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Glycobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334971/expanding-glycosaminoglycan-chemical-space-towards-the-creation-of-sulfated-analogs-novel-polymers-and-chimeric-constructs
#1
Rachel S Lane, Kalib St Ange, Behnam Zolghadr, Xinyue Liu, Christina Schäffer, Robert J Linhardt, Paul L DeAngelis
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the in vitro enzymatic synthesis of defined GAGs is quite restricted by a limited understanding of current GAG synthases and modifying enzymes. Our work provides insights into GAG-active enzymes through the creation of sulfated oligosaccharides, a new polysaccharide and chimeric polymers...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334865/structure-of-human-pofut1-its-requirement-in-ligand-independent-oncogenic-notch-signaling-and-functional-effects-of-dowling-degos-mutations
#2
Brian J McMillan, Brandon Zimmerman, Emily D Egan, Michael Lofgren, Xiang Xu, Anthony Hesser, Stephen C Blacklow
Protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 (POFUT1), which transfers fucose residues to acceptor sites on serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor-like repeats of recipient proteins, is essential for Notch signal transduction in mammals. Here, we examine the consequences of POFUT1 loss on the oncogenic signaling associated with certain leukemia-associated mutations of human Notch1, report the structures of human POFUT1 in free and GDP-fucose bound states, and assess the effects of Dowling-Degos mutations on human POFUT1 function...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334832/the-n-glycosylation-of-immunoglobulin-g-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Alyce C Russell, Mirna Šimurina, Monique T Garcia, Mislav Novokmet, Youxin Wang, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Gordan Lauc, Meghan G Thomas, Wei Wang
The use of the emerging "omics" technologies for large scale population screening is promising in terms of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine. For Parkinson's disease, it is essential that an accurate diagnosis is obtained and disease progression can be monitored. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) has the ability to exert both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory effects, and the N-glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable portion of IgG is involved in this process. This study aimed to determine whether the IgG glycome could be a candidate biomarker for Parkinson's disease...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334934/a-pseudaminic-acid-or-a-legionaminic-acid-derivative-transferase-is-strain-specifically-implicated-in-the-general-protein-o-glycosylation-system-of-the-periodontal-pathogen-tannerella-forsythia
#4
Markus B Tomek, Bettina Janesch, Daniel Maresch, Markus Windwarder, Friedrich Altmann, Paul Messner, Christina Schäffer
The occurrence of nonulosonic acids in bacteria is wide-spread and linked to pathogenicity. However, the knowledge of cognate nonulosonic acid transferases is scarce. In the periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, several proposed virulence factors carry strain-specifically either a pseudaminic or a legionaminic acid derivative as terminal sugar on an otherwise structurally identical, protein-bound oligosaccharide. This study aims to shed light on the transfer of either nonulosonic acid derivative on a proximal N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid residue within the O-glycan structure, exemplified with the bacterium's abundant S-layer glycoproteins...
March 16, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204532/characterization-of-the-single-subunit-oligosaccharyltransferase-stt3a-from-trypanosoma-brucei-using-synthetic-peptides-andlipid-linked-oligosaccharide-analogs
#5
Ana S Ramírez, Jérémy Boilevin, Rasomoy Biswas, Bee Ha Gan, Daniel Janser, Markus Aebi, Tamis Darbre, Jean-Louis Reymond, Kaspar P Locher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204496/the-glycan-specific-sulfotransferase-r77w-galnac-4-st1-putatively-responsible-for-peeling-skin-syndrome-has-normal-properties-consistent-with-a-simple-sequence-polymorphisim
#6
Dorothy Fiete, Yiling Mi, Mary Beranek, Nancy L Baenziger, Jacques U Baenziger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204489/enzymatic-properties-of-a-gh19-chitinase-isolated-from-rice-lacking-a-major-loop-structure-involved-in-chitin-binding
#7
Jun Tanaka, Tamo Fukamizo, Takayuki Ohnuma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186556/discoveries-of-the-structures-of-sialic-acid-and-cmp-sialic-acid-1957-1960-a-letter-from-saul-roseman
#8
Ronald L Schnaar, Yuan C Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168306/characterization-of-a-mycobacterial-cellulase-and-its-impact-on-biofilm-and-drug-induced-cellulose-production
#9
Niël Van Wyk, David Navarro, Mickaël Blaise, Jean-Guy Berrin, Bernard Henrissat, Michel Drancourt, Laurent Kremer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173134/non-reducing-end-labeling-of-heparan-sulfate-via-click-chemistry-and-a-high-throughput-elisa-assay-for-heparanase
#10
Zhengliang L Wu, Xinyi Huang, Cheryl M Ethen, Timothy Tatge, Marta Pasek, Joseph Zaia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158578/introducing-transgalactosylation-activity-into-a-family-42-%C3%AE-galactosidase
#11
Andrea Strazzulli, Beatrice Cobucci-Ponzano, Sara Carillo, Emiliano Bedini, Maria Michela Corsaro, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Stephen G Withers, Mosè Rossi, Marco Moracci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138013/hyaluronan-synthase-assembles-hyaluronan-on-a-glcnac-%C3%AE-1-4-n-glcnac-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-udp-primer-and-hyaluronan-retains-this-residual-chitin-oligomer-as-a-cap-at-the-nonreducing-end
#12
Paul H Weigel, Bruce A Baggenstoss, Jennifer L Washburn
Class I hyaluronan synthases (HAS) assemble [GlcNAc(β1,4)GlcUA(β1,3)]n-UDP at the reducing end and also make chitin. Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS) also synthesizes chitin-UDP oligosaccharides, (GlcNAc-β1,4)n-GlcNAc(α1→)UDP (Weigel et al Glycobiol. 25, 632-643, 2015). Here we determined if HAS uses chitin-UDPs as primers to initiate HA synthesis, leaving the non-HA primer at the nonreducing (NR) end. HA made by SeHAS membranes was purified, digested with streptomyces lyase, and hydrophobic oligomers were enriched by solid phase extraction and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS...
January 30, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130266/a-potential-role-for-chondroitin-sulfate-dermatan-sulfate-in-arm-regeneration-in-amphiura-filiformis
#13
Rashmi Ramachandra, Ramesh B Namburi, Sam T Dupont, Olga Ortega-Martinez, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Ulf Lindah, Dorothe Spillmann
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A...
January 27, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122822/intestinal-muc2-mucin-o-glycosylation-is-affected-by-microbiota-and-regulated-by-differential-expression-of-glycosyltranferases
#14
Liisa Arike, Jessica Holmén-Larsson, Gunnar C Hansson
Intestinal cells are covered by mucus. In the small intestine, a single unattached mucus is present whereas the colon has both an inner attached mucus layer and an outer loose mucus. The attached mucus of the colon is impenetrable to bacteria while the loose mucus acts as a habitat for commensal bacteria. In germ-free (GF) mice, small intestinal mucus is attached to the epithelium and the inner colon mucus is penetrable. O-glycosylation plays an important role in the host-microbiota interactions as the commensal bacteria use glycans as nutrient sources and attachment sites...
January 24, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115423/role-of-selectins-and-their-ligands-in-human-implantation-stage
#15
REVIEW
Ying Feng, Xue Ma, Liwen Deng, Bin Yao, Ying Xiong, Yilun Wu, Lin Wang, Qianhong Ma, Fang Ma
Selectins are a family of calcium-dependent, type I transmembrane, carbohydrate-binding glycoproteins. Selectins and their ligands are not only involved in physiological processes such as leukocyte homing and pathological processes such as cancer, but also play an essential role in the human implantation. L-selectin and its ligands participate in the adhesion of the blastocyst to the endometrium at the maternal-fetal interface. P-selectin and E-selectin are involved in immune recognition of maternal decidua to the embedded embryo as well as trophoblast migration within decidual spiral arterioles...
January 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104787/binding-characteristics-of-galectin-3-fusion-proteins
#16
Sophia Böcker, Lothar Elling
Galectin-3 modulates cell adhesion and signaling events by specific binding and cross-linking galactoside containing carbohydrate ligands. Proteolytic cleavage by metalloproteinases yields in vivo N-terminally truncated galectin-3 still bearing the carbohydrate recognition domain. Truncated galectin-3 has been demonstrated to act in vivo as a negative inhibitor of galectin-3 due to higher affinity for carbohydrate ligands. We here present our studies on a series of twelve human galectin-3 protein constructs...
January 19, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104786/identification-of-a-chondroitin-synthase-from-an-unexpected-source-the-green-sulfur-bacterium-chlorobium-phaeobacteroides
#17
Dixy E Green, Paul L DeAngelis
Glycosaminoglycans [GAGs] are known to be present in all animals as well as some pathogenic microbes. Chondroitin sulfate is the most abundant GAG in mammals where it has various structural and adhesion roles. The Gram-negative bacteria Pasteurella multocida Type F and Escherichia coli K4 produce extracellular capsules composed of unsulfated chondroitin or a fructosylated chondroitin, respectively. Such polysaccharides that are structurally related to host molecules do not generally provoke a strong antibody response thus are thought to be employed as molecular camouflage during infection...
January 19, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100567/mecp2-regulated-glycogenes-contribute-to-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#18
Yannan Qin, Lingyu Zhao, Xiaofei Wang, Dongdong Tong, Christopher Hoover, Fei Wu, Yingxun Liu, Lumin Wang, Liying Liu, Lei Ni, Tusheng Song, Chen Huang
Aberrant glycogene and glycan expression is intimately associated with carcinogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer (GC); however the regulatory mechanisms for glycogenes in GC cells remain unclear. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) regulates genes by binding to methylated promoters, and in our previous work we found that it is overexpressed in GC cell lines and tissues, functioning as an oncogene. In this study we detected the expression of 212 glycogenes in MeCP2 silenced GC cells versus control using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Microarray and mining the data through bioinformatic analysis...
January 18, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096310/characterization-of-the-dtdp-fuc3n-and-dtdp-qui3n-biosynthetic-pathways-in-campylobacter-jejuni-81116%C3%A2
#19
Zack Z Li, Alexander S Riegert, Marie-France Goneau, Anna M Cunningham, Evgeny Vinogradov, Jianjun Li, Ian C Schoenhofen, James B Thoden, Hazel M Holden, Michel Gilbert
The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni 81116 (Penner serotype HS:6) has a class E lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis locus containing 19 genes, which encode for 11 putative glycosyltransferases, 1 lipid A acyltransferase and 7 enzymes thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of dideoxyhexosamine (ddHexN) moieties. Although the LOS outer core structure of C. jejuni 81116 is still unknown, recent mass spectrometry analyses suggest that it contains acetylated forms of two ddHexN residues. For this investigation, five of the genes encoding enzymes reportedly involved in the biosyntheses of these sugar residues were examined, rmlA, rmlB, wlaRA, wlaRB and wlaRG Specifically, these genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding enzymes were purified and tested for biochemical activity...
January 16, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077463/novel-method-for-detection-of-glycogen-in-cells
#20
Alexander V Skurat, Dyann Segvich, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Peter J Roach
Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, functions as an energy reserve in many living organisms. Abnormalities in glycogen metabolism, usually excessive accumulation, can be caused genetically, most often through mutation of the enzymes directly involved in synthesis and degradation of the polymer leading to a variety of glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). Microscopic visualization of glycogen deposits in cells and tissues is important for the study of normal glycogen metabolism as well as diagnosis of GSDs...
January 10, 2017: Glycobiology
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