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European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424861/s-ketamine-compared-to-etomidate-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-major-depression
#1
Maxim Zavorotnyy, Ina Kluge, Kathrin Ahrens, Thomas Wohltmann, Benjamin Köhnlein, Patricia Dietsche, Udo Dannlowski, Tilo Kircher, Carsten Konrad
Objective of the study was to compare two commonly used anesthetic drugs, S-ketamine and etomidate, regarding their influence on seizure characteristics, safety aspects, and outcome of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression. Treatment data of 60 patients who underwent a total number of 13 ECTs (median) because of the severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (DSM-IV) were analyzed. Etomidate, mean dosage (SD) = 0.25 (0.04) mg/kg, was used for anesthesia in 29 participants; 31 patients received S-ketamine, mean dosage (SD) = 0...
April 19, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421334/guideline-adherence-of-antidepressant-treatment-in-outpatients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-naturalistic-study
#2
David P Herzog, Stefanie Wagner, Christian Ruckes, André Tadic, Sibylle C Roll, Martin Härter, Klaus Lieb
Little is known about guideline adherence of naturalistic antidepressant drug therapy in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to analyze guideline adherence, especially regarding treatment length, treatment evaluation and medication change strategies. We investigated 889 patients with MDD who had been admitted for inpatient treatment and were enrolled in the early medication change trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00974155). We investigated all patients at screening visit regarding previous outpatient drug treatment in the index episode, which was assessed by structured interviews...
April 18, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421333/identification-of-putative-second-genetic-hits-in-schizophrenia-carriers-of-high-risk-copy-number-variants-and-resequencing-in-additional-samples
#3
Julio Rodríguez-López, Beatriz Sobrino, Jorge Amigo, Noa Carrera, Julio Brenlla, Santiago Agra, Eduardo Paz, Ángel Carracedo, Mario Páramo, Manuel Arrojo, Javier Costas
Copy number variants (CNVs) conferring risk of schizophrenia present incomplete penetrance, suggesting the existence of second genetic hits. Identification of second hits may help to find genes with rare variants of susceptibility to schizophrenia. The aim of this work was to search for second hits of moderate/high risk in schizophrenia carriers of risk CNVs and resequencing of the relevant genes in additional samples. To this end, ten patients with risk CNVs at cytobands 15q11.2, 15q11.2-13.1, 16p11.2, or 16p13...
April 18, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417199/intake-of-7-8-dihydroxyflavone-from-pregnancy-to-weaning-prevents-cognitive-deficits-in-adult-offspring-after-maternal-immune-activation
#4
Mei Han, Ji-Chun Zhang, Xu-Feng Huang, Kenji Hashimoto
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling plays a key role in the brain neurodevelopment. The exposure of pregnant mice to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] causes cognitive deficits in adult offspring. Supplementation with a TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, in poly(I:C)-treated pregnant mice from pregnancy to weaning could prevent the onset of cognitive deficits and reduced BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex of their adult offspring...
April 17, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409230/binocular-rivalry-transitions-predict-inattention-symptom-severity-in-adult-adhd
#5
Aiste Jusyte, Natalia Zaretskaya, Nina Maria Höhnle, Andreas Bartels, Michael Schönenberg
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent childhood disorder that is often maintained throughout the development and persists into adulthood. Established etiology models suggest that deficient inhibition underlies the core ADHD symptoms. While experimental evidence for impaired motor inhibition is overwhelming, little is known about the sensory inhibition processes, their changes throughout the development, and the relationship to ADHD symptoms. Here, we used the well-established binocular rivalry (BR) paradigm to investigate for the very first time the inhibitory processes related to visual perception in adults with ADHD...
April 13, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401340/seizure-threshold-increases-can-be-predicted-by-eeg-quality-in-right-unilateral-ultrabrief-ect
#6
Verònica Gálvez, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Susan Waite, Colleen K Loo
Increases in seizure threshold (ST) over a course of brief pulse ECT can be predicted by decreases in EEG quality, informing ECT dose adjustment to maintain adequate supra-threshold dosing. ST increases also occur over a course of right unilateral ultrabrief (RUL UB) ECT, but no data exist on the relationship between ST increases and EEG indices. This study (n = 35) investigated if increases in ST over RUL UB ECT treatments could be predicted by a decline in seizure quality. ST titration was performed at ECT session one and seven, with treatment dosing maintained stable (at 6-8 times ST) in intervening sessions...
April 11, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393267/charting-the-perfect-storm-emerging-biological-interfaces-between-stress-and-stroke
#7
REVIEW
G Kronenberg, J Schöner, C Nolte, A Heinz, M Endres, Karen Gertz
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that psychosocial stress is an important and often underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction and stroke. In this article, we map out major biological interfaces between stress, stress-related psychiatric disorders, and stroke, placing special emphasis on the fact that stress and psychiatric disorders may be both cause and consequence of cardiovascular disease. Apart from high-risk lifestyle habits such as smoking and lack of exercise, neuroendocrine dysregulation, alterations of the hemostatic system, increased oxidative stress, and inflammatory changes have been implicated in stress-related endothelial dysfunction...
April 9, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389890/articulation-and-testing-of-a-personality-centred-model-of-psychopathology-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-community-study-over-30%C3%A2-years
#8
Michael P Hengartner, Peter Tyrer, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Jules Angst, Wulf Rössler
Advances in psychopathological research advocate a personality-centred model of common mental disorders (CMD). We tested four hypotheses to test such a model. First, personality relates to critical life events; second, both personality and critical life events relate to CMD; third, interaction effects between personality and critical life events relate to CMD; fourth, neuroticism explains the majority of variance in psychopathology. We analysed data (n = 453) based on seven semi-structured interviews from a longitudinal epidemiologic cohort study over 30 years spanning years 1979 (age 20) to 2008 (age 50)...
April 7, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389889/nicotine-dependence-is-associated-with-depression-and-childhood-trauma-in-smokers-with-schizophrenia-results-from-the-face-sz-dataset
#9
Romain Rey, Thierry D'Amato, Laurent Boyer, Lore Brunel, Bruno Aouizerate, Fabrice Berna, Delphine Capdevielle, Isabelle Chereau, Gabrielle Chesnoy-Servanin, Hélène Denizot, Jean-Michel Dorey, Caroline Dubertret, Julien Dubreucq, Catherine Faget, Franck Gabayet, Christophe Lancon, Jasmina Mallet, David Misdrahi, Christine Passerieux, Aurélie Schandrin, Franck Schürhoff, Mathieu Urbach, Pierre Vidailhet, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Guillaume Fond
In a perspective of personalized care for smoking cessation, a better clinical characterization of smokers with schizophrenia (SZ) is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of SZ smokers with severe nicotine (NIC) dependence. 240 stabilized community-dwelling SZ smokers (mean age = 31.9 years, 80.4% male gender) were consecutively included in the network of the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and assessed with validated scales. Severe NIC dependence was defined by a Fagerstrom questionnaire score ≥ 7...
April 7, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389888/gender-does-matter-in-clinical-research
#10
EDITORIAL
Florence Thibaut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386767/increased-quinolinic-acid-in-peripheral-mononuclear-cells-in-alzheimer-s-dementia
#11
Mandy Busse, Vanessa Hettler, Victoria Fischer, Christian Mawrin, Roland Hartig, Henrik Dobrowolny, Bernhard Bogerts, Thomas Frodl, Stefan Busse
The role of monocytes and macrophages in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood. Recently, we have shown that the number of CD14+ monocytes remained constant during healthy aging and in AD patients. Although only little is known about the function of activated macrophages and microglia in AD, one important mechanism involves the expression of quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) agonist which mediates excitotoxicity especially in the hippocampus...
April 6, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386766/high-levels-of-neuroticism-are-associated-with-decreased-cortical-folding-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#12
C Christoph Schultz, Heide Warziniak, Kathrin Koch, Claudia Schachtzabel, Daniel Güllmar, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Ralf G Schlösser, Heinrich Sauer, Gerd Wagner
The personality trait neuroticism has been identified as a vulnerability factor for common psychiatric diseases and defining potential neuroanatomical markers for early recognition and prevention strategies is mandatory. Because both personality traits and cortical folding patterns are early imprinted and timely stable there is reason to hypothesize an association between neuroticism and cortical folding. Thus, to identify a putative linkage, we tested whether the degree of neuroticism is associated with local cortical folding in a sample of 109 healthy individuals using a surface-based MRI approach...
April 6, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378228/inflammatory-processes-and-schizophrenia-two-independent-lines-of-evidence-from-a-study-of-twins-discordant-and-concordant-for-schizophrenic-disorders
#13
Silke Braun, René Bridler, Norbert Müller, Markus J Schwarz, Erich Seifritz, Matthias Weisbrod, Alexandra Zgraggen, Hans H Stassen
The concept of twin concordance involves quantifying the resemblance between co-twins in an "objective" and reproducible way. Yet, quantifying resemblance in the case of complex psychiatric traits like schizophrenic disorders leads to methodological problems, as the yes-no dichotomy of diagnostic schemata does not allow one to assess between-subject differences in psychopathology patterns sufficiently accurately. Therefore, we relied on a multidimensional, quantitative concordance measure that provided a high resolution and differentiation when assessing the resemblance of psychopathology patterns...
April 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365865/socio-demographic-and-clinical-characterization-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-i-vs-ii-a-nationwide-italian-study
#14
A Carlo Altamura, Massimiliano Buoli, Bruno Cesana, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Gianluigi Tacchini, Umberto Albert, Andrea Fagiolini, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Giuseppe Maina, Emilio Sacchetti
Bipolar disorders (BDs) are prevalent, comorbid and disabling conditions, associated with the highest suicide risk among psychiatric illnesses. In the last few years, new efforts to better characterize the socio-demographic and clinical profiles of BD type I vs II have been documented by several reports, with novel and insightful findings in the field. The present multicenter study aimed to provide a comprehensive and reliable representation of the Italian reality, through the analysis of the largest national sample of bipolar patients collected so far...
April 1, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364268/the-dopamine-d2-receptor-mediates-approach-avoidance-tendencies-in-smokers
#15
Armin Zlomuzica, Alla Machulska, Susanna Roberts, Michael von Glischinski, Mike Rinck, Kathryn J Lester, Thalia C Eley, Jürgen Margraf
Dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2) have been strongly implicated in reward processing of natural stimuli and drugs. Using the approach-avoidance task (AAT), we recently demonstrated that smokers show an increased approach-bias toward smoking-related cues but not toward naturally rewarding stimuli. Here, we examined the contribution of the DRD2 Taq1B polymorphism to smokers' and non-smokers' responsivity toward smoking versus naturally rewarding stimuli in the AAT. Smokers carrying the minor B1 allele of the DRD2 Taq1B polymorphism showed reduced approach behavior for food-related pictures compared to non-smokers with the same allele...
March 31, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361258/effects-of-neonatal-excitotoxic-lesions-in-ventral-thalamus-on-social-interaction-in-the-rat
#16
Rainer Wolf, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sven Nullmeier, Bernhard Bogerts, Herbert Schwegler
The role of the thalamus in schizophrenia has increasingly been studied in recent years. Deficits in the ventral thalamus have been described in only few postmortem and neuroimaging studies. We utilised our previously introduced neurodevelopmental animal model, the neonatal excitotoxic lesion of the ventral thalamus of Sprague-Dawley rats (Wolf et al., Pharmacopsychiatry 43:99-109, 22). At postnatal day (PD7), male pubs received bilateral thalamic infusions with ibotenic acid (IBA) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control)...
March 30, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357563/the-association-of-psychopathology-with-concurrent-level-of-functioning-and-subjective-well-being-in-persons-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#17
Lisa Hochstrasser, Stefan Borgwardt, Martin Lambert, Benno G Schimmelmann, Undine E Lang, Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz, Christian G Huber
The objective is to investigate the relationship between psychopathology measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and concurrent global assessment of functioning (GAF) and subjective well-being under neuroleptics (SWN) in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) regarding severity of illness and disease phase. We analyzed a sample of 202 SSD patients consisting of first episode psychosis (FEP) and multiple episode psychosis (MEP) patients followed up to 12 months using linear mixed models...
March 29, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357562/in-vivo-imaging-of-oxidative-stress-and-fronto-limbic-white-matter-integrity-in-young-adults-with-mood-disorders
#18
Daniel F Hermens, Sean N Hatton, Rico S C Lee, Sharon L Naismith, Shantel L Duffy, G Paul Amminger, Manreena Kaur, Elizabeth M Scott, Jim Lagopoulos, Ian B Hickie
Fronto-limbic connectivity is compromised in mood disorders, as reflected by impairments in white matter (WM) integrity revealed by diffusion tensor imaging. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, disruption to normal myelination due to oxidative stress is thought to play a key role. We aimed to determine whether fronto-limbic WM integrity is compromised, and associated with in vivo antioxidant levels (indexed by glutathione; GSH), in young adults with unipolar depression (DEP) and bipolar (BD) disorders...
March 29, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353028/decreased-memory-confidence-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-for-scenarios-high-and-low-on-responsibility-is-low-still-too-high
#19
Steffen Moritz, Anne Jaeger
Previous research suggests that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), particularly checkers, display an inflated sense of responsibility. For the present study, we tested whether memory confidence in OCD is reduced under conditions of heightened responsibility and/or reflects poor memory vividness. A computerized task designed to modulate perceived responsibility was administered to 26 OCD patients (12 checkers) and 21 healthy controls. In the experimental condition (high responsibility), participants had to allocate daily medications to ten fictive patients in a hospital emergency ward, whereas in the control condition (low responsibility) participants had to allocate bath essences for ten hotel guests...
March 28, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353027/the-association-of-childhood-maltreatment-with-depression-and-anxiety-is-not-moderated-by-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene
#20
Marieke S Tollenaar, Marc L Molendijk, Brenda W J H Penninx, Yuri Milaneschi, Niki Antypa
BACKGROUND: The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene may be involved in resilience or vulnerability towards stress, and hence in the development of stress-related disorders. There are indications that OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interact with early life stressors in predicting levels of depression and anxiety. To replicate and extend these findings, we examined whether three literature-based OXTR SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576, rs2268498) interact with childhood maltreatment in the development of clinically diagnosed depression and anxiety disorders...
March 28, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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