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European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074290/a-trans-diagnostic-approach-to-psychosis-psychiatric-medication-nomenclature-and-stigma
#1
LETTER
Marina Economou, Helen Lazaratou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070643/candidate-gene-associations-studies-in-psychiatry-time-to-move-forward
#2
EDITORIAL
C Arango
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054132/course-of-clinical-high-risk-states-for-psychosis-beyond-conversion
#3
Chantal Michel, Stephan Ruhrmann, Benno G Schimmelmann, Joachim Klosterkötter, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
BACKGROUND: The main focus of research on clinical high-risk states for psychosis (CHR) has been the development of algorithms to predict psychosis. Consequently, other outcomes have been neglected, and little is known about the long-term diagnostic and functional outcome among those not converting to psychosis. METHODS: In a naturalistic study, incidence, persistence, and remission rates of CHR states according to symptomatic ultra-high risk or cognitive disturbances criteria were investigated in 160 of 246 outpatients of an early detection of psychoses service (21...
January 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044191/depressive-anxiety-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorders-at-six-years-after-occupational-injuries
#4
Wei-Shan Chin, Judith Shu-Chu Shiao, Shih-Cheng Liao, Chun-Ya Kuo, Chih-Chieh Chen, Yue Leon Guo
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants...
January 2, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039553/deficient-amygdala-prefrontal-intrinsic-connectivity-after-effortful-emotion-regulation-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#5
Blazej M Baczkowski, Linda van Zutphen, Nicolette Siep, Gitta A Jacob, Gregor Domes, Simon Maier, Andreas Sprenger, Alena Senft, Bastian Willenborg, Oliver Tüscher, Arnoud Arntz, Vincent van de Ven
Emotion instability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with an impaired fronto-limbic inhibitory network. However, functional connectivity (FC) underlying altered emotion regulation in BPD has yet to be established. Here, we used resting-state fMRI to investigate enduring effects of effortful emotion regulation on the amygdala intrinsic FC in BPD. In this multicenter study, resting-state fMRI was acquired before and after an emotion regulation task in 48 BPD patients and 39 non-patient comparison individuals...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039552/cerebrospinal-fluid-microglia-and-neurodegenerative-markers-in-twins-concordant-and-discordant-for-psychotic-disorders
#6
Viktoria Johansson, Joel Jakobsson, Rebecca G Fortgang, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Tyrone D Cannon, Christina M Hultman, Lennart Wetterberg, Mikael Landén
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are debilitating psychiatric disorders with partially shared symptomatology including psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Aberrant levels of microglia and neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have previously been found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to analyze familial and environmental influences on these CSF markers and their relation to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive ability. CSF was collected from 17 complete twin pairs, nine monozygotic and eight dizygotic, and from one twin sibling...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039551/single-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-enduring-enhancement-of-visual-processing-speed-in-patients-with-major-depression
#7
Nadine Gögler, Lina Willacker, Johanna Funk, Wolfgang Strube, Simon Langgartner, Natan Napiórkowski, Alkomiet Hasan, Kathrin Finke
Attentional deficits are considered key cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) arising from abnormal activation patterns within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) alertness networks. Altering these activity patterns with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might thus ameliorate alertness-dependent cognitive deficits in MDD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study, we investigated the effect of a single session of anodal tDCS (2 mA) applied to the left dlPFC on different parameters of visual attention based on Bundesen's theory of visual attention (Psychol Rev 97(4):523-547, 1990) in a group of 20 patients with MDD and a control group of 20 healthy participants...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035472/insulin-regulated-aminopeptidase-immunoreactivity-is-abundantly-present-in-human-hypothalamus-and-posterior-pituitary-gland-with-reduced-expression-in-paraventricular-and-suprachiasmatic-neurons-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#8
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Susan Müller, Hendrik Dobrowolny, Carmen Wolke, Uwe Lendeckel, Alicja Bukowska, Gerburg Keilhoff, Axel Becker, Kurt Trübner, Johann Steiner, Bernhard Bogerts
The vasopressin- and oxytocin-degrading enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is expressed in various organs including the brain. However, knowledge about its presence in human hypothalamus is fragmentary. Functionally, for a number of reasons (genetic linkage, hydrolysis of oxytocin and vasopressin, its role as angiotensin IV receptor in learning and memory and others) IRAP might play a role in schizophrenia. We studied the regional and cellular localization of IRAP in normal human brain with special emphasis on the hypothalamus and determined numerical densities of IRAP-expressing cells in the paraventricular, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei in schizophrenia patients and controls...
December 29, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032255/treatment-recommendations-for-schizophrenia-major-depression-and-alcohol-dependence-and-stigmatizing-attitudes-of-the-public-results-from-a-german-population-survey
#9
Sven Speerforck, Georg Schomerus, Herbert Matschinger, Matthias C Angermeyer
In addition to mental health literacy, several potentially conflicting emotions and attitudes among the public are hypothesized to guide their recommendations for specific mental health treatments. It is unclear whether evidence-based treatment strategies are guided by pro-social or stigmatizing attitudes and emotions. In a representative population survey in Germany (n = 3642), we asked respondents to what extent they would recommend psychotropic medication, psychotherapy and relaxation techniques for a person with mental illness described in an unlabelled vignette...
December 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032254/white-matter-correlates-of-the-disorganized-speech-dimension-in-schizophrenia
#10
Petra V Viher, Katharina Stegmayer, Stéphanie Giezendanner, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
Disorganized speech is related to functional abnormalities in schizophrenia. To test the association between formal thought disorders (FTDs) and white matter microstructure, we applied a behavioral rating and diffusion tensor imaging in 61 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The Bern Psychopathology Scale was used to rate the dimension of language abnormalities ranging from negative FTDs, basically unaltered speech, to positive FTDs. Tract-based spatial statistics indicated increased fractional anisotropy in left hemispheric pathways of the language system in patients with negative FTDs...
December 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028606/novelty-seeking-mediates-the-effect-of-drd3-variation-on-onset-age-of-amphetamine-dependence-in-han-chinese-population
#11
Shin-Chang Kuo, Yi-Wei Yeh, Chun-Yen Chen, Chang-Chih Huang, Tien-Yu Chen, Che-Hung Yen, Chih-Sung Liang, Pei-Shen Ho, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
The dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) gene, one of the candidate genes for amphetamine dependence (AD), is involved in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, implicated as the underlying mechanism of addiction. Our case-control study aimed to investigate whether the DRD3 gene is associated with the susceptibility to AD and specific personality traits in AD patients. A total of 1060 unrelated Han Chinese subjects (559 AD patients and 501 controls) were screened using the same assessment tool and genotyped for eight DRD3 polymorphisms...
December 27, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025692/age-related-differences-in-inhibitory-control-and-memory-updating-in-boys-with-asperger-syndrome
#12
Elisabeth M Weiss, Bianca Gschaidbauer, Liane Kaufmann, Andreas Fink, Günter Schulter, Erich Mittenecker, Ilona Papousek
Deficits in specific executive domains are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder; however, age-related improvements in executive functions (reflecting prefrontal maturational changes) have been reported even in individuals diagnosed with autism. The current study examined two components of cognitive flexibility (inhibition of prepotent responses and memory monitoring/updating) by using a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in a group of 23 boys with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 23 matched healthy controls...
December 26, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988852/obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-and-overall-psychopathology-in-psychotic-disorders-longitudinal-assessment-of-patients-and-siblings
#13
Frederike Schirmbeck, Marije Swets, Carin J Meijer, Mathias Zink, Lieuwe de Haan
The course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and its association with alterations in other clinical variables in patients with psychotic disorders is insufficiently known. Patients (n = 602) and unaffected siblings (n = 652) from the Dutch Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study were investigated at baseline and after 3 years. Participants were assigned to four groups based on the course of OCS over time: no-OCS, persistent OCS, initial OCS and de novo OCS. In addition to cross-sectional comparisons, longitudinal associations between changes in OCS and symptoms of schizophrenia and general functioning were investigated...
December 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942861/decreased-white-matter-fa-values-in-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-is-a-possible-intermediate-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-evidences-from-a-novel-group-strategy
#14
Jianjun Ou, Hailong Lyu, Maorong Hu, Jun Li, Wenbin Guo, Xiaofeng Guo, Lihua Li, Junjie Zheng, Qinling Wei, Feng Liu, Zhong He, Juan Wang, Fang Liu, Renrong Wu, Jindong Chen, Lehua Li, Bin Hu, Huafu Chen, Jingping Zhao
Intermediate phenotype could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility. However, genetic and environmental heterogeneity may interfere with identification of intermediate phenotypes. In this study, we minimized these interferences by using a novel group strategy. A total of 22 drug-naive and first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, along with 22 of their kin healthy siblings (HS), 22 non-kin healthy siblings (nHS) of other schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls (HC), were recruited. Brain imaging was acquired from the participants...
December 9, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913877/oxidative-stress-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-effects-of-disease-acuity-and-potential-confounders
#15
Wolfgang Jordan, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Bahn, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tanja Brigadski, Thomas Frodl, Berend Isermann, Volkmar Lessmann, Jürgen Pilz, Andrea Rodenbeck, Kolja Schiltz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Hayrettin Tumani, Jens Wiltfang, Paul C Guest, Johann Steiner
Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43)...
December 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896432/repression-of-telomere-associated-genes-by-microglia-activation-in-neuropsychiatric-disease
#16
Golo Kronenberg, Ria Uhlemann, Johanna Schöner, Stephanie Wegner, Valérie Boujon, Nikolas Deigendesch, Matthias Endres, Karen Gertz
Microglia senescence may promote neuropsychiatric disease. This prompted us to examine the relationship between microglia activation states and telomere biology. A panel of candidate genes associated with telomere maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cell-cycle regulation were investigated in M1- and M2-polarized microglia in vitro as well as in MACS-purified CD11b+ microglia/brain macrophages from models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic stress. M1 polarization, ischemia, and Alzheimer pathology elicited a strikingly similar transcriptomic profile with, in particular, reduced expression of murine Tert...
November 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878376/amygdala-structure-and-aggressiveness-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#17
Falk Mancke, Sabine C Herpertz, Dusan Hirjak, Rebekka Knies, Katja Bertsch
Aggressiveness is considered an important clinical feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and has been associated with alterations of the amygdala. However, studies that analyzed the exact location of amygdala alterations associated with aggressiveness in BPD or that systematically compared female and male BPD patients are missing. In the current study, we therefore investigated a sex-mixed sample of BPD patients and healthy volunteers and applied an automated segmentation method that allows the study of both, alterations of amygdala volume and localized amygdala shape...
November 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866272/angry-but-not-neutral-faces-facilitate-response-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-patients
#18
Birgit Derntl, Ute Habel
Schizophrenia is a very heterogeneous disorder with extensive impairments in cognitive as well as emotional abilities. One critical domain is response inhibition, and previous studies in schizophrenia patients have mostly observed impairments, i.e., slower inhibition. Moreover, response inhibition to socially salient stimuli has not been investigated in schizophrenia so far. Therefore, to elucidate emotion-cognition interactions by examining potential emotional effects on inhibition processes and further investigate the association of cognition with inhibition we used an emotional stop signal task in 27 schizophrenia patients and 27 gender- and age-matched controls...
November 19, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838738/exploring-social-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#19
R Revsbech, E L Mortensen, J Nordgaard, L B Jansson, D Saebye, T Flensborg-Madsen, J Cutting, J Parnas
The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 "imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)" items, 10 "psychological understanding" items, and 10 "practical understanding" items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance...
November 12, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830339/mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-for-depressed-individuals-improves-suppression-of-irrelevant-mental-sets
#20
Jonathan Greenberg, Benjamin G Shapero, David Mischoulon, Sara W Lazar
An impaired ability to suppress currently irrelevant mental-sets is a key cognitive deficit in depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was specifically designed to help depressed individuals avoid getting caught in such irrelevant mental-sets. In the current study, a group assigned to MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (n = 22) exhibited significantly lower depression scores and greater improvements in irrelevant mental-set suppression compared to a wait-list plus treatment-as-usual (n = 18) group...
November 9, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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