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Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632121/anti-inflammatory-treatment-and-risk-for-depression-after-first-time-stroke-in-a-cohort-of-147-487-danish-patients
#1
Ida Kim Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim Wium-Andersen, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Merete Osler
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication after stroke, and inflammation may be a pathophysiological mechanism. This study examines whether anti-inflammatory treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) or statins influence the risk of depression after stroke. METHODS: A register-based cohort including all patients admitted to hospital with a first-time stroke from Jan. 1, 2001, through Dec. 31, 2011, and a nonstroke population with a similar age and sex distribution was followed for depression until Dec...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632120/basolateral-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-predicts-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-outcome-in-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
Miquel A Fullana, Xi Zhu, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Eva Real, Clara López-Solà, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Hanga Galfalvy, José M Menchón, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), including exposure and ritual prevention, is a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few reliable predictors of CBT outcome have been identified. Based on research in animal models, we hypothesized that individual differences in basolateral amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BLA-vmPFC) communication would predict CBT outcome in patients with OCD. METHODS: We investigated whether BLA-vmPFC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) predicts CBT outcome in patients with OCD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606245/prefrontal-brain-responsiveness-to-negative-stimuli-distinguishes-familial-risk-for-major-depression-from-acute-disorder
#3
Nils Opel, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Susanne Meinert, Christian Bürger, Leonie Plümpe, Judith Alferink, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Peter Zwanzger, Volker Arolt, Udo Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Identifying reliable trait markers of familial risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a challenge in translational psychiatric research. In individuals with acute MDD, dysfunctional connectivity patterns of prefrontal areas have been shown repeatedly. However, it has been unclear in which neuronal networks functional alterations in individuals at familial risk for MDD might be present and to what extent they resemble findings previously reported in those with acute MDD...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556774/functional-mri-examination-of-empathy-for-pain-in-people-with-schizophrenia-reveals-abnormal-activation-related-to-cognitive-perspective-taking-but-typical-activation-linked-to-affective-sharing
#4
Damien Vistoli, Marie-Audrey Lavoie, Stephanie Sutliff, Philip L Jackson, Amélie M Achim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others' emotions) and cognitive (taking others' cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459416/age-related-brain-structural-alterations-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-of-psychosis
#5
Juergen Dukart, Renata Smieskova, Fabienne Harrisberger, Claudia Lenz, André Schmidt, Anna Walter, Christian Huber, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Andor Simon, Undine E Lang, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Stefan Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: There is only limited agreement with respect to location, directionality and functional implications of brain structural alterations observed in patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, their link to occurrence of psychotic symptoms remains unclear. A viable way of addressing these questions is to examine populations in an at-risk mental state (ARMS) before the transition to psychosis. METHODS: We tested for structural brain alterations in individuals in an ARMS compared with healthy controls and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) using voxel-based morphometry and measures of cortical thickness...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452713/decreased-uncinate-fasciculus-tract-integrity-in-male-and-female-patients-with-ptsd-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#6
Saskia B J Koch, Mirjam van Zuiden, Laura Nawijn, Jessie L Frijling, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that has been associated with lower white matter integrity of tracts connecting the prefrontal cortex with limbic regions. However, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings have been inconsistent, showing high variability in the exact location and direction of effects. METHODS: We performed probabilistic tractography of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (both temporal and parietal projections) in male and female police officers with and without PTSD...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375077/ocd-obsessive-compulsive-%C3%A2-disgust-the-role-of-disgust-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Tracy Bhikram, Elia Abi-Jaoude, Paul Sandor
Recent research has identified the important role of disgust in the symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Exaggerated and inappropriate disgust reactions may drive some of the symptoms of OCD, and in some cases, may even eclipse feelings of anxiety. This paper reviews behavioural and neuroimaging research that recognizes the prominent role of disgust in contributing to OCD symptoms, especially contamination-based symptoms. We discuss how elevated behavioural and biological markers of disgust reported in OCD populations support the need for alternative clinical treatment strategies and theoretical models of OCD...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375076/intranetwork-and-internetwork-connectivity-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-and-the-association-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarker-levels
#8
Marina Weiler, Brunno Machado de Campos, Camila Vieira de Ligo Teixeira, Raphael Fernandes Casseb, Ana Flávia Mac Knight Carletti-Cassani, Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Thamires Naela Cardoso Magalhães, Leda Leme Talib, Orestes Vicente Forlenza, Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, many studies have reported abnormal connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with Alzheimer disease. Few studies, however, have investigated other networks and their association with pathophysiological proteins obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: We performed 3 T imaging in patients with mild Alzheimer disease, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls, and we collected CSF samples from the patients with aMCI and mild Alzheimer disease...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639936/recognition-and-management-of-antidepressant-discontinuation-syndrome
#9
Venkat Bhat, Sidney H Kennedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639935/neuroimaging-tests-for-clinical-psychiatry-are-we-there-yet
#10
Marco Leyton, Sidney H Kennedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556775/glutamatergic-deficit-and-schizophrenia-like-negative-symptoms-new-evidence-from-ketamine-induced-mismatch-negativity-alterations-in-healthy-male-humans
#11
Stephanie Thiebes, Gregor Leicht, Stjepan Curic, Saskia Steinmann, Nenad Polomac, Christina Andreou, Iris Eichler, Lars Eichler, Christian Zöllner, Jürgen Gallinat, Ileana Hanganu-Opatz, Christoph Mulert
BACKGROUND: Targeting the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a major translational approach for treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Ketamine comprehensively produces schizophrenia-like symptoms, such as positive, cognitive and negative symptoms in healthy volunteers. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be significantly reduced not only in patients with schizophrenia, but also in healthy controls receiving ketamine. Accordingly, it was the aim of the present study to investigate whether changes of MMN amplitudes during ketamine administration are associated with the emergence of schizophrenia-like negative symptoms in healthy volunteers...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418321/s100a10-identified-in-a-genome-wide-gene-%C3%A3-cannabis-dependence-interaction-analysis-of-risky-sexual-behaviours
#12
Renato Polimanti, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, Hongyu Zhao, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis to identify genetic variants that interact with cannabis dependence (CaD) in influencing risky sexual behaviours (RSB). METHODS: Our sample included cannabis-exposed and sexually experienced African-American and European-American participants. A DSM-IV CaD diagnosis and RSB were evaluated using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We analyzed RSBs as a score that takes into account experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440210/pharmacotherapy-of-trichotillomania
#13
Verinder Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440209/canadian-college-of-neuropsychopharmacology-2017-award-winners
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440208/smoking-psychiatric-illness-and-the-brain
#15
Patricia Boksa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234209/neural-correlates-of-an-attentional-bias-to-health-threatening-stimuli-in-individuals-with-pathological-health-anxiety
#16
Daniela Mier, Josef Bailer, Julia Ofer, Tobias Kerstner, Vera Zamoscik, Fred Rist, Michael Witthöft, Carsten Diener
BACKGROUND: An attentional bias to health-threat stimuli is assumed to represent the primary pathogenetic factor for the development and maintenance of pathological health anxiety (PHA; formerly termed "hypochondriasis"). However, little is known about the neural basis of this attentional bias in individuals with PHA. METHODS: A group of patients with PHA, a group of depressed patients and a healthy control group completed an emotional Stroop task with health-threat (body symptom and illness) words and neutral control words while undergoing functional MRI...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234208/psychobiological-response-to-pain-in-female-adolescents-with-nonsuicidal-self-injury
#17
Julian Koenig, Lena Rinnewitz, Marco Warth, Thomas K Hillecke, Romuald Brunner, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity and alterations in top-down processing of nociceptive information. The experience of acute pain is characterized by reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which to our knowledge has not been systematically investigated in the context of NSSI. METHODS: Adolescents fulfilling DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI and matched healthy controls received cold pain stimulation...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234206/bipolar-disorder-risk-gene-foxo6-modulates-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-neuroimaging-genetics%C3%A2-study
#18
Joseph J Shenker, Sarojini M Sengupta, Ridha Joober, Ashok Malla, M Mallar Chakravarty, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Despite being diagnostically associated uniquely with schizophrenia, negative symptoms are also observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered a number of shared risk genes between schizophrenia and BD. The objectives of this study were to examine whether previously identified risk genes for BD are associated with negative symptom severity within a first-episode schizophrenia (FES) cohort and to examine whether such genes influence brain morphology...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780031/microstructural-brain-abnormalities-in-medication-free-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#19
Jing Jiang, You-Jin Zhao, Xin-Yu Hu, Ming-Ying Du, Zi-Qi Chen, Min Wu, Kai-Ming Li, Hong-Yan Zhu, Poornima Kumar, Qi-Yong Gong
BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, owing to inclusion of medicated patients in these studies, it is difficult to conclude whether these reported alterations are associated with MDD or confounded by medication effects. A meta-analysis of DTI studies on medication-free (medication-naive and medication washout) patients with MDD would therefore be necessary to disentangle MDD-specific effects...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749245/accelerated-aging-of-the-putamen-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Matthew D Sacchet, M Catalina Camacho, Emily E Livermore, Ewart A C Thomas, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by accelerated biological aging, including greater age-related changes in physiological functioning. The disorder is also associated with abnormal neural reward circuitry, particularly in the basal ganglia (BG). Here we assessed age-related changes in BG volume in both patients with MDD and healthy control participants. METHODS: We obtained whole-brain T1-weighted images from patients with MDD and healthy controls...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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