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Current Biology: CB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918948/firing-of-replication-origins-frees-dbf4-cdc7-to-target-eco1-for-destruction
#1
Agustin I Seoane, David O Morgan
Robust progression through the cell-division cycle depends on the precisely ordered phosphorylation of hundreds of different proteins by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other kinases. The order of CDK substrate phosphorylation depends on rising CDK activity, coupled with variations in substrate affinities for different CDK-cyclin complexes and the opposing phosphatases [1-4]. Here, we address the ordering of substrate phosphorylation by a second major cell-cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 or Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK)...
September 12, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918951/collective-force-regulation-in-anti-parallel-microtubule-gliding-by-dimeric-kif15-kinesin-motors
#2
Dana N Reinemann, Emma G Sturgill, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Miriam Steiner Degen, Zsuzsanna Vörös, Wonmuk Hwang, Ryoma Ohi, Matthew J Lang
During cell division, the mitotic kinesin-5 Eg5 generates most of the force required to separate centrosomes during spindle assembly. However, Kif15, another mitotic kinesin, can replace Eg5 function, permitting mammalian cells to acquire resistance to Eg5 poisons. Unlike Eg5, the mechanism by which Kif15 generates centrosome separation forces is unknown. Here we investigated the mechanical properties and force generation capacity of Kif15 at the single-molecule level using optical tweezers. We found that the non-motor microtubule-binding tail domain interacts with the microtubule's E-hook tail with a rupture force higher than the stall force of the motor...
September 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918950/power-transfer-to-a-human-during-an-electric-eel-s-shocking-leap
#3
Kenneth C Catania
Electric eels have been the subject of investigation and curiosity for centuries [1]. They use high voltage to track [2] and control [3] prey, as well as to exhaust prey by causing involuntary fatigue through remote activation of prey muscles [4]. But their most astonishing behavior is the leaping attack, during which eels emerge from the water to directly electrify a threat [5, 6]. This unique defense has reportedly been used against both horses [7] and humans [8]. Yet the dynamics of the circuit that develops when a living animal is contacted and the electrical power transmitted to the target have not been directly investigated...
September 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918952/a-dual-function-for-prickle-in-regulating-frizzled-stability-during-feedback-dependent-amplification-of-planar-polarity
#4
Samantha J Warrington, Helen Strutt, Katherine H Fisher, David Strutt
The core planar polarity pathway coordinates epithelial cell polarity during animal development, and loss of its activity gives rise to a range of defects, from aberrant morphogenetic cell movements to failure to correctly orient structures, such as hairs and cilia. The core pathway functions via a mechanism involving segregation of its protein components to opposite cells ends, where they form asymmetric intracellular complexes that couple cell-cell polarity. This segregation is a self-organizing process driven by feedback interactions between the core proteins themselves...
September 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918949/old-growth-fishes-become-scarce-under-fishing
#5
Lewis A K Barnett, Trevor A Branch, R Anthony Ranasinghe, Timothy E Essington
Researchers have long recognized the importance of ecological differences at the species level in structuring natural communities yet until recently have often overlooked the influence of intraspecific trait variation, which can profoundly alter community dynamics [1]. Human extraction of living resources can reduce intraspecific trait variation by, for example, causing truncation of age and size structure of populations, where numbers of older individuals decline far more with exploitation than younger individuals...
September 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918947/hormonal-signaling-cascade-during-an-early-adult-critical-period-required-for-courtship-memory-retention-in-drosophila
#6
Sang Soo Lee, Yike Ding, Natalie Karapetians, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Fernando Gabriel Noriega, Michael E Adams
Formation and expression of memories are critical for context-dependent decision making. In Drosophila, a courting male rejected by a mated female subsequently courts less avidly when paired with a virgin female, a behavioral modification attributed to "courtship memory." Here we show the critical role of hormonal state for maintenance of courtship memory. Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is essential for courtship memory through regulation of juvenile hormone (JH) levels in adult males. Reduction of JH levels via silencing of ETH signaling genes impairs short-term courtship memory, a phenotype rescuable by the JH analog methoprene...
September 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918946/cooperative-behavior-emerges-among-drosophila-larvae
#7
Mark Dombrovski, Leanne Poussard, Kamilia Moalem, Lucia Kmecova, Nic Hogan, Elisabeth Schott, Andrea Vaccari, Scott Acton, Barry Condron
Spectacular examples of cooperative behavior emerge among a variety of animals and may serve critical roles in fitness [1, 2]. However, the rules governing such behavior have been difficult to elucidate [2]. Drosophila larvae are known to socially aggregate [3, 4] and use vision, mechanosensation, and gustation to recognize each other [5-8]. We describe here a model experimental system of cooperative behavior involving Drosophila larvae. While foraging in liquid food, larvae are observed to align themselves and coordinate their movements in order to drag a common air cavity and dig deeper...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918945/hof1-and-chs4-interact-via-f-bar-domain-and-sel1-like-repeats-to-control-extracellular-matrix-deposition-during-cytokinesis
#8
Younghoon Oh, Jennifer H Schreiter, Hiroki Okada, Carsten Wloka, Satoshi Okada, Di Yan, Xudong Duan, Erfei Bi
Localized extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is thought to stabilize the cleavage furrow and maintain cell shape during cytokinesis [1-14]. This remodeling is spatiotemporally coordinated with a cytoskeletal structure pertaining to a kingdom of life, for example the FtsZ ring in bacteria [15], the phragmoplast in plants [16], and the actomyosin ring in fungi and animals [17, 18]. Although the cytoskeletal structures have been analyzed extensively, the mechanisms of ECM remodeling remain poorly understood...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889980/the-adder-phenomenon-emerges-from-independent-control-of-pre-and-post-start-phases-of-the-budding-yeast-cell-cycle
#9
Devon Chandler-Brown, Kurt M Schmoller, Yonatan Winetraub, Jan M Skotheim
Although it has long been clear that cells actively regulate their size, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation have remained poorly understood. In budding yeast, cell size primarily modulates the duration of the cell-division cycle by controlling the G1/S transition known as Start. We have recently shown that the rate of progression through Start increases with cell size, because cell growth dilutes the cell-cycle inhibitor Whi5 in G1. Recent phenomenological studies in yeast and bacteria have shown that these cells add an approximately constant volume during each complete cell cycle, independent of their size at birth...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889979/visual-threat-assessment-and-reticulospinal-encoding-of-calibrated-responses-in-larval-zebrafish
#10
Kiran Bhattacharyya, David L McLean, Malcolm A MacIver
All visual animals must decide whether approaching objects are a threat. Our current understanding of this process has identified a proximity-based mechanism where an evasive maneuver is triggered when a looming stimulus passes a subtended visual angle threshold. However, some escape strategies are more costly than others, and so it would be beneficial to additionally encode the level of threat conveyed by the predator's approach rate to select the most appropriate response. Here, using naturalistic rates of looming visual stimuli while simultaneously monitoring escape behavior and the recruitment of multiple reticulospinal neurons, we find that larval zebrafish do indeed perform a calibrated assessment of threat...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889978/massive-protein-import-into-the-early-evolutionary-stage-photosynthetic-organelle-of-the-amoeba-paulinella-chromatophora
#11
Anna Singer, Gereon Poschmann, Cornelia Mühlich, Cecilio Valadez-Cano, Sebastian Hänsch, Vanessa Hüren, Stefan A Rensing, Kai Stühler, Eva C M Nowack
The endosymbiotic acquisition of mitochondria and plastids more than 1 Ga ago profoundly impacted eukaryote evolution. At the heart of understanding organelle evolution is the re-arrangement of the endosymbiont proteome into a host-controlled organellar proteome. However, early stages in this process as well as the timing of events that underlie organelle integration remain poorly understood. The amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains cyanobacterium-derived photosynthetic organelles, termed "chromatophores," that were acquired more recently (around 100 Ma ago)...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889977/novel-organelles-with-elements-of-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-secretion-systems-weaponize-parasites-of-drosophila
#12
Mary Ellen Heavner, Johnny Ramroop, Gwenaelle Gueguen, Girish Ramrattan, Georgia Dolios, Michael Scarpati, Jonathan Kwiat, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Rong Wang, Shaneen Singh, Shubha Govind
The evolutionary success of parasitoid wasps, a highly diverse group of insects widely used in biocontrol, depends on a variety of life history strategies in conflict with those of their hosts [1]. Drosophila melanogaster is a natural host of parasitic wasps of the genus Leptopilina. Attack by L. boulardi (Lb), a specialist wasp to flies of the melanogaster group, activates NF-κB-mediated humoral and cellular immunity. Inflammatory blood cells mobilize and encapsulate Lb eggs and embryos [2-5]. L. heterotoma (Lh), a generalist wasp, kills larval blood cells and actively suppresses immune responses...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889981/visual-vestibular-conflict-detection-depends-on-fixation
#13
Isabelle T Garzorz, Paul R MacNeilage
Visual and vestibular signals are the primary sources of sensory information for self-motion. Conflict among these signals can be seriously debilitating, resulting in vertigo [1], inappropriate postural responses [2], and motion, simulator, or cyber sickness [3-8]. Despite this significance, the mechanisms mediating conflict detection are poorly understood. Here we model conflict detection simply as crossmodal discrimination with benchmark performance limited by variabilities of the signals being compared. In a series of psychophysical experiments conducted in a virtual reality motion simulator, we measure these variabilities and assess conflict detection relative to this benchmark...
September 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889976/humans-but-not-deep-neural-networks-often-miss-giant-targets-in-scenes
#14
Miguel P Eckstein, Kathryn Koehler, Lauren E Welbourne, Emre Akbas
Even with great advances in machine vision, animals are still unmatched in their ability to visually search complex scenes. Animals from bees [1, 2] to birds [3] to humans [4-12] learn about the statistical relations in visual environments to guide and aid their search for targets. Here, we investigate a novel manner in which humans utilize rapidly acquired information about scenes by guiding search toward likely target sizes. We show that humans often miss targets when their size is inconsistent with the rest of the scene, even when the targets were made larger and more salient and observers fixated the target...
September 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889975/consistent-individual-differences-drive-collective-behavior-and-group-functioning-of-schooling-fish
#15
Jolle W Jolles, Neeltje J Boogert, Vivek H Sridhar, Iain D Couzin, Andrea Manica
The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior...
September 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889974/ionotropic-receptors-mediate-drosophila-oviposition-preference-through-sour-gustatory-receptor-neurons
#16
Yan Chen, Hubert Amrein
Carboxylic acids are present in many foods, being especially abundant in fruits. Yet, relatively little is known about how acids are detected by gustatory systems and whether they have a potential role in nutrition or provide other health benefits. Here we identify sour gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in tarsal taste sensilla of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that most tarsal sensilla harbor a sour GRN that is specifically activated by carboxylic and mineral acids but does not respond to sweet- and bitter-tasting chemicals or salt...
August 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889973/origin-of-the-reflectin-gene-and-hierarchical-assembly-of-its-protein
#17
Zhe Guan, Tiantian Cai, Zhongmin Liu, Yunfeng Dou, Xuesong Hu, Peng Zhang, Xin Sun, Hongwei Li, Yao Kuang, Qiran Zhai, Hao Ruan, Xuanxuan Li, Zeyang Li, Qihui Zhu, Jingeng Mai, Qining Wang, Luhua Lai, Jianguo Ji, Haiguang Liu, Bin Xia, Taijiao Jiang, Shu-Jin Luo, Hong-Wei Wang, Can Xie
Cephalopods, the group of animals including octopus, squid, and cuttlefish, have remarkable ability to instantly modulate body coloration and patterns so as to blend into surrounding environments [1, 2] or send warning signals to other animals [3]. Reflectin is expressed exclusively in cephalopods, filling the lamellae of intracellular Bragg reflectors that exhibit dynamic iridescence and structural color change [4]. Here, we trace the possible origin of the reflectin gene back to a transposon from the symbiotic bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and report the hierarchical structural architecture of reflectin protein...
August 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867208/inter-adipocyte-adhesion-and-signaling-by-collagen-iv-intercellular-concentrations-in-drosophila
#18
Jianli Dai, Mengqi Ma, Zhi Feng, José C Pastor-Pareja
Sheet-forming Collagen IV is the main component of basement membranes, which are planar polymers of extracellular matrix underlying epithelia and surrounding organs in all animals. Adipocytes in both insects and mammals are mesodermal in origin and often classified as mesenchymal. However, they form true tissues where cells remain compactly associated. Neither the mechanisms providing this tissue-level organization nor its functional significance are known. Here we show that discrete Collagen IV intercellular concentrations (CIVICs), distinct from basement membranes and thicker in section, mediate inter-adipocyte adhesion in Drosophila...
August 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898670/shoot-root-communication-in-flowering-plants
#19
REVIEW
Donghwi Ko, Ykä Helariutta
As sessile organisms, terrestrial plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to coordinate the growth and development of two distinct systems, the shoot and the root, in response to environmental fluctuations. Adaptive systemic responses are accomplished by shoot-root communication, which involves diverse long-distance signalling molecules. During the last few decades, various genetic, biochemical, molecular, and grafting studies have identified multiple long-distance signalling molecules which are crucial for plants to adapt to external changes...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898669/molecular-mechanisms-of-root-gravitropism
#20
REVIEW
Shih-Heng Su, Nicole M Gibbs, Amy L Jancewicz, Patrick H Masson
Plant shoots typically grow against the gravity vector to access light, whereas roots grow downward into the soil to take up water and nutrients. These gravitropic responses can be altered by developmental and environmental cues. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that govern the gravitropism of angiosperm roots, where a physical separation between sites for gravity sensing and curvature response has facilitated discovery. Gravity sensing takes place in the columella cells of the root cap, where sedimentation of starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) triggers a pathway that results in a relocalization to the lower side of the cell of PIN proteins, which facilitate efflux of the plant hormone auxin efflux...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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