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Bio-medical Materials and Engineering

Jussi Sarin, Markus Hiltunen, Leena Hupa, Jaakko Pulkkinen, Pekka K Vallittu
Bioactive glass (BG)-containing fiber-reinforced composite implants, typically screw-retained, have started to be used clinically. In this study, we tested the mechanical strength of composites formed by a potential implant adhesive of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue and BG S53P4 particles. Water immersion for 3, 10 or 30 days had no adverse effect on the compression strength. When cyanoacrylate glue-BG-composites were subjected to simulated body fluid immersion, the average pH rose to 7.52 (SD 0.066) from the original value of 7...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Ujjal K Bhawal, Ryoichiro Uchida, Noboru Kuboyama, Tetsuo Asakura, Koichi Hiratuska, Norihiro Nishiyama
Existing scaffolds cannot adequately satisfy the simultaneous requirements for the regeneration of bone. The challenge remains of how to improve the integration of newly formed bone with the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two silk fibroin scaffolds, a hexafluoro isopropanol-based silk fibroin (HFIP-F) and an aqueous-based silk fibroin (A-F), for their osteoinductive potentials in large critical size bone defects in vivo. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was used as a positive control...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Kenneth M Alfano, Sumita Chakraborty, Michael Tarasev
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) susceptibility to hemolysis - or fragility - can be profiled by subjecting a sample to progressive durations of mechanical stress and measuring hemolysis upon each. The ability to control stress application with multiple variable parameters can be useful in various areas of research. Bead milling, by oscillating an object in a blood sample, can offer control of parameters including oscillation force and frequency. OBJECTIVE: This work addresses the role of bead shape and size, for a given container, in potentially creating qualitatively as well as quantitatively different fluidic stresses in the sample...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Shabnam Samsami, Sadegh Saberi, Nima Bagheri, Gholamreza Rouhi
BACKGROUND: Vertical femoral neck fractures in the youth could be happened in high-energy accidents, and because of dominant shearing forces, this fracture is considered as a troublesome injury with a controversy regarding selection of the best fixation method. OBJECTIVE: The long term goal of this quasi-experimental study was to find the more stable fixation method among cannulated screws (CSs), proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP), and dynamic hip screw with derotational screw (DHS+DS) for this kind of fracture...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Bong-Kuen Cha, Dong-Soon Choi, Insan Jang, Byung-Hak Choe, Won-Youl Choi
Orthodontic tunnel miniscrews with and without TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated to improve the induction of new bone formation and osseointegration. To inject the drug of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, tunnels in a conventional machined miniscrew were machined by a computer-numerical-control lathe. TiO2 nanotube arrays to load the drug were also formed on the surface of the tunnel miniscrew by anodic oxidation. To obtain clean TiO2 nanotube arrays, two-step anodic oxidation was conducted...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Bangalore H Durgesh, Saleh Alhijji, Mohamed I Hashem, AbdulAziz A Al Kheraif, Pavithra Durgesh, Mohamed Elsharawy, Pekka K Vallittu
BACKGROUND: Adhesive resin composite, which is used to bond orthodontic bracket to tooth surface is exposed to the influence of wear by tooth brushing and wear may influence loosening of the bracket. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of tooth brushing on the adhesion strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to surface treated porcelain. METHOD: A total of 90 glazed porcelain fused to metal facets (PFM) were randomly assigned into 3 groups according to the surface treatment to be received...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Markus Denzinger, Helena Hinkel, Julia Kurz, Teresa Hierlemann, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Stefanie Krajewski
BACKGROUND: Chitosan is used in a wide field of applications and therapies and has been reported to be an effective hemostyptic. The objective of this study was to provide further information about the use of chitosan as a hemostyptic agent also taking into focus its hemocompatible effects. METHODS: Human whole blood (n=5) was anticoagulated with heparin, treated with different chitosan concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 25 mg/mL) and incubated at 37°C for 30 minutes...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Yunwei Xu, Zhihong Huang, George Corner
Corrosion of surgical instruments provides a seat for contamination and prevents proper sterilisation, placing both patients and medical staff at risk of infection. Corrosion can also compromise the structural integrity of instruments and lead to mechanical failure in use. It is essential to understand the various factors affecting corrosion resistance of surgical instruments and how it can be minimised.This paper investigates the effect on corrosion resistance from the clinical washing decontamination (WD) process, specifically by studying the changes in surface roughness and Cr/Fe ratio...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Seda Ceylan, Dilek Göktürk, Nimet Bölgen
In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin based cryogels were prepared by crosslinking chemically or physically for tissue engineering applications. Different PVA/Gelatin ratios (100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 50:50) and crosslinking methods have been used to prepare cryogels; chemical and physical structure of the prepared matrices were analysed by FTIR and SEM; swelling and degradation profiles were followed. Chemical and physical crosslinking was obtained by using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and by applying freeze thawing cycle, respectively...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Oliver C Radke, Thomas Schneider, Anja Braune, Romain Pirracchio, Felix Fischer, Thea Koch
BACKGROUND: Both Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and Computed Tomography (CT) allow the estimation of the lung area. We compared two algorithms for the detection of the lung area per quadrant from the EIT images with the lung areas derived from the CT images. METHODS: 39 outpatients who were scheduled for an elective CT scan of the thorax were included in the study. For each patient we recorded EIT images immediately before the CT scan. The lung area per quadrant was estimated from both CT and EIT data using two different algorithms for the EIT data...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Kazuhiro Kohata, Soichiro Itoh, Naohiro Horiuchi, Taro Yoshioka, Kimihiro Yamashita
BACKGROUND: The electrical potential, which is generated in bone by collagen displacement, has been well documented. However, the role of mineral crystals in bone piezoelectricity has not yet been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examined the mechanism that the composite structure of organic and inorganic constituents and their collaborative functions play an important role in the electrical properties of human bone. METHODS: The electrical potential and bone structure were evaluated using thermally stimulated depolarized current (TSDC) and micro computed tomography, respectively...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Mahtab Assadian, Hassan Jafari, Seyed Morteza Ghaffari Shahri, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Davood Almasi
In this study, different types of calcium-phosphate phases were coated on NaOH pre-treated pure magnesium. The coating was applied by electrodeposition method in order to provide higher corrosion resistance and improve biocompatibility for magnesium. Thickness, surface morphology and topography of the coatings were analyzed using optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopies, respectively. Composition and chemical bonding, crystalline structures and wettability of the coatings were characterized using energy-dispersive and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and contact angle measurement, respectively...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Vahid Houshyarifar, Mehdi Chehel Amirani
In this paper we present a method to predict Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) with higher order spectral (HOS) and linear (Time) features extracted from heart rate variability (HRV) signal. Predicting the occurrence of SCA is important in order to avoid the probability of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). This work is a challenge to predict five minutes before SCA onset. The method consists of four steps: pre-processing, feature extraction, feature reduction, and classification. In the first step, the QRS complexes are detected from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and then the HRV signal is extracted...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Fabio Roberto Ueno, Hueliton Wilian Kido, Renata Neves Granito, Paulo Roberto Gabbai-Armelin, Angela Maria Paiva Magri, Kelly Rosseti Fernandes, Antonio Carlos da Silva, Francisco José Correa Braga, Ana Claudia Muniz Renno
The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of the CaP/Col composites, in powder and fiber form, via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pH and calcium release evaluation after immersion in SBF and to evaluate the performance of these materials on the bone repair process in a tibial bone defect model. For this, four different formulations (CaP powder - CaPp, CaP powder with collagen - CaPp/Col, CaP fibers - CaPf and CaP fibers with collagen - CaPf/Col) were developed. SEM images indicated that both material forms were successfully coated with collagen and that CaPp and CaPf presented HCA precursor crystals on their surface...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Li Linsheng, Lin Guoxiang, Li Lihui
In this paper, magnesium matrix hydroxyapatite composite material was prepared by electrophoretic deposition method. The optimal process parameters of electrophoretic deposition were HA suspension concentration of 0.02 kg/L, aging time of 10 days and voltage of 60 V. Animal experiment and SBF immersion experiment were used to test the biocompatibility and bioactivity of this material respectively. The SD rats were divided into control group and implant group. The implant surrounding tissue was taken to do tissue biopsy, HE dyed and organizational analysis after a certain amount of time in the SD rat body...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Timon Hussain, Manuela Schneider, Burkhard Summer, Sebastian Strieth
BACKGROUND: Key factors for successful porous polyethylene (PPE) implantation are rapid vascularization and low inflammatory response. Dermal fibroblasts produce a variety of pro-angiogenic and immunmodulatory factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this tissue engineering study was to investigate whether coating PPE implants with dermal fibroblasts in vitro is sustainable in vivo and whether the kinetics of blood vessel ingrowth and immunological responses are hereby affected...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
K Ozeki, H Aoki
Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Fadel M Ali, Reem H Elgebaly, Mona S Elneklawi, Amal S Othman
BACKGROUND: P. aeruginosa considered as a notoriously difficult organism to be controlled by antibiotics or disinfectants. The potential use of alternative means as an aid to avoid the wide use of antibiotics against bacteria pathogen has been recently arisen remarkably. OBJECTIVE: Effect of extremely low frequency positive electric pulse with different duty cycles on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC: 27853) growth by constructed and implemented exposure device was investigated in this study...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Sinan Sezek, Bunyamin Aksakal, Murat Gürger, Melih Malkoc, Y Say
Total deformation and stability of straight and helical compression plates were studied by means of the finite element method (FEM) and in vitro biomechanical experiments. Fixations of transverse (TF) and oblique (45°) bone (OF) fractures have been analyzed on sheep tibias by designing the straight compression (SP) and Helical Compression Plate (HP) models. The effects of axial compression, bending and torsion loads on both plating systems were analyzed in terms of total displacements. Numerical models and experimental models suggested that under compression loadings, bone fracture gap closures for both fracture types were found to be in the favor of helical plate designs...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Sun Zheng, Liu Bing-Ru
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based tissue characterization is invaluable for the computer-aided diagnosis and interventional treatment of cardiac vessel diseases. Although the analysis of raw backscattered signals allows more accurate plaque characterization than gray-scale images, its applications are limited due to its nature of electrocardiogram-gated acquisition. Images acquired by IVUS devices that do not allow the acquisition of raw signals cannot be characterized. To address these limitations, we developed a method for fast frame-by-frame retrieval and location of calcification according to the jump features of radial gray-level variation curves from sequential IVUS gray-scale images...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
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