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European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229240/microglia-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-plays-a-potential-role-in-both-suicide-facilitation-and-prevention-in-affective-disorders
#1
Ralf Brisch, Johann Steiner, Christian Mawrin, Marta Krzyżanowska, Zbigniew Jankowski, Tomasz Gos
An involvement of the central serotonergic system has constantly been reported in the pathogenesis of suicide. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the main source of serotonergic innervation of forebrain limbic structures disturbed in suicidal behaviour, in which an abnormal microglia reaction seems to play a role. In our present study, the density of microglia immunostained for the HLA-DR antigen was evaluated in the DRN. These analyses were carried out on paraffin-embedded brains from 24 suicidal and 21 non-suicidal patients; among them, 27 depressed (15 major depressive disorder and 12 bipolar disorder) and 18 schizophrenia (9 residual and 9 paranoid) patients and 22 matched controls without mental disorders...
February 22, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194516/physical-activity-in-outpatients-with-mental-disorders-status-measurement-and-social-cognitive-determinants-of-health-behavior-change
#2
Moritz B Petzold, Sophie Bischoff, Janina Rogoll, Jens Plag, Christina Terán, Ralf Brand, Andreas Ströhle
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) can play an important role in improving the mental and physical health in patients with mental disorders but is not well studied in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the status of PA in outpatients with mental disorders, compare the convergence of self-rating and accelerometer measurement and examine the influence of social cognitive variables from the Motivation-Volition (MoVo) model and clinical measures on PA. METHODS: Eighty-four patients were recruited from three psychiatric outpatient clinics and local psychiatrists (Distribution of ICD-10-Diagnoses: F3...
February 13, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190094/heavy-cannabis-use-prior-psychosis-in-schizophrenia-clinical-cognitive-and-neurological-evidences-for-a-new-endophenotype
#3
Jasmina Mallet, Nicolas Ramoz, Yann Le Strat, Philip Gorwood, Caroline Dubertret
Cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, and is considered to impact late neurodevelopment. Neurological soft signs (NSS) associated with schizophrenia are considered as markers of early neurodevelopmental impairment. Our study examines the association between heavy cannabis use before the onset of psychosis and clinical, neuropsychological and neurological symptoms, including NSS. In a cross-sectional study, we consecutively included 61 patients with schizophrenia (34 reporting heavy cannabis use before the onset of psychosis and 27 not reporting such use), in the setting of a University Hospital and a Medical Center...
February 11, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188369/self-stigma-as-a-barrier-to-recovery-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Nathalie Oexle, Mario Müller, Wolfram Kawohl, Ziyan Xu, Sandra Viering, Christine Wyss, Stefan Vetter, Nicolas Rüsch
Stigma limits life opportunities of persons with mental illness. Self-stigma, the internalization of negative stereotypes, undermines empowerment and could hinder recovery. Here we examined self-stigma's effect on recovery among 222 disability pensioners with mental illness over 2 years, controlling for age, gender, symptoms and recovery at baseline measured by the Recovery Assessment Scale. More self-stigma at baseline was associated with a significant decrease in recovery after 1 year (not significant after 2 years)...
February 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176002/dysfunction-of-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-and-n-methyl-d-aspartate-glutamate-receptor-antibodies-in-dementias
#5
Mandy Busse, Ralf Kunschmann, Henrik Dobrowolny, Jessica Hoffmann, Bernhard Bogerts, Johann Steiner, Thomas Frodl, Stefan Busse
N-Methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) antibodies (Abs) could play a role in neurodegenerative disorders. Since, in these diseases, NMDA-R Abs were detected in serum, but only sporadic in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the origin and impact of the Abs are still unresolved. We examined the presence of NMDA-R Abs in serum and CSF using a cell-based immunofluorescence assay as well as the function of the blood-CSF-barrier (B-CSF-B) by determination of Q albumin (ratio of albumin in CSF and serum) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 59) and different types of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD; N = 156), subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD; N = 61), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD; N = 34)...
February 8, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161803/aerobic-exercise-in-major-psychiatric-disorders-promises-and-challenges
#6
EDITORIAL
Andrea Schmitt, Peter Falkai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116499/lack-of-relationship-between-plasma-levels-of-escitalopram-and-qtc-interval-length
#7
Mar Carceller-Sindreu, Javier de Diego-Adeliño, Maria J Portella, Xavier Garcia-Moll, Maria Figueras, Aina Fernandez-Vidal, Josep M Queraltó, Dolors Puigdemont, Enric Álvarez
Despite safety concerns raised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), evidence supporting QT-lengthening effects of escitalopram is far to be conclusive. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between escitalopram plasma levels (Escit-PL) and corrected QT-interval length (QTc-length) in 91 outpatients recruited from a hospital setting. Fifteen patients had an abnormally prolonged QTc-interval, and 3 had QTc-intervals ≥500 ms. No correlation between Escit-PL and QTc-length was found (r = 0.08; p = 0.45)...
January 23, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074290/a-trans-diagnostic-approach-to-psychosis-psychiatric-medication-nomenclature-and-stigma
#8
LETTER
Marina Economou, Helen Lazaratou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054132/course-of-clinical-high-risk-states-for-psychosis-beyond-conversion
#9
Chantal Michel, Stephan Ruhrmann, Benno G Schimmelmann, Joachim Klosterkötter, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
BACKGROUND: The main focus of research on clinical high-risk states for psychosis (CHR) has been the development of algorithms to predict psychosis. Consequently, other outcomes have been neglected, and little is known about the long-term diagnostic and functional outcome among those not converting to psychosis. METHODS: In a naturalistic study, incidence, persistence, and remission rates of CHR states according to symptomatic ultra-high risk or cognitive disturbances criteria were investigated in 160 of 246 outpatients of an early detection of psychoses service (21...
January 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044191/depressive-anxiety-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorders-at-six-years-after-occupational-injuries
#10
Wei-Shan Chin, Judith Shu-Chu Shiao, Shih-Cheng Liao, Chun-Ya Kuo, Chih-Chieh Chen, Yue Leon Guo
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants...
January 2, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039553/deficient-amygdala-prefrontal-intrinsic-connectivity-after-effortful-emotion-regulation-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#11
Blazej M Baczkowski, Linda van Zutphen, Nicolette Siep, Gitta A Jacob, Gregor Domes, Simon Maier, Andreas Sprenger, Alena Senft, Bastian Willenborg, Oliver Tüscher, Arnoud Arntz, Vincent van de Ven
Emotion instability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with an impaired fronto-limbic inhibitory network. However, functional connectivity (FC) underlying altered emotion regulation in BPD has yet to be established. Here, we used resting-state fMRI to investigate enduring effects of effortful emotion regulation on the amygdala intrinsic FC in BPD. In this multicenter study, resting-state fMRI was acquired before and after an emotion regulation task in 48 BPD patients and 39 non-patient comparison individuals...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039552/cerebrospinal-fluid-microglia-and-neurodegenerative-markers-in-twins-concordant-and-discordant-for-psychotic-disorders
#12
Viktoria Johansson, Joel Jakobsson, Rebecca G Fortgang, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Tyrone D Cannon, Christina M Hultman, Lennart Wetterberg, Mikael Landén
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are debilitating psychiatric disorders with partially shared symptomatology including psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Aberrant levels of microglia and neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have previously been found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to analyze familial and environmental influences on these CSF markers and their relation to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive ability. CSF was collected from 17 complete twin pairs, nine monozygotic and eight dizygotic, and from one twin sibling...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039551/single-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-enduring-enhancement-of-visual-processing-speed-in-patients-with-major-depression
#13
Nadine Gögler, Lina Willacker, Johanna Funk, Wolfgang Strube, Simon Langgartner, Natan Napiórkowski, Alkomiet Hasan, Kathrin Finke
Attentional deficits are considered key cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) arising from abnormal activation patterns within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) alertness networks. Altering these activity patterns with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might thus ameliorate alertness-dependent cognitive deficits in MDD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study, we investigated the effect of a single session of anodal tDCS (2 mA) applied to the left dlPFC on different parameters of visual attention based on Bundesen's theory of visual attention (Psychol Rev 97(4):523-547, 1990) in a group of 20 patients with MDD and a control group of 20 healthy participants...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035472/insulin-regulated-aminopeptidase-immunoreactivity-is-abundantly-present-in-human-hypothalamus-and-posterior-pituitary-gland-with-reduced-expression-in-paraventricular-and-suprachiasmatic-neurons-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#14
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Susan Müller, Hendrik Dobrowolny, Carmen Wolke, Uwe Lendeckel, Alicja Bukowska, Gerburg Keilhoff, Axel Becker, Kurt Trübner, Johann Steiner, Bernhard Bogerts
The vasopressin- and oxytocin-degrading enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is expressed in various organs including the brain. However, knowledge about its presence in human hypothalamus is fragmentary. Functionally, for a number of reasons (genetic linkage, hydrolysis of oxytocin and vasopressin, its role as angiotensin IV receptor in learning and memory and others) IRAP might play a role in schizophrenia. We studied the regional and cellular localization of IRAP in normal human brain with special emphasis on the hypothalamus and determined numerical densities of IRAP-expressing cells in the paraventricular, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei in schizophrenia patients and controls...
December 29, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032255/treatment-recommendations-for-schizophrenia-major-depression-and-alcohol-dependence-and-stigmatizing-attitudes-of-the-public-results-from-a-german-population-survey
#15
Sven Speerforck, Georg Schomerus, Herbert Matschinger, Matthias C Angermeyer
In addition to mental health literacy, several potentially conflicting emotions and attitudes among the public are hypothesized to guide their recommendations for specific mental health treatments. It is unclear whether evidence-based treatment strategies are guided by pro-social or stigmatizing attitudes and emotions. In a representative population survey in Germany (n = 3642), we asked respondents to what extent they would recommend psychotropic medication, psychotherapy and relaxation techniques for a person with mental illness described in an unlabelled vignette...
December 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032254/white-matter-correlates-of-the-disorganized-speech-dimension-in-schizophrenia
#16
Petra V Viher, Katharina Stegmayer, Stéphanie Giezendanner, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
Disorganized speech is related to functional abnormalities in schizophrenia. To test the association between formal thought disorders (FTDs) and white matter microstructure, we applied a behavioral rating and diffusion tensor imaging in 61 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The Bern Psychopathology Scale was used to rate the dimension of language abnormalities ranging from negative FTDs, basically unaltered speech, to positive FTDs. Tract-based spatial statistics indicated increased fractional anisotropy in left hemispheric pathways of the language system in patients with negative FTDs...
December 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028606/novelty-seeking-mediates-the-effect-of-drd3-variation-on-onset-age-of-amphetamine-dependence-in-han-chinese-population
#17
Shin-Chang Kuo, Yi-Wei Yeh, Chun-Yen Chen, Chang-Chih Huang, Tien-Yu Chen, Che-Hung Yen, Chih-Sung Liang, Pei-Shen Ho, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
The dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) gene, one of the candidate genes for amphetamine dependence (AD), is involved in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, implicated as the underlying mechanism of addiction. Our case-control study aimed to investigate whether the DRD3 gene is associated with the susceptibility to AD and specific personality traits in AD patients. A total of 1060 unrelated Han Chinese subjects (559 AD patients and 501 controls) were screened using the same assessment tool and genotyped for eight DRD3 polymorphisms...
December 27, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025692/age-related-differences-in-inhibitory-control-and-memory-updating-in-boys-with-asperger-syndrome
#18
Elisabeth M Weiss, Bianca Gschaidbauer, Liane Kaufmann, Andreas Fink, Günter Schulter, Erich Mittenecker, Ilona Papousek
Deficits in specific executive domains are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder; however, age-related improvements in executive functions (reflecting prefrontal maturational changes) have been reported even in individuals diagnosed with autism. The current study examined two components of cognitive flexibility (inhibition of prepotent responses and memory monitoring/updating) by using a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in a group of 23 boys with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 23 matched healthy controls...
December 26, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988852/obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-and-overall-psychopathology-in-psychotic-disorders-longitudinal-assessment-of-patients-and-siblings
#19
Frederike Schirmbeck, Marije Swets, Carin J Meijer, Mathias Zink, Lieuwe de Haan
The course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and its association with alterations in other clinical variables in patients with psychotic disorders is insufficiently known. Patients (n = 602) and unaffected siblings (n = 652) from the Dutch Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study were investigated at baseline and after 3 years. Participants were assigned to four groups based on the course of OCS over time: no-OCS, persistent OCS, initial OCS and de novo OCS. In addition to cross-sectional comparisons, longitudinal associations between changes in OCS and symptoms of schizophrenia and general functioning were investigated...
December 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942861/decreased-white-matter-fa-values-in-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-is-a-possible-intermediate-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-evidences-from-a-novel-group-strategy
#20
Jianjun Ou, Hailong Lyu, Maorong Hu, Jun Li, Wenbin Guo, Xiaofeng Guo, Lihua Li, Junjie Zheng, Qinling Wei, Feng Liu, Zhong He, Juan Wang, Fang Liu, Renrong Wu, Jindong Chen, Lehua Li, Bin Hu, Huafu Chen, Jingping Zhao
Intermediate phenotype could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility. However, genetic and environmental heterogeneity may interfere with identification of intermediate phenotypes. In this study, we minimized these interferences by using a novel group strategy. A total of 22 drug-naive and first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, along with 22 of their kin healthy siblings (HS), 22 non-kin healthy siblings (nHS) of other schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls (HC), were recruited. Brain imaging was acquired from the participants...
December 9, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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