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Current Biology: CB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625781/adf-cofilin-accelerates-actin-dynamics-by-severing-filaments-and-promoting-their-depolymerization-at-both-ends
#1
Hugo Wioland, Berengere Guichard, Yosuke Senju, Sarah Myram, Pekka Lappalainen, Antoine Jégou, Guillaume Romet-Lemonne
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins contribute to cytoskeletal dynamics by promoting rapid actin filament disassembly. In the classical view, ADF/cofilin sever filaments, and capping proteins block filament barbed ends whereas pointed ends depolymerize, at a rate that is still debated. Here, by monitoring the activity of the three mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms on individual skeletal muscle and cytoplasmic actin filaments, we directly quantify the reactions underpinning filament severing and depolymerization from both ends...
June 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625782/complex-sexual-deception-in-an-orchid-is-achieved-by-co-opting-two-independent-biosynthetic-pathways-for-pollinator-attraction
#2
Haiyang Xu, Björn Bohman, Darren C J Wong, Claudia Rodriguez-Delgado, Adrian Scaffidi, Gavin R Flematti, Ryan D Phillips, Eran Pichersky, Rod Peakall
Sexually deceptive orchids lure their specific male pollinators using volatile semiochemicals that mimic female sex pheromones. To date, the semiochemicals known to be involved consist of blends of chemically and biosynthetically related compounds. In contrast, we report that (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, two biosynthetically distinct compounds, are the active semiochemicals in Caladenia plicata, which is pollinated by male Zeleboria sp. thynnine wasps. They are also sex pheromone components of the female Zeleboria...
June 12, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#3
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625780/enhanced-depolymerization-of-actin-filaments-by-adf-cofilin-and-monomer-funneling-by-capping-protein-cooperate-to-accelerate-barbed-end-growth
#4
Shashank Shekhar, Marie-France Carlier
A living cell's ability to assemble actin filaments in intracellular motile processes is directly dependent on the availability of polymerizable actin monomers, which feed polarized filament growth [1, 2]. Continued generation of the monomer pool by filament disassembly is therefore crucial. Disassemblers like actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin and filament cappers like capping protein (CP) are essential agonists of motility [3-8], but the exact molecular mechanisms by which they accelerate actin polymerization at the leading edge and filament turnover has been debated for over two decades [9-12]...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625779/multiple-isoforms-of-nesprin1-are-integral-components-of-ciliary-rootlets
#5
Chloe Potter, Wanqiu Zhu, David Razafsky, Philip Ruzycki, Alexander V Kolesnikov, Teresa Doggett, Vladimir J Kefalov, Ewelina Betleja, Moe R Mahjoub, Didier Hodzic
SYNE1 (synaptic nuclear envelope 1) encodes multiple isoforms of Nesprin1 (nuclear envelope spectrin 1) that associate with the nuclear envelope (NE) through a C-terminal KASH (Klarsicht/Anc1/Syne homology) domain (Figure 1A) [1-4]. This domain interacts directly with the SUN (Sad1/Unc84) domain of Sun proteins [5-7], a family of transmembrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) [8, 9], to form the so-called LINC complexes (linkers of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) that span the entire NE and mediate nuclear positioning [10-12]...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633035/economy-and-endurance-in-human-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor economy (e.g., limb length and posture) and endurance (e.g., muscle volume and fiber type) and investigate their development in the hominin fossil record. The earliest hominins were bipedal but retained ape-like features in the hind limb that would have limited their walking economy compared to living humans...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633034/evolution-complex-multicellular-life-with-5-500-genes
#7
Laszlo G Nagy
The origin of complex multicellularity was a major transition in evolution and is generally associated with higher genomic complexity. However, some complex multicellular fungi defy this principle, having small genomes that resemble those of unicellular yeasts rather than those of other complex multicellular organisms.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633033/centrosome-assembly-reconstructing-the-core-cartwheel-structure-in%C3%A2-vitro
#8
Gaëlle Marteil, Marco António Dias Louro, Mónica Bettencourt-Dias
Centrioles are microtubule-based cylinders essential for the formation of centrosomes and cilia. A recent study provides a new cell-free assay that reconstitutes the initial structure formed during centriole assembly - the cartwheel - and proposes a new model for its formation and growth.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633032/animal-navigation-the-eel-s-magnetic-guide-to-the-gulf-stream
#9
Miguel Baltazar-Soares, Christophe Eizaguirre
The geographic distribution of migratory species can span thousands of kilometers. Yet, traits that enable large-scale migrations are poorly understood. A recent study demonstrates that juvenile eels use the Earth's magnetism for their dispersal, with possible implications for their evolution.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633031/cell-division-centrosomes-have-separation-anxiety
#10
Stephen R Norris, Ryoma Ohi
Prior to mitosis, duplicated centrosomes are tethered together, which is thought to prevent mitotic defects. A new study establishes the role of tetrameric Kif25, a microtubule minus-end-directed kinesin-14 motor, in preventing premature centrosome separation through a microtubule-dependent pathway.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633030/human-navigation-occipital-place-area-detects-potential-paths-in-a-scene
#11
E Z Patai, H J Spiers
Navigation - determining how to get from where you are to somewhere else - has obvious importance for the survival of motile animals. A new neuroimaging study has revealed that, in the human brain, the occipital place area detects the number of possible paths in a vista.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633029/evolution-hearing-and-feeding-in-fossil-whales
#12
Jonathan H Geisler
The evolution of whales marks one of the major transitions in the history of mammals. Two new studies provide key insights into the evolution of hearing specializations and feeding strategies in early whales.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633028/visual-perception-neural-networks-for-stereopsis
#13
Jenny C A Read, Bruce G Cumming
How does our brain use differences between the images in our two eyes, binocular disparities, to generate depth perception? New work shows that a type of neural network trained on natural binocular images can learn parameters that match key properties of visual cortex. Most information is conveyed by cells which sense differences between the two eyes' images.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633027/cell-size-fat-makes-cells-fat
#14
Lisa Willis, Kerwyn Casey Huang
Nutrients are required for the multiple biosynthetic pathways that result in cell growth, and faster growth due to increased nutrient supply results in larger cell volume. A new study demonstrates that fatty-acid availability limits growth rate and cell envelope capacity, revealing that fatty-acid synthesis is the primary determinant of cell size in bacteria and in budding yeast.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633026/response-to-chimpanzee-culture-extends-beyond-matrilineal-family-units
#15
LETTER
Richard W Wrangham, Steven Worthington, Andrew B Bernard, Kathelijne Koops, Zarin P Machanda, Martin N Muller
We thank van Leeuwen et al.[1] for their response to our finding that matrilineal relationships strongly influence the style of high-arm grooming in wild chimpanzees of the Kanyawara community. We agree with them that grooming styles could be transmitted by different mechanisms in different contexts, and we appreciate their effort to assess whether the transmission of grooming styles within two captive groups in Chimfunshi accords with our result.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633025/chimpanzee-culture-extends-beyond-matrilineal-family-units
#16
LETTER
Edwin J C van Leeuwen, Roger Mundry, Katherine A Cronin, Mark Bodamer, Daniel B M Haun
The 'grooming handclasp' is one of the most well-established cultural traditions in chimpanzees. A recent study by Wrangham et al.[1] reduced the cultural scope of grooming-handclasp behavior by showing that grooming-handclasp style convergence is "explained by matrilineal relationship rather than conformity" [1]. Given that we previously reported cultural differences in grooming-handclasp style preferences in captive chimpanzees [2], we tested the alternative view posed by Wrangham et al.[1] in the chimpanzee populations that our original results were based on...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633024/seeing-lightness-in-the-dark
#17
LETTER
Robert Ennis, Matteo Toscani, Karl R Gegenfurtner
From intense sunlight in bright snow down to a moonless night in a dark forest, we can use light to recognize objects and guide our actions. This remarkable range mainly rests on having two different types of photoreceptors, the rods and the cones. The cones are active under daylight conditions, allowing high acuity and color vision. Rods are mainly active under very dim illumination conditions and have an exquisite sensitivity to light [1]. There are obvious detriments to visual perception in near darkness, such as a central scotoma, reduced motion perception [2], and most of all a lack of color [3]...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633023/the-insular-cortex
#18
Nadine Gogolla
Whether you see the person you are in love with, try to listen to your own heartbeat, suffer from a headache, or crave for a chocolate cookie, one part of your brain is sure to increase its activity strongly: the insular cortex. The insular cortex, or 'insula' for short, is part of the cerebral cortex. J.C. Reil, a German neurologist, first named this brain structure in the early 19(th) century. Subsequent research findings have implicated the insula in an overwhelming variety of functions ranging from sensory processing to representing feelings and emotions, autonomical and motor control, risk prediction and decision-making, bodily- and self-awareness, and complex social functions like empathy...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633022/phoresy
#19
P Signe White, Levi Morran, Jacobus de Roode
White et al. introduce the phenomenon of phoresy - animals hitching a ride on other animals.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633021/sex-differences-satellite-dna-directs-male-specific-gene-expression
#20
Patrick M Ferree
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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