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Bio-medical Materials and Engineering

Didem Nalbantgil, Feyza Ulkur, Gulfeza Kardas, Mustafa Culha
BACKGROUND: Patients use mouthwashes in addition to mechanical cleaning during orthodontic treatment. The effects of mouthwashes on the archwires have not been examined yet. OBJECTIVE: To compare the corrosion resistance of four different arch wires and corrosion effects of different mouthwashes to formulate a biocompatible and mechanically useful arch wire and mouthwash combination. METHODS: Each group comprised of 4 wire samples of 2 cm 0...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
F Bousefsaf, C Maaoui, A Pruski
BACKGROUND: Vasoconstriction and vasodilation phenomena reflect the relative changes in the vascular bed. They induce particular modifications in the pulse wave magnitude. Webcams correspond to remote sensors that can be employed to measure the pulse wave in order to compute the pulse frequency. OBJECTIVE: Record and analyze pulse wave signal with a low-cost webcam to extract the amplitude information and assess the vasomotor activity of the participant. METHODS: Photoplethysmographic signals obtained from a webcam are analyzed through a continuous wavelet transform...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Fulufhelo Masithulela
BACKGROUND: The recognition of RV overpressure is critical to human life, as this may signify morbidity and mortality. Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction is understood to have an impact on the performance of the left ventricle (LV), but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. It is understood that ventricular compliance has the ability to affect cardiac performance. In this study, a bi-ventricular model of the rat heart was used in preference to other, single-ventricle models. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the bi-ventricular model provides important information on the function of the healthy heart...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Lei Zhang, Weidong Mu, Shuangfeng Chen, Dawei Yang, Fei Xu, Yaping Wu
The novel synthetic peptide P17-BMP-2 could promote cell attachment and enhance osteogenic capability. A composite, comprising nano-hydroxyapatite, collagen and poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLLA), was an efficient scaffold for carrier of P17-BMP-2. Our aim was to investigate whether nHAC/PLLA/P17-BMP-2 accelerates the osteogenesis as a reliable method for mandibular defect healing in this study. The repair capability was assessed by the gross observation, X-ray test and histological observation in four animal experiment groups at 2 week and 4 week after surgery: Group A (control), Group B (nHAC/PLLA treatment), Group C (nHAC/PLLA with 2 mg/g P17-BMP-2 treatment) and Group D (nHAC/PLLA with 10 mg/g P17-BMP-2 treatment)...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Hao Tang, Ying Li, Jianwei Ma, Xianlin Zhang, Baoe Li, Shimin Liu, Fangfei Dai, Xiangqian Zhang
A homogeneous and uniform array of nanotubes with a diameter of about 70 nm was produced on titanium (Ti) surface by anodic oxidation. The wall thickness of the nanotubes was around 20 nm, and the depth was about 200 nm. The biological properties of the anodized Ti surface were investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test and in vitro cell culture test. The mechanical properties were evaluated by instrumented nanoindentation test and friction-wear test. The results showed that the anodized Ti surface can induce the formation of bone-like apatite after immersion in SBF for four weeks, enhance cell adhesion, proliferation and gene expression, it also showed decreased friction coefficient, similar stiffness and Young's modulus to those of the cortical bone...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Issei Takeuchi, Kohta Fukuda, Shiori Kobayashi, Kimiko Makino
BACKGROUND: Estradiol is one of the therapeutic agents for osteoporosis. We have reported transdermal permeability of estradiol-loaded nanoparticles, and permeability effect of estradiol was enhanced by using nanoparticle system and iontophoresis [Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces97 (2012), 84-89]. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted in vivo to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of the estradiol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for osteoporosis. METHODS: Prior to the in vivo study, we have determined the surface charge density of the particles and found they have negatively charged polyelectrolyte layers on the surfaces...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Morshed Khandaker, Shahram Riahinezhad, Yanling Li, Melville B Vaughan, Fariha Sultana, Tracy L Morris, Lucas Phinney, Khalid Hossain
Titanium (Ti) alloys have been widely used in orthopedics and orthodontic surgeries as implants because of their beneficial chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. Improvement of these properties of a Ti alloy, Ti-6Al-4V Eli, is possible by the use of plasma nitriding treatment on the Ti alloy. The novelty of this study is the evaluation of a DC glow discharge nitrogen plasma treatment method on the surface, mechanical and biological properties of Ti alloy. Specifically, this study measured the chemical states, roughness, hardness, and biocompatibility of plasma nitride treated Ti-6Al-4V Eli as well as determined the effect of plasma treatment on the fracture strength between the Ti alloy and bone clement...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Selim Bozkurt, Sjoerd van Tuijl, Frans N van de Vosse, Marcel C M Rutten
The aim of this study is to understand whether the phasic Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device (CF-LVAD) support would increase the arterial pulsatility. A Micromed DeBakey CF-LVAD was used to apply phasic support in an ex-vivo experimental platform. CF-LVAD was operated over a cardiac cycle by phase-shifting the pulsatile pump control with respect to the heart cycle, in 0.05 s increments in each experiment. The pump flow rate was selected as the control variable and a reference model was used to operate the CF-LVAD at a pulsatile speed...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Aziza Mahomed, Negin Bagheri Pormehr
Four specimens of Nagor silicone of different hardness (soft, medium and hard) were swollen, until they reached equilibrium (i.e. constant mass) in five liquids at 25°C, before and after accelerated aging. For the specimens swollen before accelerated aging, the greatest swelling was obtained in methyl cyclohexane, while for the specimens swollen after accelerated aging, the greatest swelling was obtained in cyclohexane. The cross-link density, υ, was also calculated from the swelling measurements for all the specimens, before and after accelerated aging, using the Flory-Rehner equation...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Jussi Sarin, Markus Hiltunen, Leena Hupa, Jaakko Pulkkinen, Pekka K Vallittu
Bioactive glass (BG)-containing fiber-reinforced composite implants, typically screw-retained, have started to be used clinically. In this study, we tested the mechanical strength of composites formed by a potential implant adhesive of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue and BG S53P4 particles. Water immersion for 3, 10 or 30 days had no adverse effect on the compression strength. When cyanoacrylate glue-BG-composites were subjected to simulated body fluid immersion, the average pH rose to 7.52 (SD 0.066) from the original value of 7...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Ujjal K Bhawal, Ryoichiro Uchida, Noboru Kuboyama, Tetsuo Asakura, Koichi Hiratsuka, Norihiro Nishiyama
Existing scaffolds cannot adequately satisfy the simultaneous requirements for the regeneration of bone. The challenge remains of how to improve the integration of newly formed bone with the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two silk fibroin scaffolds, a hexafluoro isopropanol-based silk fibroin (HFIP-F) and an aqueous-based silk fibroin (A-F), for their osteoinductive potentials in large critical size bone defects in vivo. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was used as a positive control...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Kenneth M Alfano, Sumita Chakraborty, Michael Tarasev
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) susceptibility to hemolysis - or fragility - can be profiled by subjecting a sample to progressive durations of mechanical stress and measuring hemolysis upon each. The ability to control stress application with multiple variable parameters can be useful in various areas of research. Bead milling, by oscillating an object in a blood sample, can offer control of parameters including oscillation force and frequency. OBJECTIVE: This work addresses the role of bead shape and size, for a given container, in potentially creating qualitatively as well as quantitatively different fluidic stresses in the sample...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Shabnam Samsami, Sadegh Saberi, Nima Bagheri, Gholamreza Rouhi
BACKGROUND: Vertical femoral neck fractures in the youth could be happened in high-energy accidents, and because of dominant shearing forces, this fracture is considered as a troublesome injury with a controversy regarding selection of the best fixation method. OBJECTIVE: The long term goal of this quasi-experimental study was to find the more stable fixation method among cannulated screws (CSs), proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP), and dynamic hip screw with derotational screw (DHS+DS) for this kind of fracture...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Bong-Kuen Cha, Dong-Soon Choi, Insan Jang, Byung-Hak Choe, Won-Youl Choi
Orthodontic tunnel miniscrews with and without TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated to improve the induction of new bone formation and osseointegration. To inject the drug of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, tunnels in a conventional machined miniscrew were machined by a computer-numerical-control lathe. TiO2 nanotube arrays to load the drug were also formed on the surface of the tunnel miniscrew by anodic oxidation. To obtain clean TiO2 nanotube arrays, two-step anodic oxidation was conducted...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Bangalore H Durgesh, Saleh Alhijji, Mohamed I Hashem, AbdulAziz A Al Kheraif, Pavithra Durgesh, Mohamed Elsharawy, Pekka K Vallittu
BACKGROUND: Adhesive resin composite, which is used to bond orthodontic bracket to tooth surface is exposed to the influence of wear by tooth brushing and wear may influence loosening of the bracket. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of tooth brushing on the adhesion strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to surface treated porcelain. METHOD: A total of 90 glazed porcelain fused to metal facets (PFM) were randomly assigned into 3 groups according to the surface treatment to be received...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Markus Denzinger, Helena Hinkel, Julia Kurz, Teresa Hierlemann, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Stefanie Krajewski
BACKGROUND: Chitosan is used in a wide field of applications and therapies and has been reported to be an effective hemostyptic. The objective of this study was to provide further information about the use of chitosan as a hemostyptic agent also taking into focus its hemocompatible effects. METHODS: Human whole blood (n=5) was anticoagulated with heparin, treated with different chitosan concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 25 mg/mL) and incubated at 37°C for 30 minutes...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Yunwei Xu, Zhihong Huang, George Corner
Corrosion of surgical instruments provides a seat for contamination and prevents proper sterilisation, placing both patients and medical staff at risk of infection. Corrosion can also compromise the structural integrity of instruments and lead to mechanical failure in use. It is essential to understand the various factors affecting corrosion resistance of surgical instruments and how it can be minimised.This paper investigates the effect on corrosion resistance from the clinical washing decontamination (WD) process, specifically by studying the changes in surface roughness and Cr/Fe ratio...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Seda Ceylan, Dilek Göktürk, Nimet Bölgen
In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin based cryogels were prepared by crosslinking chemically or physically for tissue engineering applications. Different PVA/Gelatin ratios (100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 50:50) and crosslinking methods have been used to prepare cryogels; chemical and physical structure of the prepared matrices were analysed by FTIR and SEM; swelling and degradation profiles were followed. Chemical and physical crosslinking was obtained by using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and by applying freeze thawing cycle, respectively...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Oliver C Radke, Thomas Schneider, Anja Braune, Romain Pirracchio, Felix Fischer, Thea Koch
BACKGROUND: Both Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and Computed Tomography (CT) allow the estimation of the lung area. We compared two algorithms for the detection of the lung area per quadrant from the EIT images with the lung areas derived from the CT images. METHODS: 39 outpatients who were scheduled for an elective CT scan of the thorax were included in the study. For each patient we recorded EIT images immediately before the CT scan. The lung area per quadrant was estimated from both CT and EIT data using two different algorithms for the EIT data...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Kazuhiro Kohata, Soichiro Itoh, Naohiro Horiuchi, Taro Yoshioka, Kimihiro Yamashita
BACKGROUND: The electrical potential, which is generated in bone by collagen displacement, has been well documented. However, the role of mineral crystals in bone piezoelectricity has not yet been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examined the mechanism that the composite structure of organic and inorganic constituents and their collaborative functions play an important role in the electrical properties of human bone. METHODS: The electrical potential and bone structure were evaluated using thermally stimulated depolarized current (TSDC) and micro computed tomography, respectively...
August 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
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