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Plant Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444544/methylglyoxal-detoxification-by-a-dj-1-family-protein-provides-dual-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-plants
#1
Prasad Melvin, Kondalarao Bankapalli, Patrick D'Silva, P V Shivaprasad
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a key signaling molecule resulting from glycolysis and other metabolic pathways. During abiotic stress, MG levels accumulate to toxic levels in affected cells. However, MG is routinely detoxified through the action of DJ1/PARK7/Hsp31 proteins that are highly conserved across kingdoms and mutations in such genes are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report for the first time that, similar to abiotic stresses, MG levels increase during biotic stresses in plants, likely contributing to enhanced susceptibility to a wide range of stresses...
April 25, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434151/cbf2a-cbf4b-genomic-region-copy-numbers-alongside-the-circadian-clock-play-key-regulatory-mechanisms-driving-expression-of-fr-h2-cbfs
#2
Taniya Dhillon, Kengo Morohashi, Eric J Stockinger
The C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that were identified using Arabidopsis thaliana. In barley, Hordeum vulgare, a cluster of CBF genes reside at FROST RESISTANCE-H2, one of two loci having major effects on winter-hardiness. FR-H2 was revealed in a population derived from the winter barley 'Nure' and the spring barley 'Trèmois'. 'Nure' harbors two to three copies of CBF2A and CBF4B as a consequence of tandem iteration of the genomic region encompassing these genes whereas 'Trèmois' harbors single copies, and these copy number differences are associated with their transcript level differences...
April 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429252/analysis-of-global-gene-expression-profiles-during-the-flowering-initiation-process-of-lilium%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-formolongi
#3
Yu-Fan Li, Ming-Fang Zhang, Meng Zhang, Gui-Xia Jia
The onset of flowering is critical for the reproductive development of plants. Lilium × formolongi is a lily hybrid that flowers within a year after sowing. We successfully identified four important stages during vegetative growth and flowering initiation of L. × formolongi under long day conditions. The plant tissues from the four stages were used in a genome-wide transcriptional analysis to investigate stage-specific changes of gene expression in L. × formolongi. In total, the sequence reads of the four RNA-sequencing libraries were assembled into 52,824 unigenes, of which 37,031 (70...
April 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424966/transcriptomic-analysis-of-molecular-responses-in-malus-domestica-m26-roots-affected-by-apple-replant-disease
#4
Stefan Weiß, Melanie Bartsch, Traud Winkelmann
Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet...
April 19, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409321/an-integrative-overview-of-the-molecular-and-physiological-responses-of-sugarcane-under-drought-conditions
#5
Camilo Elber Vital, Andrea Giordano, Eduardo de Almeida Soares, Thomas Christopher Rhys Williams, Rosilene Oliveira Mesquita, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, Amanda de Santana Lopes, Túlio Gomes Pacheco, Marcelo Rogalski, Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos, Marcelo Ehlers Loureiro
Drought is the main abiotic stress constraining sugarcane production. However, our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the drought stress responses of sugarcane impairs the development of new technologies to increase sugarcane drought tolerance. Here, an integrated approach was performed to reveal the molecular and physiological changes in two closely related sugarcane cultivars, including the most extensively planted cultivar in Brazil (cv. RB867515), in response to moderate (-0.5 MPa) and severe (-1 MPa) drought stress at the transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels...
April 13, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405784/genomic-and-functional-characterization-of-coleopteran-insect-specific-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitor-gene-from-amaranthus-species
#6
Amey J Bhide, Sonal M Channale, Yashpal Yadav, Kabita Bhattacharjee, Pankaj K Pawar, V L Maheshwari, Vidya S Gupta, Sureshkumar Ramasamy, Ashok P Giri
The smallest 32 amino acid α-amylase inhibitor from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (AAI) is reported. The complete gene of pre-protein (AhAI) encoding a 26 amino acid (aa) signal peptide followed by the 43 aa region and the previously identified 32 aa peptide was cloned successfully. Three cysteine residues and one disulfide bond conserved within known α-amylase inhibitors were present in AhAI. Identical genomic and open reading frame was found to be present in close relatives of A. hypochondriacus namely Amaranthus paniculatus, Achyranthes aspera and Celosia argentea...
April 12, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391398/arabidopsis-abi5-plays-a-role-in-regulating-ros-homeostasis-by-activating-catalase-1-transcription-in-seed-germination
#7
Chao Bi, Yu Ma, Zhen Wu, Yong-Tao Yu, Shan Liang, Kai Lu, Xiao-Fang Wang
It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H2O2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT...
April 8, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365837/comparison-of-phytohormone-levels-and-transcript-profiles-during-seasonal-dormancy-transitions-in-underground-adventitious-buds-of-leafy-spurge
#8
Wun S Chao, Münevver Doğramacı, David P Horvath, James V Anderson, Michael E Foley
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that maintains its perennial growth habit through generation of underground adventitious buds (UABs) on the crown and lateral roots. These UABs undergo seasonal phases of dormancy under natural conditions, namely para-, endo-, and ecodormancy in summer, fall, and winter, respectively. These dormancy phases can also be induced in growth chambers by manipulating photoperiod and temperature. In this study, UABs induced into the three phases of dormancy under controlled conditions were used to compare changes in phytohormone and transcriptome profiles...
April 1, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364390/in-silico-analysis-of-the-sequence-features-responsible-for-alternatively-spliced-introns-in-the-model-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#9
Praveen-Kumar Raj-Kumar, Olivier Vallon, Chun Liang
Alternatively spliced introns are the ones that are usually spliced but can be occasionally retained in a transcript isoform. They are the most frequently used alternative splice form in plants (~50% of alternative splicing events). Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular alga, is a good model to understand alternative splicing (AS) in plants from an evolutionary perspective as it diverged from land plants a billion years ago. Using over 7 million cDNA sequences from both pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, we found that a much higher percentage of genes (~20% of multi-exon genes) undergo AS than previously reported (3-5%)...
March 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364389/boron-bridged-rg-ii-and-calcium-are-required-to-maintain-the-pectin-network-of-the-arabidopsis-seed-mucilage-ultrastructure
#10
Da-Chuan Shi, Juan Wang, Rui-Bo Hu, Gong-Ke Zhou, Malcolm A O'Neill, Ying-Zhen Kong
The structure of a pectin network requires both calcium (Ca(2+)) and boron (B). Ca(2+) is involved in crosslinking pectic polysaccharides and arbitrarily induces the formation of an "egg-box" structure among pectin molecules, while B crosslinks rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) side chain A apiosyl residues in primary cell walls to generate a borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan II (dRG-II-B) complex through a boron-bridge bond, leading to the formation of a pectin network. Based on recent studies of dRG-II-B structures, a hypothesis has been proposed suggesting that Ca(2+)is a common component of the dRG-II-B complex...
March 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342018/overexpression-of-osgata12-regulates-chlorophyll-content-delays-plant-senescence-and-improves-rice-yield-under-high-density-planting
#11
Guangwen Lu, José A Casaretto, Shan Ying, Kashif Mahmood, Fang Liu, Yong-Mei Bi, Steven J Rothstein
Agronomic traits controlling the formation, architecture and physiology of source and sink organs are main determinants of rice productivity. Semi-dwarf rice varieties with low tiller formation but high seed production per panicle and dark green and thick leaves with prolonged source activity are among the desirable traits to further increase the yield potential of rice. Here, we report the functional characterization of a zinc finger transcription factor, OsGATA12, whose overexpression causes increased leaf greenness, reduction of leaf and tiller number, and affects yield parameters...
March 24, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324206/indeterminate-domain-protein-binding-sequences-in-the-5-untranslated-region-and-promoter-of-the-scarecrow-gene-play-crucial-and-distinct-roles-in-regulating-scarecrow-expression-in-roots-and-leaves
#12
Atsushi Kobayashi, Satoshi Miura, Akiko Kozaki
SCARECROW (SCR) and SHORT-ROOT (SHR), which belong to the GRAS transcription factor family, are key regulators of root and leaf growth and development. Despite the importance of SCR expression for proper plant development, the mechanism of SCR regulation has not been clarified. A previous study showed that an INDETERMINATE DOMAIN transcription factor, JACKDAW (JKD), is essential for the expression of SCR in combination with SCR and SHR. In this study, we characterized possible binding sequences of INDETERMINATE DOMAIN PROTEIN in the 1...
March 21, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321650/the-small-auxin-up-rna-ossaur45-affects-auxin-synthesis-and-transport-in-rice
#13
Yan-Xia Xu, Meng-Zhu Xiao, Yan Liu, Jun-Liang Fu, Yi He, De-An Jiang
This research is the first to demonstrate that OsSAUR45 is involved in plant growth though affecting auxin synthesis and transport by repressing OsYUCCA and OsPIN gene expression in rice. Small auxin-up RNAs (SAURs) comprise a large multigene family and are rapidly activated as part of the primary auxin response in plants. However, little is known about the role of SAURs in plant growth and development, especially in monocots. Here, we report the biological function of OsSAUR45 in the model plant rice (Oryza sativa)...
March 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315989/rnai-inhibition-of-feruloyl-coa-6-hydroxylase-reduces-scopoletin-biosynthesis-and-post-harvest-physiological-deterioration-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz-storage-roots
#14
Shi Liu, Ima M Zainuddin, Herve Vanderschuren, James Doughty, John R Beeching
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava is seriously constrained by the rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of its roots that occurs within 24-72 h of harvest, rendering the roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD limits cassava's marketing possibilities in countries that are undergoing increased development and urbanisation due to growing distances between farms and consumers...
March 18, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299506/identification-of-the-ligand-of-pru-p-3-a-peach-ltp
#15
Nuria Cubells-Baeza, Cristina Gómez-Casado, Leticia Tordesillas, Carmen Ramírez-Castillejo, María Garrido-Arandia, Pablo González-Melendi, María Herrero, Luis F Pacios, Araceli Díaz-Perales
Pru p 3, a peach LTP, is located in pollinated flower styles and secreting downy hairs, transporting a derivative of camptothecin bound to phytosphingosine. Pru p 3 may inhibit a second pollination and may keep away herbivores until seed maturation. The allergen Pru p 3, a peach lipid transfer protein, has been well studied. However, its physiological function remains to be elucidated. Our results showed that Pru p 3 usually carries a lipid ligand that play an essential role in its function in plants. Using ESI-qToF, we observed that the ligand was a derivative of camptothecin binding to phytosphingosine, wich that is inserted into the hydrophobic tunnel of the protein...
March 15, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286910/the-molecular-mechanism-underlying-anthocyanin-metabolism-in-apple-using-the-mdmyb16-and-mdbhlh33-genes
#16
Haifeng Xu, Nan Wang, Jingxuan Liu, Changzhi Qu, Yicheng Wang, Shenghui Jiang, Ninglin Lu, Deyun Wang, Zongying Zhang, Xuesen Chen
MdMYB16 forms homodimers and directly inhibits anthocyanin synthesis via its C-terminal EAR repressor. It weakened the inhibitory effect of MdMYB16 on anthocyanin synthesis when overexpressing MdbHLH33 in callus overexpressing MdMYB16. MdMYB16 could interact with MdbHLH33. Anthocyanins are strong antioxidants that play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The germplasm of Malus sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana is important for the study of anthocyanin metabolism. To date, only limited studies have examined the negative regulatory mechanisms underlying anthocyanin synthesis in apple...
March 12, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285416/a-naturally-occurring-conditional-albino-mutant-in-rice-caused-by-defects-in-the-plastid-localized-osabci8-transporter
#17
Xiuyu Zeng, Ran Tang, Herong Guo, Shanwen Ke, Bin Teng, Yu-Hung Hung, Zhenjiang Xu, Xin-Ming Xie, Tzung-Fu Hsieh, Xiang-Qian Zhang
A wide range of molecules are transported across membranes by the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Plants possess a collection of ABC proteins bearing similarities to the components of prokaryotic multi subunit ABC transporters, designed as ABC group I. However the functions of most of them are not well understood. Here, we characterized a naturally occurring rice mutant that exhibited albino phenotype under continuous rainy days in the field, but gradually recovered to normal green after the rainy season...
March 11, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283922/identification-of-alternatively-spliced-transcripts-of-rice-phytochelatin-synthase-2-gene-ospcs2-involved-in-mitigation-of-cadmium-and-arsenic-stresses
#18
Natasha Das, Surajit Bhattacharya, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Mrinal K Maiti
The OsPCS2 exhibits root- and shoot-specific differential ratios of alternatively spliced transcripts in indica rice under Cd stress, and plays role in Cd and As stress tolerance and accumulation. Enzymatic activity of phytochelatin synthase (PCS) in plant produces phytochelatins, which help in sequestration of heavy metal(loid)s inside the cell vacuole to alleviate toxicity. Here we report that among the two PCS genes-OsPCS1 and OsPCS2 in indica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, the OsPCS2 produces an alternatively spliced OsPCS2b transcript that bears the unusual premature termination codon besides the canonically spliced OsPCS2a transcript...
March 11, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283921/new-insights-into-the-operative-network-of-faeo-an-enone-oxidoreductase-from-fragaria-x-ananassa-duch
#19
Gabriella Collu, Domenica Farci, Francesca Esposito, Francesca Pintus, Joanna Kirkpatrick, Dario Piano
The 2-methylene-furan-3-one reductase or Fragaria x ananassa Enone Oxidoreductase (FaEO) catalyses the last reductive step in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a major component in the characteristic flavour of strawberries. In the present work, we describe the association between FaEO and the vacuolar membrane of strawberry fruits. Even if FaEO lacks epitopes for stable or transient membrane-interactions, it contains a calmodulin-binding region, suggesting that in vivo FaEO may be associated with the membrane via a peripheral protein complex with calmodulin...
March 11, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260138/nadph-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-b-porb-action-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-revisited-through-transgenic-expression-of-engineered-barley-porb-mutant-proteins
#20
Frank Buhr, Abderrahim Lahroussi, Armin Springer, Sachin Rustgi, Diter von Wettstein, Christiane Reinbothe, Steffen Reinbothe
NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is a key enzyme for the light-induced greening of etiolated angiosperm plants. It belongs to the 'RED' family of reductases, epimerases and dehydrogenases. All POR proteins characterized so far contain evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues implicated in protochlorophyllide (Pchlide)-binding and catalysis. cDNAs were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis that encode PORB mutant proteins with defined Cys→Ala exchanges. These cDNAs were expressed in transgenic plants of a PORB-deficient knock-out mutant (porB) of Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 4, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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