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Glycobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430973/biological-functions-of-fucose-in-mammals
#1
Michael Schneider, Esam Al-Shareffi, Robert S Haltiwanger
Fucose is a 6-deoxy hexose in the L-configuration found in a large variety of different organisms. In mammals, fucose is incorporated into N-glycans, O-glycans and glycolipids by thirteen fucosyltransferases, all of which utilize the nucleotide charged form, GDP-fucose, to modify targets. Three of the fucosyltransferases, FUT8, FUT12/POFUT1, and FUT13/POFUT2, are essential for proper development in mice. Fucose modifications have also been implicated in many other biological functions including immunity and cancer...
April 18, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419225/epitope-mapping-of-a-new-anti-tn-antibody-detecting-gastric-cancer-cells
#2
Nina Persson, Nicolai Stuhr-Hansen, Christian Risinger, Stefan Mereiter, António Polónia, Karol Polom, András Kovács, Franco Roviello, Celso Reis, Charlotte Welinder, Lena Danielsson, Bo Jansson, Ola Blixt
Here we introduce a novel scFv antibody, G2-D11, specific for two adjacent Tn-antigens (GalNAc -Ser/Thr) binding equally to three dimeric forms of the epitope, Ser-Thr, Thr-Thr and Thr-Ser. Compared to other anti-Tn reagents, the binding of G2-D11 is minimally influenced by the peptide structure, which indicates a high degree of carbohydrate epitope dominance and a low influence from the protein backbone. With a high affinity (KDapp = 1.3 × 10-8M) and no cross-reactivity to either sialyl-Tn epitope or blood group A antigens, scFv G2-D11 is an excellent candidate for a well-defined anti-Tn-antigen reagent...
April 13, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402541/a-gene-cluster-at-an-unusual-chromosomal-location-responsible-for-the-novel-o-antigen-synthesis-in-escherichia-coli-o62-by-the-abc-transporter-dependent-pathway
#3
Xi Hou, Andrei V Perepelov, Xi Guo, Sof'ya N Senchenkova, Alexander S Shashkov, Bin Liu, Yuriy A Knirel, Lei Wang
The O-antigen is a part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is related to bacterial virulence. It is one of the most variable cell constituents, and its structural diversity is almost entirely due to genetic variation of the O-antigen gene cluster. In this study, the O-antigen structure of Escherichia coli O62 was elucidated by chemical analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, but showing not consistent with the O-antigen gene cluster between conserved genes galF and gnd reported earlier...
April 10, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369326/gfsa-is-a-%C3%AE-1-5-galactofuranosyltransferase-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-the-galactofuran-side-chain-of-fungal-type-galactomannan-inaspergillus-fumigatus
#4
Yukako Katafuchi, Qiushi Li, Yutaka Tanaka, Saki Shinozuka, Yohei Kawamitsu, Minoru Izumi, Keisuke Ekino, Keiji Mizuki, Kaoru Takegawa, Nobuyuki Shibata, Masatoshi Goto, Yoshiyuki Nomura, Kazuyoshi Ohta, Takuji Oka
Previously, we reported that GfsA is a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of O-glycan, the proper maintenance of fungal morphology, the formation of conidia and anti-fungal resistance in Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus (Komachi Y et al., Mol. Microbiol. 90, 1054-1073, 2013). In the present paper, to gain an in depth-understanding of the enzymatic functions of GfsA in A. fumigatus (AfGfsA), we established an in vitro assay to measure galactofuranosyltransferase activity using purified AfGfsA, UDP-α-D-galactofuranose as a sugar donor, and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactofuranoside as an acceptor substrate...
March 28, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369504/siglec-8-and-siglec-9-binding-specificities-and-endogenous-airway-ligand-distributions-and-properties
#5
Huifeng Yu, Anabel Gonzalez-Gil, Yadong Wei, Steve M Fernandes, Ryan N Porell, Katarina Vajn, James C Paulson, Corwin M Nycholat, Ronald L Schnaar
Siglecs are transmembrane sialoglycan binding proteins, most of which are expressed on leukocyte subsets and have inhibitory motifs that translate cell surface ligation into immune suppression. In humans, Siglec-8 on eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and Siglec-9 on neutrophils, monocytes and some T-cells, mediate immune cell death, inhibition of immune mediator release and/or enhancement of anti-inflammatory mediator release. Endogenous sialoglycan ligands in tissues, mostly uncharacterized, engage siglecs on leukocytes to inhibit inflammation...
March 20, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369425/the-%C3%AE-reducing-end-in-%C3%AE-2-8-polysialic-acid-constitutes-a-unique-structural-motif
#6
Hugo F Azurmendi, Marcos D Battistel, Jasmin Zarb, Flora Lichaa, Alejandro Negrete Virgen, Joseph Shiloach, Darón I Freedberg
Over the years, structural characterizations of α(2-8)-polysialic acid (PolySia) in solution have produced inconclusive results. Efforts for obtaining detailed information in this important antigen have focused primarily on the α-linked residues and not on the distinctive characteristics of the terminal ones. The thermodynamically preferred anomeric configuration for the reducing end of sialic acids is β, which has the [I]CO2- group equatorial and the OH ([I]OH2) axial, while for all other residues the CO2- group is axial...
March 20, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334971/expanding-glycosaminoglycan-chemical-space-towards-the-creation-of-sulfated-analogs-novel-polymers-and-chimeric-constructs
#7
Rachel S Lane, Kalib St Ange, Behnam Zolghadr, Xinyue Liu, Christina Schäffer, Robert J Linhardt, Paul L DeAngelis
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the in vitro enzymatic synthesis of defined GAGs is quite restricted by a limited understanding of current GAG synthases and modifying enzymes. Our work provides insights into GAG-active enzymes through the creation of sulfated oligosaccharides, a new polysaccharide and chimeric polymers...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334865/structure-of-human-pofut1-its-requirement-in-ligand-independent-oncogenic-notch-signaling-and-functional-effects-of-dowling-degos-mutations
#8
Brian J McMillan, Brandon Zimmerman, Emily D Egan, Michael Lofgren, Xiang Xu, Anthony Hesser, Stephen C Blacklow
Protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 (POFUT1), which transfers fucose residues to acceptor sites on serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor-like repeats of recipient proteins, is essential for Notch signal transduction in mammals. Here, we examine the consequences of POFUT1 loss on the oncogenic signaling associated with certain leukemia-associated mutations of human Notch1, report the structures of human POFUT1 in free and GDP-fucose bound states, and assess the effects of Dowling-Degos mutations on human POFUT1 function...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334934/a-pseudaminic-acid-or-a-legionaminic-acid-derivative-transferase-is-strain-specifically-implicated-in-the-general-protein-o-glycosylation-system-of-the-periodontal-pathogen-tannerella-forsythia
#9
Markus B Tomek, Bettina Janesch, Daniel Maresch, Markus Windwarder, Friedrich Altmann, Paul Messner, Christina Schäffer
The occurrence of nonulosonic acids in bacteria is wide-spread and linked to pathogenicity. However, the knowledge of cognate nonulosonic acid transferases is scarce. In the periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, several proposed virulence factors carry strain-specifically either a pseudaminic or a legionaminic acid derivative as terminal sugar on an otherwise structurally identical, protein-bound oligosaccharide. This study aims to shed light on the transfer of either nonulosonic acid derivative on a proximal N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid residue within the O-glycan structure, exemplified with the bacterium's abundant S-layer glycoproteins...
March 16, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204532/characterization-of-the-single-subunit-oligosaccharyltransferase-stt3a-from-trypanosoma-brucei-using-synthetic-peptides-andlipid-linked-oligosaccharide-analogs
#10
Ana S Ramírez, Jérémy Boilevin, Rasomoy Biswas, Bee Ha Gan, Daniel Janser, Markus Aebi, Tamis Darbre, Jean-Louis Reymond, Kaspar P Locher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186556/discoveries-of-the-structures-of-sialic-acid-and-cmp-sialic-acid-1957-1960-a-letter-from-saul-roseman
#11
Ronald L Schnaar, Yuan C Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138013/hyaluronan-synthase-assembles-hyaluronan-on-a-glcnac-%C3%AE-1-4-n-glcnac-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-udp-primer-and-hyaluronan-retains-this-residual-chitin-oligomer-as-a-cap-at-the-nonreducing-end
#12
Paul H Weigel, Bruce A Baggenstoss, Jennifer L Washburn
Class I hyaluronan synthases (HAS) assemble [GlcNAc(β1,4)GlcUA(β1,3)]n-UDP at the reducing end and also make chitin. Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS) also synthesizes chitin-UDP oligosaccharides, (GlcNAc-β1,4)n-GlcNAc(α1→)UDP (Weigel et al Glycobiol. 25, 632-643, 2015). Here we determined if HAS uses chitin-UDPs as primers to initiate HA synthesis, leaving the non-HA primer at the nonreducing (NR) end. HA made by SeHAS membranes was purified, digested with streptomyces lyase, and hydrophobic oligomers were enriched by solid phase extraction and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS...
January 30, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384366/a-glyconutrient-sham-and-the-jenner-glycobiology-and-medicine-symposium
#13
Ronald L Schnaar, Hudson H Freeze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334832/the-n-glycosylation-of-immunoglobulin-g-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Alyce C Russell, Mirna Šimurina, Monique T Garcia, Mislav Novokmet, Youxin Wang, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Gordan Lauc, Meghan G Thomas, Wei Wang
The use of the emerging "omics" technologies for large scale population screening is promising in terms of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine. For Parkinson's disease, it is essential that an accurate diagnosis is obtained and disease progression can be monitored. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) has the ability to exert both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory effects, and the N-glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable portion of IgG is involved in this process. This study aimed to determine whether the IgG glycome could be a candidate biomarker for Parkinson's disease...
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204496/the-glycan-specific-sulfotransferase-r77w-galnac-4-st1-putatively-responsible-for-peeling-skin-syndrome-has-normal-properties-consistent-with-a-simple-sequence-polymorphisim
#15
Dorothy Fiete, Yiling Mi, Mary Beranek, Nancy L Baenziger, Jacques U Baenziger
Expanded access to DNA sequencing now fosters ready detection of site-specific human genome alterations whose actual significance requires in-depth functional study to rule in or out disease-causing mutations. This is a particular concern for genomic sequence differences in glycosyltransferases, whose implications are often difficult to assess. A recent whole-exome sequencing study identifies (c.229 C > T) in the GalNAc-4-ST1 glycosyltransferase (CHST8) as a disease-causing missense R77W mutation yielding the genodermatosis peeling skin syndrome (PSS) when homozygous...
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204489/enzymatic-properties-of-a-gh19-chitinase-isolated-from-rice-lacking-a-major-loop-structure-involved-in-chitin-binding
#16
Jun Tanaka, Tamo Fukamizo, Takayuki Ohnuma
The catalytic domains of family GH19 chitinases have been found to consist of a conserved, α-helical core-region and different numbers (1-6) of loop structures, located at both ends of the substrate-binding groove and which extend over the glycon- and aglycon-binding sites. We expressed, purified and enzymatically characterized a GH19 chitinase from rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare (OsChia2a), lacking a major loop structure (loop III) connected to the functionally important β-stranded region. The new enzyme thus contained the five remaining loop structures (loops I, II, IV, V and C-term)...
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168306/characterization-of-a-mycobacterial-cellulase-and-its-impact-on-biofilm-and-drug-induced-cellulose-production
#17
Niël Van Wyk, David Navarro, Mickaël Blaise, Jean-Guy Berrin, Bernard Henrissat, Michel Drancourt, Laurent Kremer
It was recently shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces cellulose which forms an integral part of its extracellular polymeric substances within a biofilm set-up. Using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a proxy model organism, we demonstrate that M. smegmatis biofilms treated with purified MSMEG_6752 releases the main cellulose degradation-product (cellobiose), detected by using ionic chromatography, suggesting that MSMEG_6752 encodes a cellulase. Its overexpression in M. smegmatis prevents spontaneous biofilm formation...
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158578/introducing-transgalactosylation-activity-into-a-family-42-%C3%AE-galactosidase
#18
Andrea Strazzulli, Beatrice Cobucci-Ponzano, Sara Carillo, Emiliano Bedini, Maria Michela Corsaro, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Stephen G Withers, Mosè Rossi, Marco Moracci
Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides exploits the diversity of glycosidases and their ability to promote transglycosylation reactions in parallel with hydrolysis. Methods to increase the transglycosylation/hydrolysis ratio include site-directed mutagenesis and medium modification. The former approach was successful in several cases and has provided the best synthetic yields with glycosynthases-mutants at the catalytic nucleophile position that promote transglycosylation with high efficiency, but do not hydrolyze the oligosaccharide products...
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130266/a-potential-role-for-chondroitin-sulfate-dermatan-sulfate-in-arm-regeneration-in-amphiura-filiformis
#19
Rashmi Ramachandra, Ramesh B Namburi, Sam T Dupont, Olga Ortega-Martinez, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Ulf Lindahl, Dorothe Spillmann
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A...
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115423/role-of-selectins-and-their-ligands-in-human-implantation-stage
#20
Ying Feng, Xue Ma, Liwen Deng, Bin Yao, Ying Xiong, Yilun Wu, Lin Wang, Qianhong Ma, Fang Ma
Selectins are a family of calcium-dependent, type I transmembrane, carbohydrate-binding glycoproteins. Selectins and their ligands are not only involved in physiological processes such as leukocyte homing and pathological processes such as cancer, but also play an essential role in the human implantation. L-selectin and its ligands participate in the adhesion of the blastocyst to the endometrium at the maternal-fetal interface. P-selectin and E-selectin are involved in immune recognition of maternal decidua to the embedded embryo as well as trophoblast migration within decidual spiral arterioles...
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
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