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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832321/structural-alterations-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-surface-based-analysis-of-cortical-volume-surface-area-and-thickness
#1
Oana Georgiana Rus, Tim Jonas Reess, Gerd Wagner, Michael Zaudig, Claus Zimmer, Kathrin Koch
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates the presence of structural brain alterations in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Findings are, however, rather heterogeneous, which may be partly because of differences in methodological approaches or clinical sample characteristics. The aim of the present study was to analyze the whole brain cortical volume, surface area and thickness in a large sample of patients with OCD compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832319/uncertainty-exposure-causes-behavioural-sensitization-and-increases-risky-decision-making-in-male-rats-toward-modelling-gambling-disorder
#2
Fiona D Zeeb, Zhaoxia Li, Daniel C Fisher, Martin H Zack, Paul J Fletcher
BACKGROUND: An animal model of gambling disorder, previously known as pathological gambling, could advance our understanding of the disorder and help with treatment development. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to uncertainty during gambling induces behavioural and dopamine (DA) sensitization - similar to chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Uncertainty exposure (UE) may also increase risky decision-making in an animal model of gambling disorder. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received 56 UE sessions, during which animals responded for saccharin according to an unpredictable, variable ratio schedule of reinforcement (VR group)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832320/refinement-by-integration-aggregated-effects-of-multimodal-imaging-markers-on-adult-adhd
#3
Thomas Wolfers, Alberto Llera Arenas, A Marten H Onnink, Janneke Dammers, Martine Hoogman, Marcel P Zwiers, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Andre F Marquand, Christian F Beckmann
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is biologically heterogeneous, with different biological predispositions - mediated through developmental processes - converging upon a common clinical phenotype. Brain imaging studies have variably shown altered brain structure, activity and connectivity in children and adults with ADHD. Recent methodological developments allow for the integration of information across imaging modalities, potentially yielding a more coherent view regarding the biology underlying the disorder...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834530/treating-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder-in-young-adults
#4
Diane B Boivin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834529/sscf-ccnp-2017-graduate-studentship-for-biomedical-research-in-schizophrenia-and-psychosis
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834528/advances-in-understanding-and-treating-mental-illness-proceedings-of-the-40th-canadian-college-of-neuropsychopharmacology-annual-meeting-symposia
#6
Catherine P Normandeau, Darya Naumova, Shawna Lee Thompson, Mohammad Ebrahimzadeh, Yu Qing Liu, Lauren Reynolds, Hong-Yan Ren, Emily R Hawken, Éric C Dumont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834527/the-neurobiology-of-transition-to-psychosis-clearing-the-cache
#7
Lena Palaniyappan, Tushar Das, Kara Dempster
The prepsychotic phase of schizophrenia is not only important for indicated prevention strategies, but also crucial for developing mechanistic models of the emergence of frank psychosis (transition). This commentary highlights the work of Dukart and colleagues, published in this issue of the Journal of Psychiatry and Neurosicence, who sought to identify MRI-based anatomic endophenotypes of psychosis in a well-characterized sample of patients with at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP)...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834526/psychiatric-genetics-does-diagnosis-matter
#8
Martin Alda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632121/anti-inflammatory-treatment-and-risk-for-depression-after-first-time-stroke-in-a-cohort-of-147-487-danish-patients
#9
Ida Kim Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim Wium-Andersen, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Merete Osler
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication after stroke, and inflammation may be a pathophysiological mechanism. This study examines whether anti-inflammatory treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or statins influence the risk of depression after stroke. METHODS: A register-based cohort including all patients admitted to hospital with a first-time stroke from Jan. 1, 2001, through Dec. 31, 2011, and a nonstroke population with a similar age and sex distribution was followed for depression until Dec...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606245/prefrontal-brain-responsiveness-to-negative-stimuli-distinguishes-familial-risk-for-major-depression-from-acute-disorder
#10
Nils Opel, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Susanne Meinert, Christian Bürger, Leonie Plümpe, Judith Alferink, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Peter Zwanzger, Volker Arolt, Udo Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Identifying reliable trait markers of familial risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a challenge in translational psychiatric research. In individuals with acute MDD, dysfunctional connectivity patterns of prefrontal areas have been shown repeatedly. However, it has been unclear in which neuronal networks functional alterations in individuals at familial risk for MDD might be present and to what extent they resemble findings previously reported in those with acute MDD...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459416/age-related-brain-structural-alterations-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-of-psychosis
#11
Juergen Dukart, Renata Smieskova, Fabienne Harrisberger, Claudia Lenz, André Schmidt, Anna Walter, Christian Huber, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Andor Simon, Undine E Lang, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Stefan Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: There is only limited agreement with respect to location, directionality and functional implications of brain structural alterations observed in patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, their link to occurrence of psychotic symptoms remains unclear. A viable way of addressing these questions is to examine populations in an at-risk mental state (ARMS) before the transition to psychosis. METHODS: We tested for structural brain alterations in individuals in an ARMS compared with healthy controls and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) using voxel-based morphometry and measures of cortical thickness...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452713/decreased-uncinate-fasciculus-tract-integrity-in-male-and-female-patients-with-ptsd-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#12
Saskia B J Koch, Mirjam van Zuiden, Laura Nawijn, Jessie L Frijling, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that has been associated with lower white matter integrity of tracts connecting the prefrontal cortex with limbic regions. However, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings have been inconsistent, showing high variability in the exact location and direction of effects. METHODS: We performed probabilistic tractography of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (both temporal and parietal projections) in male and female police officers with and without PTSD...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375077/ocd-obsessive-compulsive-%C3%A2-disgust-the-role-of-disgust-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Tracy Bhikram, Elia Abi-Jaoude, Paul Sandor
Recent research has identified the important role of disgust in the symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Exaggerated and inappropriate disgust reactions may drive some of the symptoms of OCD, and in some cases, may even eclipse feelings of anxiety. This paper reviews behavioural and neuroimaging research that recognizes the prominent role of disgust in contributing to OCD symptoms, especially contamination-based symptoms. We discuss how elevated behavioural and biological markers of disgust reported in OCD populations support the need for alternative clinical treatment strategies and theoretical models of OCD...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632120/basolateral-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-predicts-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-outcome-in-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Miquel A Fullana, Xi Zhu, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Eva Real, Clara López-Solà, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Hanga Galfalvy, José M Menchón, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), including exposure and ritual prevention, is a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few reliable predictors of CBT outcome have been identified. Based on research in animal models, we hypothesized that individual differences in basolateral amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BLA-vmPFC) communication would predict CBT outcome in patients with OCD. METHODS: We investigated whether BLA-vmPFC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) predicts CBT outcome in patients with OCD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639936/recognition-and-management-of-antidepressant-discontinuation-syndrome
#15
Venkat Bhat, Sidney H Kennedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639935/neuroimaging-tests-for-clinical-psychiatry-are-we-there-yet
#16
Marco Leyton, Sidney H Kennedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556775/glutamatergic-deficit-and-schizophrenia-like-negative-symptoms-new-evidence-from-ketamine-induced-mismatch-negativity-alterations-in-healthy-male-humans
#17
Stephanie Thiebes, Gregor Leicht, Stjepan Curic, Saskia Steinmann, Nenad Polomac, Christina Andreou, Iris Eichler, Lars Eichler, Christian Zöllner, Jürgen Gallinat, Ileana Hanganu-Opatz, Christoph Mulert
BACKGROUND: Targeting the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a major translational approach for treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Ketamine comprehensively produces schizophrenia-like symptoms, such as positive, cognitive and negative symptoms in healthy volunteers. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be significantly reduced not only in patients with schizophrenia, but also in healthy controls receiving ketamine. Accordingly, it was the aim of the present study to investigate whether changes of MMN amplitudes during ketamine administration are associated with the emergence of schizophrenia-like negative symptoms in healthy volunteers...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556774/functional-mri-examination-of-empathy-for-pain-in-people-with-schizophrenia-reveals-abnormal-activation-related-to-cognitive-perspective-taking-but-typical-activation-linked-to-affective-sharing
#18
Damien Vistoli, Marie-Audrey Lavoie, Stephanie Sutliff, Philip L Jackson, Amélie M Achim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others' emotions) and cognitive (taking others' cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418321/s100a10-identified-in-a-genome-wide-gene-%C3%A3-cannabis-dependence-interaction-analysis-of-risky-sexual-behaviours
#19
Renato Polimanti, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, Hongyu Zhao, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis to identify genetic variants that interact with cannabis dependence (CaD) in influencing risky sexual behaviours (RSB). METHODS: Our sample included cannabis-exposed and sexually experienced African-American and European-American participants. A DSM-IV CaD diagnosis and RSB were evaluated using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We analyzed RSBs as a score that takes into account experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234212/antidepressant-effects-of-ketamine-and-the-roles-of-ampa-glutamate-receptors-and-other-mechanisms-beyond-nmda-receptor-antagonism
#20
Lily R Aleksandrova, Anthony G Phillips, Yu Tian Wang
The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder remain poorly understood, and current antidepressant treatments have many shortcomings. The recent discovery that a single intravenous infusion of ketamine at a subanesthetic dose had robust, rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in individuals with treatment-resistant depression inspired tremendous interest in investigating the molecular mechanisms mediating ketamine's clinical efficacy as well as increased efforts to identify new targets for antidepressant action...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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