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Plant Molecular Biology

Simrat Pal Singh, Severine Hurni, Michela Ruinelli, Susanne Brunner, Javier Sanchez-Martin, Patricia Krukowski, David Peditto, Gabriele Buchmann, Helen Zbinden, Beat Keller
We have isolated a novel powdery mildew resistance gene in wheat that was originally introgressed from rye. Further analysis revealed evolutionary divergent history of wheat and rye orthologous resistance genes. Wheat production is under constant threat from a number of fungal pathogens, among them is wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici). Deployment of resistance genes is the most economical and sustainable method for mildew control. However, domestication and selective breeding have narrowed genetic diversity of modern wheat germplasm, and breeders have relied on wheat relatives for enriching its gene pool through introgression...
September 22, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Karla S Macedo-Osorio, Víctor H Pérez-España, Claudio Garibay-Orijel, Daniel Guzmán-Zapata, Noé V Durán-Figueroa, Jesús A Badillo-Corona
Two intercistronic regions were identified as functional intercistronic expression elements (IEE) for the simultaneous expression of aphA-6 and gfp in a synthetic operon in the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a biflagellate photosynthetic microalga, has been widely used in basic and applied science. Already three decades ago, Chlamydomonas had its chloroplast genome transformed and to this day constitutes the only alga routinely used in transplastomic technology. Despite the fact that over a 100 foreign genes have been expressed from the chloroplast genome, little has been done to address the challenge of expressing multiple genes in the form of operons, a development that is needed and crucial to push forward metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in this organism...
September 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Fan Wang, Xinghua Zhong, Lulu Huang, Weimin Fang, Fadi Chen, Nianjun Teng
Microspore degeneration at the tetrad stage is associated with tapetum degeneration retardation. Some genes and proteins related to cell senescence and death are the key factors for pollen abortion. Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is a major floriculture crop in the world, but pollen contamination is an urgent problem to be solved in chrysanthemum production. C. morifolium 'Kingfisher' is a chrysanthemum cultivar that does not contain any pollen in mature anthers, thus it is a very important material for developing chrysanthemum without pollen contamination...
September 10, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Philomena Chu, Glen M Wilson, Todd P Michael, Jennifer Vaiciunas, Joshua Honig, Eric Lam
Leveraging the heightened levels of polymorphism in NB-ARC-related protein encoding genes in higher plants, a bioinformatic pipeline was created to identify regions in this gene family from sequenced plant genomes that exhibit fragment length or single nucleotide differences in different accessions of the same species. Testing this approach with the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza demonstrated its superior performance in comparison with currently available genotyping technologies based on PCR amplification...
September 6, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Jing Zhang, Haifeng Xu, Nan Wang, Shenghui Jiang, Hongcheng Fang, Zongying Zhang, Guanxian Yang, Yicheng Wang, Mengyu Su, Lin Xu, Xuesen Chen
The regulator MdERF1B in the apple (Malus × domestica) ethylene pathway mainly acts on MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 to regulate anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation. Dietary anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) have health benefits for humans, and are associated with decreased risks of coronary heart disease and cancer. Ethylene can enhance reddening of apple (Malus × domestica), but the regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, an ethylene response factor (ERF), MdERF1B, was identified and functionally characterized...
September 4, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Shilai Xing, Chengcheng Tao, Zhihong Song, Wei Liu, Juan Yan, Lifang Kang, Cong Lin, Tao Sang
Coexpression network revealing genes with Co-variation Expression pattern (CE) and those with Top rank of Expression fold change (TE) played different roles in responding to new environment of Miscanthus lutarioriparius. Variation in gene expression level, the product of genetic and/or environmental perturbation, determines the robustness-to-plasticity spectrum of a phenotype in plants. Understanding how expression variation of plant population response to a new field is crucial to domesticate energy crops...
July 13, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Feng Zhang, Shufen Li, Shuming Yang, Like Wang, Wangzhen Guo
The authors are retracting this article because irregularities were involved in the reuse of stomatal images in Figure 9.
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Yihua Liu, Dongdong Liu, Ali Raza Khan, Bohan Liu, Minjie Wu, Linli Huang, Junyu Wu, Ge Song, Hongwei Ni, Haiming Ying, Hao Yu, Yinbo Gan
A novel gene NbGIS positively regulates glandular trichome initiation through GA Signaling in tobacco. NbMYB123-like regulates glandular trichome initiation by acting downstream of NbGIS in tobacco. Glandular trichome is a specialized multicellular structure which has capability to synthesize and secrete secondary metabolites and protects plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. Our previous results revealed that a C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor GIS and its sub-family genes act upstream of GL3/EGL3-GL1-TTG1 transcriptional activator complex to regulate trichome initiation in Arabidopsis...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Aung Htay Naing, Chang Kil Kim
This review contains functional roles of MYB transcription factors in the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in horticultural plants. This review describes potential uses of MYB TFs as tools for metabolic engineering for anthocyanin production. Anthocyanins (ranging from red to blue) are controlled by specific branches of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and are mostly visible in ornamentals, fruits, and vegetables. In the present review, we describe which R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) control the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin structural genes involved in the specific branches of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in various horticultural plants (e...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Hui Zhou, Liao Liao, Shengli Xu, Fei Ren, Jianbo Zhao, Collins Ogutu, Lu Wang, Quan Jiang, Yuepeng Han
R2R3-MYB genes play a pivotal role in regulating anthocyanin accumulation. Here, we report two tandemly duplicated R2R3-MYB genes in peach, PpMYB10.1 and PpMYB10.2, with the latter showing lower ability to induce anthocyanin accumulation than the former. Site-directed mutation assay revealed two amino acid changes in the R3 repeat, Arg/Lys66 and Gly/Arg93 , responsible for functional divergence between these two PpMYB10 genes. Anthocyanin-promoting activity of PpMYB10.2 was significantly increased by a single amino acid replacement of Arg93 with Gly93 ...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Yaoyao Li, Ling Min, Lin Zhang, Qin Hu, Yuanlong Wu, Jie Li, Sai Xie, Yizan Ma, Xianlong Zhang, Longfu Zhu
KEY MESSAGE: (1) We systematically analyze the promoter activities of AtCKLs in various tissues; (2) AtCKL2 and AtCKL7 were expressed in early developmental anthers under high temperature (HT) conditions; (3) AtMYB24 may function as a positive regulator of AtCKL2 and AtCKL7 expression under HT. High temperature (HT) can seriously impede plant growth and development, causing severe loss of crop production. In Arabidopsis, AtCKL genes show high similarity to GhCKI, a gene reported to disrupt tapetal programmed cell death in cotton...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Yue Jin, Weiyang Pan, Xiufang Zheng, Xuan Cheng, Mengmeng Liu, Hong Ma, Xiaochun Ge
An ERF transcription factor OsERF101 is predominantly expressed in rice reproductive tissues and plays an important role in improving rice seed setting rate under drought stress. Drought reduces grain yield due to the cumulative damage effects to plant vegetative and reproductive developmental processes. However, the genes involved in these processes are still not completely understood. In this study, we identified a gene named OsERF101 as an important positive regulator in the adaptive responses to dehydration stress during the reproductive and vegetative stages...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
María Noelia Muñiz García, Juan Ignacio Cortelezzi, Marina Fumagalli, Daniela A Capiati
In this study we show that expression of the Arabidopsis ABF4 gene in potato increases tuber yield under normal and abiotic stress conditions, improves storage capability and processing quality of the tubers, and enhances salt and drought tolerance. Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. Potato plants are susceptible to salinity and drought, which negatively affect crop yield, tuber quality and market value. The development of new varieties with higher yields and increased tolerance to adverse environmental conditions is a main objective in potato breeding...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Tatjana M Hildebrandt
During abiotic stress low abundant amino acids are not synthesized but they accumulate due to increased protein turnover under conditions inducing carbohydrate starvation (dehydration, salt stress, darkness) and are degraded. Metabolic adaptation is crucial for abiotic stress resistance in plants, and accumulation of specific amino acids as well as secondary metabolites derived from amino acid metabolism has been implicated in increased tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. The role of proline, which is synthesized during Arabidopsis stress response to act as a compatible osmolyte, has been well established...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Pavla Polanská Sováková, Alžbeta Magdolenová, Klára Konečná, Veronika Rájecká, Jiří Fajkus, Miloslava Fojtová
Standard pathways involved in the regulation of telomere stability do not contribute to gradual telomere elongation observed in the course of A. thaliana calli propagation. Genetic and epigenetic changes accompanying the culturing of plant cells have frequently been reported. Here we aimed to characterize the telomere homeostasis during long term callus propagation. While in Arabidopsis thaliana calli gradual telomere elongation was observed, telomeres were stable in Nicotiana tabacum and N. sylvestris cultures...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Natasha Das, Surajit Bhattacharya, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Mrinal K Maiti
The OsMATE2 upon constitutive expression in tobacco decreases root-to-shoot As transfer coefficient and its endosperm-specific silencing in rice reduces grain As content, broadening the role of MATE proteins in planta. Rice (Oryza sativa) is capable of accumulating significant amount of arsenic (As) in grains, causing serious health hazard for rice consuming population. The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) protein family comprises a large group of secondary transporters present universally in living organisms, and transports metabolites and/or xenobiotic compounds...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Ross N Nazar, Xin Xu, Alexander Kurosky, Jane Robb
Key message In Verticillium wilt, gene silencing indicates that tomato Ve2-gene expression can have a dramatic effect on many defense/stress protein levels while Ve1-gene induction modulates these effects in a negative fashion. In tomato, Verticillium resistance is dependent on the Ve R-gene locus, which encodes two leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins, Ve1 and Ve2. During fungal wilt, Ve1 protein is sharply induced while Ve2 appears expressed constitutively throughout disease development; the disease resistance function usually is attributed to the Ve1 receptor alone...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Kunyu Li, Yaodong Chen, Yanmin Luo, Fudeng Huang, Chaoyue Zhao, Fangmin Cheng, Xun Xiang, Gang Pan
Key message The OsPLS3 locus was isolated by map-based cloning that encodes a DUF266-containing protein. OsPLS3 regulates the onset of leaf senescence in rice. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are one of the most important enzyme groups required for the modification of plant secondary metabolites and play a crucial role in plant growth and development, however the biological functions of most GTs remain elusive. We reported here the identification and characterization of a novel Oryza sativa premature leaf senescence mutant (ospls3)...
September 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Shabir H Wani, Prateek Tripathi, Abbu Zaid, Ghana S Challa, Anuj Kumar, Vinay Kumar, Jyoti Upadhyay, Rohit Joshi, Manoj Bhatt
The current review provides an updated, new insights into the regulation of transcription mediated underlying mechanisms of wheat plants to osmotic stress perturbations. Osmotic stress tolerance mechanisms being complex are governed by multiple factors at physiological, biochemical and at the molecular level, hence approaches like "OMICS" that can underpin mechanisms behind osmotic tolerance in wheat is of paramount importance. The transcription factors (TFs) are a class of molecular proteins, which are involved in regulation, modulation and orchestrating the responses of plants to a variety of environmental stresses...
August 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Yiming Feng, Yoshihito Kitaoku, Jun Tanaka, Toki Taira, Takayuki Ohnuma, Finn L Aachmann, Tamo Fukamizo
Euglena gracilis is a unicellular microalga showing characteristics of both plants and animals, and extensively used as a model organism in the research works of biochemistry and molecular biology. Biotechnological applications of E. gracilis have been conducted for production of numerous important compounds. However, chitin-mediated defense system intensively studied in higher plants remains to be investigated in this microalga. Recently, Taira et al. (Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 82:1090-1100, 2018) isolated a unique chitinase gene, comprising two catalytic domains almost homologous to each other (Cat1 and Cat2) and two chitin-binding domains (CBD1 and CBD2), from E...
August 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
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