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Plant Molecular Biology

Zhenyi Li, Hongyu Xu, Yue Li, Xiufu Wan, Zhao Ma, Jing Cao, Zhensong Li, Feng He, Yufei Wang, Liqiang Wan, Zongyong Tong, Xianglin Li
The induction of miR399 and miR398 and the inhibition of miR156, miR159, miR160, miR171, miR2111, and miR2643 were observed under Pi deficiency in alfalfa. The miRNA-mediated genes involved in basic metabolic process, root and shoot development, stress response and Pi uptake. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency is known to be a limiting factor in plant development and growth. However, the underlying miRNAs associated with the Pi deficiency-responsive mechanism in alfalfa are unclear. To elucidate the molecular mechanism at the miRNA level, we constructed four small RNA (sRNA) libraries from the roots and shoots of alfalfa grown under normal or Pi-deficient conditions...
March 12, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Weiwen Kong, Bin Li, Qianqian Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaoke Duan, Li Ding, Yanke Lu, Li-Wei Liu, Honggui La
The relationships between transcription and methylation were revealed in Arabidopsis thaliana NB-LRR-encoding genes in wild type (Col-0) and different mutants. Plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins constitute a large family that plays predominant roles in disease resistance. However, the regulation of NB-LRR-encoding genes at the transcriptional level is still poorly understood. Recently, DNA cytosine methylation in eukaryotes has been described as serving an important function in regulating gene expression...
March 10, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Nathan T Reem, Han-Yi Chen, Manhoi Hur, Xuefeng Zhao, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Xu Li, Ling Li, Olga Zabotina
This research provides new insights into plant response to cell wall perturbations through correlation of transcriptome and metabolome datasets obtained from transgenic plants expressing cell wall-modifying enzymes. Plants respond to changes in their cell walls in order to protect themselves from pathogens and other stresses. Cell wall modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana have profound effects on gene expression and defense response, but the cell signaling mechanisms underlying these responses are not well understood...
March 3, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Tian-Jia Liu, Yong-Ping Li, Jing-Jing Zhou, Chun-Gen Hu, Jin-Zhi Zhang
The comprehensive genetic variation of two citrus species were analyzed at genome and transcriptome level. A total of 1090 differentially expressed genes were found during fruit development by RNA-sequencing. Fruit size (fruit equatorial diameter) and weight (fresh weight) are the two most important components determining yield and consumer acceptability for many horticultural crops. However, little is known about the genetic control of these traits. Here, we performed whole-genome resequencing to reveal the comprehensive genetic variation of the fruit development between kumquat (Citrus japonica) and Clementine mandarin (Citrus clementina)...
February 26, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Qiang Zhang, Hui-Li Xing, Zhi-Ping Wang, Hai-Yan Zhang, Fang Yang, Xue-Chen Wang, Qi-Jun Chen
We present novel observations of high-specificity SpCas9 variants, sgRNA expression strategies based on mutant sgRNA scaffold and tRNA processing system, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated T-DNA integrations. Specificity of CRISPR/Cas9 tools has been a major concern along with the reports of their successful applications. We report unexpected observations of high frequency off-target mutagenesis induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in T1 Arabidopsis mutants although the sgRNA was predicted to have a high specificity score. We also present evidence that the off-target effects were further exacerbated in the T2 progeny...
February 23, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Sanjana Negi, Himanshu Tak, T R Ganapathi
MusaSNAC1 function in H2 O2 mediated stomatal closure and promote drought tolerance by directly binding to CGT[A/G] motif in regulatory region of multiple stress-related genes. Drought is a abiotic stress-condition, causing reduced plant growth and diminished crop yield. Guard cells of the stomata control photosynthesis and transpiration by regulating CO2 exchange and water loss, thus affecting growth and crop yield. Roles of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) protein in regulation of stress-conditions has been well documented however, their control over stomatal aperture is largely unknown...
February 22, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Sun Hee Rosenthal, Andrew G Diamos, Hugh S Mason
We have found interesting features of a plant gene (extensin) 3' flanking region, including extremely efficient polyadenylation which greatly improves transient expression of transgenes when an intron is removed. Its use will greatly benefit studies of gene expression in plants, research in molecular biology, and applications for recombinant proteins. Plants are a promising platform for the production of recombinant proteins. To express high-value proteins in plants efficiently, the optimization of expression cassettes using appropriate regulatory sequences is critical...
February 10, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Joseph Lee Hill, Cooper Josephs, William J Barnes, Charles T Anderson, Ming Tien
Our work focuses on understanding the lifetime and thus stability of the three main cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins involved in primary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis. It had long been thought that a major means of CESA regulation was via their rapid degradation. However, our studies here have uncovered that AtCESA proteins are not rapidly degraded. Rather, they persist for an extended time in the plant cell. Plant cellulose is synthesized by membrane-embedded cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). The CSC is composed of cellulose synthases (CESAs), of which three distinct isozymes form the primary cell wall CSC and another set of three isozymes form the secondary cell wall CSC...
January 31, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Guan Liu, Junfang Liu, Chunli Zhang, Xiaoqing You, Tingting Zhao, Jingbin Jiang, Xiuling Chen, He Zhang, Huanhuan Yang, Dongye Zhang, Chong Du, Jingfu Li, Xiangyang Xu
Based on the physiological and RNA-seq analysis, some progress has been made in elucidating the Cf-10-mediated resistance responses to C. fulvum infection in tomato. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs were significantly associated with defense-signaling pathways like oxidation-reduction processes, oxidoreductase activity and plant hormone signal transduction. Leaf mold, caused by the fungus Cladosporium fulvum, is one of the most common diseases affecting tomatoes worldwide. Cf series genes including Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5, Cf-9 and Cf-10 play very important roles in resisting tomato leaf mold...
January 30, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Pawinee Panpetch, Robert A Field, Tipaporn Limpaseni
Cloning of two isoamylase genes, MeISA1 and MeISA2, from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers, accompanied by their co-expression in E. coli demonstrates a requirement for heteromeric complex formation to achieve debranching activity. Starch debranching enzyme (DBE) or isoamylase (ISA) (EC., an important enzyme in starch metabolism, catalyses the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glycosidic linkages of amylopectin. Isoforms of ISAs have been reported in higher plants and algae (Fujita et al. in Planta 208:283-293, 1999; Hussain et al...
January 29, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Ubaid Midhat, Michael K Y Ting, Howard J Teresinski, Wayne A Snedden
We show that the calcium sensor, CML39, is important in various developmental processes from seeds to mature plants. This study bridges previous work on CML39 as a stress-induced gene and highlights the importance of calcium signalling in plant development. In addition to the evolutionarily-conserved Ca2+ sensor, calmodulin (CaM), plants possess a large family of CaM-related proteins (CMLs). Using a cml39 loss-of-function mutant, we investigated the roles of CML39 in Arabidopsis and discovered a range of phenotypes across developmental stages and in different tissues...
January 25, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Anjali Misra, Thomas D McKnight, Kranthi K Mandadi
Global Transcription Factor Group E proteins GTE9 and GTE11 interact with BT2 to mediate ABA and sugar responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. BT2 is a BTB-domain protein that regulates responses to various hormone, stress and metabolic conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss of BT2 results in plants that are hypersensitive to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars. Conversely, overexpression of BT2 results in resistance to ABA and sugars. Here, we report the roles of BT2-interacting partners GTE9 and GTE11, bromodomain and extraterminal-domain proteins of Global Transcription Factor Group E, in BT2-mediated responses to sugars and hormones...
January 23, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Ting Pan, Xiuqiang Sun, Yangxuan Liu, Hui Li, Guangbing Deng, Honghui Lin, Songhu Wang
Due to an unfortunate turn of events, the first name of the fifth author appeared incorrectly in the original publication and should have read Guangbing. The correct representation of the authors' names and their affiliation is listed here and should be treated as definitive.
January 22, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Jesús Salvador López-Bucio, Javier Raya-González, Gustavo Ravelo-Ortega, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Maricela Ramos-Vega, Patricia León, José López-Bucio, Ángel Arturo Guevara-García
The function and components of L-glutamate signaling pathways in plants have just begun to be elucidated. Here, using a combination of genetic and biochemical strategies, we demonstrated that a MAPK module is involved in the control of root developmental responses to this amino acid. Root system architecture plays an essential role in plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic factors via adjusting signal transduction and gene expression. L-Glutamate (L-Glu), an amino acid with neurotransmitter functions in animals, inhibits root growth, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are poorly understood...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Ying-Ge Wang, Feng-Ling Fu, Hao-Qiang Yu, Tao Hu, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Yi Tao, Jian-Kang Zhu, Yang Zhao, Wan-Chen Li
We defined a comprehensive core ABA signaling network in monocot maize, including the gene expression, subcellular localization and interaction network of ZmPYLs, ZmPP2Cs, ZmSnRK2s and the putative substrates. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant developmental processes and abiotic stress responses. In Arabidopsis, ABA is sensed by the PYL ABA receptors, which leads to binding of the PP2C protein phosphatase and activation of the SnRK2 protein kinases. These components functioning diversely and redundantly in ABA signaling are little known in maize...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Keita Matsuoka, Raiki Yanagi, Emi Yumoto, Takao Yokota, Hisakazu Yamane, Shinobu Satoh, Masashi Asahina
Jasmonic acid and RAP2.6L are induced upon wounding but are not involved in cell proliferation during healing in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Plants produce jasmonic acid in response to wounding, but its role in healing, if any, has not been determined. Previously, the jasmonic acid-induced transcription factor, RAP2.6L, related to APETALA 2.6-like, was identified as a spatially expressed factor involved in tissue reunion in partially incised flowering stems of Arabidopsis. In the present study, we investigated the function of JA and RAP2...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Zengyu Gan, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang, Zhenhai Han
Lower promoter activity is closely associated with lower MdPIN1b expression in the M9 interstem, which might contribute to the dwarfing effect in apple trees. Apple trees grafted onto dwarfing rootstock Malling 9 (M9) produce dwarfing tree architecture with high yield and widely applying in production. Previously, we have reported that in Malus 'Red Fuji' (RF) trees growing on M9 interstem and Baleng Crab (BC) rootstock, IAA content was relatively higher in bark tissue of M9 interstem than that in scion or rootstock...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Xiaofeng Wang, Renxiang Yan
We curated a reliable dataset of m6A sites in Arabidopsis thaliana, built competitive models for predicting m6A sites, extracted predominant rules from the prediction models and analyzed the most important features. In biological RNA, approximately 150 chemical modifications have been discovered, of which N6-methyladenine (m6A) is the most prevalent and abundant. This modification plays an essential role in a myriad of biological mechanisms and regulates RNA localization, nuclear export, translation, stability, alternative splicing, and other processes...
January 16, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Soo Youn Kim, Sujin Hyoung, Won Mi So, Jeong Sheop Shin
The trichome-related protein (TRP) is a novel transcription factor (TF) that negatively regulates trichome initiation-related TFs through gibberellin (GA) signaling. Trichomes, which are outgrowths of leaf epidermal cells, provide the plant with a first line of defense against damage from herbivores and reduce transpiration. The initiation and development of trichomes are regulated by a network of positively or negatively regulating transcription factors (TFs). However, little information is currently available on transcriptional regulation related to trichome formation...
January 16, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Alexander Pfab, Matthias Breindl, Klaus D Grasser
The histone chaperone FACT is involved in the expression of genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes also upon induction by moderate high-light and therefore contributes to the stress-induced plant pigmentation. The histone chaperone FACT consists of the SSRP1 and SPT16 proteins and associates with transcribing RNAPII (RNAPII) along the transcribed region of genes. FACT can promote transcriptional elongation by destabilising nucleosomes in the path of RNA polymerase II, thereby facilitating efficient transcription of chromatin templates...
January 13, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
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