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Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

Takashi Yamanaka, Manabu Nemoto, Hiroshi Bannai, Koji Tsujimura, Tomio Matsumura, Hiroshi Kokado, Sarah Gildea, Ann Cullinane
Equine influenza (EI) vaccine has been widely used. However, the causative EI virus (H3N8) undergoes continuous antigenic drift, and the vaccine strains must be periodically reviewed and if necessary, updated to maintain vaccine efficacy against circulating viruses. In 2016, the Japanese vaccine was updated by replacing the old viruses with the Florida sub-lineage Clade (Fc) 2 virus, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y10). We investigated the virus neutralization (VN) antibody response to Fc2 viruses currently circulating in Europe, after booster or primary immunization with the new vaccine...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Mohammed S Amer, Elham A Hassan, Faisal A Torad
Five female egg-laying pigeons presented with painless, reducible, ventral abdominal swellings located between the keel and the pubis, or close to the cloaca. Based on clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examination, these pigeons were diagnosed with ventral abdominal hernia requiring surgical interference. Reduction was successfully performed under general anesthesia. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial for confirming the diagnosis and visualizing the hernial content for surgical planning...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Karin Uesaka, Kenji Koyama, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Hisashi Inokuma
A 4-week-old female Holstein Friesian calf presented with hindlimb paresis. Neurologic examination of spinal reflexes revealed depressed or absent reflexes of the hindlimbs. Menace responses on both sides disappeared on examination of cranial nerves. The calf was finally diagnosed with Neospora caninum infection by pathological findings including nonsuppurative inflammation associated with cysts in the cerebrum and spinal cord. High levels of antibody against recombinant surface antigen 1 of N. caninum (NcSAG1) were detected by ELISA from both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Shih Keng Loong, Nurul-Asma-Anati Che-Mat-Seri, Osama Abdulrazak, Benacer Douadi, Siti-Noraisah Ahmad-Nasrah, Jefree Johari, Siti-Nursheena Mohd-Zain, Sazaly Abubakar
Rodents have historically been associated with zoonotic pandemics that claimed the lives of large human populations. Appropriate pathogen surveillance initiatives could contribute to early detection of zoonotic infections to prevent future outbreaks. Bordetella species are bacteria known to cause mild to severe respiratory disease in mammals and, some have been described to infect, colonize and spread in rodents. There is a lack of information on the population diversity of bordetellae among Malaysian wild rodents...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Chan Bun, Youki Watanabe, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Naoko Inoue, Nahoko Ieda, Fuko Matsuda, Hiroko Tsukamura, Masayoshi Kuwahara, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Satoshi Ohkura, Vutha Pheng
The present study aims to examine the effect of tropical temperatures on autonomic nervous activity in Cambodian dairy cattle by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Holter-type electrocardiograms were recorded in adult crossbred cows (Cambodian native × Holstein) either in a sheltered area or under direct sunlight. Rectal temperatures and heart rates increased in animals under direct sunlight as compared to those in the shelter. The power spectral analysis of HRV revealed that three out of the five cows studied underwent a decrease in parasympathetic nervous activity under direct sunlight with the remaining two cows showing no apparent change...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Natsumi Masuda, Youhei Mantani, Chiaki Yoshitomi, Hideto Yuasa, Miho Nishida, Masaya Arai, Junichi Kawano, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The host defense system with lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) was immunohistochemically investigated in rat respiratory tract under healthy conditions. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NC) and a small number of goblet cells (GC) were immunopositive for lysozyme and sPLA2. A few acinar cells and almost all epithelial cells of intercalated ducts were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances in the nasal glands. In the laryngeal and tracheal epithelia, few NC and GC were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Numfa Fungbun, Tungmahasuk Doungrut, Ryota Terashima, Shiro Kurusu, Mitsumori Kawaminami
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulates gonadotropin secretion. We previously demonstrated that the expression of annexin A5 (ANXA5) is stimulated by GnRH in gonadotropes and has a significant role in gonadotropin secretion. It is therefore of interest to know whether other members of the ANXA family, which consists of twelve structurally related members, are also regulated by GnRH. Therefore, the expression of all annexins was examined in LβT2gonadotrope cells. ANXA4, A5, A6, A7, and A11 were detected in LβT2cells...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Meina Tei, Kazuyuki Uchida, James K Chambers, Ken-Ichi Watanabe, Takashi Tamamoto, Koichi Ohno, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, a fatal systemic amyloid disease, occurs secondary to chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Although persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) levels are required for its pathogenesis, not all individuals with chronic inflammation necessarily develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, many diseases in cats are associated with the elevated production of SAA, whereas only a small number actually develop AA amyloidosis. We hypothesized that a genetic mutation in the SAA gene may strongly contribute to the pathogenesis of feline AA amyloidosis...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Sangyun Shin, Jeong-Ha Sim, Jong-Teak Kim, Hongshik Oh, Hyun-Jin Tae, Byung-Yong Park, In-Shik Kim, Dongchoon Ahn
This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771) from South Korea. A total of eight of the nine expected types, based on the branching site and bilateral levels of the costocervical trunk (CCT) and subclavian artery (SB), were observed in the arterial silicone casts of 35 deer (16 males, 19 females). This deer has no typical type. The three most common types were present in 28.6%, 25.7%, and 20.0% of cases and resulted from different branching patterns of the left CCT and left SB...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Jun Xu, Kazuasa Suita, Katsuya Okuno, Akiko Takaya, Tomoko Yamamoto, Emiko Isogai
The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state is a remarkable survival mechanism in which cells exist in a physiologically inactive state. Bacteria in the VBNC state do not form colonies, and thus, are difficult to detect using colony-based methods. As a result, VBNC bacteria are potentially virulent and can cause widespread contamination during food production. In the present study, we reported a novel biomarker, the membrane vesicle protein PagC, for the detection of VBNC Salmonella. Salmonella cells were chemically induced into the VBNC state by H2O2 treatment...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Yuki Oshima, Yuri Nakagawa, Tsutae Kashima, Masako Matsunaga, Shohei Kushima, Yukichi Tanaka
Renal mixed tumor characterized by the absence of nephrogenic blastema and the presence of predominant osteoid-producing osteoblast-like cells occurred in the kidney of a 6-month-old, hybrid, female pig. At the post-mortem examination, the tumor was found as a calcified grayish-white mass at the cranial end of the left kidney. Histologically the tumor consisted of 3 growth areas of poorly differentiated spindle cells, osteoid-producing osteoblast-like cells, and luminal epithelial cells. Transition from the spindle cells to the osteoblast-like cells or the luminal epithelial cells was observed...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Yang Lv, Xueni Li, Lin Zhang, Yutao Shi, Linxiao DU, Binying Ding, Yongqing Hou, Joshua Gong, Tao Wu
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is primary pathogenic bacteria of piglet diarrhea, over two thirds of piglets diarrhea caused by ETEC are resulted from STa-producing ETEC strains. This experiment was conducted to construct the recombinant E.coli expressing STa and study the injury and mechanism of recombinant E.coli expressing STa on 7 days old piglets colon. Twenty-four 7 days old piglets were allotted to four treatments: control group, STa group (2×109 CFU E.coli LMG194-STa), LMG194 group (2×109 CFU E...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Shizuka Hayashi, Tomohisa Tanaka, Kohji Moriishi, Kazuhiro Hirayama, Akio Yamada, Kozue Hotta
Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV) is recently identified as a closely related homologue of hepatitis C virus. The previous studies showed a high prevalence of NPHV infection among Japanese domestic horses originated from abroad. The historical distribution of NPHV among horses in Japan, therefore, is still unknown. In this study, seroepidemiological study of NPHV was conducted using 335 sera from five breeds of Japanese native horses. These horses are maintained as the pedigree and are reared apart from other horse breeds...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Sam Thi Nguyen, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Duc Tan Nguyen, Ha Thanh Dao, Duc Quyet LE, Khanh Linh Bui, Chika Tada, Yutaka Nakai
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, genotypes/assemblages and possible risk factors associated with Giardia duodenalis infection in dogs in central Vietnam. A total of 209 dog fecal samples, randomly collected from private owned dogs (n=105) and dogs from stores (n=104), were examined for Giardia cysts by microscopy. Positive samples were genotyped by PCR-sequence analysis of β-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes markers. Risk factors were studied using a structured questionnaire and collected data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Kei Hayashi, Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Uday Kumar Mohanta, Takuya Shoriki, Pannigan Chaichanasak, Tadashi Itagaki
Nuclear gene markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold), have been developed for precise discrimination of Fasciola flukes instead of internal transcribed spacer 1. In this study, these two genes of 730 Fasciola flukes from eight Asian countries were analyzed. The results were compared with their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) lineages for obtaining a definitive evidence of the hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. All the flukes categorized into the aspermic nad1 lineages possessed both the fragment patterns of F...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Nadeem Akhtar, Mohsen Jafarikia, Brian P Sullivan, Julang Li
In this study, a novel 'rope-assisted swab method' for the collection of saliva samples from 45 adult pigs was established and validated. This method was efficient for harvesting 2 milliliters or more of saliva from each of the pigs for subsequent analyses within two minutes. The amount of α-amylase and lipase in the collected saliva samples was between 38-6,655 and 2-52 U/l, respectively. For HCO3- and electrolytes, the range was between 9-40, 15-76, 4.3-48.5, and 7-65 mM for HCO3-, Na+, K+, and Cl-, respectively...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Adrian Miki C Macalanda, Jose Ma M Angeles, Kharleezelle J Moendeg, Anh Tm Dang, Luna Higuchi, Noboru Inoue, Xuenan Xuan, Masashi Kirinoki, Yuichi Chigusa, Lydia R Leonardo, Elena A Villacorte, Pilarita T Rivera, Yasuyuki Goto, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu
Asian schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is a serious zoonotic disease endemic in China, the Philippines and parts of Indonesia. Mass drug administration in endemic areas resulted to decline in disease severity and intensity. The low intensity of infection limits the use of current parasitological methods for schistosomiasis diagnosis. Detection of parasite circulating antigens might provide more informative result as it may indicate the true status of infection. In this study, S. japonicum thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1) a 22 kDa secreted antioxidant enzyme expressed throughout the life stages of the parasite was evaluated for its potential use as a biomarker for schistosomiasis japonica infection...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Xinrui Dong, Xueye Shu, Yingnan Wang, Zhaohuan Niu, Shixia Xu, Yue Zhang, Shuchun Zhao
Valnemulin, successfully developed by Sandoz in 1984, is a new generation derivative of pleuromutilin related to tiamulin. Valnemulin has low water-solubility, a short half-life period, low bioavailability, and instability. The application of valnemulin was restricted. Therefore, finding a more moderate delivery system is necessary to improve the shortcomings of valnemulin. The purpose of the study was to improve the strong stability and the irritation caused by of valnemulin hydrochloride power through pegylated-valnemulin prodrug mode...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Masaki Takasu, Ryoko Baba, Satsuki Owada, Kotono Nakamura, Julio Almunia, Noriko Nishii, Hitoshi Kitagawa
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is suggested to be useful for counting follicles and confirming ovulation in microminipigs. However, its accuracy is unknown. We have compared the number of follicles counted by MRI to that of corpus hemorrhagicum confirmed directly by visual inspection. The follicles of 17 microminipigs were counted by using ovarian MRI on a 0.4 Tesla MRI System every 24 hours after estrus until follicle images disappeared. Then, we performed laparotomy to count their corpus hemorrhagicum. Significant correlation was observed between follicle counts obtained using MRI (5...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Takayuki Mineshige, Junichi Kamiie, Go Sugahara, Kinji Shirota
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, and allergic skin disease in humans and animals, particularly dogs. Canine AD (cAD) has received attention as a spontaneous atopic animal model because domesticated dogs inhabit a human environment, and cAD shares several clinicopathological features with human AD (hAD). In hAD, periostin (PO) is suggested to play a critical role in the enhancement and chronicity of allergic skin inflammation; however, PO involvement in the pathogenesis of cAD is unknown. Here we aimed to clarify PO involvement in the pathophysiology of cAD and focused on the inducing factor and function of PO in canine atopic skin...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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