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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459416/age-related-brain-structural-alterations-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-of-psychosis
#1
Juergen Dukart, Renata Smieskova, Fabienne Harrisberger, Claudia Lenz, André Schmidt, Anna Walter, Christian Huber, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Andor Simon, Undine E Lang, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Stefan Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: There is only limited agreement with respect to location, directionality and functional implications of brain structural alterations observed in patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, their link to occurrence of psychotic symptoms remains unclear. A viable way of addressing these questions is to examine populations in an at-risk mental state (ARMS) before the transition to psychosis. METHODS: We tested for structural brain alterations in individuals in an ARMS compared with healthy controls and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) using voxel-based morphometry and measures of cortical thickness...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452713/decreased-uncinate-fasciculus-tract-integrity-in-male-and-female-patients-with-ptsd-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#2
Saskia B J Koch, Mirjam van Zuiden, Laura Nawijn, Jessie L Frijling, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that has been associated with lower white matter integrity of tracts connecting the prefrontal cortex with limbic regions. However, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings have been inconsistent, showing high variability in the exact location and direction of effects. METHODS: We performed probabilistic tractography of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (both temporal and parietal projections) in male and female police officers with and without PTSD...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418321/s100a10-identified-in-a-genome-wide-gene-%C3%A3-cannabis-dependence-interaction-analysis-of-risky-sexual-behaviours
#3
Renato Polimanti, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, Hongyu Zhao, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis to identify genetic variants that interact with cannabis dependence (CaD) in influencing risky sexual behaviours (RSB). METHODS: Our sample included cannabis-exposed and sexually experienced African-American and European-American participants. A DSM-IV CaD diagnosis and RSB were evaluated using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We analyzed RSBs as a score that takes into account experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375077/ocd-obsessive-compulsive-%C3%A2-disgust-the-role-of-disgust-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Tracy Bhikram, Elia Abi-Jaoude, Paul Sandor
Recent research has identified the important role of disgust in the symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Exaggerated and inappropriate disgust reactions may drive some of the symptoms of OCD, and in some cases, may even eclipse feelings of anxiety. This paper reviews behavioural and neuroimaging research that recognizes the prominent role of disgust in contributing to OCD symptoms, especially contamination-based symptoms. We discuss how elevated behavioural and biological markers of disgust reported in OCD populations support the need for alternative clinical treatment strategies and theoretical models of OCD...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375076/intranetwork-and-internetwork-connectivity-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-and-the-association-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarker-levels
#5
Marina Weiler, Brunno Machado de Campos, Camila Vieira de Ligo Teixeira, Raphael Fernandes Casseb, Ana Flávia Mac Knight Carletti-Cassani, Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Thamires Naela Cardoso Magalhães, Leda Leme Talib, Orestes Vicente Forlenza, Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, many studies have reported abnormal connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with Alzheimer disease. Few studies, however, have investigated other networks and their association with pathophysiological proteins obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: We performed 3 T imaging in patients with mild Alzheimer disease, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls, and we collected CSF samples from the patients with aMCI and mild Alzheimer disease...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440210/pharmacotherapy-of-trichotillomania
#6
Verinder Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440209/canadian-college-of-neuropsychopharmacology-2017-award-winners
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440208/smoking-psychiatric-illness-and-the-brain
#8
Patricia Boksa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234209/neural-correlates-of-an-attentional-bias-to-health-threatening-stimuli-in-individuals-with-pathological-health-anxiety
#9
Daniela Mier, Josef Bailer, Julia Ofer, Tobias Kerstner, Vera Zamoscik, Fred Rist, Michael Witthöft, Carsten Diener
BACKGROUND: An attentional bias to health-threat stimuli is assumed to represent the primary pathogenetic factor for the development and maintenance of pathological health anxiety (PHA; formerly termed "hypochondriasis"). However, little is known about the neural basis of this attentional bias in individuals with PHA. METHODS: A group of patients with PHA, a group of depressed patients and a healthy control group completed an emotional Stroop task with health-threat (body symptom and illness) words and neutral control words while undergoing functional MRI...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234208/psychobiological-response-to-pain-in-female-adolescents-with-nonsuicidal-self-injury
#10
Julian Koenig, Lena Rinnewitz, Marco Warth, Thomas K Hillecke, Romuald Brunner, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity and alterations in top-down processing of nociceptive information. The experience of acute pain is characterized by reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which to our knowledge has not been systematically investigated in the context of NSSI. METHODS: Adolescents fulfilling DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI and matched healthy controls received cold pain stimulation...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234206/bipolar-disorder-risk-gene-foxo6-modulates-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-neuroimaging-genetics%C3%A2-study
#11
Joseph J Shenker, Sarojini M Sengupta, Ridha Joober, Ashok Malla, M Mallar Chakravarty, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Despite being diagnostically associated uniquely with schizophrenia, negative symptoms are also observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered a number of shared risk genes between schizophrenia and BD. The objectives of this study were to examine whether previously identified risk genes for BD are associated with negative symptom severity within a first-episode schizophrenia (FES) cohort and to examine whether such genes influence brain morphology...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780031/microstructural-brain-abnormalities-in-medication-free-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
Jing Jiang, You-Jin Zhao, Xin-Yu Hu, Ming-Ying Du, Zi-Qi Chen, Min Wu, Kai-Ming Li, Hong-Yan Zhu, Poornima Kumar, Qi-Yong Gong
BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, owing to inclusion of medicated patients in these studies, it is difficult to conclude whether these reported alterations are associated with MDD or confounded by medication effects. A meta-analysis of DTI studies on medication-free (medication-naive and medication washout) patients with MDD would therefore be necessary to disentangle MDD-specific effects...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749245/accelerated-aging-of-the-putamen-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Matthew D Sacchet, M Catalina Camacho, Emily E Livermore, Ewart A C Thomas, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by accelerated biological aging, including greater age-related changes in physiological functioning. The disorder is also associated with abnormal neural reward circuitry, particularly in the basal ganglia (BG). Here we assessed age-related changes in BG volume in both patients with MDD and healthy control participants. METHODS: We obtained whole-brain T1-weighted images from patients with MDD and healthy controls...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689884/knockdown-of-the-schizophrenia-susceptibility-gene-tcf4-alters-gene-expression-and-proliferation-of-progenitor-cells-from-the-developing-human-neocortex
#14
Matthew J Hill, Richard Killick, Katherinne Navarrete, Aleksandra Maruszak, Gemma M McLaughlin, Brenda P Williams, Nicholas J Bray
BACKGROUND: Common variants in the TCF4 gene are among the most robustly supported genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Rare TCF4 deletions and loss-of-function point mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a developmental disorder associated with severe intellectual disability. METHODS: To explore molecular and cellular mechanisms by which TCF4 perturbation could interfere with human cortical development, we experimentally reduced the endogenous expression of TCF4 in a neural progenitor cell line derived from the developing human cerebral cortex using RNA interference...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245178/generic-formulations-of-psychotropic-medications-and-treatment-response
#15
Venkat Bhat, Howard C Margolese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245177/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-willingness-to-exert-cognitive-effort-in-male-rats
#16
Mason M Silveira, Wendy K Adams, Maria Morena, Matthew N Hill, Catharine A Winstanley
BACKGROUND: Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245176/familial-and-environmental-influences-on-brain-volumes-in-twins-with-schizophrenia
#17
Marco M Picchioni, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Timothea Toulopoulou, Christopher Chaddock, James H Cole, Ulrich Ettinger, Ana Oses, Hugo Metcalfe, Robin M Murray, Philip McGuire
BACKGROUND: Reductions in whole brain and grey matter volumes are robust features of schizophrenia, yet their etiological influences are unclear. METHODS: We investigated the association between the genetic and environmental risk for schizophrenia and brain volumes. Whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes were established from structural MRIs from twins varying in their zygosity and concordance for schizophrenia. Hippocampal volumes were measured manually...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245175/correction-ventral-striatal-hypoactivation-is-associated-with-apathy-but-not-diminished-expression-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245174/cognitive-control-deficit-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-is-associated-with-complex-deviations-of-early-brain-development
#19
Olivier Gay, Marion Plaze, Catherine Oppenheim, Raphael Gaillard, Jean-Pierre Olié, Marie-Odile Krebs, Arnaud Cachia
BACKGROUND: Several clinical and radiological markers of early neurodevelopmental deviations have been independently associated with cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to test the cumulative and/or interactive effects of these early neurodevelopmental factors on cognitive control (CC) deficit, a core feature of schizophrenia. METHODS: We recruited patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, who underwent structural MRI...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245173/abstinence-reverses-eeg-indexed-attention-bias-between-drug-related-and-pleasant-stimuli-in-cocaine-addicted-individuals
#20
Muhammad A Parvaz, Scott J Moeller, Pias Malaker, Rajita Sinha, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Increased attention bias toward drug-related cues over non-drug-related intrinsically pleasant reinforcers is a hallmark of drug addiction. In this study we used the late positive potential (LPP) to investigate whether such increased attention bias toward drug-related relative to non-drug-related cues changes over a protracted period of reduced drug use in treatment-seeking individuals with a cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHODS: Treatment-seeking individuals with CUD and matched healthy controls passively viewed a series of pleasant, neutral and drug-related pictures while their event-related potentials were recorded at baseline (≤ 3 weeks after treatment initiation) and at 6-month follow-up (only CUD)...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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