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European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

Gabrielle Campbell, Emily Stockings, Suzanne Nielsen
The use of medical cannabis and cannabis-based medicines has received increasing interest in recent years; with a corresponding surge in the number of studies and reviews conducted in the field. Despite this growth in evidence, the findings and conclusions of these studies have been inconsistent. In this paper, we outline the current evidence for medical cannabis and cannabis-based medicines in the treatment and management of chronic non-cancer pain. We discuss limitations of the current evidence, including limitations of randomised control trials in the field, limits on generalisability of previous findings and common issues such as problems with measurements of dose and type of cannabinoids...
January 11, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Luca Kleineidam, Ingo Frommann, Stephan Ruhrmann, Joachim Klosterkötter, Anke Brockhaus-Dumke, Wolfgang Wölwer, Wolfgang Gaebel, Wolfgang Maier, Michael Wagner, Ulrich Ettinger
Saccadic eye movements are well-described markers of cerebral function and have been widely studied in schizophrenia spectrum populations. However, less is known about saccades in individuals clinically at risk for schizophrenia. Therefore, we studied individuals in an at-risk mental state (ARMS) (N = 160), patients in their first episode of schizophrenia (N = 32) and healthy controls (N = 75). N = 88 ARMS participants showed an early at-risk mental state (E-ARMS), defined by cognitive-perceptive basic symptoms (COPER) or a combination of risk and loss of function, whereas N = 72 were in a late at-risk mental state (L-ARMS), defined by attenuated psychotic symptoms or brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms...
January 11, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Ariane Kerst, Jürgen Zielasek, Wolfgang Gaebel
Smartphone applications ("apps") may contribute to closing the treatment gap for depression by reaching large populations at relatively low costs. The general public seems open towards the use of apps for mental disorders but less is known about the attitudes of health care professionals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the available evidence on the effectiveness of apps for depression and to explore the attitudes of health care professionals towards their use in practice. A systematic literature search was performed aimed at studies utilizing smartphone applications for depression...
January 3, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Alba Lubeiro, Mar Fatjó-Vilas, Maria Guardiola, Carmen Almodóvar, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Benjamin Cea-Cañas, Jesús Poza, Aitor Palomino, Marta Gómez-García, Jone Zugasti, Vicente Molina
A deficit in task-related functional connectivity modulation from electroencephalogram (EEG) has been described in schizophrenia. The use of measures of neuronal connectivity as an intermediate phenotype may allow identifying genetic factors involved in these deficits, and therefore, establishing underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Genes involved in neuronal excitability and previously associated with the risk for schizophrenia may be adequate candidates in relation to functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia...
January 3, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Liisa Leppik, Madis Parksepp, Sven Janno, Kati Koido, Liina Haring, Eero Vasar, Mihkel Zilmer
Alterations in complex lipids may be involved in pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Previously, we demonstrated importance of detecting lipid metabolism dysregulation by acylcarnitine (ACs) profile analysis in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). The aim of this study was to adopt lipidomics to identify serum glycerophospholipids (GPLs) and sphingomyelins (SMs) for describing FEP status before and after 7-month antipsychotic treatment. Using mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography technique, we profiled 105 individual lipids [14 lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), 76 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 15 SMs] in serum samples from 53 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients, 44 of them were studied longitudinally and from 37 control subjects (CSs)...
January 2, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Alan J Budney, Michael J Sofis, Jacob T Borodovsky
Confusion and controversy related to the potential for cannabis use to cause harm, or alternatively to provide benefit, continues globally. This issue has grown in intensity and importance with the increased recognition of the public health implications related to the escalation of the legalization of cannabis and cannabinoid products. This selective overview and commentary attempt to succinctly convey what is known about one potential consequence of cannabis use, the development of cannabis use disorder (CUD)...
January 2, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Ádám Kiss, Ádám Menus, Katalin Tóth, Máté Déri, Dávid Sirok, Evelyn Gabri, Ales Belic, Gábor Csukly, István Bitter, Katalin Monostory
The efficacy of aripiprazole therapy and the risk of adverse reactions are influenced by substantial inter-individual variability in aripiprazole metabolizing capacity. In vitro studies assigned the potential role in aripiprazole metabolism to CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes; therefore, the association between the steady-state aripiprazole plasma concentrations and patients' CYP2D6 and CYP3A statuses (CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genotypes, and CYP3A4 expression) and/or co-medication with CYP function modifying medications has been investigated in 93 psychiatric patients on stable aripiprazole therapy...
January 2, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Borwin Bandelow, Katharina Schüller
The mean age and gender distribution of patients seeking help for mental disorders have not yet been investigated systematically. Epidemiological surveys can provide data on gender distribution of disorders and an age range in which a disorder is most frequent, but do not offer data on the average help-seeking patient, and they are usually conducted by lay interviewers with non-clinical subjects. However, this information on age and gender can be simply extracted from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which consecutive clinical patients are included...
January 2, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
I Hyun Ruisch, Andrea Dietrich, Jeffrey C Glennon, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
We investigated gene-environment (G × E) interactions related to childhood antisocial behavior between polymorphisms implicated by recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and two key environmental adversities (maltreatment and smoking during pregnancy) in a large population cohort (ALSPAC). We also studied the MAOA candidate gene and addressed comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ALSPAC is a large, prospective, ethnically homogeneous British cohort. Our outcome consisted of mother-rated conduct disorder symptom scores at age 7;9 years...
December 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Darby J E Lowe, Julia D Sasiadek, Alexandria S Coles, Tony P George
With the increasing push to legalize cannabis in Western nations, there is a need to gage the potential impact of this policy change on vulnerable populations, such as those with mental illness, including schizophrenia, mood, and anxiety disorders. This is particularly important as there are strong motives in these individuals to seek short-term reward (e.g., "getting high"). Nonetheless, data to support the beneficial effects of cannabis use in psychiatric populations are limited, and potential harms in patients with psychotic and mood disorders have been increasingly documented...
December 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Michael Kaczmarczyk, Francesca Regen, Isabella Heuser, Malek Bajbouj, Julian Hellmann-Regen
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a neuromodulation technique that stimulates cortical regions via time-varying electromagnetic fields; in several countries this technique has been approved as a treatment for major depressive disorder. One empirically established target in antidepressant pharmacotherapy is the flavin-containing monoamine oxidoreductase (MAO). The function of MAO enzymes is based on oxidation processes that may be sensitive towards strong electromagnetic fields. Therefore, we hypothesized that rTMS-induced electromagnetic fields impact the activity of this enzyme...
December 17, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Mohammad Ridwan Chattun, Siqi Zhang, Yu Chen, Qiang Wang, Nousayhah Amdanee, Shui Tian, Qing Lu, Zhijian Yao
Major depressive disorder (MDD), characterized by low mood or anhedonia, is commonly associated with a greater suicidal susceptibility. There are numerous suicide-related findings pertaining to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), caudate nucleus and thalamus, which form a cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit responsible for executive function and working memory. An aberrant CSTC circuitry is hypothesized to be implicated in depressed patients with a high suicidal risk. 27 MDD patients were assessed with the Nurses Global Assessment of Suicide Risk (NGASR), following which 14 patients were classified into a high suicide risk group (NGASR ≥ 12) and 13 patients were assigned to a low suicide risk group (NGASR < 6)...
December 14, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Michael Kahl, Gerd Wagner, Feliberto de la Cruz, Stefanie Köhler, C Christoph Schultz
Resilience is defined as the psychological resistance which enables the processing of stress and adverse life events and thus constitutes a key factor for the genesis of psychiatric illness. However, little is known about the morphological correlates of resilience in the human brain. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the neuroanatomical expression of resilience in healthy individuals. 151 healthy subjects were recruited and had to complete a resilience-specific questionnaire (RS-11). All of them underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted MRI in a 3T scanner...
December 12, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Stephan Goerigk, Sven Hilbert, Andrea Jobst, Peter Falkai, Markus Bühner, Clemens Stachl, Bernd Bischl, Stefan Coors, Thomas Ehring, Frank Padberg, Nina Sarubin
The intentional distortion of test results presents a fundamental problem to self-report-based psychiatric assessment, such as screening for depressive symptoms. The first objective of the study was to clarify whether depressed patients like healthy controls possess both the cognitive ability and motivation to deliberately influence results of commonly used screening measures. The second objective was the construction of a method derived directly from within the test takers' responses to systematically detect faking behavior...
December 12, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Daniela Mier, Frederike Schirmbeck, Gabriela Stoessel, Christine Esslinger, Franziska Rausch, Susanne Englisch, Sarah Eisenacher, Lieuwe de Haan, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Peter Kirsch, Mathias Zink
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in patients with schizophrenia are a common co-occurring condition, often associated with additional impairments. A subgroup of these patients develops OCS during treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine and olanzapine. So far, little is known about possible neural mechanism of these SGAs, which seem to aggravate or induce OCS. To investigate the role of SGA treatment on neural activation and connectivity during emotional processing, patients were stratified according to their monotherapy into two groups (group I: clozapine or olanzapine, n = 20; group II: amisulpride or aripiprazole, n = 20)...
December 11, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Arnaud Panes, Antoine Pariente, Anne Bénard-Laribière, Régis Lassalle, Caroline Dureau-Pournin, Simon Lorrain, Marie Tournier, Annie Fourrier-Réglat
Benzodiazepines and z-drugs are primarily indicated for the treatment of sleep disorders and anxiety symptoms. Their frequent long-term use contrasts with the international guidelines that limit treatment duration to a maximum of 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of their use that was not in accordance with guidelines in the French general population between 2007 and 2012 and associated characteristics. A cohort of 67,550 benzodiazepine new users was set up in an exhaustive database for health-care reimbursements and representative of the French population...
December 11, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Laura Kranaster, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Alexander Sartorius
Early identification of patients who are at a high risk for an unfavorable outcome to ECT during the treatment course might be beneficial because it provides an opportunity for timely intensification or optimization of stimulus conditions. We aimed to validate a previously developed seizure quality index (SQI) that delivers a clinically relevant outcome prediction early in the treatment course and can be used within common clinical setting. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted. Patients (n = 26) below the age of 65 years with a depressive episode and the clinical decision for ECT (right unilateral, brief pulse) were included and several ictal parameters, the SQI for non-response and non-remission, and the clinical outcome of the patients were documented...
December 10, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Sophie K Kirchner, Selen Ozkan, Richard Musil, Ilja Spellmann, Nirmal Kannayian, Peter Falkai, Moritz Rossner, Sergi Papiol
Cognitive deficits are increasingly recognized as a core dimension rather than a consequence of schizophrenia (SCZ). The previous evidence supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors between SCZ and cognitive ability. The objective of this study was to test whether and to what extent the variation of disease-relevant neurocognitive function in a sample of SCZ patients from the previous clinical interventional studies can be explained by SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRSs) or by hypothesis-driven and biomedical PRSs...
December 7, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Michael Schneider, Johannes Regente, Timo Greiner, Stephanie Lensky, Stefan Bleich, Sermin Toto, Renate Grohmann, Susanne Stübner, Martin Heinze
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare, but severe adverse drug reaction of drugs with anti-dopaminergic properties. The main symptoms are fever and rigor. In addition, other symptoms such as creatine kinase elevation, alteration of consciousness and various neurological symptoms may occur. A total of 52 NMS cases have been documented in the drug safety program 'Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie' from 1993 to 2015. We calculated incidences and analyzed imputed substances and additional risk factors to study the impact of changing therapy regimes...
November 30, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Natalia Estévez-Lamorte, Simon Foster, Dominique Eich-Höchli, Franz Moggi, Gerhard Gmel, Meichun Mohler-Kuo
We investigated whether adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predicts risky substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs), and its impact on the course of these problematic substance use patterns. Our sample included 4975 Swiss men (mean age 20 ± 1.2 years) who participated in the baseline and 15-month follow-up assessments of the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors. We examined: (1) the contribution of ADHD, as assessed at baseline, on the risky use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis, and their corresponding use disorders (AUD, NUD, CUD) at follow-up; and (2) the association between ADHD and the course of outcomes (i...
November 27, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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