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European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

Lucas A de Azeredo, Diego L Rovaris, Nina R Mota, Evelise R Polina, Francine Z Marques, Verônica Contini, Eduardo S Vitola, Paulo Belmonte-de-Abreu, Luis A Rohde, Eugenio H Grevet, Claiton H D Bau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Susan Young, Brynjar Emilsson, Jon Fridrik Sigurdsson, Mizanur Khondoker, Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Gisli Baldursson, Halldora Olafsdottir, Gisli Gudjonsson
Studies assessing psychological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults are increasingly reported. However, functional outcomes are often neglected in favour of symptom outcomes. We investigated functional outcomes in 95 adults with ADHD who were already treated with medication and randomized to receive treatment as usual (TAU/MED) or psychological treatment (CBT/MED) using a cognitive-behavioural programme, R&R2ADHD, which employs both group and individual modalities. RATE-S functional outcomes associated with ADHD symptoms, social functioning, emotional control and antisocial behaviour were given at baseline, end of treatment and three-month follow-up...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Christopher Baethge, Michaela Jänner, Wolfgang Gaebel, Jaroslav Malevani
Hallucinations are at the core of the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and many neuroscience studies focus on hallucinations. However, there is a lack of data on prevalence, subtyping, and clinical correlates of hallucinations as well as on the comparison of hallucinating schizophrenia versus hallucinating schizoaffective patients. Analysis of all psychopathology evaluations is based on the AMDP scale in a German psychiatric university hospital between 2007 and 2013 regarding patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to ICD-10)...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Michael Paulzen, Ekkehard Haen, Benedikt Stegmann, Stefan Unterecker, Christoph Hiemke, Gerhard Gründer, Georgios Schoretsanitis
The purpose of this study was to disentangle an association between plasma concentrations of risperidone (RIS), its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIS) and the active moiety, AM (RIS + 9-OH-RIS), and clinical response in a naturalistic sample. Plasma concentrations of RIS, 9-OH-RIS and AM in patients out of a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database were compared between responders (n = 64) and non-responders (n = 526) using the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale. Daily dosage of risperidone did not differ between responders and non-responders...
October 1, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Marc Ferrer, Óscar Andión, Natalia Calvo, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga, Mònica Prat, Montserrat Corrales, Miguel Casas
Common environmental etiological factors between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been fully studied. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma histories, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), with adult BPD, ADHD or BPD-ADHD diagnoses. Comorbid BPD-ADHD patients exhibited significantly higher clinical severity and higher scores in the Total Neglect Scale, compared to BPD and ADHD patients, and only a marginal difference was observed for Sexual Abuse when BPD and ADHD patients were compared...
September 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Evelyn M R Lake, Eric A Steffler, Christopher D Rowley, Manpreet Sehmbi, Luciano Minuzzi, Benicio N Frey, Nicholas A Bock
Imaging and postmortem studies into the severe mental illnesses of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) have revealed deficiencies in the myelination of deep white matter tracts of the brain. Recent studies have further suggested that deficits could extend to myelinated fibers running through the cortex in those illnesses. Disruptions in this intracortical myelin may underlie functional symptomology in MDD, BD, and SZ; thus, in this study, we hypothesized that individuals with these illnesses may have reduced myelin staining relative to controls in the cerebral cortex...
September 14, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Aiste Jusyte, Michael Schönenberg
Aggressive behavior is assumed to be associated with certain patterns of social information processing. While some theories link aggression to a tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli as hostile (i.e., enhanced sensitivity to anger), others assume an insufficient ability to perceive emotional expressions, particularly fear. Despite compelling evidence to support both theories, no previous study has directly investigated the predictions made by these two accounts in aggressive populations. The aim of the current study was to test processing patterns for angry and fearful facial expressions in violent offenders (VOs) and healthy controls (CTLs) and their association with self-reported aggression and psychopathy scores...
September 13, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Sara Poletti, Aye Mu Myint, Gregor Schüetze, Irene Bollettini, Elena Mazza, Doris Grillitsch, Clara Locatelli, Markus Schwarz, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Decreased availability of serotonin in the central nervous system has been suggested to be a central factor in the pathogenesis of depression. Activation of indoleamine 2-3 dioxygenase following a pro-inflammatory state could reduce the amount of tryptophan converted to serotonin and increase the production of tryptophan catabolites such as kynurenic acid, an antagonist of ionotropic excitatory aminoacid receptors, whose levels are reduced in bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in white matter (WM) integrity have been widely reported in BD...
September 12, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Alessia Luoni, Peter Gass, Paolo Brambilla, Mirella Ruggeri, Marco A Riva, Dragos Inta
The evidence underlying the so-called glutamatergic hypothesis ranges from NMDA receptor hypofunction to an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits in specific brain structures. Among all glutamatergic system components, metabotropic receptors play a main role in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated, using qRT-PCR and western blot, consequences in the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex (PFC/FC) of mice with a genetic deletion of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5), addressing key components of the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems...
August 31, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Claudia Schilling, Manuel Schlipf, Simone Spietzack, Franziska Rausch, Sarah Eisenacher, Susanne Englisch, Iris Reinhard, Leila Haller, Oliver Grimm, Michael Deuschle, Heike Tost, Mathias Zink, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Michael Schredl
Several studies in patients with schizophrenia reported a marked reduction in sleep spindle activity. To investigate whether the reduction may be linked to genetic risk of the illness, we analysed sleep spindle activity in healthy volunteers, patients with schizophrenia and first-degree relatives, who share an enriched set of schizophrenia susceptibility genes. We further investigated the correlation of spindle activity with cognitive function in first-degree relatives and whether spindle abnormalities affect both fast (12-15 Hz) and slow (9-12 Hz) sleep spindles...
August 26, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Lejla Colic, Meng Li, Adam Safron, B Biswal, Coraline Danielle Metzger, Shijia Li, Martin Walter
Abnormal anterior insula (AI) response and functional connectivity (FC) is associated with depression. In addition to clinical features, such as severity, AI FC and its metabolism further predicted therapeutic response. Abnormal FC between anterior cingulate and AI covaried with reduced glutamate level within cingulate cortex. Recently, deficient glial glutamate conversion was found in AI in major depression disorder (MDD). We therefore postulate a local glutamatergic mechanism in insula cortex of depressive patients, which is correlated with symptoms severity and itself influences AI's network connectivity in MDD...
August 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Marina Mihaljevic, Katarina Zeljic, Ivan Soldatovic, Sanja Andric, Tijana Mirjanic, Alexander Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Tatjana Pekmezovic, Ivana Novakovic, Nadja P Maric
Increased reactivity to stress is observed in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their healthy siblings in comparison with the general population. Additionally, higher levels of neuroticism, as a proposed psychological measure of stress sensitivity, increase the risk of schizophrenia. HPA axis dysregulation is one of the possible mechanisms related to the vulnerability-stress model of schizophrenia, and recent studies revealed a possible role of the functional genetic variants of FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene which modulate activity of HPA axis...
August 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Christian Knöchel, Jonathan Kniep, Jason D Cooper, Michael Stäblein, Sofia Wenzler, Jan Sarlon, David Prvulovic, David E J Linden, Sabine Bahn, Pawel Stocki, Sureyya Ozcan, Gilberto Alves, Andre F Carvalho, Andreas Reif, Viola Oertel-Knöchel
Proteomic analyses facilitate the interpretation of molecular biomarker probes which are very helpful in diagnosing schizophrenia (SZ). In the current study, we attempt to test whether potential differences in plasma protein expressions in SZ and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with cognitive deficits and their underlying brain structures. Forty-two plasma proteins of 29 SZ patients, 25 BD patients and 93 non-clinical controls were quantified and analysed using multiple reaction monitoring-based triple quadrupole mass spectrometry approach...
August 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Nina Sarubin, Sven Hilbert, Felix Naumann, Peter Zill, Anna-Maria Wimmer, Caroline Nothdurfter, Rainer Rupprecht, Thomas C Baghai, Markus Bühner, Cornelius Schüle
Genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) have been associated with maladaptive stress responses and major depressive disorder (MDD). In a case-control study design, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haploid genotype (haplotype) associations of MR gene NR3C2, GR gene NR3C1 and genes of GR chaperone molecules FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) differed between healthy subjects (n = 634) and inpatients with major depressive disorder (n = 412)...
August 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Alexander Wolf, Stefan Leucht, Frank-Gerald Pajonk
Behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) are common and often treated with antipsychotics, which are known to have small efficacy and to cause many side effects. One potential side effect might be cognitive decline. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, CENTRAL and for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using antipsychotics for treating BPSD and evaluated cognitive functioning. The studies identified were summarized in a meta-analysis with the standardized mean difference (SMD, Hedges's g) as the effect size...
August 16, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Yifan Wang, Lingdan Wu, Hongli Zhou, Xiao Lin, Yifen Zhang, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
This study utilized independent component analysis to explore the abnormal functional connectivity (FC) in male participants with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral data were collected from 21 healthy controls (HC) and 18 IGD patients when they were performing a delay discounting task. Behavioral results revealed that the IGD patients showed higher delay discounting rates than HC. Two networks were found to be associated with IGD: (1) the executive control network containing the anterior cingulate cortex and the medial and superior frontal gyrus, and (2) the basal ganglia network containing the lentiform nucleus...
August 9, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Lara S F Carneiro, Maria Paula Mota, Maria Augusta Vieira-Coelho, Rita C Alves, António Manuel Fonseca, José Vasconcelos-Raposo
A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effects of exercise plus pharmacotherapy on monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin) and cortisol levels. A total of 26 women with clinical depression were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: aerobic exercise plus pharmacotherapy or only pharmacotherapy. The exercise program consisted of aerobic exercise, 45-50 min/session, three times/week, for 16 weeks. The biological parameters were measured before and after the exercise program...
August 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Yukihiko Shirayama, Kenji Hashimoto
Effects of a single bilateral infusion of R-enantiomer of ketamine in rat brain regions of learned helplessness model of depression were examined. A single bilateral infusion of R-ketamine into infralimbic (IL) portion of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus showed antidepressant effects. By contrast, a single bilateral infusion of R-ketamine into prelimbic (PL) portion of mPFC, shell and core of nucleus accumbens, basolateral amygdala and central nucleus of the amygdala had no effect...
August 1, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Jan C Cwik, Gudrun Sartory, Malte Nuyken, Benjamin Schürholt, Rüdiger J Seitz
Acute stress disorder (ASD) is predictive of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In response to symptom provocation, the exposure to trauma-related pictures, ASD patients showed increased activation of the medial posterior areas of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex as well as of superior prefrontal cortex in a previous study. The current study aimed at investigating which activated areas are predictive of the development of PTSD. Nineteen ASD patients took part in an fMRI study in which they were shown personalized trauma-related and neutral pictures within 4 weeks of the traumatic event...
July 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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