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Current Biology: CB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416118/a-magnetic-map-leads-juvenile-european-eels-to-the-gulf-stream
#1
Lewis C Naisbett-Jones, Nathan F Putman, Jessica F Stephenson, Sam Ladak, Kyle A Young
Migration allows animals to track the environmental conditions that maximize growth, survival, and reproduction [1-3]. Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying migrations allows for improved management of species and ecosystems [1-4]. For centuries, the catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla) has provided one of Europe's most important fisheries and has sparked considerable scientific inquiry, most recently owing to the dramatic collapse of juvenile recruitment [5]. Larval eels are transported by ocean currents associated with the Gulf Stream System from Sargasso Sea breeding grounds to coastal and freshwater habitats from North Africa to Scandinavia [6, 7]...
April 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416116/activation-of-a-plant-nlr-complex-through-heteromeric-association-with-an-autoimmune-risk-variant-of-another-nlr
#2
Diep T N Tran, Eui-Hwan Chung, Anette Habring-Müller, Monika Demar, Rebecca Schwab, Jeffery L Dangl, Detlef Weigel, Eunyoung Chae
When independently evolved immune receptor variants meet in hybrid plants, they can activate immune signaling in the absence of non-self recognition. Such autoimmune risk alleles have recurrently evolved at the DANGEROUS MIX2 (DM2) nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-encoding locus in A. thaliana. One of these activates signaling in the presence of a particular variant encoded at another NLR locus, DM1. We show that the risk variants of DM1 and DM2d NLRs signal through the same pathway that is activated when plant NLRs recognize non-self elicitors...
April 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416117/rapid-spatial-learning-controls-instinctive-defensive-behavior-in-mice
#3
Ruben Vale, Dominic A Evans, Tiago Branco
Instinctive defensive behaviors are essential for animal survival. Across the animal kingdom, there are sensory stimuli that innately represent threat and trigger stereotyped behaviors such as escape or freezing [1-4]. While innate behaviors are considered to be hard-wired stimulus-responses [5], they act within dynamic environments, and factors such as the properties of the threat [6-9] and its perceived intensity [1, 10, 11], access to food sources [12-14], and expectations from past experience [15, 16] have been shown to influence defensive behaviors, suggesting that their expression can be modulated...
April 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416119/the-head-direction-signal-plays-a-functional-role-as-a-neural-compass-during-navigation
#4
William N Butler, Kyle S Smith, Matthijs A A van der Meer, Jeffrey S Taube
The rat limbic system contains head direction (HD) cells that fire according to heading in the horizontal plane, and these cells are thought to provide animals with an internal compass. Previous work has found that HD cell tuning correlates with behavior on navigational tasks, but a direct, causal link between HD cells and navigation has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that pathway-specific optogenetic inhibition of the nucleus prepositus caused HD cells to become directionally unstable under dark conditions without affecting the animals' locomotion...
April 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416115/in%C3%A2-vivo-measurement-of-glycine-receptor-turnover-and-synaptic-size-reveals-differences-between-functional-classes-of-motoneurons-in-zebrafish
#5
Dawnis M Chow, Kathryn A Zuchowski, Joseph R Fetcho
The interplay between binding and unbinding of synaptic receptor proteins at synapses plays an important role in determining receptor concentration and synaptic strength, with known links between changes in binding kinetics and synaptic plasticity. The regulation of such kinetics may subserve the specific functional requirements of neurons in intact circuits. However, the majority of studies of synaptic turnover kinetics have been performed in cultured neurons outside the context of normal circuits, and synaptic receptor turnover has not been measured at individual synaptic sites in vivo...
April 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416114/invariance-of-initiation-mass-and-predictability-of-cell-size-in-escherichia-coli
#6
Fangwei Si, Dongyang Li, Sarah E Cox, John T Sauls, Omid Azizi, Cindy Sou, Amy B Schwartz, Michael J Erickstad, Yonggun Jun, Xintian Li, Suckjoon Jun
It is generally assumed that the allocation and synthesis of total cellular resources in microorganisms are uniquely determined by the growth conditions. Adaptation to a new physiological state leads to a change in cell size via reallocation of cellular resources. However, it has not been understood how cell size is coordinated with biosynthesis and robustly adapts to physiological states. We show that cell size in Escherichia coli can be predicted for any steady-state condition by projecting all biosynthesis into three measurable variables representing replication initiation, replication-division cycle, and the global biosynthesis rate...
April 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392109/compartmentalization-of-dna-damage-response-between-heterochromatin-and-euchromatin-is-mediated-by-distinct-h2a-histone-variants
#7
Zdravko J Lorković, Chulmin Park, Malgorzata Goiser, Danhua Jiang, Marie-Therese Kurzbauer, Peter Schlögelhofer, Frédéric Berger
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair depends on the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase that phosphorylates the conserved C-terminal SQ motif present in the histone variant H2A.X [1-7]. In constitutive heterochromatin of mammals, DSB repair is delayed and relies on phosphorylation of the proteins HP1 and KAP1 by ATM [2, 8-14]. However, KAP1 is not conserved in plants and the HP1-related protein Like-HP1 (LHP1) is not localized at constitutive heterochromatin [15], suggesting that in plants, alternative mechanisms could be responsible for repair of DSBs in heterochromatin...
April 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392111/voice-sensitive-regions-in-the-dog-and-human-brain-are-revealed-by-comparative-fmri
#8
Attila Andics, Márta Gácsi, Tamás Faragó, Anna Kis, Ádám Miklósi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392110/a-transcriptional-program-for-arbuscule-degeneration-during-am-symbiosis-is-regulated-by-myb1
#9
Daniela S Floss, S Karen Gomez, Hee-Jin Park, Allyson M MacLean, Lena M Müller, Kishor K Bhattarai, Veronique Lévesque-Tremblay, Ignacio E Maldonado-Mendoza, Maria J Harrison
During the endosymbiosis formed between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, the root cortical cells are colonized by branched hyphae called arbuscules, which function in nutrient exchange with the plant [1]. Despite their positive function, arbuscules are ephemeral structures, and their development is followed by a degeneration phase, in which the arbuscule and surrounding periarbuscular membrane and matrix gradually disappear from the root cell [2, 3]. Currently, the root cell's role in this process and the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unknown...
April 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416113/early-evolution-of-specialized-termitophily-in-cretaceous-rove-beetles
#10
Chenyang Cai, Diying Huang, Alfred F Newton, K Taro Eldredge, Michael S Engel
Termitophiles, symbionts that live in termite nests, include a wide range of morphologically and behaviorally specialized organisms. Complex adaptive mechanisms permit these animals to integrate into societies and to exploit their controlled physical conditions and plentiful resources, as well as to garner protection inside termite nests. An understanding of the early evolution of termitophily is challenging owing to a scarcity of fossil termitophiles, with all known reliable records occurring from the Miocene (approximately 19 million years ago [mya]) [1-6], and an equivocal termitophile belonging to the largely free-living Mesoporini from the mid-Cretaceous [7]...
March 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392112/a-descending-neuron-correlated-with-the-rapid-steering-maneuvers-of-flying-drosophila
#11
Bettina Schnell, Ivo G Ros, Michael H Dickinson
To navigate through the world, animals must stabilize their path against disturbances and change direction to avoid obstacles and to search for resources [1, 2]. Locomotion is thus guided by sensory cues but also depends on intrinsic processes, such as motivation and physiological state. Flies, for example, turn with the direction of large-field rotatory motion, an optomotor reflex that is thought to help them fly straight [3-5]. Occasionally, however, they execute fast turns, called body saccades, either spontaneously or in response to patterns of visual motion such as expansion [6-8]...
March 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392108/anterior-posterior-gradient-in-neural-stem-and-daughter-cell-proliferation-governed-by-spatial-and-temporal-hox-control
#12
Ignacio Monedero Cobeta, Behzad Yaghmaeian Salmani, Stefan Thor
A readily evident feature of animal central nervous systems (CNSs), apparent in all vertebrates and many invertebrates alike, is its "wedge-like" appearance, with more cells generated in anterior than posterior regions. This wedge could conceivably be established by an antero-posterior (A-P) gradient in the number of neural progenitor cells, their proliferation behaviors, and/or programmed cell death (PCD). However, the contribution of each of these mechanisms, and the underlying genetic programs, are not well understood...
March 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392107/strigolactone-and-karrikin-independent-smxl-proteins-are-central-regulators-of-phloem-formation
#13
Eva-Sophie Wallner, Vadir López-Salmerón, Ilya Belevich, Gernot Poschet, Ilona Jung, Karin Grünwald, Iris Sevilem, Eija Jokitalo, Rüdiger Hell, Yrjö Helariutta, Javier Agustí, Ivan Lebovka, Thomas Greb
Plant stem cell niches, the meristems, require long-distance transport of energy metabolites and signaling molecules along the phloem tissue. However, currently it is unclear how specification of phloem cells is controlled. Here we show that the genes SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1-LIKE3 (SMXL3), SMXL4, and SMXL5 act as cell-autonomous key regulators of phloem formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The three genes form an uncharacterized subclade of the SMXL gene family that mediates hormonal strigolactone and karrikin signaling...
March 28, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366744/fission-yeast-apc15-stabilizes-mcc-cdc20-apc-c-complexes-ensuring-efficient-cdc20-ubiquitination-and-checkpoint-arrest
#14
Karen M May, Flora Paldi, Kevin G Hardwick
During mitosis, cells must segregate the replicated copies of their genome to their daughter cells with extremely high fidelity. Segregation errors lead to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy), which typically results in disease or cell death [1]. Chromosome segregation and anaphase onset are initiated through the action of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C [2]). The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint in the presence of kinetochore attachment defects [3, 4]...
March 28, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366743/different-functionality-of-cdc20-binding-sites-within-the-mitotic-checkpoint-complex
#15
Katharina Sewart, Silke Hauf
The mitotic checkpoint is a cellular safeguard that prevents chromosome missegregation in eukaryotic cells [1, 2]. Suboptimal functioning may foster chromosome missegregation in cancer cells [3]. Checkpoint signaling produces the "mitotic checkpoint complex" (MCC), which prevents anaphase by targeting Cdc20, the activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Recent biochemical and structural studies revealed that the human MCC binds two Cdc20 molecules, one (Cdc20(M)) through well-characterized, cooperative binding to Mad2 and Mad3/BubR1 (forming the "core MCC") and the other one (Cdc20(A)) through additional binding sequences in Mad3/BubR1 [4-6]...
March 28, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366742/heuristic-rules-underlying-dragonfly-prey-selection-and-interception
#16
Huai-Ti Lin, Anthony Leonardo
Animals use rules to initiate behaviors. Such rules are often described as triggers that determine when behavior begins. However, although less explored, these selection rules are also an opportunity to establish sensorimotor constraints that influence how the behavior ends. These constraints may be particularly significant in influencing success in prey capture. Here we explore this in dragonfly prey interception. We found that in the moments leading up to takeoff, perched dragonflies employ a series of sensorimotor rules that determine the time of takeoff and increase the probability of successful capture...
March 28, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366745/non-overlapping-neural-networks-in-hydra-vulgaris
#17
Christophe Dupre, Rafael Yuste
To understand the emergent properties of neural circuits, it would be ideal to record the activity of every neuron in a behaving animal and decode how it relates to behavior. We have achieved this with the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris, using calcium imaging of genetically engineered animals to measure the activity of essentially all of its neurons. Although the nervous system of Hydra is traditionally described as a simple nerve net, we surprisingly find instead a series of functional networks that are anatomically non-overlapping and are associated with specific behaviors...
March 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366741/reduced-lateral-inhibition-impairs-olfactory-computations-and-behaviors-in-a-drosophila-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#18
Luis M Franco, Zeynep Okray, Gerit A Linneweber, Bassem A Hassan, Emre Yaksi
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients present neuronal alterations that lead to severe intellectual disability, but the underlying neuronal circuit mechanisms are poorly understood. An emerging hypothesis postulates that reduced GABAergic inhibition of excitatory neurons is a key component in the pathophysiology of FXS. Here, we directly test this idea in a FXS Drosophila model. We show that FXS flies exhibit strongly impaired olfactory behaviors. In line with this, olfactory representations are less odor specific due to broader response tuning of excitatory projection neurons...
March 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366740/visual-input-to-the-drosophila-central-complex-by-developmentally-and-functionally-distinct-neuronal-populations
#19
Jaison Jiro Omoto, Mehmet Fatih Keleş, Bao-Chau Minh Nguyen, Cheyenne Bolanos, Jennifer Kelly Lovick, Mark Arthur Frye, Volker Hartenstein
The Drosophila central brain consists of stereotyped neural lineages, developmental-structural units of macrocircuitry formed by the sibling neurons of single progenitors called neuroblasts. We demonstrate that the lineage principle guides the connectivity and function of neurons, providing input to the central complex, a collection of neuropil compartments important for visually guided behaviors. One of these compartments is the ellipsoid body (EB), a structure formed largely by the axons of ring (R) neurons, all of which are generated by a single lineage, DALv2...
March 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343968/met-2-dependent-h3k9-methylation-suppresses-transgenerational-small-rna-inheritance
#20
Itamar Lev, Uri Seroussi, Hila Gingold, Roberta Bril, Sarit Anava, Oded Rechavi
In C. elegans, alterations to chromatin produce transgenerational effects, such as inherited increase in lifespan and gradual loss of fertility. Inheritance of histone modifications can be induced by double-stranded RNA-derived heritable small RNAs. Here, we show that the mortal germline phenotype, which is typical of met-2 mutants, defective in H3K9 methylation, depends on HRDE-1, an argonaute that carries small RNAs across generations, and is accompanied by accumulated transgenerational misexpression of heritable small RNAs...
March 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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