrying the ADHD risk alleles of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes may be especially sensitive to their effects. METHODS: Functional MRI data, information on prenatal adversities and genetic data were available for 239 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicentre ADHD cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age 17...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Sabine E Mous, Tonya White, Ryan L Muetzel, Hanan El Marroun, Jolien Rijlaarsdam, Tinca J C Polderman, Vincent W Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Danielle Posthuma, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms have repeatedly been associated with poor cognitive functioning. Genetic studies have demonstrated a shared etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive ability, suggesting a common underlying neurobiology of ADHD and cognition. Further, neuroimaging studies suggest that altered cortical development is related to ADHD. In a large population-based sample we investigated whether cortical morphology, as a potential neurobiological substrate, underlies the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and cognitive problems...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Michael Van Ameringen, Beth Patterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Tzyy-Nan Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
BACKGROUND: Human genetic studies have indicated that mutations in calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) result in X-linked mental retardation and autism-spectrum disorders. We aimed to establish a mouse model to study how Cask regulates mental ability. METHODS: Because Cask encodes a multidomain scaffold protein, a possible strategy to dissect how CASK regulates mental ability and cognition is to disrupt specific protein-protein interactions of CASK in vivo and then investigate the impact of individual specific protein interactions...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Zhong Yi Sun, Josselin Houenou, Delphine Duclap, Samuel Sarrazin, Julia Linke, Claire Daban, Nora Hamdani, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Pamela Guevara, Marine Delavest, Frank Bellivier, Frank Bellivier, Jorge Almeida, Amelia Versace, Cyril Poupon, Marion Leboyer, Mary Phillips, Michèle Wessa, Jean-François Mangin
BACKGROUND: Abnormal maturation of brain connectivity is supposed to underlie the dysfunctional emotion regulation in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). To test this hypothesis, white matter integrity is usually investigated using measures of water diffusivity provided by MRI. Here we consider a more intuitive aspect of the morphometry of the white matter tracts: the shape of the fibre bundles, which is associated with neurodevelopment. We analyzed the shape of 3 tracts involved in BD: the cingulum (CG), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and arcuate fasciculus (AF)...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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