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Current Biology: CB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190732/the-macronuclear-genome-of-stentor-coeruleus-reveals-tiny-introns-in-a-giant-cell
#1
Mark M Slabodnick, J Graham Ruby, Sarah B Reiff, Estienne C Swart, Sager Gosai, Sudhakaran Prabakaran, Ewa Witkowska, Graham E Larue, Susan Fisher, Robert M Freeman, Jeremy Gunawardena, William Chu, Naomi A Stover, Brian D Gregory, Mariusz Nowacki, Joseph Derisi, Scott W Roy, Wallace F Marshall, Pranidhi Sood
The giant, single-celled organism Stentor coeruleus has a long history as a model system for studying pattern formation and regeneration in single cells. Stentor [1, 2] is a heterotrichous ciliate distantly related to familiar ciliate models, such as Tetrahymena or Paramecium. The primary distinguishing feature of Stentor is its incredible size: a single cell is 1 mm long. Early developmental biologists, including T.H. Morgan [3], were attracted to the system because of its regenerative abilities-if large portions of a cell are surgically removed, the remnant reorganizes into a normal-looking but smaller cell with correct proportionality [2, 3]...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190731/early-binocular-input-is-critical-for-development-of-audiovisual-but-not-visuotactile-simultaneity-perception
#2
Yi-Chuan Chen, Terri L Lewis, David I Shore, Daphne Maurer
Temporal simultaneity provides an essential cue for integrating multisensory signals into a unified perception. Early visual deprivation, in both animals and humans, leads to abnormal neural responses to audiovisual signals in subcortical and cortical areas [1-5]. Behavioral deficits in integrating complex audiovisual stimuli in humans are also observed [6, 7]. It remains unclear whether early visual deprivation affects visuotactile perception similarly to audiovisual perception and whether the consequences for either pairing differ after monocular versus binocular deprivation [8-11]...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190730/leftward-flow-determines-laterality-in-conjoined-twins
#4
Matthias Tisler, Thomas Thumberger, Isabelle Schneider, Axel Schweickert, Martin Blum
Conjoined twins fused at the thorax display an enigmatic left-right defect: although left twins are normal, laterality is disturbed in one-half of right twins [1-3]. Molecularly, this randomization corresponds to a lack of asymmetric Nodal cascade induction in right twins [4]. We studied leftward flow [5, 6] at the left-right organizer (LRO) [7, 8] in thoracopagus twins in Xenopus, which displayed a duplicated, fused, and ciliated LRO. Cilia were motile and produced a leftward flow from the right LRO margin of the right to the left margin of the left twin...
February 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190729/a-functional-gradient-in-the-rodent-prefrontal-cortex-supports-behavioral-inhibition
#5
Stefanie Hardung, Robert Epple, Zoe Jäckel, David Eriksson, Cem Uran, Verena Senn, Lihi Gibor, Ofer Yizhar, Ilka Diester
The ability to plan and execute appropriately timed responses to external stimuli is based on a well-orchestrated balance between movement initiation and inhibition. In impulse control disorders involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1], this balance is disturbed, emphasizing the critical role that PFC plays in appropriately timing actions [2-4]. Here, we employed optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to systematically analyze the functional role of five key subareas of the rat medial PFC (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in action control [5-9]...
February 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190733/the-evolution-of-lateralization-in-group-hunting-sailfish
#6
Ralf H J M Kurvers, Stefan Krause, Paul E Viblanc, James E Herbert-Read, Paul Zaslansky, Paolo Domenici, Stefano Marras, John F Steffensen, Morten B S Svendsen, Alexander D M Wilson, Pierre Couillaud, Kevin M Boswell, Jens Krause
Lateralization is widespread throughout the animal kingdom [1-7] and can increase task efficiency via shortening reaction times and saving on neural tissue [8-16]. However, lateralization might be costly because it increases predictability [17-21]. In predator-prey interactions, for example, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow individual-level specialization, while still allowing for group-level unpredictability...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190727/the-origin-of-vertebrate-gills
#7
J Andrew Gillis, Olivia R A Tidswell
Pharyngeal gills are a fundamental feature of the vertebrate body plan [1]. However, the evolutionary history of vertebrate gills has been the subject of a long-standing controversy [2-8]. It is thought that gills evolved independently in cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates-lampreys and hagfish) and gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates-cartilaginous and bony fishes), based on their distinct embryonic origins: the gills of cyclostomes derive from endoderm [9-12], while gnathostome gills were classically thought to derive from ectoderm [10, 13]...
February 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162893/circadian-entrainment-to-the-natural-light-dark-cycle-across-seasons-and-the-weekend
#8
Ellen R Stothard, Andrew W McHill, Christopher M Depner, Brian R Birks, Thomas M Moehlman, Hannah K Ritchie, Jacob R Guzzetti, Evan D Chinoy, Monique K LeBourgeois, John Axelsson, Kenneth P Wright
Reduced exposure to daytime sunlight and increased exposure to electrical lighting at night leads to late circadian and sleep timing [1-3]. We have previously shown that exposure to a natural summer 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle entrains the human circadian clock to solar time, such that the internal biological night begins near sunset and ends near sunrise [1]. Here we show that the beginning of the biological night and sleep occur earlier after a week's exposure to a natural winter 9 hr 20 min:14 hr 40 min light-dark cycle as compared to the modern electrical lighting environment...
February 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162898/sin-dependent-dissociation-of-the-sad-kinase-cdr2-from-the-cell-cortex-resets-the-division-plane
#9
Sergio A Rincon, Miguel Estravis, Florent Dingli, Damarys Loew, Phong T Tran, Anne Paoletti
Proper division plane positioning is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation but also influences cell size, position, or fate [1]. In fission yeast, medial division is controlled through negative signaling by the cell tips during interphase and positive signaling by the centrally placed nucleus at mitotic entry [2-4]: the cell geometry network (CGN), controlled by the inhibitory cortical gradient of the DYRK kinase Pom1 emanating from the cell tips, first promotes the medial localization of cytokinetic ring precursors organized by the SAD kinase Cdr2 to pre-define the division plane [5-8]; then, massive nuclear export of the anillin-like protein Mid1 at mitosis entry confirms or readjusts the division plane according to nuclear position and triggers the assembly of a medial contractile ring [5, 9-11]...
February 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162895/the-brain-basis-for-misophonia
#10
Sukhbinder Kumar, Olana Tansley-Hancock, William Sedley, Joel S Winston, Martina F Callaghan, Micah Allen, Thomas E Cope, Phillip E Gander, Doris-Eva Bamiou, Timothy D Griffiths
Misophonia is an affective sound-processing disorder characterized by the experience of strong negative emotions (anger and anxiety) in response to everyday sounds, such as those generated by other people eating, drinking, chewing, and breathing [1-8]. The commonplace nature of these sounds (often referred to as "trigger sounds") makes misophonia a devastating disorder for sufferers and their families, and yet nothing is known about the underlying mechanism. Using functional and structural MRI coupled with physiological measurements, we demonstrate that misophonic subjects show specific trigger-sound-related responses in brain and body...
February 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162897/opposite-effects-of-recent-history-on-perception-and-decision
#11
Matthias Fritsche, Pim Mostert, Floris P de Lange
Recent studies claim that visual perception of stimulus features, such as orientation, numerosity, and faces, is systematically biased toward visual input from the immediate past [1-3]. However, the extent to which these positive biases truly reflect changes in perception rather than changes in post-perceptual processes is unclear [4, 5]. In the current study we sought to disentangle perceptual and decisional biases in visual perception. We found that post-perceptual decisions about orientation were indeed systematically biased toward previous stimuli and this positive bias did not strongly depend on the spatial location of previous stimuli (replicating previous work [1])...
January 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162896/haploinsufficiency-of-sirt1-enhances-glutamine-metabolism-and-promotes-cancer-development
#12
Natalie S X Ren, Ming Ji, Erik J Tokar, Evan L Busch, Xiaojiang Xu, DeAsia Lewis, Xiangchun Li, Aiwen Jin, Yanping Zhang, William K K Wu, Weichun Huang, Leping Li, David C Fargo, Temitope O Keku, Robert S Sandler, Xiaoling Li
SIRT1, the most conserved mammalian NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, plays a vital role in the regulation of metabolism, stress responses, and genome stability. However, the role of SIRT1 in the multi-step process leading to transformation and/or tumorigenesis, as either a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter, is complex and may be dependent upon the context in which SIRT1 activity is altered, and the role of SIRT1 in tumor metabolism is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT1 dose-dependently regulates cellular glutamine metabolism and apoptosis, which in turn differentially impact cell proliferation and cancer development...
January 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190726/object-detecting-neurons-in-drosophila
#13
Mehmet F Keleş, Mark A Frye
Many animals rely on vision to detect objects such as conspecifics, predators, and prey. Hypercomplex cells found in feline cortex and small target motion detectors found in dragonfly and hoverfly optic lobes demonstrate robust tuning for small objects, with weak or no response to larger objects or movement of the visual panorama [1-3]. However, the relationship among anatomical, molecular, and functional properties of object detection circuitry is not understood. Here we characterize a specialized object detector in Drosophila, the lobula columnar neuron LC11 [4]...
January 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190725/metapopulation-tracking-juvenile-penguins-reveals-an-ecosystem-wide-ecological-trap
#14
Richard B Sherley, Katrin Ludynia, Bruce M Dyer, Tarron Lamont, Azwianewi B Makhado, Jean-Paul Roux, Kylie L Scales, Les G Underhill, Stephen C Votier
Climate change and fisheries are transforming the oceans, but we lack a complete understanding of their ecological impact [1-3]. Environmental degradation can cause maladaptive habitat selection, inducing ecological traps with profound consequences for biodiversity [4-6]. However, whether ecological traps operate in marine systems is unclear [7]. Large marine vertebrates may be vulnerable to ecological traps [6], but their broad-scale movements and complex life histories obscure the population-level consequences of habitat selection [8, 9]...
January 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190724/flourishing-sponge-based-ecosystems-after-the-end-ordovician-mass-extinction
#15
Joseph P Botting, Lucy A Muir, Yuandong Zhang, Xuan Ma, Junye Ma, Longwu Wang, Jianfang Zhang, Yanyan Song, Xiang Fan
The Late Ordovician (Hirnantian, approximately 445 million years ago) extinction event was among the largest known, with 85% species loss [1]. Post-extinction survival faunas are invariably low diversity, especially benthic communities [2], but ecological structure was restored relatively rapidly [1]. This pattern, however, reflects organisms with robust skeletons, as only one exceptionally preserved Hirnantian fossil biota was previously known [3, 4]; in particular, almost no Hirnantian sponges have been recorded...
January 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162899/exceptional-evolutionary-expansion-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-great-apes-and-humans
#16
Jeroen B Smaers, Aida Gómez-Robles, Ashley N Parks, Chet C Sherwood
One of the enduring questions that has driven neuroscientific enquiry in the last century has been the nature of differences in the prefrontal cortex of humans versus other animals [1]. The prefrontal cortex has drawn particular interest due to its role in a range of evolutionarily specialized cognitive capacities such as language [2], imagination [3], and complex decision making [4]. Both cytoarchitectonic [5] and comparative neuroimaging [6] studies have converged on the conclusion that the proportion of prefrontal cortex in the human brain is greatly increased relative to that of other primates...
January 27, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162894/the-neolithic-transition-in-the-baltic-was-not-driven-by-admixture-with-early-european-farmers
#17
Eppie R Jones, Gunita Zarina, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Emma Lightfoot, Philip R Nigst, Andrea Manica, Ron Pinhasi, Daniel G Bradley
The Neolithic transition was a dynamic time in European prehistory of cultural, social, and technological change. Although this period has been well explored in central Europe using ancient nuclear DNA [1, 2], its genetic impact on northern and eastern parts of this continent has not been as extensively studied. To broaden our understanding of the Neolithic transition across Europe, we analyzed eight ancient genomes: six samples (four to ∼1- to 4-fold coverage) from a 3,500 year temporal transect (∼8,300-4,800 calibrated years before present) through the Baltic region dating from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic and two samples spanning the Mesolithic-Neolithic boundary from the Dnieper Rapids region of Ukraine...
January 27, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132817/systematic-mapping-of-rna-chromatin-interactions-in%C3%A2-vivo
#18
Bharat Sridhar, Marcelo Rivas-Astroza, Tri C Nguyen, Weizhong Chen, Zhangming Yan, Xiaoyi Cao, Lucie Hebert, Sheng Zhong
RNA molecules can attach to chromatin. It remains difficult to know what RNAs are associated with chromatin and where the genomic target loci of these RNAs are. Here, we present MARGI (mapping RNA-genome interactions), a technology to massively reveal native RNA-chromatin interactions from unperturbed cells. The gist of this technology is to ligate chromatin-associated RNAs (caRNAs) with their target genomic sequences by proximity ligation, forming RNA-DNA chimeric sequences, which are converted to a sequencing library for paired-end sequencing...
January 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132815/shortening-of-microtubule-overlap-regions-defines-membrane-delivery-sites-during-plant-cytokinesis
#19
Jeroen de Keijzer, Henk Kieft, Tijs Ketelaar, Gohta Goshima, Marcel E Janson
Different from animal cells that divide by constriction of the cortex inward, cells of land plants divide by initiating a new cell-wall segment from their center. For this, a disk-shaped, membrane-enclosed precursor termed the cell plate is formed that radially expands toward the parental cell wall [1-3]. The synthesis of the plate starts with the fusion of vesicles into a tubulo-vesicular network [4-6]. Vesicles are putatively delivered to the division plane by transport along microtubules of the bipolar phragmoplast network that guides plate assembly [7-9]...
January 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162892/fast-camp-modulation-of-neurotransmission-via-neuropeptide-signals-and-vesicle-loading
#20
Wagner Steuer Costa, Szi-Chieh Yu, Jana F Liewald, Alexander Gottschalk
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling augments synaptic transmission, but because many targets of cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) may be involved, mechanisms underlying this pathway remain unclear. To probe this mechanism, we used optogenetic stimulation of cAMP signaling by Beggiatoa-photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (bPAC) in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons. Behavioral, electron microscopy (EM), and electrophysiology analyses revealed cAMP effects on both the rate and on quantal size of transmitter release and led to the identification of a neuropeptidergic pathway affecting quantal size...
January 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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