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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

Zhenhao Shi, An-Li Wang, Kanchana Jagannathan, Victoria P Fairchild, Charles P O'Brien, Anna Rose Childress, Daniel D Langleben
BACKGROUND: Heightened response to drug-related cues is a hallmark of addiction. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention in patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). In these patients, XR-NTX has been shown to reduce brain responses to opioid-related visual stimuli. To assess the biomarker potential of this phenomenon, it is necessary to determine whether this effect is limited to opioid-related stimuli and whether it is associated with key OUD symptoms...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Yukiko Tomioka, Shusuke Numata, Makoto Kinoshita, Hidehiro Umehara, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Masahito Nakataki, Yoshimi Iwayama, Tomoko Toyota, Masashi Ikeda, Hidenaga Yamamori, Shinji Shimodera, Atsushi Tajima, Ryota Hashimoto, Nakao Iwata, Takeo Yoshikawa, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Alterations in one-carbon metabolism have been associated with schizophrenia, and vitamin B6 is one of the key components in this pathway. METHODS: We first conducted a case-control study of serum pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia in a large Japanese cohort (n = 1276). Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies (n = 2125). Second, we investigated whether rs4654748, which was identified in a genome-wide association study as a vitamin B6-related single nucleotide polymorphism, was genetically implicated in patients with schizophrenia in the Japanese population (n = 10 689)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Katja Bertsch, Karin Roelofs, Paul Jonathan Roch, Bo Ma, Saskia Hensel, Sabine C Herpertz, Inge Volman
BACKGROUND: Difficulty in controlling emotional impulses is a crucial component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often leads to destructive, impulsive behaviours against others. In line with recent findings in aggressive individuals, deficits in prefrontal amygdala coupling during emotional action control may account for these symptoms. METHODS: To study the neurobiological correlates of altered emotional action control in individuals with BPD, we asked medication-free, anger-prone, female patients with BPD and age- and intelligence-matched healthy women to take part in an approach-avoidance task while lying in an MRI scanner...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Laura A Berner, Mihaela Stefan, Seonjoo Lee, Zhishun Wang, Kate Terranova, Evelyn Attia, Rachel Marsh
BACKGROUND: Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12-38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jonathan T Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Alvi H Islam, Arron W S Metcalfe, Bradley J MacIntosh, Daphne J Korczak, Benjamin I Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD. METHODS: We processed T 1 -weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Veronica Onete, Ronald M Henry, Simone J S Sep, Annemarie Koster, Carla J van der Kallen, Pieter C Dagnelie, Nicolaas Schaper, Sebastian Köhler, Koen Reesink, Coen D A Stehouwer, Miranda T Schram
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffening may underlie the association between depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but reported data are inconsistent. We investigated the associations between aortic stiffness and major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms, and whether these differed by sex and age. METHODS: We measured carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) using applanation tonometry, and we assessed depression using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) in a cohort of participants from The Maastricht Study...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jeremy S Lum, Samuel J Millard, Xu-Feng Huang, Lezanne Ooi, Kelly A Newell
BACKGROUND: The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been implicated in the pathology and treatment of schizophrenia. Recent postmortem evidence suggests a hyperglutamatergic state in the NAcc. With the present study we aimed to explore possible glutamatergic alterations in the NAcc of a large schizophrenia cohort. METHODS: We performed immunoblots on postmortem NAcc samples from 30 individuals who had schizophrenia and 30 matched controls. We examined the protein expression of primary glutamatergic receptors, including the N -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits) and the group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1 and mGluR5; dimeric and monomeric forms)...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Pamela Prini, Franceso Rusconi, Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Federica Penna, Mauro Fasano, Elena Battaglioli, Daniela Parolaro, Tiziana Rubino
BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in female rats...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Malin Björnsdotter, Monika Davidovic, Louise Karjalainen, Göran Starck, Håkan Olausson, Elisabet Wentz
BACKGROUND: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. METHODS: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Paul R Albert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
David D Kim, Randall F White, Alasdair M Barr, William G Honer, Ric M Procyshyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Dominique Elie, Soham Rej
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Bruno Romeo, Walid Choucha, Philippe Fossati, Jean-Yves Rotge
BACKGROUND: Many studies have measured central and peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with depression. We performed a meta-analysis to provide an objective overview of GABA changes in those with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHODS: After a systematic database search, original data were extracted with the help of seminal authors to calculate standardized mean differences. We compared GABA levels between patients with current major depressive episodes and controls, between euthymic patients and controls, and in patients before and after treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Qiang Li, Jierong Liu, Wei Wang, Yarong Wang, Wei Li, Jiajie Chen, Jia Zhu, Xuejiao Yan, Yongbin Li, Zhe Li, Jianjun Ye, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether impaired coupling among 3 core large-scale brain networks (salience [SN], default mode [DMN] and executive control networks [ECN]) is associated with relapse behaviour in treated heroin-dependent patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective resting-state functional MRI study comparing the functional connectivity strength among healthy controls and heroin-dependent men who had either relapsed or were in early remission. Men were considered to be either relapsed or in early remission based on urine drug screens during a 3-month follow-up period...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Linda van Zutphen, Nicolette Siep, Gitta A Jacob, Gregor Domes, Andreas Sprenger, Bastian Willenborg, Rainer Goebel, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotion dysregulation; however, it is unclear whether this is restricted to negative emotional stimuli or to what degree this is specific to BPD. We investigated neural correlates of hypothesized increased emotional sensitivity and impaired emotion regulation in patients with BPD. METHODS: During functional MRI (fMRI) scanning, patients with BPD, nonpatient controls and patients with cluster-C personality disorder completed an emotion regulation task, including negative, positive and erotic social pictures...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Katharina Feldker, Carina Yvonne Heitmann, Paula Neumeister, Leonie Brinkmann, Maximillan Bruchmann, Pienie Zwitserlood, Thomas Straube
BACKGROUND: Increased automatic processing of threat-related stimuli has been proposed as a key element in panic disorder. Little is known about the neural basis of automatic processing, in particular to task-irrelevant, panic-related, ecologically valid stimuli, or about the association between brain activation and symptomatology in patients with panic disorder. METHODS: The present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study compared brain responses to task-irrelevant, panic-related and neutral visual stimuli in medication-free patients with panic disorder and healthy controls...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jenna E Boyd, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
Mindfulness-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have emerged as promising adjunctive or alternative intervention approaches. A scoping review of the literature on PTSD treatment studies, including approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and metta mindfulness, reveals low attrition with medium to large effect sizes. We review the convergence between neurobiological models of PTSD and neuroimaging findings in the mindfulness literature, where mindfulness interventions may target emotional under- and overmodulation, both of which are critical features of PTSD symptomatology...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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