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Shonoi A Ming, Ebony Cottman-Thomas, Natalee C Black, Yi Chen, Vamsee Veeramachineni, Dwight C Peterson, Xi Chen, Lauren M Tedaldi, Gerd K Wagner, Chao Cai, Robert J Linhardt, Willie F Vann
Neisseria meningitidis Group X is an emerging cause of bacterial meningitis in the Sub-Saharan Africa. The capsular polysaccharide of Group X is a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine α(1-4) phosphate and is a vaccine target for prevention of disease associated with this meningococcal serogroup. We have demonstrated previously that the formation of the polymer is catalyzed by a phosphotransferase which transfers N- acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to the 4- hydroxyl of the N-acetylglucosamine on the non-reducing end of the growing chain...
December 8, 2017: Glycobiology
Takahiro Yoshizawa, Shuji Mizumoto, Yuki Takahashi, Shin Shimada, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Jun Nakayama, Shin'ichi Takeda, Yoshihiro Nomura, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Takashi Okada, Kiyoshi Matsumoto, Shuhei Yamada, Tomoki Kosho
Collagen is one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix that is involved in the strength of tissues, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. Mutations in several collagen and post-translational modification enzyme genes cause Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by joint and skin hyperextensibility as well as fragility of various organs. Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 14/dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 (CHST14/D4ST1) is a critical enzyme for biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate, a side chain of various proteoglycans including biglycan that regulates collagen fibrils through their interaction...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Jesús E Serrano-Negrón, Zhenbo Zhang, Andrea P Rivera-Ruiz, Aditi Banerjee, Eva C Romero-Nutz, Neysharie Sánchez-Torres, Krishna Baksi, Dipak K Banerjee
GRP78 (an Mr 78 kDa calcium dependent glucose binding protein) located in ER lumen. It functions as ER chaperone and translocates proteins for glycosylation at the asparagine residue present in the sequon Asn-X-Ser/Thr. Paraffin sections from N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin treated ER-/PR-/HER2+ (double negative) breast tumor in athymic nude mice exhibited reduced N-glycan but increased GRP78 expression. We have evaluated the effect of tunicamycin on cellular localization of GRP78 in metastatic human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 (ER-/PR-/HER2-)...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Matthew R Blackburn, Caitlin Hubbard, Volker Kiessling, Yunchen Bi, Brian Kloss, Lukas Tamm, Jochen Zimmer
Hyaluronan (HA) is an acidic high molecular weight cell surface polysaccharide ubiquitously expressed by vertebrates, some pathogenic bacteria, and even viruses. HA modulates many essential physiological processes and is implicated in numerous pathological conditions ranging from autoimmune diseases to cancer. In various pathogens, HA functions as a non-immunogenic surface polymer that reduces host immune responses. It is a linear polymer of strictly alternating glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine units synthesized by HA synthase (HAS), a membrane-embedded family-2 glycosyltransferase...
November 27, 2017: Glycobiology
Dustin R Middleton, Xing Zhang, Paeton L Wantuch, Ahmet Ozdilek, Xinyue Liu, Rachel Lopilato, Nikhil Gangasani, Robert Bridger, Lance Wells, Robert J Linhardt, Fikri Y Avci
Bacillus circulans Jordan 32352 was isolated from decaying organic matter in the New Jersey soil in the early 1930s. This soil-dwelling bacterium produced an enzyme capable of degrading the type 3 capsular polysaccharide (Pn3P) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn). Early reports of this enzyme, Pn3Pase, demonstrated its inducibility by, and specificity for Pn3P. We set out to identify and clone this enzyme for its recombinant expression and characterization. We first sequenced the genome of this bacterial species, and reclassified the Pn3Pase producing bacterium as Paenibacillus species 32352...
November 27, 2017: Glycobiology
Zhengliang L Wu, Anthony Person, Matthew Anderson, Barbara Burroughs, Timothy Tatge, Kshitij Khatri, Yonglong Zou, Lianchun Wang, Todd Geders, Joseph Zaia, Robert Sackstein
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide fundamentally important for biologically activities. T/Tn antigens are universal carbohydrate cancer markers. Here, we report the specific imaging of these carbohydrates using a mesenchymal stem cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The staining specificities were demonstrated by comparing imaging of different glycans and validated by either removal of target glycans, which results in loss of signal, or installation of target glycans, which results in gain of signal...
November 25, 2017: Glycobiology
Jenny L Johnson, Mark B Jones, Brian A Cobb
Inhibition of peripheral inflammatory disease by carbohydrate antigens derived from normal gut microbiota has been demonstrated for the GI tract, brain, peritoneum, and most recently the airway. We have demonstrated that polysaccharide A (PSA) from the commensal organism Bacteroides fragilis activates CD4+ T cells upon presentation by the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII), and that these PSA-experienced T cells prevent the development of lung inflammation in murine models. While the PSA-responding T cells themselves are not canonical FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), their ability to prevent inflammation is dependent upon the suppressive cytokine IL-10...
October 26, 2017: Glycobiology
Francesca Vasile, Francesco Gubinelli, Maddalena Panigada, Elisa Soprana, Antonio Siccardi, Donatella Potenza
The emergence of escape-mutants of Influenza Hemagglutinin following vaccination compels the yearly re-formulation of flu vaccines. Since binding the sialic acid receptor remains in all cases essential for infection, small-molecule inhibitors of hemagglutinin binding to sialic acid could be interesting therapeutic complements or alternatives to immuno-prophylaxis in the control of flu epidemics. In this work, we made use of NMR spectroscopy to study the interaction between a derivative of sialic acid (the Neu5Ac-α-(2,6)-Gal-β-(1-4)-GlcNAc trisaccharide) and hemagglutinins (H1 and H5) from human and avian strains of influenza virus, directly expressed on the surface of stable transfected 293 T human cells...
October 26, 2017: Glycobiology
Jian-You Chen, Hsin-Hung Huang, Shin-Yi Yu, Shang-Ju Wu, Reiji Kannagi, Kay-Hooi Khoo
Despite well-recognized biological importance, mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycomic identification of sulfo-, sialylated terminal glyco-epitopes on the N-glycans of various immune cell types remains technically challenging and rarely reported. Previous studies with monoclonal antibody have implicated a regulated expression of 6-sulfo-α2-6-sialyl LacNAc on B cells in peripheral lymph nodes and the circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes but its occurrence on leukemia cells or lymphomas have not been critically addressed...
October 26, 2017: Glycobiology
Akiko Mito, Yukiko Nakano, Takako Saitoh, Sabine S S Gouraud, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Toshiro Sato, Nobuo Sasaki, Kyoko Kojima-Aikawa
Zymogen granule protein 16 (ZG16p) is a soluble lectin that binds to both mannose and heparin/heparan sulfate. It is highly expressed in the human digestive tract and is secreted into the mucus. In this study, we investigated the effect of ZG16p on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells. Overexpression of ZG16p in Caco-2 cells decreased cell growth. Recombinant ZG16p markedly inhibited proliferation of Caco-2, LS174T, HCT116 and HCT15 cells. Caco-2 cell growth was not inhibited by two mutated ZG16p proteins, D151A and M5 (K36A, R37A, R53A, R55A and R79A) lacking mannose- and heparin-binding activities, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Glycobiology
Daniel C Levings, Hiroshi Nakato
The stem cell niche normally prevents aberrant stem cell behaviors that lead to cancer formation. Recent studies suggest that some cancers are derived from endogenous populations of adult stem cells that have somehow escaped from normal control by the niche. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the niche retains stem cells locally and tightly controls their divisions are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of heparan sulfate (HS), a class glygosaminoglycan chains, in the Drosophila germline stem cell niche prevents tumor formation in the testis...
October 23, 2017: Glycobiology
(no author information available yet)
CAZypeia was initiated in 2007 to create a comprehensive, living encyclopedia of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and associated carbohydrate-binding modules involved in the synthesis, modification, and degradation of complex carbohydrates. CAZypedia is closely connected with the actively-curated CAZy database, which provides a sequence-based foundation for the biochemical, mechanistic, and structural characterization of these diverse proteins. Now celebrating its 10th anniversary online, CAZypedia is a successful example of dynamic, community-driven, and expert-based biocuration...
October 11, 2017: Glycobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Yota Tatara, Shinichiro Suto, Ken Itoh
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen are the major organic components of bone matrix. However, their roles and functional relationships remain elusive. To investigate the role of GAGs in bone matrix degradation, the effects of GAGs on collagen were examined under acidic conditions that recapitulate the microenvironment of osteoclast resorption pits. We found that sulfated GAGs protect collagen fibrils against acid denaturation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that collagen fibrils retain the fibril structure at pH 4...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Fumi Ota, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Miyako Nakano, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Shinobu Kitazume, Tomomi Ookawara, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, SOD3) protects tissues against oxidative damage by detoxifying superoxide anions, particularly in the lungs and cardiovascular system. EC-SOD undergoes several posttranslational modifications including N-glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage. While the roles of proteolytic cleavage have been well studied, the structure and function of EC-SOD N-glycans are poorly understood. Here we analyzed glycan structures on native EC-SOD purified from human sera, and identified sialylated biantennary structures...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Cibele Tesser da Costa, Conrado Pedebos, Hugo Verli, Arthur Germano Fett-Neto
Auxin is critical for plant growth and development. The main natural auxin is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) is a synthetic form. Auxin-Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) specifically binds auxins, presumably playing roles as receptor in nontranscriptional cell responses. ABP1 structure was previously established from maize at 1.9 Å resolution. To gain further insight on ABP1 structural biology, this study was carried out employing molecular dynamics simulations of the complete models of the oligomeric glycosylated proteins from maize and Arabidopsis thaliana with or without auxins...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Hao D Cheng, Henning Stöckmann, Barbara Adamczyk, Ciara A McManus, Altan Ercan, Ingrid A Holm, Pauline M Rudd, Margaret E Ackerman, Peter A Nigrovic
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) encompasses all forms of chronic idiopathic arthritis that arise before age 16. Previous studies have found JIA to be associated with lower Fc galactosylation of circulating IgG, but the overall spectrum of glycan changes and the net impact on IgG function are unknown. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), we compared IgG glycosylation in 54 subjects with recent-onset untreated JIA with 98 healthy pediatric controls, paired to biophysical profiling of affinity for 20 IgG receptors using a high-throughput multiplexed microsphere assay...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Brian J McMorran, M Carrie Miceli, Linda G Baum
Our understanding of muscle glycosylation to date has derived from studies in mouse models and a limited number of human lectin histochemistry studies. As various therapeutic approaches aimed at treating patients with muscular dystrophies are being translated from rodent models to human, it is critical to better understand human muscle glycosylation and relevant disease-specific differences between healthy and dystrophic muscle. Here, we report the first quantitative characterization of human muscle glycosylation, and identify differentiation- and disease-specific differences in human muscle glycosylation...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Masamichi Nagae, Sushil K Mishra, Shinya Hanashima, Hiroaki Tateno, Yoshiki Yamaguchi
Mannose-binding type Jacalin-related lectins (mJRLs) bind to branched N-glycans via conserved sugar-binding sites. Despite, significant 3D structural similarities, each mJRL is known to have a unique binding preference toward various N-glycans. However, the molecular basis of varying binding preference is substantially unknown. Here, we report a detailed comparison of N-glycan-binding preference for two mJRLs, Orysata and Calsepa using frontal affinity chromatography (FAC), X-ray and molecular modeling. The FAC analysis using a panel of N-glycans shows difference in N-glycan-binding preference between the lectins...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
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