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Bio-medical Materials and Engineering

F F Al-Harbi, Dalal H M Alkhalifah, Zainab M Elqahtani, F M Ali, Shaimaa A Mohamed, A M M Abdelbacki
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria normally live in the intestines of people and animals. Most E. coli are harmless and the treatment of the infection could be achieved by using antibiotics, however the effectiveness is still debatable and needs more investigation. OBJECTIVE: Researching the inhibition resonance frequency of square amplitude modulating waves (QAMW) that can inhibit the growth activity of E. coli and its ability to make division. METHODS: A range of different extremely low frequencies of square amplitude modulated waves (QAMW) from 0...
September 26, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Michael Anis Mihdi Afnan, Amulya Kumar Saxena
BACKGROUND: There has been increased interest in the use of biomaterials that resorb completely leaving only the patient's native tissue. Synthetic materials are advantageous for tissue repair because they are highly customisable. The infection rate of using resorbable natural materials in paediatric surgery has recently been outlined, but there has not yet been a review of the use of synthetic resorbable materials in paediatric surgery. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review analyses the risk of infection after implantation of fully resorbable synthetic biomaterials in paediatric cases...
September 26, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
I-Ting Wu, Ting-Yi Chiang, Chun-Cheng Chen, Yung-Chang Chen, Shinn-Jyh Ding
BACKGROUND: To enhance calcium silicate cements (CSCs) towards a specific clinical application of endodontics and vertebroplasty, the addition of oxide dopants (Bi2O3, SrO, ZnO, ZrO2) as radiopacifiers allows for tailoring of material properties. OBJECTIVE: Effects of oxide dopants on the in vitro physicochemical properties and osetogenic activity of CSCs were investigated. METHODS: The setting time, compressive strength, radiopacity, and osteogenic ability of the cements were evaluated...
September 26, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Bo Wang, Yong Wu, Hongbo Yu, Lingyong Jiang, Bing Fang, Qiuman Guo
INTRODUCTION: Exogenous Nel-like molecule type 1 (NELL1) represents a potentially attractive clinical treatment option in the orthodontic and other settings because of its osteoinductive and vasculogenic properties. AIMS: To explore effects of NELL1on corticotomy-assisted tooth movement and osteogenesis in a rat model. METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups:Control, Sham, Tooth movement only, Vehicle, NELL1-LD (low-dose NELL), NELL1-HD (high-dose NELL)...
September 26, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
M Ramu, M Ananthasubramanian, T Kumaresan, R Gandhinathan, Sathiskumar Jothi
Numerous biomaterials are used to fabricate bone scaffolds to repair the bones subjected to trauma. The scaffolds are fabricated with interconnected pores with 40-70% porosity to facilitate the entry of the cells that ensures rapid bone formation. In addition, the interconnected pores also serve as a channel for the exchange of nutrients and waste materials. Rapid prototyping techniques use the CAD model of the scaffold to be fabricated which facilitates fabrication of components with complex architecture easily...
September 26, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
M Kalayarasan, S Shankar, M Manikandan, K Adithan
The selection of best material pair in the hip prosthetics design for improved performance and life relies on the estimation of hip joint contact stresses and contact pressure distribution during various dynamic loading cycles: Climbing Upstairs, Climbing downstairs and Knee bending. The maximum Von Mises stress, contact pressure and deformation are considered factors in selecting the material pair in this current study. This is done by analysis of a three-dimensional finite element model of the acetabular component during the different dynamics cycles using ANSYS®...
September 26, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
M S Swapna, S S Shinker, S Suresh, S Sankararaman
BACKGROUND: The limitations of the existing techniques for the early detection of dengue fever necessitate the development of a powerful optical technique. OBJECTIVE: The present work is a study of Raman spectral modifications of blood on dengue infection and thereby to develop a spectroscopic method for its early detection. The images of the samples are subjected to fractal analysis to find the variation of fractal dimensions on dengue infection. METHODS: Correlation of platelet counts of dengue infected blood with Raman spectrum modification and fractal dimension...
September 25, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Toshiyuki Sakurai, Shunji Fujimori, Mari Hayashida, Ryuzo Hanada, Junichi Akiyama, Choitsu Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: There are no reports to prove the repeatability of gastric transit time (GTT) and small bowel transit time (SBTT) in capsule endoscopy (CE). OBJECTIVE: To clarify the repeatability and factors that affect GTT/SBTT in CE. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 150 healthy subjects from our previous randomized controlled trial that compared small intestinal injuries between two 14-day treatment groups: 1) celecoxib and 2) loxoprofen + lansoprazole...
September 24, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Seyed Esmail Razavi, Mohammad Jouybar
Two common abnormalities in ureters include primary refluxing megaureter (PRM) and primary obstructed megaureter (POM). The aim of this study was to represent the numerical simulation of the urine flow at the end of the ureter with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and POM during peristalsis. Methodologically, the peristalsis in the ureter wall was created using Gaussian distribution. Fluid--Structure Interaction (FSI) was applied to simulate urine-elastic wall interactions; and governing equations were solved using the arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian method...
September 24, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Yue Luo, Donghai Li, Jinhai Zhao, Zhouyuan Yang, PengDe Kang
Hydroxyapatite (HA) possesses similar mineral components to bone and possess good physicochemical properties., However, pure HA scaffold is brittle, it is insufficient in promoting vascularization and osteoinductivity. This study was conducted to assess whether lithium (Li) incorporated into HA could improve the scaffolds' inherent shortcomings. In the experiments, Li-hydroxyapatite scaffolds' mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and biodegradability were researched primarily. In vivo studies, the Li hydroxyapatite scaffolds were implanted into animal model to repair the bone defects...
September 24, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Mustapha Zidi, Eric Allaire, Yohanes Tjandrawidjaja
BACKGROUND: Cellular treatments using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in 3D conditions constitute a solution to the classical surgery in treating abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The recurrent question is: how this type of biotherapy changes the mechanical behavior of artery? METHODS: Experiments measurements based on xenograft rat model showed that the proposed cellular treatment leads to a decreasing radius and length of the AAA during its growth. An inverse finite element method was used to investigate the mechanical hyperelastic behavior of the AAA in the untreated case compared to the treated one...
October 29, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Gökay Karayeğen, I Cengiz Koçum, Dilek Çökeli Ler Serdaroğlu, Mustafa Doğan
BACKGROUND: Electrospinning is a highly effective method in order to generate nano-scaled fibers. In conventional electrospinning technique, geometry of nanofibers are mostly random due to the chaotic behavior of polymer jet. OBJECTIVE: Purpose of this study is to produce aligned nanofibers from PVP polymers with advanced electrospinning technique in order to be used in a potential novel sensor applications, tissue regeneration and engineering. METHODS: In this study, by using finite hollow cylinder focusing electrodes, an external electrostatic field is created...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Karina Nogueira Zambone Pinto, Carla Roberta Tim, Murilo Camuri Crovace, Bruno Rafael Orsini Rossi, Hueliton Wilian Kido, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto, Edgar Dutra Zanotto, Oscar Peitl, Ana Claudia Rennó
This study aimed to investigate the in vivo tissue response of the Biosilicate® scaffolds in a model of tibial bone defect. Sixty male Wistar rats were distributed into bone defect control group (CG) and Biosilicate® scaffold group (BG).  Animals were euthanized 15, 30 and 45 days post-surgery. Stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, histopathological, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical analysis were used. Scaffolds had a total porosity of 44%, macroporosity of 15% with pore diameter of 230 μm...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Kyoung-Tak Kang, Juhyun Son, Sae Kwang Kwon, Oh-Ryong Kwon, Yong-Gon Koh
BACKGROUND: Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) could be concerned with wear of the cartilage or the wear in the polyethylene (PE) insert. Mechanical alignment determines the biomechanical effect in the long term. However, previous computational studies all found that femoral and tibial components alignment in the UKA were rare, and the results varied. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effect of the femoral and tibial component coronal alignment in varus and valgus conditions through computational simulation...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
John Z Wu, Erik W Sinsel, Christopher M Warren, Daniel E Welcome
The rehabilitation squeeze ball is a popular device to help strengthen the hand, fingers and forearm muscles. The distributions of the contact pressure in the interface between the therapy ball and hand/fingers can affect the joint moment of each of the individual fingers, thereby affecting rehabilitation effects. In the current study, we evaluated the contact force distributions on the fingers when gripping a spherical object. Eight female adults [age 29 (9.1) years, mass 64.6 (7.1) kg, height 163.5 (1.9) cm, hand length 17...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Serkan Erdem, Mustafa Gür, Mete Onur Kaman
BACKGROUND: Various techniques have been developed in the treatment of fractures. One of these techniques is the internal fixation, which has an important place in practice. OBJECTIVE: In this study, fractured tibia bone has been treated with implants as numerically to investigate the stress behavior and the effect of plate material, shape and dimensions under pressure load. METHODS: The outer part of the bone is chosen as orthotropic and the inner part is chosen as isotropic material...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Noor Rahman, Waseem Ur Rahman, Rafiullah Khan
The crack propagation behavior near the initial crack were studied under the compact tension (CT) fracture toughness experiments test on bovine hip bone joint specimens. The bone specimens were prepared according to ASTM E-399 for plain fracture toughness tests. The specimens were cut from the hip joint both in the longitudinal and transverse direction to the collagen fiber orientation in the bone. The precrack or initial crack "a" were produced parallel and vertical to the lontudinal axis of bone in the longitudinal and transverse specimens respectively...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Eun-Bin Park, Jin-Chul Heo, Jong-Ha Lee
The incidence of heart disease increases with age. The typical method of monitoring arrhythmia is to use a body patch type sensor with a wet electrode. Even though this sensor is easy to use, it has several disadvantages such as problems caused by wet electrodes in tissues when they are monitored for long periods. Thus, a monitoring sensor integrated into clothes with a dry electrode is proposed. In this study, we developed a smart outdoor shirt equipped with a dry electrode electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor for a cardiac arrhythmia computer-aided diagnosis system...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Masayuki Ishihara, Satoko Kishimoto, Shingo Nakamura, Koichi Fukuda, Yoko Sato, Hidemi Hattori
Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) contain lineage-committed progenitor cells that have the ability to differentiate into various cell types that may be useful for autologous cell transplantation to correct defects of skin, adipose, cartilage, bone, tendon, and blood vessels. The multipotent characteristics of ADSCs, as well as their abundance in the human body, make them an attractive potential resource for wound repair and applications to tissue engineering. ADSC transplantation has been used in combination with biomaterials, including cell sheets, hydrogel, and three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on chitosan, fibrin, atelocollagen, and decellularized porcine dermis, etc...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Prinza Lazar, Rajeesh Jayapathy, Jordina Torrents-Barrena, M Mary Linda, Beena Mol, J Mohanalin, Domenec Puig
Alzheimer is a degenerative disorder that attacks neurons, resulting in loss of memory, thinking, language skills, and behavioral changes. Computer-aided detection methods can uncover crucial information recorded by electroencephalograms. A systematic literature search presents the wavelet transform as a frequently used technique in Alzheimer's detection. However, it requires a defined basis function considered a significant problem. In this work, the concept of empirical mode decomposition is introduced as an alternative to process Alzheimer signals...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
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