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Current Biology: CB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129536/event-boundaries-trigger-rapid-memory-reinstatement-of-the-prior-events-to-promote-their-representation-in-long-term-memory
#1
Ignasi Sols, Sarah DuBrow, Lila Davachi, Lluís Fuentemilla
Although everyday experiences unfold continuously over time, shifts in context, or event boundaries, can influence how those events come to be represented in memory [1-4]. Specifically, mnemonic binding across sequential representations is more challenging at context shifts, such that successful temporal associations are more likely to be formed within than across contexts [1, 2, 5-9]. However, in order to preserve a subjective sense of continuity, it is important that the memory system bridge temporally adjacent events, even if they occur in seemingly distinct contexts...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129535/genetic-influence-on-eye-movements-to-complex-scenes-at-short-timescales
#2
Daniel P Kennedy, Brian M D'Onofrio, Patrick D Quinn, Sven Bölte, Paul Lichtenstein, Terje Falck-Ytter
Where one looks within their environment constrains one's visual experiences, directly affects cognitive, emotional, and social processing [1-4], influences learning opportunities [5], and ultimately shapes one's developmental path. While there is a high degree of similarity across individuals with regard to which features of a scene are fixated [6-8], large individual differences are also present, especially in disorders of development [9-13], and clarifying the origins of these differences is essential to understand the processes by which individuals develop within the complex environments in which they exist and interact...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129533/sounds-of-modified-flight-feathers-reliably-signal-danger-in-a-pigeon
#3
Trevor G Murray, Jochen Zeil, Robert D Magrath
In his book on sexual selection, Darwin [1] devoted equal space to non-vocal and vocal communication in birds. Since then, vocal communication has become a model for studies of neurobiology, learning, communication, evolution, and conservation [2, 3]. In contrast, non-vocal "instrumental music," as Darwin called it, has only recently become subject to sustained inquiry [4, 5]. In particular, outstanding work reveals how feathers, often highly modified, produce distinctive sounds [6-9], and suggests that these sounds have evolved at least 70 times, in many orders [10]...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129537/a-moving-source-of-matrix-components-is-essential-for-de-novo-basement-membrane-formation
#4
Yutaka Matsubayashi, Adam Louani, Anca Dragu, Besaiz J Sánchez-Sánchez, Eduardo Serna-Morales, Lawrence Yolland, Attila Gyoergy, Gema Vizcay, Roland A Fleck, John M Heddleston, Teng-Leong Chew, Daria E Siekhaus, Brian M Stramer
The basement membrane (BM) is a thin layer of extracellular matrix (ECM) beneath nearly all epithelial cell types that is critical for cellular and tissue function. It is composed of numerous components conserved among all bilaterians [1]; however, it is unknown how all of these components are generated and subsequently constructed to form a fully mature BM in the living animal. Although BM formation is thought to simply involve a process of self-assembly [2], this concept suffers from a number of logistical issues when considering its construction in vivo...
November 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129534/mechanical-shielding-of-rapidly-growing-cells-buffers-growth-heterogeneity-and-contributes-to-organ-shape-reproducibility
#5
Nathan Hervieux, Satoru Tsugawa, Antoine Fruleux, Mathilde Dumond, Anne-Lise Routier-Kierzkowska, Tamiki Komatsuzaki, Arezki Boudaoud, John C Larkin, Richard S Smith, Chun-Biu Li, Olivier Hamant
A landmark of developmental biology is the production of reproducible shapes, through stereotyped morphogenetic events. At the cell level, growth is often highly heterogeneous, allowing shape diversity to arise. Yet, how can reproducible shapes emerge from such growth heterogeneity? Is growth heterogeneity filtered out? Here, we focus on rapidly growing trichome cells in the Arabidopsis sepal, a reproducible floral organ. We show via computational modeling that rapidly growing cells may distort organ shape...
November 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129532/idiosyncratic-genome-degradation-in-a-bacterial-endosymbiont-of-periodical-cicadas
#6
Matthew A Campbell, Piotr Łukasik, Chris Simon, John P McCutcheon
When a free-living bacterium transitions to a host-beneficial endosymbiotic lifestyle, it almost invariably loses a large fraction of its genome [1, 2]. The resulting small genomes often become stable in size, structure, and coding capacity [3-5], as exemplified by Sulcia muelleri, a nutritional endosymbiont of cicadas. Sulcia's partner endosymbiont, Hodgkinia cicadicola, similarly remains co-linear in some cicadas diverged by millions of years [6, 7]. But in the long-lived periodical cicada Magicicada tredecim, the Hodgkinia genome has split into dozens of tiny, gene-sparse circles that sometimes reside in distinct Hodgkinia cells [8]...
November 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129531/the-diversity-structure-and-function-of-heritable-adaptive-immunity-sequences-in-the-aedes-aegypti-genome
#7
Zachary J Whitfield, Patrick T Dolan, Mark Kunitomi, Michel Tassetto, Matthew G Seetin, Steve Oh, Cheryl Heiner, Ellen Paxinos, Raul Andino
The Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus. Understanding the mechanisms underlying mosquito immunity could provide new tools to control arbovirus spread. Insects exploit two different RNAi pathways to combat viral and transposon infection: short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) [1, 2]. Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are sequences from non-retroviral viruses that are inserted into the mosquito genome and can act as templates for the production of piRNAs [3, 4]...
November 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129530/glutamylation-regulates-transport-specializes-function-and-sculpts-the-structure-of-cilia
#8
Robert O'Hagan, Malan Silva, Ken C Q Nguyen, Winnie Zhang, Sebastian Bellotti, Yasmin H Ramadan, David H Hall, Maureen M Barr
Ciliary microtubules (MTs) are extensively decorated with post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as glutamylation of tubulin tails. PTMs and tubulin isotype diversity act as a "tubulin code" that regulates cytoskeletal stability and the activity of MT-associated proteins such as kinesins. We previously showed that, in C. elegans cilia, the deglutamylase CCPP-1 affects ciliary ultrastructure, localization of the TRP channel PKD-2 and the kinesin-3 KLP-6, and velocity of the kinesin-2 OSM-3/KIF17, whereas a cell-specific α-tubulin isotype regulates ciliary ultrastructure, intraflagellar transport, and ciliary functions of extracellular vesicle (EV)-releasing neurons...
November 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129529/profilin-directly-promotes-microtubule-growth-through-residues-mutated-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Jessica L Henty-Ridilla, M Angeles Juanes, Bruce L Goode
Profilin is an abundant actin monomer-binding protein with critical actin regulatory roles in vivo [1, 2]. However, profilin also influences microtubule dynamics in cells, which may be mediated in part through its interactions with formins that in turn bind microtubules [3, 4]. Specific residues on human profilin-1 (PFN1) are mutated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [5, 6]. However, the observation that some ALS-linked PFN1 mutants fail to alter cellular actin organization or dynamics [5-8] or in vitro actin-monomer affinity [9] has been perplexing, given that profilin is best understood as an actin regulator...
November 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103940/morphometric-behavioral-and-genomic-evidence-for-a-new-orangutan-species
#10
Alexander Nater, Maja P Mattle-Greminger, Anton Nurcahyo, Matthew G Nowak, Marc de Manuel, Tariq Desai, Colin Groves, Marc Pybus, Tugce Bilgin Sonay, Christian Roos, Adriano R Lameira, Serge A Wich, James Askew, Marina Davila-Ross, Gabriella Fredriksson, Guillem de Valles, Ferran Casals, Javier Prado-Martinez, Benoit Goossens, Ernst J Verschoor, Kristin S Warren, Ian Singleton, David A Marques, Joko Pamungkas, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Puji Rianti, Augustine Tuuga, Ivo G Gut, Marta Gut, Pablo Orozco-terWengel, Carel P van Schaik, Jaume Bertranpetit, Maria Anisimova, Aylwyn Scally, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Erik Meijaard, Michael Krützen
Six extant species of non-human great apes are currently recognized: Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, eastern and western gorillas, and chimpanzees and bonobos [1]. However, large gaps remain in our knowledge of fine-scale variation in hominoid morphology, behavior, and genetics, and aspects of great ape taxonomy remain in flux. This is particularly true for orangutans (genus: Pongo), the only Asian great apes and phylogenetically our most distant relatives among extant hominids [1]. Designation of Bornean and Sumatran orangutans, P...
October 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103937/an-intracellular-pathogen-response-pathway-promotes-proteostasis-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#11
Kirthi C Reddy, Tal Dror, Jessica N Sowa, Johan Panek, Kevin Chen, Efrem S Lim, David Wang, Emily R Troemel
Maintenance of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, is crucial for organismal health. Disruption of proteostasis can lead to the accumulation of protein aggregates, which are associated with aging and many human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease [1-3]. Through analysis of the C. elegans host response to intracellular infection, we describe here a novel response pathway that enhances proteostasis capacity and appears to act in parallel to well-studied proteostasis pathways. These findings are based on analysis of the transcriptional response to infection by the intracellular pathogen Nematocida parisii [4]...
October 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103941/asymmetry-of-an-intracellular-scaffold-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#12
Audrey J Marsh, Jennifer Carlisle Michel, Anisha P Adke, Emily L Heckman, Adam C Miller
Neuronal synaptic connections are either chemical or electrical, and these two types of synapses work together to dynamically define neural circuit function [1]. Although we know a great deal about the molecules that support chemical synapse formation and function, we know little about the macromolecular complexes that regulate electrical synapses. Electrical synapses are created by gap junction (GJ) channels that provide direct ionic communication between neurons [2]. Although they are often molecularly and functionally symmetric, recent work has found that pre- and postsynaptic neurons can contribute different GJ-forming proteins, creating molecularly asymmetric channels that are correlated with functional asymmetry at the synapse [3, 4]...
October 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103939/stability-of-wake-sleep-cycles-requires-robust-degradation-of-the-period-protein
#13
Matthew D'Alessandro, Stephen Beesley, Jae Kyoung Kim, Zachary Jones, Rongmin Chen, Julie Wi, Kathleen Kyle, Daniel Vera, Michele Pagano, Richard Nowakowski, Choogon Lee
Robustness in biology is the stability of phenotype under diverse genetic and/or environmental perturbations. The circadian clock has remarkable stability of period and phase that-unlike other biological oscillators-is maintained over a wide range of conditions. Here, we show that the high fidelity of the circadian system stems from robust degradation of the clock protein PERIOD. We show that PERIOD degradation is regulated by a balance between ubiquitination and deubiquitination, and that disruption of this balance can destabilize the clock...
October 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103938/etiolated-seedling-development-requires-repression-of-photomorphogenesis-by-a-small-cell-wall-derived-dark-signal
#14
Scott A Sinclair, Camille Larue, Laura Bonk, Asif Khan, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Ricardo J Stein, Daniel Grolimund, Dominik Begerow, Ulla Neumann, Michael J Haydon, Ute Krämer
Etiolated growth in darkness or the irreversible transition to photomorphogenesis in the light engages alternative developmental programs operating across all organs of a plant seedling. Dark-grown Arabidopsis de-etiolated by zinc (dez) mutants exhibit morphological, cellular, metabolic, and transcriptional characteristics of light-grown seedlings. We identify the causal mutation in TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE encoding a putative acyl transferase. Pectin acetylation is decreased in dez, as previously found in the reduced wall acetylation2-3 mutant, shown here to phenocopy dez...
October 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103936/vrille-controls-pdf-neuropeptide-accumulation-and-arborization-rhythms-in-small-ventrolateral-neurons-to-drive-rhythmic-behavior-in-drosophila
#15
Kushan L Gunawardhana, Paul E Hardin
In Drosophila, the circadian clock is comprised of transcriptional feedback loops that control rhythmic gene expression responsible for daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior. The core feedback loop, which employs CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) activators and PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) repressors to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dusk, is required for circadian timekeeping and overt behavioral rhythms. CLK-CYC also activates an interlocked feedback loop, which uses the PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1ε (PDP1ε) activator and the VRILLE (VRI) repressor to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dawn...
October 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103935/deep-phenotypic-mapping-of-bacterial-cytoskeletal-mutants-reveals-physiological-robustness-to-cell-size
#16
Handuo Shi, Alexandre Colavin, Marty Bigos, Carolina Tropini, Russell D Monds, Kerwyn Casey Huang
Size is a universally defining characteristic of all living cells and tissues and is intrinsically linked with cell genotype, growth, and physiology. Many mutations have been identified to alter cell size, but pleiotropic effects have largely hampered our ability to probe how cell size specifically affects fundamental cellular properties, such as DNA content and intracellular localization. To systematically interrogate the impact of cell morphology on bacterial physiology, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to enrich a library of hundreds of Escherichia coli mutants in the essential cytoskeletal protein MreB for subtle changes in cell shape, cumulatively spanning ∼5-fold variation in average cell volume...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103934/genome-based-sexing-provides-clues-about-behavior-and-social-structure-in-the-woolly-mammoth
#17
Patrícia Pečnerová, David Díez-Del-Molino, Nicolas Dussex, Tatiana Feuerborn, Johanna von Seth, Johannes van der Plicht, Pavel Nikolskiy, Alexei Tikhonov, Sergey Vartanyan, Love Dalén
While present-day taxa are valuable proxies for understanding the biology of extinct species, it is also crucial to examine physical remains in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of their behavior, social structure, and life histories [1, 2]. For example, information on demographic parameters such as age distribution and sex ratios in fossil assemblages can be used to accurately infer socioecological patterns (e.g., [3]). Here we use genomic data to determine the sex of 98 woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) specimens in order to infer social and behavioral patterns in the last 60,000 years of the species' existence...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103933/optogenetic-blockade-of-dopamine-transients-prevents-learning-induced-by-changes-in-reward-features
#18
Chun Yun Chang, Matthew Gardner, Maria Gonzalez Di Tillio, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Prediction errors are critical for associative learning [1, 2]. Transient changes in dopamine neuron activity correlate with positive and negative reward prediction errors and can mimic their effects [3-15]. However, although causal studies show that dopamine transients of 1-2 s are sufficient to drive learning about reward, these studies do not address whether they are necessary (but see [11]). Further, the precise nature of this signal is not yet fully established. Although it has been equated with the cached-value error signal proposed to support model-free reinforcement learning, cached-value errors are typically confounded with errors in the prediction of reward features [16]...
October 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112874/the-origin-and-diversification-of-mitochondria
#19
REVIEW
Andrew J Roger, Sergio A Muñoz-Gómez, Ryoma Kamikawa
Mitochondria are best known for their role in the generation of ATP by aerobic respiration. Yet, research in the past half century has shown that they perform a much larger suite of functions and that these functions can vary substantially among diverse eukaryotic lineages. Despite this diversity, all mitochondria derive from a common ancestral organelle that originated from the integration of an endosymbiotic alphaproteobacterium into a host cell related to Asgard Archaea. The transition from endosymbiotic bacterium to permanent organelle entailed a massive number of evolutionary changes including the origins of hundreds of new genes and a protein import system, insertion of membrane transporters, integration of metabolism and reproduction, genome reduction, endosymbiotic gene transfer, lateral gene transfer and the retargeting of proteins...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112873/mesothelioma-identical-routes-to-malignancy-from%C3%A2-asbestos-and-carbon-nanotubes
#20
Jennifer Port, Daniel J Murphy
Exposure of laboratory mice to carbon nanotubes mimics exposure to asbestos, from initial and chronic inflammation, through loss of the same tumour-suppressor pathways and eventual sporadic development of malignant mesothelioma. Fibres of a similar nature may pose significant health risks to humans.
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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