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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244020/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#1
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236648/a-putative-electrophysiological-biomarker-of-auditory-sensory-memory-encoding-is-sensitive-to-pharmacological-alterations-of-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-in-male-macaque-monkeys
#2
William B Holliday, Kate Gurnsey, Robert A Sweet, Tobias Teichert
BACKGROUND: The amplitude of the auditory evoked N1 component that can be derived from noninvasive electroencephalographic recordings increases as a function of time between subsequent tones. N1 amplitudes in individuals with schizophrenia saturate at a lower asymptote, thus giving rise to a reduced dynamic range. Reduced N1 dynamic range is a putative electrophysiological biomarker of altered sensory memory function in individuals with the disease. To date, it is not clear what determines N1 dynamic range and what causes reduced N1 dynamic range in individuals with schizophrenia...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236647/assessing-the-marks-of-change-how-psychotherapy-alters-the-brain-structure-in-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#3
Falk Mancke, Ruth Schmitt, Dorina Winter, Inga Niedtfeld, Sabine C Herpertz, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that psychotherapy can alter the function of the brain of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is not known whether psychotherapy can also modify the brain structure of patients with BPD. METHODS: We used structural MRI data of female patients with BPD before and after participation in 12 weeks of residential dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) and compared them to data from female patients with BPD who received treatment as usual (TAU)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214796/grey-matter-correlates-of-autistic-traits-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#4
Malin Björnsdotter, Monika Davidovic, Louise Karjalainen, Göran Starck, Håkan Olausson, Elisabet Wentz
Background: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206399/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#5
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John Sweeney, Su Lui
Background: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta­-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083990/always-on-guard-emotion-regulation-in-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder-compared-to-nonpatient-controls-and-patients-with-cluster-c-personality-disorder
#6
Linda van Zutphen, Nicolette Siep, Gitta A Jacob, Gregor Domes, Andreas Sprenger, Bastian Willenborg, Rainer Goebel, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotion dysregulation; however, it is unclear whether this is restricted to negative emotional stimuli or to what degree this is specific to BPD. We investigated neural correlates of hypothesized increased emotional sensitivity and impaired emotion regulation in patients with BPD. METHODS: During fMRI scanning, patients with BPD, nonpatient controls and patients with cluster-C personality disorder completed an emotion regulation task, including negative, positive and erotic social pictures...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077553/greater-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-reduced-frontal-cortical-volumes-among-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder
#7
Alvi H Islam, Arron W S Metcalfe, Bradley J MacIntosh, Daphne J Korczak, Benjamin I Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD. METHODS: We processed T1-weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252168/clozapine-elevated-heart-rate-and-qtc-prolongation
#8
David D Kim, Randall F White, Alasdair M Barr, William G Honer, Ric M Procyshyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252167/pharmacological-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-with-major-neurocognitive-disorders
#9
Dominique Elie, Soham Rej
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252166/meta-analysis-of-central-and-peripheral-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-levels-in-patients-with-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#10
Bruno Romeo, Walid Choucha, Philippe Fossati, Jean-Yves Rotge
BACKGROUND: Many studies have measured central and peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with depression. We performed a meta-analysis to provide an objective overview of GABA changes in those with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHODS: After a systematic database search, original data were extracted with the help of seminal authors to calculate standardized mean differences. We compared GABA levels between patients with current major depressive episodes and controls, between euthymic patients and controls, and in patients before and after treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252165/disrupted-coupling-of-large-scale-networks-is-associated-with-relapse-behaviour-in-heroin-dependent-men
#11
Qiang Li, Jierong Liu, Wei Wang, Yarong Wang, Wei Li, Jiajie Chen, Jia Zhu, Xuejiao Yan, Yongbin Li, Zhe Li, Jianjun Ye, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether impaired coupling among 3 core large-scale brain networks (salience [SN], default mode [DMN] and executive control networks [ECN]) is associated with relapse behaviour in treated heroin-dependent patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective resting-state functional MRI study comparing the functional connectivity strength among healthy controls and heroin-dependent men who had either relapsed or were in early remission. Men were considered to be either relapsed or in early remission based on urine drug screens during a 3-month follow-up period...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252164/always-on-guard-emotion-regulation-in-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder-compared-to-nonpatient-controls-and-patients-with-cluster-c-personality-disorder
#12
Linda van Zutphen, Nicolette Siep, Gitta A Jacob, Gregor Domes, Andreas Sprenger, Bastian Willenborg, Rainer Goebel, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotion dysregulation; however, it is unclear whether this is restricted to negative emotional stimuli or to what degree this is specific to BPD. We investigated neural correlates of hypothesized increased emotional sensitivity and impaired emotion regulation in patients with BPD. METHODS: During functional MRI (fMRI) scanning, patients with BPD, nonpatient controls and patients with cluster-C personality disorder completed an emotion regulation task, including negative, positive and erotic social pictures...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252163/cardiorespiratory-concerns-shape-brain-responses-during-automatic-panic-related-scene-processing-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#13
Katharina Feldker, Carina Yvonne Heitmann, Paula Neumeister, Leonie Brinkmann, Maximillan Bruchmann, Pienie Zwitserlood, Thomas Straube
BACKGROUND: Increased automatic processing of threat-related stimuli has been proposed as a key element in panic disorder. Little is known about the neural basis of automatic processing, in particular to task-irrelevant, panic-related, ecologically valid stimuli, or about the association between brain activation and symptomatology in patients with panic disorder. METHODS: The present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study compared brain responses to task-irrelevant, panic-related and neutral visual stimuli in medication-free patients with panic disorder and healthy controls...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252162/mindfulness-based-treatments-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-review-of-the-treatment-literature-and-neurobiological-evidence
#14
Jenna E Boyd, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
Mindfulness-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have emerged as promising adjunctive or alternative intervention approaches. A scoping review of the literature on PTSD treatment studies, including approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and metta mindfulness, reveals low attrition with medium to large effect sizes. We review the convergence between neurobiological models of PTSD and neuroimaging findings in the mindfulness literature, where mindfulness interventions may target emotional under- and overmodulation, both of which are critical features of PTSD symptomatology...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252161/culture-as-an-ingredient-of-personalized-medicine
#15
Kimberly Matheson, Amy Bombay, Hymie Anisman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083298/treatment-of-adhd-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#16
Rachel Girard, Ridha Joober
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083297/in-male-rats-the-ability-of-central-insulin-to-suppress-glucose-production-is-impaired-by-olanzapine-whereas-glucose-uptake-is-left-intact
#17
Chantel Kowalchuk, Celine Teo, Virginia Wilson, Araba Chintoh, Loretta Lam, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Adria Giacca, Gary J Remington, Margaret K Hahn
BACKGROUND: Insulin receptors are widely expressed in the brain and may represent a crossroad between metabolic and cognitive disorders. Although antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, are the cornerstone treatment for schizophrenia, they are associated with high rates of type 2 diabetes and lack efficacy for illness-related cognitive deficits. Historically, this risk of diabetes was attributed to the weight gain propensity of antipsychotics, but recent work suggests antipsychotics can have weight-independent diabetogenic effects involving unknown brain-mediated mechanisms...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083296/the-value-of-a-skeptical-approach-to-neurosciences-in-psychiatric-training-and-practice
#18
Alexandru Traicu, Ridha Joober
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949286/altered-intrinsic-functional-brain-architecture-in-female-patients-with-bulimia-nervosa
#19
Li Wang, Qing-Mei Kong, Ke Li, Xue-Ni Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Chao Chen, Ying Qian, Shi-Jie Feng, Ji-Tao Li, Yun'Ai Su, Christoph U Correll, Philip B Mitchell, Chao-Gan Yan, Da-Rong Zhang, Tian-Mei Si
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa is a severe psychiatric syndrome with uncertain pathogenesis. Neural systems involved in sensorimotor and visual processing, reward and impulsive control may contribute to the binge eating and purging behaviours characterizing bulimia nervosa. However, little is known about the alterations of functional organization of whole brain networks in individuals with this disorder. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI and graph theory to characterize functional brain networks of unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa and healthy women...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832321/structural-alterations-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-surface-based-analysis-of-cortical-volume-surface-area-and-thickness
#20
Oana Georgiana Rus, Tim Jonas Reess, Gerd Wagner, Michael Zaudig, Claus Zimmer, Kathrin Koch
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates the presence of structural brain alterations in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Findings are, however, rather heterogeneous, which may be partly because of differences in methodological approaches or clinical sample characteristics. The aim of the present study was to analyze the whole brain cortical volume, surface area and thickness in a large sample of patients with OCD compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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