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Plant Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909970/over-expression-of-mir158-causes-pollen-abortion-in-brassica-campestris-ssp-chinensis
#1
Zhiming Ma, Jianxia Jiang, Ziwei Hu, Tianqi Lyu, Yang Yang, Jingjing Jiang, Jiashu Cao
We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression...
December 1, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900506/arabidopsis-thaliana-methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-b8-influences-stress-induced-cell-death-and-effector-triggered-immunity
#2
Shweta Roy, Ashis Kumar Nandi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidize methionine to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) and thereby inactivate proteins. Methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) enzyme converts MetSO back to the reduced form and thereby detoxifies the effect of ROS. Our results show that Arabidopsis thaliana MSR enzyme coding gene MSRB8 is required for effector-triggered immunity and containment of stress-induced cell death in Arabidopsis. Plants activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), a basal defense, upon recognition of evolutionary conserved molecular patterns present in the pathogens...
November 29, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878661/phosphate-starvation-induced-osphr4-mediates-pi-signaling-and-homeostasis-in-rice
#3
Wenyuan Ruan, Meina Guo, Ping Wu, Keke Yi
OsPHR4 mediates the regulation of Pi-starvation signaling and Pi-homeostasis in a PHR1-subfamily dependent manner in rice. Phosphate (Pi) starvation response is a sophisticated process for plant in the natural environment. In this process, PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1 (PHR1) subfamily genes play a central role in regulating Pi-starvation signaling and Pi-homeostasis. Besides the three PHR1 orthologs in Oryza sativa L. (Os) [(Os) PHR1, (Os) PHR2, and (Os) PHR3], which were reported to regulated Pi-starvation signaling and Pi-homeostasis redundantly, a close related PHR1 ortholog [designated as (Os) PHR4] is presented in rice genome with unknown function...
November 23, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866313/two-myb-related-transcription-factors-play-opposite-roles-in-sugar-signaling-in-arabidopsis
#4
Yi-Shih Chen, Yi-Chi Chao, Tzu-Wei Tseng, Chun-Kai Huang, Pei-Ching Lo, Chung-An Lu
Sugar regulation of gene expression has profound effects at all stages of the plant life cycle. Although regulation at the transcriptional level is one of the most prominent mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated, only a few transcription factors have been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of sugar-regulated gene expression. OsMYBS1, an R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase gene expression in rice...
November 19, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866312/transgenic-citrus-expressing-synthesized-cecropin-b-genes-in-the-phloem-exhibits-decreased-susceptibility-to-huanglongbing
#5
Xiuping Zou, Xueyou Jiang, Lanzhen Xu, Tiangang Lei, Aihong Peng, Yongrui He, Lixiao Yao, Shanchun Chen
Expression of synthesized cecropin B genes in the citrus phloem, where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus resides, significantly decreased host susceptibility to Huanglongbing. Huanglongbing (HLB), associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus bacteria, is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. All of the commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to this disease. The cationic lytic peptide cecropin B, isolated from the Chinese tasar moth (Antheraea pernyi), has been shown to effectively eliminate bacteria...
November 19, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858324/a-bifunctional-aminoglycoside-acetyltransferase-phosphotransferase-conferring-tobramycin-resistance-provides-an-efficient-selectable-marker-for-plastid-transformation
#6
Iman Tabatabaei, Stephanie Ruf, Ralph Bock
A new selectable marker gene for stable transformation of the plastid genome was developed that is similarly efficient as the aadA, and produces no background of spontaneous resistance mutants. More than 25 years after its development for Chlamydomonas and tobacco, the transformation of the chloroplast genome still represents a challenging technology that is available only in a handful of species. The vast majority of chloroplast transformation experiments conducted thus far have relied on a single selectable marker gene, the spectinomycin resistance gene aadA...
November 17, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844244/metabolo-transcriptome-profiling-of-barley-reveals-induction-of-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase-gene-hvcerk1-conferring-resistance-against-fusarium-graminearum
#7
Shailesh Karre, Arun Kumar, Dhananjay Dhokane, Ajjamada C Kushalappa
We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant...
November 14, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838799/the-far-upstream-regulatory-region-of-rfl-is-required-for-its-precise-spatial-temporal-expression-for-floral-development-in-rice
#8
Sulin Lou, Shuifu Chen, Xiucai Zhao, Letian Chen, Jian Zhang, Hongxiang Fu, Yao-Guang Liu, Yuanling Chen
A rice mutant aberrant floral organ 1 (afo1) was identified, showing increased floral organ number, aberrant floral organ identity and loss of floral meristem determinacy. A disruption of sequence integrity at 6292-bp upstream of RFL by a T-DNA insertion led to varied RFL expression patterns in floral meristem and floret in afo1 and caused the mutant phenotype. The LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor and its homologs affect many aspects of plant development, especially floral development. RICE FLORICAULA/LEAFY (RFL), the rice ortholog of LFY, has complicated expression patterns and different functions in floral development...
November 12, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826761/kelch-motif-containing-acyl-coa-binding-proteins-atacbp4-and-atacbp5-are-differentially-expressed-and-function-in-floral-lipid-metabolism
#9
Zi-Wei Ye, Jie Xu, Jianxin Shi, Dabing Zhang, Mee-Len Chye
We herein demonstrated two of the Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs), AtACBP4 and AtACBP5, both function in floral lipid metabolism and they may possibly play complementary roles in Arabidopsis microspore-to-pollen development. Histological analysis on transgenic Arabidopsis expressing β-glucuronidase driven from the AtACBP4 and AtACBP5 promoters, as well as, qRTPCR analysis revealed that AtACBP4 was expressed at stages 11-14 in the mature pollen, while AtACBP5 was expressed at stages 7-10 in the microspores and tapetal cells...
November 8, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815671/integrating-qtl-mapping-and-transcriptomics-identifies-candidate-genes-underlying-qtls-associated-with-soybean-tolerance-to-low-phosphorus-stress
#10
Dan Zhang, Hengyou Zhang, Shanshan Chu, Hongyan Li, Yingjun Chi, Daniella Triebwasser-Freese, Haiyan Lv, Deyue Yu
Soybean is a high phosphorus (P) demand species that is sensitive to low-P stress. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) for P efficiency have been identified in soybean, but few of these have been cloned and agriculturally applied mainly due to various limitations on identifying suitable P efficiency candidate genes. Here, we combined QTL mapping, transcriptome profiling, and plant transformation to identify candidate genes underlying QTLs associated with low-P tolerance and response mechanisms to low-P stress in soybean...
November 4, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815670/novel-rice-mutants-overexpressing-the-brassinosteroid-catabolic-gene-cyp734a4
#11
Wenjing Qian, Chao Wu, Yaping Fu, Guocheng Hu, Zhengquan He, Wenzhen Liu
Moderate overexpression of CYP734A4 improves grain number per main panicle and seed setting rate. Brassinosteroid (BR) homeostasis and signaling are crucial for plant growth and development. CYP734A genes encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that control the level of bioactive BRs by degrading BRs. However, fertile plants overexpressing CYP734As have not been reported in rice. Here, we isolated a novel semi-dominant mutant brd3-D, in which T-DNA was inserted approximately 4 kb upstream of the CYP734A4 gene (GenBank Accession AB488667), causing its overexpression...
November 4, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812910/the-protein-phosphatase-2a-catalytic-subunit-stpp2ac2b-acts-as-a-positive-regulator-of-tuberization-induction-in-solanum-tuberosum-l
#12
María Noelia Muñiz García, María Catalina Muro, Luciana Carla Mazzocchi, Silvia Marina País, Margarita Stritzler, Mariana Schlesinger, Daniela Andrea Capiati
This study provides the first genetic evidence for the role of PP2A in tuberization, demonstrating that the catalytic subunit StPP2Ac2b positively modulates tuber induction, and that its function is related to the regulation of gibberellic acid metabolism. The results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism controlling tuberization induction, which remains largely unknown. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases type 2A (PP2A) are implicated in several physiological processes in plants, playing important roles in hormone responses...
November 3, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807643/chitin-oligosaccharide-binding-to-the-lysin-motif-of-a-novel-type-of-chitinase-from-the-multicellular-green-alga-volvox-carteri
#13
Yoshihito Kitaoku, Tamo Fukamizo, Tomoyuki Numata, Takayuki Ohnuma
The chitinase-mediated defense system in higher plants has been intensively studied from physiological and structural viewpoints. However, the defense system in the most primitive plant species, such as green algae, has not yet been elucidated in details. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of a family CBM-50 LysM module attached to the N-terminus of chitinase from Volvox carteri, and successfully analyzed its chitin-binding ability by NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. Trp96 of the LysM module appeared to make a CH-π stacking interaction with the reducing end sugar residue of the ligand...
November 2, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796720/a-chinese-cabbage-brassica-campetris-subsp-chinensis-%C3%AF-type-glutathione-s-transferase-stimulates-arabidopsis-development-and-primes-against-abiotic-and-biotic-stress
#14
Chih-Wei Kao, Madhunita Bakshi, Irena Sherameti, Sheqin Dong, Michael Reichelt, Ralf Oelmüller, Kai-Wun Yeh
The beneficial root-colonizing fungus Piriformospora indica stimulates root development of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. Chinensis) and this is accompanied by the up-regulation of a τ-class glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase gene (BcGSTU) (Lee et al. 2011) in the roots. BcGSTU expression is further promoted by osmotic (salt and PEG) and heat stress. Ectopic expression of BcGSTU in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter results in the promotion of root and shoot growth as well as better performance of the plants under abiotic (150 mM NaCl, PEG, 42 °C) and biotic (Alternaria brassicae infection) stresses...
October 31, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796719/transformation-of-the-cyanidioschyzon-merolae-chloroplast-genome-prospects-for-understanding-chloroplast-function-in-extreme-environments
#15
Maksymilian Zienkiewicz, Tomasz Krupnik, Anna Drożak, Anna Golke, Elżbieta Romanowska
We have successfully transformed an exthemophilic red alga with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, rendering this organism insensitive to its toxicity. Our work paves the way to further work with this new modelorganism. Here we report the first successful attempt to achieve a stable, under selectable pressure, chloroplast transformation in Cyanidioschizon merolae-an extremophilic red alga of increasing importance as a new model organism. The following protocol takes advantage of a double homologous recombination phenomenon in the chloroplast, allowing to introduce an exogenous, selectable gene...
October 28, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778293/deep-analysis-of-wild-vitis-flower-transcriptome-reveals-unexplored-genome-regions-associated-with-sex-specification
#16
Miguel Jesus Nunes Ramos, João Lucas Coito, Joana Fino, Jorge Cunha, Helena Silva, Patrícia Gomes de Almeida, Maria Manuela Ribeiro Costa, Sara Amâncio, Octávio S Paulo, Margarida Rocheta
RNA-seq of Vitis during early stages of bud development, in male, female and hermaphrodite flowers, identified new loci outside of annotated gene models, suggesting their involvement in sex establishment. The molecular mechanisms responsible for flower sex specification remain unclear for most plant species. In the case of V. vinifera ssp. vinifera, it is not fully understood what determines hermaphroditism in the domesticated subspecies and male or female flowers in wild dioecious relatives (Vitis vinifera ssp...
October 24, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770231/the-targeting-of-starch-binding-domains-from-starch-synthase-iii-to-the-cell-wall-alters-cell-wall-composition-and-properties
#17
Mauricio J Grisolia, Diego A Peralta, Hugo A Valdez, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi
Starch binding domains of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana (SBD123) binds preferentially to cell wall polysaccharides rather than to starch in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing SBD123 in the cell wall are larger than wild type. Cell wall components are altered in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants are more susceptible to digestion than wild type and present higher released glucose content. Our results suggest that the transgenic plants have an advantage for the production of bioethanol in terms of saccharification of essential substrates...
October 21, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766460/five-novel-transcription-factors-as-potential-regulators-of-osnhx1-gene-expression-in-a-salt-tolerant-rice-genotype
#18
Diego M Almeida, Glenn B Gregorio, M Margarida Oliveira, Nelson J M Saibo
This manuscript reports the identification and characterization of five transcription factors binding to the promoter of OsNHX1 in a salt stress tolerant rice genotype (Hasawi). Although NHX1 encoding genes are known to be highly regulated at the transcription level by different abiotic stresses, namely salt and drought stress, until now only one transcription factor (TF) binding to its promoter has been reported. In order to unveil the TFs regulating NHX1 gene expression, which is known to be highly induced under salt stress, we have used a Y1H system to screen a salt induced rice cDNA expression library from Hasawi...
October 20, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761764/uv-mediated-chlamydomonas-mutants-with-enhanced-nuclear-transgene-expression-by-disruption-of-dna-methylation-dependent-and-independent-silencing-systems
#19
Sari Dewi Kurniasih, Tomohito Yamasaki, Fantao Kong, Sigeru Okada, Dwiyantari Widyaningrum, Takeshi Ohama
In this investigation, we succeeded to generate Chlamydomonas mutants that bear dramatically enhanced ability for transgene expression. To yield these mutants, we utilized DNA methyltransferase deficient strain. These mutants must be useful as a plant cell factory. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (hereafter Chlamydomonas) is a green freshwater microalga. It is a promising cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins because it rapidly grows in simple salt-based media. However, expression of transgenes integrated into the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas is very poor, probably because of severe transcriptional silencing irrespective of the genomic position...
October 19, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734290/regulatory-cis-elements-are-located-in-accessible-promoter-regions-of-the-cat2-promoter-and-affect-activating-histone-modifications-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Miriam Laxa
Catalase 2 (CAT2) plays an important role in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide released either during photorespiration or as a consequence of biotic and abiotic stress as well as in the initiation of senescence. To date, our understanding of the regulation of CAT2 gene expression is rather poor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that a wide region of the CAT2 promoter is nucleosome depleted, reflecting the ability to rapidly respond to changing environmental and stress conditions and, thus, adjusting the transcript levels of CAT2...
October 12, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
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