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International Journal of Environmental Health Research

Shima Shamkhali Chenar, Zhiqiang Deng
Norovirus is the most common cause of outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in human. While the winter seasonality of norovirus outbreaks has been widely reported, the association between norovirus outbreak epidemics and environmental factors remains not fully understood. This literature review is intended to improve understanding of environmental factors governing norovirus outbreaks and how the factors affect norovirus transmission. To that end, a large number of studies (67) from countries around the world were critically reviewed and discussed...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Ilias G Kavouras, Marie-Cecile G Chalbot
In this study, we present the associations of fine particle nitrate, sulfate, and four organic carbon fractions with ambient temperature in urban and background monitoring sites in the United States for the 2011-2012 period. Nitrate concentrations increased for decreasing temperatures, while sulfate levels increased for temperatures higher than 14 °C. The profiles of organic carbon fractions for different temperatures were comparable to that observed for elemental carbon, a thermally stable and non-reactive component emitted from combustion-related sources...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Nataša Milošević, Vladimir Jakšić, Jan Sudji, Bojan Vuković, Tijana Ičin, Nataša Milić, Milica Medić Stojanoska
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant which is often associated with various health issues. In this study 103 healthy female volunteers in reproductive age from Serbian north province Vojvodina were enrolled and examined for the BPA exposure in the urine samples after 12 h of fasting. BPA was found in 35.92 % (37/103) of subjects. Statistically significant increment in waist circumference (p = 0.045) and waist-to-height ratio (p = 0.037) was observed among the BPA positive women in comparison with the women who had the same energetic balance and had not been exposed to BPA...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Steffi Rocchi, Maxime Tisserant, Benoit Valot, Audrey Laboissière, Victor Frossard, Gabriel Reboux
Since 2010, the Loue River (Franche-Comté, East of France) has been suffering from massive fish kills infested by Saprolegnia parasitica. The river supplies inhabitants of the city of Besançon in drinking water, raising the question of a potential risk through both water consumption and use. We developed a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify S. parasitica in the Loue River as well as in the drinking water. A weak spatial trend is suggested with greater quantities of S. parasitica observed at the sampling station close to the main pumping station...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Itai Kloog
BACKGROUND: Current evidence, on the association of PM2.5 and peripheral artery disease (PAD) is very sparse. METHODS: We use novel PM2.5 prediction models to investigate associations between chronic and acute PM2.5 exposures and hospital PAD admissions across the northeast USA. Poisson regression analysis was preformed where daily admission counts in each zip code are regressed against both chronic and acute PM2.5 exposure, temperature, socio-economic characteristics and time to control for seasonal patterns...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Ina L Sonego, Hans-Joachim Mosler
A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Fiona Zakaria, Bertin Harelimana, Josip Ćurko, Jack van de Vossenberg, Hector A Garcia, Christine Maria Hooijmans, Damir Brdjanovic
Ultraviolet germicidal (short wavelength UV-C) light was studied as surface disinfectant in an Emergency Sanitation Operation System(®) smart toilet to aid to the work of manual cleaning. The UV-C light was installed and regulated as a self-cleaning feature of the toilet, which automatically irradiate after each toilet use. Two experimental phases were conducted i.e. preparatory phase consists of tests under laboratory conditions and field testing phase. The laboratory UV test indicated that irradiation for 10 min with medium-low intensity of 0...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Iris Corbasson, Susan E Hankinson, Edward J Stanek, Katherine W Reeves
BACKGROUND: Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates is highly prevalent. Prior studies have not assessed associations between urinary levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites and body composition. METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2006 on adults aged ≥20 were analyzed by linear regression for associations between urinary BPA, monoethyl phthalate, monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and lean mass, fat mass, and percent body fat...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
C Scott Findlay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Carla Zangari de Souza, Katyelle Rafael, Ana Paula Sanders, Bruna Tiaki Tiyo, Ariella Andrade Marchioro, Cristiane Maria Colli, Mônica Lúcia Gomes, Ana Lúcia Falavigna-Guilherme
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are an important form of contamination with a high dispersion in the environment, but their detection is still a challenge. This study evaluated the recovery of oocysts from strawberries and crisphead lettuce. Samples (250 g of strawberries or one head of lettuce) were experimentally inoculated with 10, 10(2), 10(3) and 10(4) T. gondii oocysts, by two separate processes, spot dripping and immersion. Then, 50 g of each sample was washed, filtered through a cellulose ester membrane, and concentrated by centrifugation...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Emeline Scherer, Benoit Valot, Mallory Vacheyrou, Alexandre Naegele, Jenny Knapp, Steffi Rocchi, Sandrine Roussel, Laurence Millon, Gabriel Reboux
Contradictory results are found in the literature concerning fungi, bacteria, and pet exposure and the risk of developing asthma. All these allergens have been thoroughly studied separately in cohort studies, and a variety of sampling and analytical methods are used. It is already possible to characterize fungi, mites, and bacteria by QPCR. The aim of our study is to evaluate QPCR systems to quantify the presence of cats and dogs in homes. Twenty-four houses were sampled with an Electrostatic Dust Collector which was analyzed by QPCR...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Joseane Balan Da Silva, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Camila Piva, Greicy Brisa Malaquias Dias, Jancarlo Gomes Ferreira, Diogo Francisco Rossoni, Lúcio Tadeu Mota, Max Jean Ornelas Toledo
The spatial distribution of enteroparasitosis in an indigenous village from Paraná was evaluated to identify areas of risk for these infections. A cross-sectional study (from November 2010 to June 2011) was performed using Three Faecal Test(®) and Kato & Katz method and a questionnaire on housing and hygiene conditions was administered. Local geostatistical analyses were performed to determine the spatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections. The overall prevalence of enteroparasites was 67.2 % (457/680), and the most prevalent taxa were Ascaris lumbricoides (48...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Rosemarie M Bowler, Shane W Adams, Chris W Wright, Yangho Kim, Andrew Booty, Michelle Colledge, Vihra V Gocheva, Danelle T Lobdell
This report describes the use of medications as a proxy when medical record reviews are unavailable, to study the health effects of residents environmentally exposed to air-manganese (n = 185) compared to unexposed residents (n = 90). Participants' current medication lists and medication questionnaire responses were collected in clinical interviews and categorized into 13 domains. Exposed participants reported fewer hours of sleep than controls (6.6 vs. 7.0). The exposed used significantly more medications than unexposed participants (82...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Laura Benneyworth, Jonathan Gilligan, John C Ayers, Steven Goodbred, Gregory George, Amanda Carrico, Md Rezaul Karim, Farjana Akter, David Fry, Katherine Donato, Bhumika Piya
National drinking water assessments for Bangladesh do not reflect local variability, or temporal differences. This paper reports on the findings of an interdisciplinary investigation of drinking water insecurity in a rural coastal south-western Bangladesh. Drinking water quality is assessed by comparison of locally measured concentrations to national levels and water quality criteria; resident's access to potable water and their perceptions are based on local social surveys. Residents in the study area use groundwater far less than the national average; salinity and local rainwater scarcity necessitates the use of multiple water sources throughout the year...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
S M Melody, E Bennett, H D Clifford, F H Johnston, C C J Shepherd, Z Alach, M Lester, L J Wood, P Franklin, G R Zosky
INTRODUCTION: The Australian Aboriginal population experiences significantly poorer health than the non-Aboriginal population. The contribution of environmental risk factors in remote communities to this health disparity is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe and quantify major environmental risk factors and associated health outcomes in remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. METHODS: The association between environmental health indicators, community infrastructure and reported health outcomes was analysed using linear and logistic regression of survey data...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Michael Hendryx, Jennifer Entwhistle, Emily Kenny, Peter Illyn
We conducted an in-person survey in neighborhoods in south Chicago to examine whether residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles was associated with poorer health status and illness symptoms. A total of 223 adults (≥18) completed the surveys in English or Spanish, including 136 from a neighborhood exposed to the petroleum coke and 87 from a nearby comparison neighborhood. Exposure was defined based on prevailing winds and distance. We conducted a propensity score regression analysis, and found that residents in the exposed neighborhood were significantly more likely to report poor self-rated health, more unhealthy physical and mental health days, more illness symptoms including in particular respiratory and neurological symptoms, and worse perceived environmental conditions...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Ian Harold Wilson, Simon Barton Wilson
The National Health and Medical Research Council recently reported that there were not enough high-quality studies to conclude that associations between health effects and blood lead levels <10 μg/dL were caused by lead. It identified uncontrolled confounding, measurement error and other potential causal factors as common weaknesses. This paper supports those findings with evidence of uncontrolled confounding by parental education, intelligence or household management from several papers. It suggests that inappropriate statistical tests and aggregation of data representing different exposure routes partly explain why confounding has been overlooked...
October 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Puja Vijay Parikh, Yudan Wei
Environmental chemical exposure could be an important etiologic factor for geographic differences in breast cancer incidence. In this study, we examined emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PM2.5 in relation to breast cancer incidence in metro Atlanta and rural Georgia by analyzing data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program and the Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that metro Atlanta had a significantly higher age-adjusted annual incidence rate of female breast cancer than rural Georgia (132...
August 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Marisela Y Soto-Padilla, Pablo Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Luis A Cira-Chávez, Anthony Levasseur, Luc Dendooven, María Isabel Estrada-Alvarado
The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Kocuria sp. (HJ014) has the ability to produce extracellular amylase. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize this protein. The amylase enzyme with a specific activity of 753,502 U/mg was purified 5.7- fold using Sepharose 4B and Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 45,000 Da as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The amylase showed maximum activity at pH 9 and 50°C in the presence of 3...
August 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
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