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International Journal of Environmental Health Research

Tanmoy Basak, Arindom Chakraborty, Kashinath Bhattacharya
An attempt has been made to detect airborne pollen of Lagerstroemia speciosa (LS) and Spathodea campanulata (SC) - two common avenue trees of India as potential sources of aeroallergens and also to identify the major IgE-reactive components present in them. The airborne pollen concentration was assessed using a Burkard sampler. A detailed questionnaire on clinical data of 1490 patients was recorded based on hospital data. We assessed the allergenicity of pollen by in vivo and in vitro tests. The correlation among meteorological factors, pollen seasons and allergenic potency of patients was assessed by multiple regression analysis...
November 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Kavita Singh, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Djordje Vladisavljevic, Annie St-Amand, Hing Man Chan
This study describes blood plasma concentrations of PCBs and p,p'-DDE in the Canadian population aged 20-79 years. PCBs and p,p'-DDE were measured in 1668 participants in the Canadian Health Measures Survey, Cycle 1 (2007-2009). We investigated how concentrations vary by sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables, identified factors associated with exposures, and evaluated concentrations against health-based guidance values. Congeners of PCB most commonly detected were PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Tonny Ssekamatte, John Bosco Isunju, Bonny Enock Balugaba, Doreen Nakirya, Jimmy Osuret, Patience Mguni, Richard Mugambe, Bas van Vliet
Although classified by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) as unimproved sanitation facilities, public toilets still play a critical role in eliminating open defecation in informal settlements. We explored perspectives of toilet operators on opportunities and barriers to operation and maintenance (O&M) of public toilets in informal settlements. A cross-sectional study design was used. Up to 20 in-depth interviews were used to obtain data on the experiences of public toilet operators. Thematic content analysis was used...
November 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Ian Young, Abhinand Thaivalappil, Lisa Waddell, Richard Meldrum, Judy Greig
Various psychosocial and organizational factors have been investigated as determinants of food handlers' food safety behaviours. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in this area was conducted to identify and synthesize the key behavioural determinants. Standard systematic review steps were followed: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening; article characterization; risk of bias assessment; data extraction; and random-effects meta-analysis. Sixty-two relevant studies were identified, and knowledge was the most commonly investigated behavioural determinant (n = 51)...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
James B Tidwell, Jenala Chipungu, Roma Chilengi, Valerie Curtis, Robert Aunger
Rapid, unplanned urbanization in low-income countries is leading to increasing problems of dealing with human waste. On-site sanitation systems are often rudimentary, unhygienic, and poorly maintained. In-depth, on-site interactive interviews were conducted with 33 landlords and 33 tenants in a neighborhood in peri-urban Lusaka to understand on-site, shared sanitation quality improvement behaviors and preferences. Respondents were asked about housing characteristics, toilet histories, and financial decision-making...
November 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Wonhwa Lee, Jong-Sup Bae
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is associated with elevated pulmonary injury caused by the loss of vascular barrier integrity. A traditional herbal prescription, Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), has long been used in Oriental medicine as a tonic for age-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of KOK on PM-induced lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption and pulmonary inflammation. Permeability, leukocyte migration, activation of proinflammatory proteins, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and histology were examined in PM2...
November 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga, Agnieszka Wachsmann, Marta Olszewska, Lukasz Partyka
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important component of tobacco smoke, but also environmental toxicity. This study analyzed possible correlation between exhaled CO level and oral health indicators in two geographically distributed populations during health-promoting public events organized for local communities in cities with high and low environmental pollution in Poland (907 patients). Self-reported, instructor-led, oral health questionnaire was developed to monitor current and previous mucosal lesion incidence...
October 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Attila János Trájer, Georgina Nagy, Endre Domokos
Ozone is a significant causative agent of mortality in cities. Urban environments are expressly vulnerable to global warming because of the extensive emission of air pollutants with urban heat island effect enhancing much rapidly the ozone concentration than in the less urbanized regions. This effect previously was not studied in local scale. It was hypothesized that climate change will cause heterogenic increase of ozone concentration in the different parts of the cities. To study this effect, the near-surface ozone concentration of 10 points of a Hungarian city was measured and modeled...
October 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Judie Magura, Roshila Moodley, Sreekantha Babu Jonnalagadda
Sargassum elegans Suhr 1840 (Phaeophyta) is a brown marine macro alga, which is used both nutritionally and medicinally in the coastal areas of Southern Africa. Consequently, we conducted a phytochemical and analytical investigation on samples of this species collected from seven sites along the coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Sargassum elegans was found to be rich in β-sitosterol, fucosterol and phaeophytin a as confirmed by spectroscopic techniques. Concentrations of essential and toxic elements varied significantly with location and were in the order of Ca > Mg> Fe > As > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Pb > Co > Se > Cr > Cd...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Hatice Simsek, Hur Hassoy, Dilek Oztoprak, Tuba Yilmaz
The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the mobile phone use, risk perception and related factors among the medical students. The study population was 1465 medical students. The dependent variable was the risk perception on mobile phones. The risk perception was assessed in three dimensions: decreased attention, physical risks and social risks. The exploratory factor analysis was used for the success of the scale, and the factor loadings were calculated using the varimax rotation method. Logistic Regression Analysis was applied to determine the factors associated with risk perception...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Kabila Abass, Alfred Foster Senior Owusu, Razak M Gyasi
The paper examines the hygiene practices and health risk perception of vegetable sellers in urban Ghana. Based on a qualitative in-depth study of vegetable sellers drawn from five purposively sampled markets in Kumasi Metropolis, the study found that the vegetable sellers have generally low risk perception. Consequently, the vegetable handling practices by these market women remain largely unsafe presenting potential health risks to consumers. Regular monitoring by relevant agencies and sustained public education are therefore key for reducing market contamination which is critical for maintaining a healthy population...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Sıddıka Songül Yalçın, Merve Çiçek Fırat, Emre Tosun, Suzan Yalçın
We aimed to assess element status in whole blood and tooth dentin and identify their correlations in overweight or obese children without additional metabolic risk factors. In a case-control study, 40 overweight and 80 normal weight children aged 6-10 years were enrolled. Samples of blood and tooth were collected. While all studied elements were similar in groups in univariate analysis, after adjustment for confounding factors, tooth Mn levels were lower and blood Zn levels were higher in the overweight/obese group (p = 0...
October 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Daniel Miroslaw Grochowski, Sengül Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Michał Tomczyk
The genus Rubus (Rosaceae) has great potential for and a history of use as natural agents in several traditional folk remedies. Based on this concept, this study focused on the antioxidant activities and enzyme inhibitory effects of extracts and fractions from Rubus caesius. Different chemical assays were performed to detect antioxidant capacity, namely, free radical scavenging (ABTS and DPPH assays), reducing power (CUPRAC and FRAP), phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating. Enzyme inhibitory effects were tested towards cholinesterases (AChE and BChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Kan Wang, Fei-Er Chen, William Au, Zhuohui Zhao, Zhao-Lin Xia
Existing particulate matter (PM) monitors have too low spatiotemporal resolution to properly characterize individual exposure doses. In order to support health impact assessment, it is essential to develop a better method to assess individual exposure by taking account of varied environments in which people spend their time. Compact light-scattering PM monitors can potentially fill this need. This study was conducted to evaluate feasibility of a low-cost PM monitor (Plantower PMS 7003) in indoor and roadside outdoor microenvironments compared to research-grade instruments in Shanghai, China...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Sarita Vijay Panchang
Sanitation uptake is a pressing challenge, especially in India, and sanitation demand in urban informal settlements and slums has been understudied relative to rural areas. Given the spatial and socioeconomic disadvantage of these settings, research suggests that the built environment may relate to sanitation demand, but this has not been tested. This study utilizes data on a large urban informal settlement in Maharashtra, India, examining built environment predictors including housing security, water access, and proximity to existing common sanitation, in association with sanitation demand...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Guijie Luan, Peng Yin, Lijun Wang, Maigeng Zhou
Limited evidence on the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributable to ambient temperature. We aim to explore the association between ambient temperature and years of life lost (YLL), and to get a more intuitive understanding of the dangers of COPD in China. Death and meteorological data of 31 Chinese provincial capital cities during 2008-2013 was analyzed in this study. Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM) was used to estimate the association between ambient temperature and mortality...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Luis Gustavo de Paiva Nunes, Maysa do Vale Oliveira, Anelise Andrade de Souza, Lohanna de Faria Lopes, Pollyanna Castro E Silva Dias, Guilherme Bicalho Nogueira, Marco Antônio Andrade de Souza
Water is an essential good for human life. This study aimed to verify the effects of household reservoirs on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water in the municipality of São Mateus, Brazil, founded on 21 September 1544. Samples were collected in 83 residences, two samples per residence, one from the supply network and another from the household reservoir, making a total of 166 samples. The pH values, the free residual chlorine content and the turbidity values were determined. For the microbiological analysis, the defined substrate technology was used, allowing the simultaneous detection and identification of total coliforms and Escherichia coli...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Elfatih Abuelhia
The isotopes of radium, uranium, polonium, lead, and short-lived radon are the common radionuclides found in drinking water. The abnormal amount of radon in drinking water causes health risks. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the level of radon concentrations and its annual effective dose from bottled water brands and tap drinking water. A total of 77 samples of drinking water sources; 47 bottled water brands and 27 tap water samples including 3 samples from water storage tank supplier were collected and examined...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Hoehun Ha
This research explores geographic variability of factors on social inequality related to mental health in the United States using county-level data in 2014. First, we account for complex design factors in Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data such as clustering, stratification, and sample weight using Complex Samples General Linear Model (CSGLM). Then, three variables are used in the model as indicators of social inequality, low socioeconomic status (SES): unemployment, education status, and social association status...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Jasna Hrenovic, Tomislav Ivankovic, Goran Durn, Svjetlana Dekic, Snjezana Kazazic, Ivica Kisic
The carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) are currently at the top of the WHO priority list of bacteria that pose the greatest threat to human health. Considering that soil is one of the important environments for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we isolated and quantified cultivable CRB in soils across Croatia, including ones affected by illegal dumps. We cultivated CRB at two temperatures, distinguishing between the intrinsically resistant CRB (37°C, mostly Stenotrophomonas spp.) and the ones that are presumably human-associated and clinically relevant (42°C, Acinetobacter sp...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
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