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Current Biology: CB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712569/extensive-farming-in-estonia-started-through-a-sex-biased-migration-from-the-steppe
#1
Lehti Saag, Liivi Varul, Christiana Lyn Scheib, Jesper Stenderup, Morten E Allentoft, Lauri Saag, Luca Pagani, Maere Reidla, Kristiina Tambets, Ene Metspalu, Aivar Kriiska, Eske Willerslev, Toomas Kivisild, Mait Metspalu
The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition-both material and genetic-varied in different parts of Europe [1-7]. Farming-based economies appear relatively late in Northeast Europe, and the extent to which they involve change in genetic ancestry is not fully understood due to the lack of relevant ancient DNA data. Here we present the results from new low-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequence data from five hunter-gatherers and five first farmers of Estonia whose remains date to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712573/ve-cadherin-phosphorylation-regulates-endothelial-fluid-shear-stress-responses-through-the-polarity-protein-lgn
#2
Daniel E Conway, Brian G Coon, Madhusuthan Budatha, Paul T Arsenovic, Fabrizio Orsenigo, Florian Wessel, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhenwu Zhuang, Elisabetta Dejana, Dietmar Vestweber, Martin A Schwartz
Fluid shear stress due to blood flow on the vascular endothelium regulates blood vessel development, remodeling, physiology, and pathology [1, 2]. A complex consisting of PECAM-1, VE-cadherin, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) that resides at endothelial cell-cell junctions transduces signals important for flow-dependent vasodilation, blood vessel remodeling, and atherosclerosis. PECAM-1 transduces forces to activate src family kinases (SFKs), which phosphorylate and transactivate VEGFRs [3-5]...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712572/centriolar-satellites-control-gabarap-ubiquitination-and-gabarap-mediated-autophagy
#3
Justin Joachim, Minoo Razi, Delphine Judith, Martina Wirth, Emily Calamita, Vesela Encheva, Brian D Dynlacht, Ambrosius P Snijders, Nicola O'Reilly, Harold B J Jefferies, Sharon A Tooze
Autophagy maintains cellular health and homeostasis during stress by delivering cytosolic material captured by autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation is complex: initiated by the recruitment of autophagy (Atg) proteins to the formation site, it is sustained by activation of Atg proteins to allow growth and closure of the autophagosome. How Atg proteins are translocated to the forming autophagosome is not fully understood. Transport of the ATG8 family member GABARAP from the centrosome occurs during starvation-induced autophagosome biogenesis, but how centrosomal proteins regulate GABARAP localization is unknown...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712571/hierarchical-status-predicts-behavioral-vulnerability-and-nucleus-accumbens-metabolic-profile-following-chronic-social-defeat-stress
#4
Thomas Larrieu, Antoine Cherix, Aranzazu Duque, João Rodrigues, Hongxia Lei, Rolf Gruetter, Carmen Sandi
Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712570/electron-microscopic-reconstruction-of-functionally-identified-cells-in-a-neural-integrator
#5
Ashwin Vishwanathan, Kayvon Daie, Alexandro D Ramirez, Jeff W Lichtman, Emre R F Aksay, H Sebastian Seung
Neural integrators are involved in a variety of sensorimotor and cognitive behaviors. The oculomotor system contains a simple example, a hindbrain neural circuit that takes velocity signals as inputs and temporally integrates them to control eye position. Here we investigated the structural underpinnings of temporal integration in the larval zebrafish by first identifying integrator neurons using two-photon calcium imaging and then reconstructing the same neurons through serial electron microscopic analysis...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712568/the-discovery-of-wild-date-palms-in-oman-reveals-a-complex-domestication-history-involving-centers-in-the-middle-east-and-africa
#6
Muriel Gros-Balthazard, Marco Galimberti, Athanasios Kousathanas, Claire Newton, Sarah Ivorra, Laure Paradis, Yves Vigouroux, Robert Carter, Margareta Tengberg, Vincent Battesti, Sylvain Santoni, Laurent Falquet, Jean-Christophe Pintaud, Jean-Frédéric Terral, Daniel Wegmann
For many crops, wild relatives constitute an extraordinary resource for cultivar improvement [1, 2] and also help to better understand the history of their domestication [3]. However, the wild ancestor species of several perennial crops have not yet been identified. Perennial crops generally present a weak domestication syndrome allowing cultivated individuals to establish feral populations difficult to distinguish from truly wild populations, and there is frequently ongoing gene flow between wild relatives and the crop that might erode most genetic differences [4]...
July 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712567/perceived-object-trajectory-is-influenced-by-others-tracking-movements
#7
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
In social interactions, it is highly salient to us where other people are looking. The ability to recover this information is critical to typical social development, helping us to coordinate our attention and behavior with others and understand their intentions and mental states [1-3]. The depth and direction in which another individual is fixating are specified jointly by their head position, eye deviation, and binocular vergence [4, 5]. It is hereto unknown, however, whether this dynamic visual information about others' focus of attention affects how we ourselves see the world...
July 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712566/left-habenular-activity-attenuates-fear-responses-in-larval-zebrafish
#8
Erik R Duboué, Elim Hong, Kiara C Eldred, Marnie E Halpern
Fear responses are defensive states that ensure survival of an organism in the presence of a threat. Perception of an aversive cue causes changes in behavior and physiology, such as freezing and elevated cortisol, followed by a return to the baseline state when the threat is evaded [1]. Neural systems that elicit fear behaviors include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex. However, aside from a few examples, little is known about brain regions that promote recovery from an aversive event [2]...
July 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690115/a-statistical-description-of-plant-shoot-architecture
#9
Adam Conn, Ullas V Pedmale, Joanne Chory, Charles F Stevens, Saket Navlakha
Plant architectures can be characterized statistically by their spatial density function, which specifies the probability of finding a branch at each location in the territory occupied by a plant. Using high-precision 3D scanning, we analyzed 557 plant shoot architectures, representing three species, grown across three to five environmental conditions, and through 20-30 developmental time points. We found two elegant properties in the spatial density functions of these architectures: all functions could be nearly modified in one direction without affecting the density in orthogonal directions (called "separability"), and all functions shared the same underlying shape, aside from stretching and compression (called "self-similarity")...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690114/maintenance-of-miranda-localization-in-drosophila-neuroblasts-involves-interaction-with-the-cognate-mrna
#10
Anne Ramat, Matthew Hannaford, Jens Januschke
How cells position their proteins is a key problem in cell biology. Targeting mRNAs to distinct regions of the cytoplasm contributes to protein localization by providing local control over translation. Here, we reveal that an interdependence of a protein and cognate mRNA maintains asymmetric protein distribution in mitotic Drosophila neural stem cells. We tagged endogenous mRNA or protein products of the gene miranda that is required for fate determination with GFP. We find that the mRNA localizes like the protein it encodes in a basal crescent in mitosis...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690113/male-violence-and-sexual-intimidation-in-a-wild-primate-society
#11
Alice Baniel, Guy Cowlishaw, Elise Huchard
Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus)...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690112/the-discovery-of-xy-sex-chromosomes-in-a-boa-and-python
#12
Tony Gamble, Todd A Castoe, Stuart V Nielsen, Jaison L Banks, Daren C Card, Drew R Schield, Gordon W Schuett, Warren Booth
For over 50 years, biologists have accepted that all extant snakes share the same ZW sex chromosomes derived from a common ancestor [1-3], with different species exhibiting sex chromosomes at varying stages of differentiation. Accordingly, snakes have been a well-studied model for sex chromosome evolution in animals [1, 4]. A review of the literature, however, reveals no compelling support that boas and pythons possess ZW sex chromosomes [2, 5]. Furthermore, phylogenetic patterns of facultative parthenogenesis in snakes and a sex-linked color mutation in the ball python (Python regius) are best explained by boas and pythons possessing an XY sex chromosome system [6, 7]...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712565/circadian-clock-involvement-in-zooplankton-diel-vertical-migration
#13
N Sören Häfker, Bettina Meyer, Kim S Last, David W Pond, Lukas Hüppe, Mathias Teschke
Biological clocks are a ubiquitous ancient and adaptive mechanism enabling organisms to anticipate environmental cycles and to regulate behavioral and physiological processes accordingly [1]. Although terrestrial circadian clocks are well understood, knowledge of clocks in marine organisms is still very limited [2-5]. This is particularly true for abundant species displaying large-scale rhythms like diel vertical migration (DVM) that contribute significantly to shaping their respective ecosystems [6]. Here we describe exogenous cycles and endogenous rhythms associated with DVM of the ecologically important and highly abundant planktic copepod Calanus finmarchicus...
July 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690111/lateral-hypothalamic-gabaergic-neurons-encode-reward-predictions-that-are-relayed-to-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-regulate-learning
#14
Melissa J Sharpe, Nathan J Marchant, Leslie R Whitaker, Christopher T Richie, Yajun J Zhang, Erin J Campbell, Pyry P Koivula, Julie C Necarsulmer, Carlos Mejias-Aponte, Marisela Morales, James Pickel, Jeffrey C Smith, Yael Niv, Yavin Shaham, Brandon K Harvey, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Eating is a learned process. Our desires for specific foods arise through experience. Both electrical stimulation and optogenetic studies have shown that increased activity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) promotes feeding. Current dogma is that these effects reflect a role for LH neurons in the control of the core motivation to feed, and their activity comes under control of forebrain regions to elicit learned food-motivated behaviors. However, these effects could also reflect the storage of associative information about the cues leading to food in LH itself...
July 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690110/mapping-load-bearing-in-the-mammalian-spindle-reveals-local-kinetochore-fiber-anchorage-that-provides-mechanical-isolation-and-redundancy
#15
Mary Williard Elting, Manu Prakash, Dylan B Udy, Sophie Dumont
Active forces generated at kinetochores move chromosomes, and the dynamic spindle must robustly anchor kinetochore fibers (k-fibers) to bear this load. The mammalian spindle bears the load of chromosome movement far from poles, but we do not know where and how-physically and molecularly-this load distributes across the spindle. In part, this is because probing spindle mechanics in live cells is difficult. Yet answering this question is key to understanding how the spindle generates and responds to force and performs its diverse mechanical functions...
June 29, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690109/species-interactions-drive-fish-biodiversity-loss-in-a-high-co2-world
#16
Ivan Nagelkerken, Silvan U Goldenberg, Camilo M Ferreira, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Accelerating climate change is eroding the functioning and stability of ecosystems by weakening the interactions among species that stabilize biological communities against change [1]. A key challenge to forecasting the future of ecosystems centers on how to extrapolate results from short-term, single-species studies to community-level responses that are mediated by key mechanisms such as competition, resource availability (bottom-up control), and predation (top-down control) [2]. We used CO2 vents as potential analogs of ocean acidification combined with in situ experiments to test current predictions of fish biodiversity loss and community change due to elevated CO2 [3] and to elucidate the potential mechanisms that drive such change...
June 28, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669759/sirpa-inhibited-marrow-derived-macrophages-engorge-accumulate-and-differentiate-in-antibody-targeted-regression-of-solid-tumors
#17
Cory M Alvey, Kyle R Spinler, Jerome Irianto, Charlotte R Pfeifer, Brandon Hayes, Yuntao Xia, Sangkyun Cho, P C P Dave Dingal, Jake Hsu, Lucas Smith, Manu Tewari, Dennis E Discher
Marrow-derived macrophages are highly phagocytic, but whether they can also traffic into solid tumors and engulf cancer cells is questionable, given the well-known limitations of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here, SIRPα on macrophages from mouse and human marrow was inhibited to block recognition of its ligand, the "marker of self" CD47 on all other cells. These macrophages were then systemically injected into mice with fluorescent human tumors that had been antibody targeted. Within days, the tumors regressed, and single-cell fluorescence analyses showed that the more the macrophages engulfed, the more they accumulated within regressing tumors...
June 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669762/space-specific-deficits-in-visual-orientation-discrimination-caused-by-lesions-in-the-midbrain-stimulus-selection-network
#18
Eric I Knudsen, Jason S Schwarz, Phyllis F Knudsen, Devarajan Sridharan
Perceptual decisions require both analysis of sensory information and selective routing of relevant information to decision networks. This study explores the contribution of a midbrain network to visual perception in chickens. Analysis of visual orientation information in birds takes place in the forebrain sensory area called the Wulst, as it does in the primary visual cortex (V1) of mammals. In contrast, the midbrain, which receives parallel retinal input, encodes orientation poorly, if at all. We discovered, however, that small electrolytic lesions in the midbrain severely impair a chicken's ability to discriminate orientations...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697370/the-evolution-of-calcium-based-signalling-in-plants
#19
REVIEW
Kai H Edel, Elodie Marchadier, Colin Brownlee, Jörg Kudla, Alistair M Hetherington
The calcium-based intracellular signalling system is used ubiquitously to couple extracellular stimuli to their characteristic intracellular responses. It is becoming clear from genomic and physiological investigations that while the basic elements in the toolkit are common between plants and animals, evolution has acted in such a way that, in plants, some components have diversified with respect to their animal counterparts, while others have either been lost or have never evolved in the plant lineages. In comparison with animals, in plants there appears to have been a loss of diversity in calcium-influx mechanisms at the plasma membrane...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697369/endocytosis-remote-control-from-deep-inside
#20
Ludger Johannes
The endoplasmic reticulum communicates directly through membrane contacts with other cellular organelles. A new study reports that the formation and detachment of endocytic uptake carriers for the clathrin-independent internalization of the epidermal growth factor receptor is dependent on such contact sites.
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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