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European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624847/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-implications-for-schizophrenia-and-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#1
REVIEW
S Kanji, T M Fonseka, V S Marshe, V Sriretnakumar, M K Hahn, D J Müller
With the emergence of knowledge implicating the human gut microbiome in the development and regulation of several physiological systems, evidence has accumulated to suggest a role for the gut microbiome in psychiatric conditions and drug response. A complex relationship between the enteric nervous system, the gut microbiota and the central nervous system has been described which allows for the microbiota to influence and respond to a variety of behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Additionally, the use of pharmaceuticals may interact with and alter the microbiota to potentially contribute to adverse effects of the drug...
June 17, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623450/the-relationship-between-excitement-symptom-severity-and-extrastriatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-resolution-pet-study-with-18-f-fallypride
#2
Yo-Han Joo, Jeong-Hee Kim, Young-Don Son, Hang-Keun Kim, Yeon-Jeong Shin, Sang-Yoon Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific symptom severity and D2/3 receptor availability in extrastriatal regions in outpatients with schizophrenia to shed light on the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of symptoms of schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenia patients receiving relatively low-dose maintenance atypical antipsychotics and seventeen healthy controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride...
June 16, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620773/antioxidant-uric-acid-in-treated-and-untreated-subjects-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#3
Francesco Bartoli, Giulia Trotta, Cristina Crocamo, Maria Rosaria Malerba, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
Pathophysiological mechanisms of major depressive disorder (MDD) seem to be associated with oxidative stress pathways and altered purinergic metabolism. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate if subjects with MDD might have reduced levels of antioxidant uric acid, considering also potential influence of antidepressant treatment. We searched the main Electronic Databases, identifying 14 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled Hedges' g and mean differences (MDs), using random-effects models...
June 15, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616772/evaluation-of-the-cognitive-behavioral-smoking-reduction-program-smoke_less-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Tobias Rüther, Alexa Kiss, Kerstin Eberhardt, Andrea Linhardt, Christoph Kröger, Oliver Pogarell
The vast majority of smokers are unable or unwilling to quit, but many are open to reducing smoking. No treatment options exist for these smokers besides medication-based therapies. Thus, this study investigated the efficacy of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) smoking reduction program, Smoke_less. A sample of 155 outpatient smokers aged 18-70 years was recruited at the Tobacco Dependence Outpatient Clinic of the Medical Center of the University of Munich, Germany, and randomly assigned to the experimental group (Smoke_less: four weekly CBT group sessions and two telephone calls over 5 weeks, n = 51), active comparator group (one 15-minute counseling session, n = 49), or waiting control group (no intervention during the study, n = 55)...
June 14, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612143/adhd-modulates-the-course-of-delinquency-a-15-year-follow-up-study-of-young-incarcerated-man
#5
Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Michael Rösler, Oriana Clasen, Toivo Zinnow, Petra Retz-Junginger, Wolfgang Retz
There is growing evidence of an association between ADHD and rule-breaking behaviour and that subjects with ADHD are more likely to be involved in the legal system. However, the research on ADHD as a risk factor not only for delinquency but also for recidivism is scarce and findings are controversial. Therefore, we explored the impact of ADHD on the course of delinquency in a sample of incarcerated young men. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study by investigating the criminal records of 106 former youth prisoners...
June 13, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602012/plasma-levels-of-soluble-amyloid-precursor-protein-%C3%AE-in-symptomatic-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Lena-Sophie Gleixner, Lukas Werle, Felix Buhl, Nathalie Thierjung, Evangelia Giourou, Simone M Kagerbauer, Philippos Gourzis, Hubert Kübler, Timo Grimmer, Igor Yakushev, Jan Martin, Alexander Kurz, Robert Perneczky
The established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) require invasive endeavours or presuppose sophisticated technical equipment. Consequently, new biomarkers are needed. Here, we report that plasma levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein β (sAPPβ), a protein of the initial phase of the amyloid cascade, were significantly lower in patients with symptomatic AD (21 with mild cognitive impairment due to AD and 44 with AD dementia) with AD-typical cerebral hypometabolic pattern compared with 27 cognitively healthy elderly individuals without preclinical AD...
June 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593328/abnormalities-in-the-brain-immune-system-in-psychotic-disorders-from-pathogenesis-to-prevention
#7
EDITORIAL
Kenji Hashimoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577223/correspondence-between-negative-symptoms-and-potential-sources-of-secondary-negative-symptoms-over-time
#8
Aida Farreny, Mark Savill, Stefan Priebe
There has been a debate in the literature about the distinction between primary and secondary negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Our aim was to study the associations between negative symptoms and potential sources of secondary negative symptoms over time. A sample of 275 participants with at least mid-moderate negative symptoms was randomized into body psychotherapy or Pilates class in a previous study. No significant differences were found between groups over time and changes in the symptom domains were modest...
June 2, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555406/investigation-of-previously-implicated-genetic-variants-in-chronic-tic-disorders-a-transmission-disequilibrium-test-approach
#9
Mohamed Abdulkadir, Douglas Londono, Derek Gordon, Thomas V Fernandez, Lawrence W Brown, Keun-Ah Cheon, Barbara J Coffey, Lonneke Elzerman, Carolin Fremer, Odette Fründt, Blanca Garcia-Delgar, Donald L Gilbert, Dorothy E Grice, Tammy Hedderly, Isobel Heyman, Hyun Ju Hong, Chaim Huyser, Laura Ibanez-Gomez, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Young Key Kim, Young Shin Kim, Yun-Joo Koh, Sodahm Kook, Samuel Kuperman, Bennett Leventhal, Andrea G Ludolph, Marcos Madruga-Garrido, Athanasios Maras, Pablo Mir, Astrid Morer, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Alexander Münchau, Tara L Murphy, Kerstin J Plessen, Veit Roessner, Eun-Young Shin, Dong-Ho Song, Jungeun Song, Jennifer Tübing, Els van den Ban, Frank Visscher, Sina Wanderer, Martin Woods, Samuel H Zinner, Robert A King, Jay A Tischfield, Gary A Heiman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
Genetic studies in Tourette syndrome (TS) are characterized by scattered and poorly replicated findings. We aimed to replicate findings from candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our cohort included 465 probands with chronic tic disorder (93% TS) and both parents from 412 families (some probands were siblings). We assessed 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 465 parent-child trios; 117 additional SNPs in 211 trios; and 4 additional SNPs in 254 trios. We performed SNP and gene-based transmission disequilibrium tests and compared nominally significant SNP results with those from a large independent case-control cohort...
May 29, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550365/a-longitudinal-study-of-neurotrophic-oxidative-and-inflammatory-markers-in-first-onset-depression-in-midlife-women
#10
Matheus A Pasquali, Bernard L Harlow, Claudio N Soares, Michael W Otto, Lee S Cohen, Luciano Minuzzi, Daniel P Gelain, Jose Claudio F Moreira, Benicio N Frey
Prospective studies have shown during the years preceding and following menopause, also known as "menopause transition", that midlife women are at higher risk for developing first-onset major depressive disorder (MDD). The biological factors associated with risk and resilience in this population are, however, largely unknown. Considering the growing body of evidence suggesting that inflammation, oxidative stress, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with the pathophysiology of MDD, we investigated serum levels of protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS), thiol group content, BDNF, 3-nitrotyrosine, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in a longitudinal cohort of first-onset MDD...
May 26, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540411/negative-symptoms-anxiety-and-depression-as-mechanisms-of-change-of-a-12-month-trial-of-assertive-community-treatment-as-part-of-integrated-care-in-patients-with-first-and-multi-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-access-i-trial
#11
Stefanie J Schmidt, Matthias Lange, Daniel Schöttle, Anne Karow, Benno G Schimmelmann, Martin Lambert
Assertive community treatment (ACT) has shown to be effective in improving both functional deficits and quality of life (QoL) in patients with severe mental illness. However, the mechanisms of this beneficial effect remained unclear. We examined mechanisms of change by testing potential mediators including two subdomains of negative symptoms, i.e. social amotivation as well as expressive negative symptoms, anxiety, and depression within a therapeutic ACT model (ACCESS I trial) in a sample of 120 first- and multi-episode patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM-IV)...
May 24, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534187/total-hypothalamic-volume-is-reduced-in-postmortem-brains-of-male-heroin-addicts
#12
Ulf J Müller, Kolja Schiltz, Christian Mawrin, Henrik Dobrowolny, Thomas Frodl, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Bernhard Bogerts, Kurt Truebner, Johann Steiner
The hypothalamus is at the core of the stress responses systems of the brain. Most interestingly, even though changes of HPA-function have been observed in opiate addiction not much is known about structural changes of the hypothalamus. Volumes of hypothalamus in heroin addicts (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 12) were assessed by using morphometry of serial whole-brain sections. Total brain volume was larger in the heroin group (mean 1478.85 ± 62.34 cm(3) vs. mean 1352.38 ± 103.24 cm(3)), as the heroin group was more than 10 years younger (p = 0...
May 22, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534186/modifiable-and-non-modifiable-factors-associated-with-functional-impairment-during-the-inter-episodic-periods-of-bipolar-disorder
#13
Andrea Murru, Isabella Pacchiarotti, Norma Verdolini, Maria Reinares, Carla Torrent, Pierre-Alexis Geoffroy, Frank Bellivier, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Eduard Vieta, Ludovic Samalin
The chronic, long-term evolution of bipolar disorder (BD) requires a careful clinical characterization with prognostic implications in terms of symptom and functional control. The OPTHYMUM multicenter study was conducted in France with the objective of evaluating residual symptoms on overall functioning of BD patients during inter-episodic period. The aims of the present study were to identify the potentially modifiable (e.g., treatable) and non-modifiable variables associated with functional impairment during the inter-episodic periods of BD...
May 22, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526931/reduced-amygdala-reactivity-and-impaired-working-memory-during-dissociation-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
Annegret Krause-Utz, Dorina Winter, Friederike Schriner, Chui-De Chiu, Stefanie Lis, Philip Spinhoven, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl, Bernet M Elzinga
Affective hyper-reactivity and impaired cognitive control of emotional material are core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high percentage of individuals with BPD experience stress-related dissociation, including emotional numbing and memory disruptions. So far little is known about how dissociation influences the neural processing of emotional material in the context of a working memory task in BPD. We aimed to investigate whole-brain activity and amygdala functional connectivity (FC) during an Emotional Working Memory Task (EWMT) after dissociation induction in un-medicated BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC)...
May 19, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488021/striatal-reward-sensitivity-predicts-therapy-related-neural-changes-in-alcohol-addiction
#15
Alena Becker, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Martina Kirsch, Sabine Hoffmann, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
Individual differences in reward sensitivity along with weakened executive control are characteristic for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Emerging translational models of psychotherapy propose the integration of such neurobiological risk profiles to elucidate the mechanisms underlying behavior change in order to improve intervention efficacy. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether striatal baseline reward sensitivity can be used as a neurobiological predictor of intervention-specific changes in neural functioning during AUD therapy...
May 9, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474231/fluoxetine-reverses-behavior-changes-in-socially-isolated-rats-role-of-the-hippocampal-gsh-dependent-defense-system-and-proinflammatory-cytokines
#16
Ivana Perić, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Peter Gass, Dragana Filipović
Exposure of an organism to chronic social isolation (CSIS) has been shown to have an important role in depression. Fluoxetine (Flx) is a first-line treatment for depression; however, its downstream mechanisms of action beyond serotonergic signaling remain ill-defined. We investigated the effect of 3 weeks of Flx (15 mg/kg/day) treatment on behavioral changes and protein expression/activity of the GSH-dependent defense system, including reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GLR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as catalase (CAT), in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 6 weeks of CSIS...
May 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474230/erratum-to-high-levels-of-neuroticism-are-associated-with-decreased-cortical-folding-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#17
C Christoph Schultz, Heide Warziniak, Kathrin Koch, Claudia Schachtzabel, Daniel Güllmar, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Ralf G Schlösser, Heinrich Sauer, Gerd Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466133/planning-functioning-and-impulsiveness-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Riccardo Maria Martoni, Roberta de Filippis, Stefania Cammino, Mattia Giuliani, Gaia Risso, Maria Cristina Cavallini, Laura Bellodi
Planning ability (PA) is a key aspect of cognitive functioning and requires subjects to identify and organise the necessary steps to achieve a goal. Despite the central role of executive dysfunction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), deficits in PA have been investigated leading to contrasting results. Given these inconsistencies, the main aim of our work is to give a deeper and clearer understanding of PA in OCD patients. Moreover, we are interested in investigating the relationship between PAs and impulsivity traits and other clinical variables...
May 2, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439723/psychiatric-comorbidity-in-alcohol-use-disorders-results-from-the-german-s3-guidelines
#19
REVIEW
U W Preuss, E Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, U Havemann-Reinecke, I Schäfer, M Beutel, E Hoch, K F Mann
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) have a high comorbidity with mental disorders. Vice versa, alcohol consumption plays an important role in affective disorders, anxiety disorders, ADHD, schizophrenic psychosis, and other mental disorders. In developing the current interdisciplinary, evidence-based treatment guideline on screening, diagnostics, and treatment of AUD, available research on comorbid mental diseases in AUD has been compiled to generate recommendations for treatment. The guideline was prepared under the responsibility of the German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) and the German Association for Addiction Research and Therapy (DG-Sucht)...
April 24, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424861/s-ketamine-compared-to-etomidate-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-major-depression
#20
Maxim Zavorotnyy, Ina Kluge, Kathrin Ahrens, Thomas Wohltmann, Benjamin Köhnlein, Patricia Dietsche, Udo Dannlowski, Tilo Kircher, Carsten Konrad
Objective of the study was to compare two commonly used anesthetic drugs, S-ketamine and etomidate, regarding their influence on seizure characteristics, safety aspects, and outcome of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression. Treatment data of 60 patients who underwent a total number of 13 ECTs (median) because of the severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (DSM-IV) were analyzed. Etomidate, mean dosage (SD) = 0.25 (0.04) mg/kg, was used for anesthesia in 29 participants; 31 patients received S-ketamine, mean dosage (SD) = 0...
April 19, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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