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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

Iris Lange, Liesbet Goossens, Jindra Bakker, Stijn Michielse, Ruud van Winkel, Shmuel Lissek, Nicole Leibold, Machteld Marcelis, Marieke Wichers, Jim van Os, Therese van Amelsvoort, Koen Schruers
Background: Childhood maltreatment is a transdiagnostic risk factor for later psychopathology and has been associated with altered brain circuitry involved in the processing of threat and safety. Examining threat generalization mechanisms in young adults with childhood maltreatment and psychiatric symptoms may elucidate a pathway linking early-life adversities to the presence of subclinical psychopathology. Methods: We recruited youth aged 16–25 years with subclinical psychiatric symptomatology and healthy controls...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Manpreet Sehmbi, Christopher D. Rowley, Luciano Minuzzi, Flavio Kapczinski, Jacek M. Kwiecien, Nicholas A. Bock, Benicio N. Frey
Background: Previous studies have implicated white-matter-related changes in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, most of what is known is derived from in vivo subcortical white-matter imaging or postmortem studies. In this study, we investigated whole-brain intracortical myelin (ICM) content in people with bipolar disorder type I and controls. Methods: Between Sept. 1, 2014, and Jan. 31, 2017, we used a 3 T General Electric scanner to collect T1-weighted images in 45 people with bipolar disorder type I and 60 controls aged 17 to 45 years using an optimized sequence that was sensitive to ICM content...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Merel Prikken, Anouk van der Weiden, Heleen Baalbergen, Manon H.J. Hillegers, René S. Kahn, Henk Aarts, Neeltje E.M. van Haren
Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder of basic self-disturbance. Evidence suggests that people with schizophrenia may have aberrant experiences of body ownership: they may feel that they are not the subject of their own body experiences. However, little is known about the development of such disturbances. Methods: Using a rubber hand illusion paradigm, we assessed body ownership in patients with schizophrenia (n = 54), healthy controls (n = 56), children/adolescents at increased familial risk of developing schizophrenia (n = 24) or mood disorders (n = 33), and children/adolescents without this risk (n = 18)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Huimeng Lei, Juan Lai, Xiaohong Sun, Qunyuan Xu, Guoping Feng
Background: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder that affects about 2% of the population, but the underlying neuropathophysiology of OCD is not well understood. Although increasing lines of evidence implicate dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in OCD, a detailed understanding of the functional alterations in different neuronal types in the OFC is still elusive. Methods: We investigated detailed activity pattern changes in putative pyramidal neurons and interneurons, as well as local field potential oscillations, in the lateral OFC underlying OCD-relevant phenotypes...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Xiuli Wang, Qiang Luo, Fangfang Tian, Bochao Cheng, Lihua Qiu, Song Wang, Manxi He, Hongming Wang, Mingjun Duan, Zhiyun Jia
Background: The literature on grey-matter volume alterations in bipolar disorder is heterogeneous in its findings. Methods: Using effect-size differential mapping, we conducted a meta-analysis of grey-matter volume alterations in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy controls. Results: We analyzed data from 50 studies that included 1843 patients with bipolar disorder and 2289 controls. Findings revealed lower grey-matter volumes in the bilateral superior frontal gyri, left anterior cingulate cortex and right insula in patients with bipolar disorder and in patients with bipolar disorder type I...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
David D. Kim, Alasdair M. Barr, Randall F. White, William G. Honer, Ric M. Procyshyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Carolina Makowski, Martin Lepage, Alan C. Evans
Psychiatry is at a crossroads when choosing final samples for analysis of neuroimaging data. Many patient populations exhibit significantly increased motion in the scanner compared with healthy controls, suggesting that more patients would need to be excluded to obtain a clean sample. However, this need is often overshadowed by the extensive amount of time and effort required to recruit these valuable and uncommon samples. This commentary sheds light on the impact of motion on imaging studies, drawing examples from psychiatric patient samples to better understand how head motion can confound interpretation of clinically oriented questions...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Thibaut Dondaine, Pierre Philippot, Jean-Marie Batail, Florence Le Jeune, Paul Sauleau, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin, Bruno Millet, Dominique Drapier, Gabriel Robert
Background: Within the heterogeneity of schizophrenia, apathy constitutes an independent cluster of negative symptoms associated with poor outcomes. Attempts to identify an emotional deficit in patients who have schizophrenia with negative symptoms have yielded mixed results, and studies that focus on the relationship between apathy and emotional disorders are lacking. Methods: We set out to remedy this shortcoming using a validated battery of film excerpts to induce positive and negative emotions in patients with chronic schizophrenia with (n = 20) or without (n = 20) apathy, and in controls (n = 20) comparable for age, sex and socioeconomic status...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Marie-Laure Ancelin, Isabelle Carrière, Sylvaine Artero, Jerome Maller, Chantal Meslin, Karen Ritchie, Joanne Ryan, Isabelle Chaudieu
Background: There is evidence of structural brain alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD), but little is known about how these alterations might be affected by age at onset or genetic vulnerability. This study examines whether lifetime episodes of MDD are associated with specific alterations in grey-matter volume, and whether those alterations vary according to sex or serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) genotype (LL, SL or SS). Methods: We used structural MRI to acquire anatomic scans from 610 community-dwelling participants...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Cheng Yang, Lei Li, Xinyu Hu, Qiang Luo, Weihong Kuang, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, Jing Dai, Manxi He, Graham J. Kemp, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Background: An increasing number of psychoradiology studies that use tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of diffusion tensor imaging have reported abnormalities of white matter in patients with bipolar disorder; however, robust conclusions have proven elusive, especially considering some important clinical and demographic factors. In the present study, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of TBSS studies to elucidate the most consistent white-matter abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorder...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Xu Hou, Samuel O. Adeosun, Xueying Zhao, Rosanne Hill, Baoying Zheng, Reveena Reddy, Xiao Su, Jeffrey Meyer, Thomas Mosley, Jun Ming Wang
Background: Estrogen therapy (ET), an effective treatment for perimenopausal depression, often fails to ameliorate symptoms when initiated late after the onset of menopause. Our previous work has suggested that alternative splicing of RNA might mediate these differential effects of ET. Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with estradiol (E2) or vehicle 6 days (early ET) or 180 days (late ET) after ovariectomy (OVX). We investigated the differential expression of RNA splicing factors and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) protein using a customized RT2 Profiler PCR Array, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitation and behaviour changes in clinically relevant early and late ET...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Aaron D. Fobian, Lindsey Elliott
Functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD) is characterized by neurological symptoms that are unexplained by other traditional neurological or medical conditions. Both physicians and patients have limited understanding of FNSD, which is often explained as a physical manifestation of psychological distress. Recently, diagnostic criteria have shifted from requiring a preceding stressor to relying on positive symptoms. Given this shift, we have provided a review of the etiology of FNSD. Predisposing factors include trauma or psychiatric symptoms, somatic symptoms, illness exposure, symptom monitoring and neurobiological factors...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ridha Joober, Karim Tabbane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Tamara Pringsheim, John Piacentini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Norman M. White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Lei Li, Wenbin Li, Jing Dai, Song Wang, Manxi He, Hongyan Zhu, Graham J. Kemp, Qiyong Gong
Background: Brain connectome research based on graph theoretical analysis shows that small-world topological properties play an important role in the structural and functional alterations observed in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, the reported global topological alterations in small-world properties are controversial, are not consistently conceptualized according to agreed-upon criteria, and are not critically examined for consistent alterations in patients with each major psychiatric disorder...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Lance M. Rappaport, Jennifer J. Russell, Donald Hedeker, Gilbert Pinard, Pierre Bleau, Debbie S. Moskowitz
Background: Laboratory-based research with community samples has suggested changes in affective, behavioural and cognitive processes as possible explanations for the effects of serotonergic medications. Examining the effects of serotonergic medications using an ecological momentary measure (such as event-contingent recording) in the daily lives of people with social anxiety disorder would contribute to establishing the effects of these medications on affect, behaviour and one form of cognition: perception of others’ behaviour...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ann-Christine Ehlis, Saskia Deppermann, Andreas J. Fallgatter
Background: Recently, research into attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused increasingly on its neurobiological underpinnings, revealing (among other things) frontal lobe alterations. Specifically, action-monitoring deficits have been described, including impaired behavioural adjustments following errors. Our aim was to examine the neurophysiological background of post-error behavioural alterations in an adult ADHD sample for the first time, hypothesizing that people with ADHD would differ from controls in neurophysiological markers of cognitive preparation and stimulus processing, specifically following errors...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Justine M. Gatt, Karen L.O. Burton, Kylie M. Routledge, Katrina L. Grasby, Mayuresh S. Korgaonkar, Stuart M. Grieve, Peter R. Schofield, Anthony W.F. Harris, C. Richard Clark, Leanne M. Williams
Background: Associations between well-being, resilience to trauma and the volume of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing (e.g., threat/reward circuits) are largely unexplored, as are the roles of shared genetic and environmental factors derived from multivariate twin modelling. Methods: This study presents, to our knowledge, the first exploration of well-being and volumes of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing using a region-of-interest, voxel-based approach in 263 healthy adult twins (60% monozygotic pairs, 61% females, mean age 39...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ghanshyam N. Pandey, Hooriyah S. Rizavi, Hui Zhang, Runa Bhaumik, Xinguo Ren
Background: Depression and stress are major risk factors for suicidal behaviour, and some studies show abnormalities of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of depressed and suicidal patients. However, it is not clear if similar abnormalities of cytokines are present in the brain of suicidal and depressed patients. Methods: We therefore determined the mRNA (using realtime polymerase chain reaction) and protein (using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western Blot) expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lymphotoxin A, lymphotoxin B, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-13 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) obtained from 24 depressed individuals who died by suicide and 24 nonpsychiatric controls...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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