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(no author information available yet)
CAZypeia was initiated in 2007 to create a comprehensive, living encyclopedia of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and associated carbohydrate-binding modules involved in the synthesis, modification, and degradation of complex carbohydrates. CAZypedia is closely connected with the actively-curated CAZy database, which provides a sequence-based foundation for the biochemical, mechanistic, and structural characterization of these diverse proteins. Now celebrating its 10th anniversary online, CAZypedia is a successful example of dynamic, community-driven, and expert-based biocuration...
October 11, 2017: Glycobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2017: Glycobiology
Yota Tatara, Shinichiro Suto, Ken Itoh
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen are the major organic components of bone matrix. However, their roles and functional relationships remain elusive. To investigate the role of GAGs in bone matrix degradation, the effects of GAGs on collagen were examined under acidic conditions that recapitulate the microenvironment of osteoclast resorption pits. We found that sulfated GAGs protect collagen fibrils against acid denaturation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that collagen fibrils retain the fibril structure at pH 4...
October 4, 2017: Glycobiology
Fumi Ota, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Miyako Nakano, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Shinobu Kitazume, Tomomi Ookawara, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, SOD3) protects tissues against oxidative damage by detoxifying superoxide anions, particularly in the lungs and cardiovascular system. EC-SOD undergoes several posttranslational modifications including N-glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage. While the roles of proteolytic cleavage have been well studied, the structure and function of EC-SOD N-glycans are poorly understood. Here we analyzed glycan structures on native EC-SOD purified from human sera, and identified sialylated biantennary structures...
October 4, 2017: Glycobiology
Hao D Cheng, Henning Stöckmann, Barbara Adamczyk, Ciara A McManus, Altan Ercan, Ingrid A Holm, Pauline M Rudd, Margaret E Ackerman, Peter A Nigrovic
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) encompasses all forms of chronic idiopathic arthritis that arise before age 16. Previous studies have found JIA to be associated with lower Fc galactosylation of circulating IgG, but the overall spectrum of glycan changes and the net impact on IgG function are unknown. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), we compared IgG glycosylation in 54 subjects with recent-onset untreated JIA with 98 healthy pediatric controls, paired to biophysical profiling of affinity for 20 IgG receptors using a high-throughput multiplexed microsphere assay...
September 14, 2017: Glycobiology
Cibele Tesser da Costa, Conrado Pedebos, Hugo Verli, Arthur Germano Fett-Neto
Auxin is critical for plant growth and development. The main natural auxin is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas 1-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) is a synthetic form. Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) specifically binds auxins, presumably playing roles as receptor in non-transcriptional cell responses. ABP1 structure was previously established from maize at 1.9 Å resolution. To gain further insight on ABP1 structural biology, this study was carried out employing molecular dynamics simulations of the complete models of the oligomeric glycosylated proteins from maize and Arabidopsis thaliana with or without auxins...
September 7, 2017: Glycobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2017: Glycobiology
Masamichi Nagae, Sushil K Mishra, Shinya Hanashima, Hiroaki Tateno, Yoshiki Yamaguchi
Mannose-binding type Jacalin-related lectins (mJRLs) bind to branched N-glycans via conserved sugar binding sites. Despite significant 3D structural similarities, each mJRL is known to have a unique binding preference towards various N-glycans. However, the molecular basis of varying binding preference is substantially unknown. Here we report a detailed comparison of N-glycan binding preference for two mJRLs, Orysata and Calsepa using frontal affinity chromatography (FAC), X-ray and molecular modeling. The FAC analysis using a panel of N-glycans shows difference in N-glycan binding preference between the lectins...
September 7, 2017: Glycobiology
Henrik Wegener, Álvaro Mallagaray, Tobias Schöne, Thomas Peters, Julia Lockhauserbäumer, Hao Yan, Charlotte Uetrecht, Grant Hansman, Stefan Taube
Human noroviruses (HuNoV), members of the family Caliciviridae are the major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Successful infection is linked to the ability of the protruding (P) domain of the viral capsid to bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGA). Binding to gangliosides plays a major role for many non-human calici- and noroviruses. Increasing evidence points to a broader role of sialylated carbohydrates such as gangliosides in norovirus infection. Here, we compare HBGA and ganglioside binding of a GII...
September 4, 2017: Glycobiology
Rickard Nordén, Ebba Samuelsson, Kristina Nyström
Herpes simplex virus type 1 has the ability to induce expression of a human gene cluster located on chromosome 19 upon infection. This gene cluster contains three fucosyltransferases (encoded by FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6) with the ability to add a fucose to an N-acetylglucosamine residue. Little is known regarding the transcriptional activation of these three genes in human cells. Intriguingly, herpes simplex virus type 1 activates all three genes simultaneously during infection, a situation not observed in uninfected tissue, pointing towards a virus specific mechanism for transcriptional activation...
September 4, 2017: Glycobiology
Junko Iijima, Satoshi Kobayashi, Shinobu Kitazume, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Reiko Fujinawa, Hiroaki Korekane, Takuma Shibata, Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh, Sachiko Akashi-Takamura, Kensuke Miyake, Eiji Miyoshi, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Core fucosylation, a post-translational modification of N-glycans, modifies several growth factor receptors and impacts on their ligand binding affinity. Core-fucose-deficient mice generated by ablating the α1,6 fucosyltransferase enzyme, Fut8, exhibit severe pulmonary emphysema, partly due to impaired macrophage function, similar to aged Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) -deficient mice. We therefore suspect that a lack of core fucose affects the TLR4-dependent signaling pathway. Indeed, upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, Fut8-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) produced similar levels of interleukin-6 but markedly reduced levels of interferon-β (IFN-β) compared with wild-type MEFs...
August 29, 2017: Glycobiology
Wei Jing, Jonathan W Roberts, Dixy E Green, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Many injectable drugs require delivery strategies for enhancing their pharmacokinetics due to rapid loss via renal filtration if possess low molecular weight (<60-70 kDa) and/or clearance by the body's components (e.g., proteases, antibodies, high-efficiency receptors) in their native form. FDA-approved polyethylene glycol [PEG] is a vehicle for improving therapeutics, but artificial polymers have potential biocompatibility and immunogenicity liabilities. Here we utilized a natural vertebrate carbohydrate, heparosan [HEP], the biosynthetic precursor of heparan sulfate and heparin, to enhance performance of a biologic drug...
August 23, 2017: Glycobiology
Brian J McMorran, M Carrie Miceli, Linda G Baum
Our understanding of muscle glycosylation to date has derived from studies in mouse models and a limited number of human lectin histochemistry studies. As various therapeutic approaches aimed at treating patients with muscular dystrophies are being translated from rodent models to human, it is critical to better understand human muscle glycosylation and relevant disease-specific differences between healthy and dystrophic muscle. Here, we report the first quantitative characterization of human muscle glycosylation, and identify differentiation- and disease-specific differences in human muscle glycosylation...
August 23, 2017: Glycobiology
Indu Bhushan, Alhumaidi Alabbas, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Ram B Gupta, Umesh R Desai
We report here a novel observation that immobilization of heparinase I on CNBr-activated Sepharose results in heparin degradation properties that are different from heparinase I in the free solution form. Studies over a range of pHs (5-8) and temperatures (5-50 °C) as well as under batch and flow conditions show that immobilized heparinase 1 displays altered pH and temperature optima, and a higher propensity for generation of longer chains (hexa- and octa-) with variable sulfation as compared to that in the free form, which is known to yield disaccharides...
August 22, 2017: Glycobiology
Michelle C Miller, Yi Zheng, Jingmin Yan, Yifa Zhou, Guihua Tai, Kevin H Mayo
Interactions between galectins and polysaccharides are crucial to many biological processes, and yet these are some of the least understood, usually being limited to studies with small saccharides and short oligosaccharides. The present study is focused on human galectin-3 (Gal-3) interactions with a 60 kDa rhamnogalacturonan RG-I-4 that we use as a model to garner information as to how galectins interact with large polysaccharides, as well as to develop this agent as a therapeutic against human disease. Gal-3 is unique among galectins, because as the only chimera-type, it has a long N-terminal tail (NT) that has long puzzled investigators due to its dynamic, disordered nature and presence of numerous prolines...
August 10, 2017: Glycobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Rachel S Lane, F Michael Haller, Anais A E Chavaroche, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Liposomal encapsulation is a useful drug delivery strategy for small molecules, especially chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. Doxil® is a doxorubicin-containing liposome ("dox-liposome") that passively targets drug to tumors while reducing side effects caused by free drug permeating and poisoning healthy tissues. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the hydrophilic coating of Doxil® that protects the formulation from triggering the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Evading the MPS prolongs dox-liposome circulation time thus increasing drug deposition at the tumor site...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Vladimir Gorshkov, Bakhtiyar Islamov, Polina Mikshina, Olga Petrova, Gennady Burygin, Elena Sigida, Alexander Shashkov, Amina Daminova, Marina Ageeva, Bulat Idiyatullin, Vadim Salnikov, Yuriy Zuev, Tatyana Gorshkova, Yuri Gogolev
In the present study, we identified exopolysaccharides of the harmful phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 and characterized the molecular structure of these polymers. The synthesis of the target polysaccharides was shown to be induced under starvation conditions. Moreover, intensive accumulation of exopolysaccharides occurred during the colonization by bacteria of the xylem vessels of infected plants, where microorganisms formed specific 3D "multicellular" structures-bacterial emboli...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Michael Tiemeyer, Kazuhiro Aoki, James Paulson, Richard D Cummings, William S York, Niclas G Karlsson, Frederique Lisacek, Nicolle H Packer, Matthew P Campbell, Nobuyuki P Aoki, Akihiro Fujita, Masaaki Matsubara, Daisuke Shinmachi, Shinichiro Tsuchiya, Issaku Yamada, Michael Pierce, René Ranzinger, Hisashi Narimatsu, Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita
Rapid and continued growth in the generation of glycomic data has revealed the need for enhanced development of basic infrastructure for presenting and interpreting these datasets in a manner that engages the broader biomedical research community. Early in their growth, the genomic and proteomic fields implemented mechanisms for assigning unique gene and protein identifiers that were essential for organizing data presentation and for enhancing bioinformatic approaches to extracting knowledge. Similar unique identifiers are currently absent from glycomic data...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
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