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Current Biology: CB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528909/melanopsin-contributions-to-the-representation-of-images-in-the-early-visual-system
#1
Annette E Allen, Riccardo Storchi, Franck P Martial, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
Melanopsin photoreception enhances retinal responses to variations in ambient light (irradiance) and drives non-image-forming visual reflexes such as circadian entrainment [1-6]. Melanopsin signals also reach brain regions responsible for form vision [7-9], but melanopsin's contribution, if any, to encoding visual images remains unclear. We addressed this deficit using principles of receptor silent substitution to present images in which visibility for melanopsin versus rods+cones was independently modulated, and we recorded evoked responses in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; thalamic relay for cortical vision)...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528908/the-new-red-algal-subphylum-proteorhodophytina-comprises-the-largest-and-most-divergent-plastid-genomes-known
#2
Sergio A Muñoz-Gómez, Fabián G Mejía-Franco, Keira Durnin, Morgan Colp, Cameron J Grisdale, John M Archibald, Claudio H Slamovits
Red algal plastid genomes are often considered ancestral and evolutionarily stable, and thus more closely resembling the last common ancestral plastid genome of all photosynthetic eukaryotes [1, 2]. However, sampling of red algal diversity is still quite limited (e.g., [2-5]). We aimed to remedy this problem. To this end, we sequenced six new plastid genomes from four undersampled and phylogenetically disparate red algal classes (Porphyridiophyceae, Stylonematophyceae, Compsopogonophyceae, and Rhodellophyceae) and discovered an unprecedented degree of genomic diversity among them...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528907/widespread-biological-response-to-rapid-warming-on-the-antarctic-peninsula
#3
Matthew J Amesbury, Thomas P Roland, Jessica Royles, Dominic A Hodgson, Peter Convey, Howard Griffiths, Dan J Charman
Recent climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula is well documented [1-5], with warming, alongside increases in precipitation, wind strength, and melt season length [1, 6, 7], driving environmental change [8, 9]. However, meteorological records mostly began in the 1950s, and paleoenvironmental datasets that provide a longer-term context to recent climate change are limited in number and often from single sites [7] and/or discontinuous in time [10, 11]. Here we use moss bank cores from a 600-km transect from Green Island (65...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528906/warts-signaling-controls-organ-and-body-growth-through-regulation-of-ecdysone
#4
Morten E Moeller, Stanislav Nagy, Stephan U Gerlach, Karen C Soegaard, E Thomas Danielsen, Michael J Texada, Kim F Rewitz
Coordination of growth between individual organs and the whole body is essential during development to produce adults with appropriate size and proportions [1, 2]. How local organ-intrinsic signals and nutrient-dependent systemic factors are integrated to generate correctly proportioned organisms under different environmental conditions is poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hippo/Warts signaling functions intrinsically to regulate tissue growth and organ size [3, 4], whereas systemic growth is controlled via antagonistic interactions of the steroid hormone ecdysone and nutrient-dependent insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (insulin) signaling [2, 5]...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528905/a-pheromone-antagonist-regulates-optimal-mating-time-in-the-moth-helicoverpa-armigera
#5
Hetan Chang, Yang Liu, Dong Ai, Xingchuan Jiang, Shuanglin Dong, Guirong Wang
Many insect species use multi-component sex pheromones to discriminate among potential mating partners [1-5]. In moths, pheromone blends tend to be dominated by one or two major components, but behavioral responses are frequently optimized by the inclusion of less abundant minor components [6]. An increasing number of studies have shown that female insects use these chemicals to convey their mating availability to males, who can assess the maturity of females and thus decide when to mate [7, 8]. However, little is known about the biological mechanisms that enable males to assess female reproductive status...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528904/spatially-periodic-activation-patterns-of-retrosplenial-cortex-encode-route-sub-spaces-and-distance-traveled
#6
Andrew S Alexander, Douglas A Nitz
Traversal of a complicated route is often facilitated by considering it as a set of related sub-spaces. Such compartmentalization processes could occur within retrosplenial cortex, a structure whose neurons simultaneously encode position within routes and other spatial coordinate systems. Here, retrosplenial cortex neurons were recorded as rats traversed a track having recurrent structure at multiple scales. Consistent with a major role in compartmentalization of complex routes, individual retrosplenial cortex (RSC) neurons exhibited periodic activation patterns that repeated across route segments having the same shape...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528903/equilibrium-bird-species-diversity-in-atlantic-islands
#7
Luis Valente, Juan Carlos Illera, Katja Havenstein, Tamara Pallien, Rampal S Etienne, Ralph Tiedemann
Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]...
May 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528902/x-cells-are-globally-distributed-genetically-divergent-fish-parasites-related-to-perkinsids-and-dinoflagellates
#8
Mark A Freeman, Janina Fuss, Árni Kristmundsson, Marit F M Bjorbækmo, Jean-François Mangot, Javier Del Campo, Patrick J Keeling, Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi, David Bass
"X-cells" have long been associated with tumor-like formations (xenomas) in marine fish, including many of commercial interest. The name was first used to refer to the large polygonal cells that were found in epidermal xenomas from flatfish from the Pacific Northwest [1]. Similar looking cells from pseudobranchial xenomas had previously been reported from cod in the Atlantic [2] and Pacific Oceans [3]. X-cell pathologies have been reported from five teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes (flatfish), Perciformes (perch-like fish), Gadiformes (cods), Siluriformes (catfish), and Salmoniformes (salmonids)...
May 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528901/responses-to-spatial-contrast-in-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nuclei
#9
Joshua W Mouland, Adam R Stinchcombe, Daniel B Forger, Timothy M Brown, Robert J Lucas
A direct retinal projection targets the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (an important hypothalamic control center). The accepted function of this projection is to convey information about ambient light (irradiance) to synchronize the SCN's endogenous circadian clock with local time and drive the diurnal variations in physiology and behavior [1-4]. Here, we report that it also renders the SCN responsive to visual images. We map spatial receptive fields (RFs) for SCN neurons and find that only a minority are excited (or inhibited) by light from across the scene as expected for irradiance detectors...
May 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535393/neuroscience-when-a-single-image-can-cause-a-seizure
#10
Christopher J Honey, Taufik Valiante
It has been known since classical antiquity that viewing particular images can trigger seizures in some individuals. Now we have a clue to the mechanism, as many of these images amplify 30-80 Hz rhythmic activity in the visual brain.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535392/nervous-system-development-temporal-patterning-of-large-neural-lineages
#11
Stefan Thor
Neural progenitor cells in most, if not all, systems generate different cell types according to a fixed birth-order. Studies in the Drosophila central nervous system now identify an expanding regulatory network underlying temporal diversification of very large neural lineages.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535391/evolution-uprooting-the-dinosaur-family-tree
#12
Stephen L Brusatte
A provocative new study rearranges the base of the dinosaur evolutionary tree, upending 130 years of consensus. Does it hold up to scrutiny?
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535390/spatial-memory-mice-quickly-learn-a-safe-haven
#13
S E Roian Egnor
New work on innate escape behavior shows that mice spontaneously form a spatially precise memory of the location of shelter, which is laid down quickly and updated continuously.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535389/human-memory-brain-state-dependent-effects-of%C3%A2-stimulation
#14
Simon Hanslmayr, Frederic Roux
A new study shows that direct stimulation of memory-relevant brain areas can enhance memory performance, but only when stimulation is applied during brain states associated with poor memory outcome - stimulation during optimal states results in a decrease in memory.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535388/transgenerational-inheritance-perpetuating-rnai
#15
Kristen C Brown, Taiowa A Montgomery
Reversible changes in gene expression independent of the genetic code can be transmitted from one generation to the next via poorly understood mechanisms. In worms, a histone-modifying enzyme is necessary to keep small RNA-guided transgenerational gene silencing in check.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535387/cellular-homeostasis-a-small-rna-at-the-crossroads-of-iron-and-photosynthesis
#16
Marie-Claude Carrier, Jean-Sébastien Bourassa, Eric Massé
The cyanobacterium Synechocystis relies on iron to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. This makes Synechocystis particularly sensitive to iron starvation. A new study shows that the small RNA IsaR1 is a major effector of the iron-stress response, remodeling the photosynthetic apparatus.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535386/sex-differences-satellite-dna-directs-male-specific-gene-expression
#17
Patrick M Ferree
Dosage compensation in some animals involves up-regulation of genes on the male's X chromosome. A study in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster shows that satellite DNA, and corresponding small non-coding RNA, helps the dosage compensation machinery preferentially find X sequences.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535385/are-declining-populations-of-wild-geese-in-china-prisoners-of-their-natural-habitats
#18
LETTER
Hui Yu, Xin Wang, Lei Cao, Lu Zhang, Qiang Jia, Hansoo Lee, Zhenggang Xu, Guanhua Liu, Wenbin Xu, Binhua Hu, Anthony D Fox
While wild goose populations wintering in North America and Europe are mostly flourishing by exploiting farmland, those in China (which seem confined to natural wetlands) are generally declining. Telemetry devices were attached to 67 wintering wild geese of five different species at three important wetlands in the Yangtze River Floodplain (YRF), China to determine habitat use. 50 individuals of three declining species were almost entirely diurnally confined to natural wetlands; 17 individuals from two species showing stable trends used wetlands 83% and 90% of the time, otherwise resorting to farmland...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535384/invertebrate-biomechanics
#19
S N Patek, A P Summers
Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535383/reward-prediction-error
#20
Wolfram Schultz
In this quick guide, Wolfram Schultz provides an introduction of reward prediction error, exploring the signal of dopamine neurons and describing its potential role in reward accumulation, decision-making and everyday life.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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