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European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766293/nmda-receptor-subunits-change-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-pure-opioid-and-multi-drug-abusers-a-post-mortem-study
#1
Hamidreza Daneshparvar, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Monir Fekri, Solmaz Khalifeh, Ali Ziaie, Nasrin Esfahanizadeh, Nasim Vousooghi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder and is one of the most important issues in the world. Changing the level of neurotransmitters and the activities of their receptors, play a major role in the pathophysiology of substance abuse disorders. It is well-established that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a significant role in the molecular basis of addiction. NMDAR has two obligatory GluN1 and two regionally localized GluN2 subunits. This study investigated changes in the protein level of GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B in the prefrontal cortex of drug abusers...
May 16, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737407/alert-out-on-tobacco-and-alcohol-consumption-in-young-european-women
#2
EDITORIAL
Florence Thibaut
Europe is the heaviest drinking and smoking region in the world. Tobacco and alcohol use are gradually increasing in women with a close prevalence of tobacco and heavy alcohol use in girls and boys. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differences, reward process specificities and female hormones play a major role in gender differences in addictive behaviors. Therefore, health consequences differ according to gender. Further research is needed on gender differences in addiction. Information, education on the impact of hazardous alcohol consumption and related harm as well as on the consequences of tobacco use is urgently required in girls and childbearing age women...
May 8, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721727/schizotypy-and-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-as-potential-endophenotypes-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Katharina Bey, Inga Meyhöfer, Leonhard Lennertz, Rosa Grützmann, Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Ulrich Ettinger, Norbert Kathmann, Michael Wagner
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show dysfunctions of the fronto-striatal circuitry, which imply corresponding oculomotor deficits including smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). However, evidence for a deficit in SPEM is inconclusive, with some studies reporting reduced velocity gain while others did not find any SPEM dysfunctions in OCD patients. Interestingly, psychosis-like traits have repeatedly been linked to both OCD and impaired SPEM. Here, we examined a large sample of n = 168 patients with OCD, n = 93 unaffected first-degree relatives and n = 171 healthy control subjects to investigate whether elevated levels of schizotypy and SPEM deficits represent potential endophenotypes of OCD...
May 2, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721726/association-between-serum-lipid-levels-osteoprotegerin-and-depressive-symptomatology-in-psychotic-disorders
#4
Sherif M Gohar, Ingrid Dieset, Nils Eiel Steen, Ragni H Mørch, Trude S Iversen, Vidar M Steen, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
Although the relationship between positive and negative symptoms of psychosis and dyslipidemia has been thoroughly investigated in recent studies, the potential link between depression and lipid status is still under-investigated. We here examined the association between lipid levels and depressive symptomatology in patients with psychotic disorders, in addition to their possible inflammatory associations. Participants (n = 652) with the following distribution: schizophrenia, schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder (schizophrenia group, n = 344); bipolar I, II, NOS, and psychosis NOS (non-schizophrenia group, n = 308) were recruited consecutively from the Norwegian Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) Study...
May 2, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696357/stigma-experiences-and-perceived-stigma-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-in-the-course-of-1-year-after-their-first-in-patient-treatment
#5
Harald Zäske, Michael Linden, Detlef Degner, Maria Jockers-Scherübl, Stefan Klingberg, Joachim Klosterkötter, Wolfgang Maier, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Heinrich Sauer, Andrea Schmitt, Wolfgang Gaebel
Patients with schizophrenia suffer from stigma and discrimination due to their illness. Yet it is not well examined how experiences of stigma and discrimination express at the early illness stage and how they develop subsequently. Therefore, clinical and psycho-social correlates of stigma experiences and perceived stigma are analyzed in patients with first-episode schizophrenia over the course of 1 year after their first in-patient treatment. Questionnaire data assessed within the multi-centre-RCT "First-Episode Study" of the German Research Network on Schizophrenia were analyzed...
April 25, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679153/stigma-as-a-barrier-to-recognizing-personal-mental-illness-and-seeking-help-a-prospective-study-among-untreated-persons-with-mental-illness
#6
Georg Schomerus, Susanne Stolzenburg, Simone Freitag, Sven Speerforck, Deborah Janowitz, Sara Evans-Lacko, Holger Muehlan, Silke Schmidt
It is unclear to what extent failure to recognize symptoms as potential sign of a mental illness is impeding service use, and how stigmatizing attitudes interfere with this process. In a prospective study, we followed a community sample of 188 currently untreated persons with mental illness (predominantly depression) over 6 months. We examined how lack of knowledge, prejudice and discrimination impacted on self-identification as having a mental illness, perceived need, intention to seek help, and help-seeking, both with respect to primary care (visiting a general practitioner, GP) and specialist care (seeing a mental health professional, MHP)...
April 20, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626226/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-for-treatment-of-phobic-postural-vertigo-an-open-label-pilot-study
#7
LETTER
Ulrich Palm, Valerie Kirsch, Hanna Kübler, Nina Sarubin, Daniel Keeser, Frank Padberg, Marianne Dieterich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626225/symptoms-in-individuals-with-adult-onset-adhd-are-masked-during-childhood
#8
LETTER
Hirotaka Kosaka, Toru Fujioka, Minyoung Jung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594394/cingulate-abnormalities-in-bipolar-disorder-relate-to-gender-and-outcome-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#9
Giuseppe Delvecchio, Valentina Ciappolino, Cinzia Perlini, Marco Barillari, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Marcella Bellani, Paolo Brambilla
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reported gray matter (GM) loss in bipolar disorder (BD) in cingulate cortices, key regions subserving emotional regulation and cognitive functions in humans. The aim of this study was to further explore cingulate GM volumes in a sizeable group of BD patients with respect to healthy controls, particularly investigating the impact of gender and clinical variables. 39 BD patients (mean Age = 48.6 ± 9.7, 15 males and 24 females) and 39 demographically matched healthy subjects (mean Age = 47...
March 28, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572660/surface-morphology-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-individuals-at-risk-of-psychosis-a-multicenter-study
#10
Mihoko Nakamura, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Daiki Sasabayashi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Atsushi Sakuma, Chika Obara, Shinsuke Koike, Hidenori Yamasue, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Yumiko Nishikawa, Kyo Noguchi, Kazunori Matsumoto, Masafumi Mizuno, Kiyoto Kasai, Michio Suzuki
Changes in the surface morphology of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), such as a fewer orbital sulci and altered sulcogyral pattern of the 'H-shaped' orbital sulcus, have been reported in schizophrenia, possibly reflecting abnormal neurodevelopment during gestation. However, whether high-risk subjects for developing psychosis also exhibit these gross morphologic anomalies is not well documented. This multicenter MRI study from four scanning sites in Japan investigated the distribution of the number of intermediate and posterior orbital sulci, as well as the OFC sulcogyral pattern, in 125 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) [of whom 22 later developed psychosis (ARMS-P) and 89 did not (ARMS-NP)] and 110 healthy controls...
March 23, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572659/reduced-oligodendrocyte-density-in-layer-5-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia
#11
Natalya S Kolomeets, Natalya A Uranova
Neuroimaging and post-mortem studies have implicated altered myelin integrity and oligodendrocyte abnormalities in the dysfunction of neuronal network in schizophrenia, including the prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 10. Pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of BA10 are the important link of reciprocal frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits altered in schizophrenia. Previously, we found ultrastructural dystrophic and degenerative alterations of oligodendrocytes in layer 5 of BA10 in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to estimate the numerical density (Nv) of oligodendrocytes in layer 5 of BA10 in schizophrenia as compared to normal controls...
March 23, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569047/alterations-in-resting-state-gamma-activity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-density-eeg-study
#12
Máté Baradits, Brigitta Kakuszi, Sára Bálint, Máté Fullajtár, László Mód, István Bitter, Pál Czobor
Alterations of EEG gamma activity in schizophrenia have been reported during sensory and cognitive tasks, but it remains unclear whether changes are present in resting state. Our aim was to examine whether changes occur in resting state, and to delineate those brain regions where gamma activity is altered. Furthermore, we wanted to identify the associations between changes in gamma activity and psychopathological characteristics. We studied gamma activity (30-48 Hz) in 60 patients with schizophrenia and 76 healthy controls...
March 22, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564546/sports-psychiatry-mental-health-and-mental-disorders-in-athletes-and-exercise-treatment-of-mental-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Andreas Ströhle
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics...
March 21, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556734/neural-correlates-of-binocular-depth-inversion-illusion-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#14
Cathrin Rohleder, Dagmar Koethe, Stefan Fritze, Cristina E Topor, F Markus Leweke, Dusan Hirjak
OBJECTIVES: Binocular depth inversion illusion (BDII), a visual, 'top-down'-driven information process, is impaired in schizophrenia and particularly in its early stages. BDII is a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing and represents a valid diagnostic tool for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, neurobiological underpinnings of aberrant BDII in first-episode schizophrenia are largely unknown at present. METHODS: In this study, 22 right-handed, first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients underwent BDII assessment and MRI scanning at 1...
March 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520640/obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-psychotic-disorders-longitudinal-associations-of-symptom-clusters-on-between-and-within-subject-levels
#15
Frederike Schirmbeck, Max Konijn, Vera Hoetjes, Mathias Zink, Lieuwe de Haan
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) are frequently reported in patients with schizophrenia and have been associated with subjective distress and higher impairment. Recent studies suggest fluctuation in co-occurring OCS and associations with the course of psychotic symptoms. Current evidence is limited by few studies with long assessments intervals and a sole focus on between-subject comparisons. The aim of this study was to specifically investigate co-variation of symptom domains over time within individuals...
March 8, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511805/correction-to-depressive-residual-symptoms-are-associated-with-illness-course-characteristics-in-a-sample-of-outpatients-with-bipolar-disorder
#16
Gianluca Serafini, Gustavo H Vazquez, Xenia Gonda, Maurizio Pompili, Zoltan Rihmer, Mario Amore
Depressive residual symptoms are.
March 6, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546658/translational-research-as-prerequisite-for-personalized-psychiatry
#17
EDITORIAL
Martin E Keck, Nils Kappelmann, Johannes Kopf-Beck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616772/evaluation-of-the-cognitive-behavioral-smoking-reduction-program-smoke_less-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Tobias Rüther, Alexa Kiss, Kerstin Eberhardt, Andrea Linhardt, Christoph Kröger, Oliver Pogarell
The vast majority of smokers are unable or unwilling to quit, but many are open to reducing smoking. No treatment options exist for these smokers besides medication-based therapies. Thus, this study investigated the efficacy of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) smoking reduction program, Smoke_less. A sample of 155 outpatient smokers aged 18-70 years was recruited at the Tobacco Dependence Outpatient Clinic of the Medical Center of the University of Munich, Germany, and randomly assigned to the experimental group (Smoke_less: four weekly CBT group sessions and two telephone calls over 5 weeks, n = 51), active comparator group (one 15-minute counseling session, n = 49), or waiting control group (no intervention during the study, n = 55)...
April 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362877/science-and-fashion-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-psychiatry
#19
EDITORIAL
C Arango
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075850/alternative-versions-of-stigma-attitudes-of-the-greek-public-toward-refugees-amid-economic-recession
#20
LETTER
Marina Economou, Elena Dieti, Helen Lazaratou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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