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European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913877/oxidative-stress-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-effects-of-disease-acuity-and-potential-confounders
#1
Wolfgang Jordan, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Bahn, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tanja Brigadski, Thomas Frodl, Berend Isermann, Volkmar Lessmann, Jürgen Pilz, Andrea Rodenbeck, Kolja Schiltz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Hayrettin Tumani, Jens Wiltfang, Paul C Guest, Johann Steiner
Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43)...
December 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896432/repression-of-telomere-associated-genes-by-microglia-activation-in-neuropsychiatric-disease
#2
Golo Kronenberg, Ria Uhlemann, Johanna Schöner, Stephanie Wegner, Valérie Boujon, Nikolas Deigendesch, Matthias Endres, Karen Gertz
Microglia senescence may promote neuropsychiatric disease. This prompted us to examine the relationship between microglia activation states and telomere biology. A panel of candidate genes associated with telomere maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cell-cycle regulation were investigated in M1- and M2-polarized microglia in vitro as well as in MACS-purified CD11b+ microglia/brain macrophages from models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic stress. M1 polarization, ischemia, and Alzheimer pathology elicited a strikingly similar transcriptomic profile with, in particular, reduced expression of murine Tert...
November 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878376/amygdala-structure-and-aggressiveness-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#3
Falk Mancke, Sabine C Herpertz, Dusan Hirjak, Rebekka Knies, Katja Bertsch
Aggressiveness is considered an important clinical feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and has been associated with alterations of the amygdala. However, studies that analyzed the exact location of amygdala alterations associated with aggressiveness in BPD or that systematically compared female and male BPD patients are missing. In the current study, we therefore investigated a sex-mixed sample of BPD patients and healthy volunteers and applied an automated segmentation method that allows the study of both, alterations of amygdala volume and localized amygdala shape...
November 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866272/angry-but-not-neutral-faces-facilitate-response-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-patients
#4
Birgit Derntl, Ute Habel
Schizophrenia is a very heterogeneous disorder with extensive impairments in cognitive as well as emotional abilities. One critical domain is response inhibition, and previous studies in schizophrenia patients have mostly observed impairments, i.e., slower inhibition. Moreover, response inhibition to socially salient stimuli has not been investigated in schizophrenia so far. Therefore, to elucidate emotion-cognition interactions by examining potential emotional effects on inhibition processes and further investigate the association of cognition with inhibition we used an emotional stop signal task in 27 schizophrenia patients and 27 gender- and age-matched controls...
November 19, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838738/exploring-social-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#5
R Revsbech, E L Mortensen, J Nordgaard, L B Jansson, D Saebye, T Flensborg-Madsen, J Cutting, J Parnas
The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 "imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)" items, 10 "psychological understanding" items, and 10 "practical understanding" items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance...
November 12, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830339/mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-for-depressed-individuals-improves-suppression-of-irrelevant-mental-sets
#6
Jonathan Greenberg, Benjamin G Shapero, David Mischoulon, Sara W Lazar
An impaired ability to suppress currently irrelevant mental-sets is a key cognitive deficit in depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was specifically designed to help depressed individuals avoid getting caught in such irrelevant mental-sets. In the current study, a group assigned to MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (n = 22) exhibited significantly lower depression scores and greater improvements in irrelevant mental-set suppression compared to a wait-list plus treatment-as-usual (n = 18) group...
November 9, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796500/rates-and-predictors-of-relapse-in-first-episode-non-affective-psychosis-a-3-year-longitudinal-study-in-a-specialized-intervention-program-pafip
#7
José María Pelayo-Terán, Virginia Gajardo Gajardo Galán, Víctor de la Ortiz-García de la Foz, Obdulia Martínez-García, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola
Relapses may represent a critical hazard in schizophrenia spectrum disorders as they are associated with an increased risk of a clinical and functional deterioration. Preventing relapse after recovering from a first psychotic episode has become a major challenge due to its critical impact on lifelong functionality. This study explored the rate of first and second relapses and the predictors associated with these relapses in a large cohort of non-affective psychosis patients during a period of 3 years after the first break of the illness...
October 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787610/polymorphism-of-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-dynamics-of-the-seizure-threshold-of-electroconvulsive-therapy
#8
C Stephani, M Shoukier, R Ahmed, C Wolff-Menzler
During a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the level of currency necessary to induce an epileptic seizure in a patient may either remain relatively stable or-more often-may require repeated upward adjustment over time due to a constantly increasing seizure threshold. We aimed to determine whether a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which constitutes an important and ubiquitously expressed neurotrophine in the brain, affects the stimulation threshold of ECTs required to induce an epileptic seizure over time...
October 27, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785605/validity-of-remission-and-recovery-criteria-for-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-comparison-of-the-results-of-two-one-year-follow-up-naturalistic-studies
#9
Ilja Spellmann, Rebecca Schennach, Florian Seemüller, Sebastian Meyer, Richard Musil, Markus Jäger, Max Schmauß, Gerd Laux, Herbert Pfeiffer, Dieter Naber, Lutz G Schmidt, Wolfgang Gaebel, Joachim Klosterkötter, Isabella Heuser, Michael Bauer, Mazda Adli, Joachim Zeiler, Wolfram Bender, Klaus-Thomas Kronmüller, Marcus Ising, Peter Brieger, Wolfgang Maier, Matthias R Lemke, Eckart Rüther, Stefan Klingberg, Markus Gastpar, Michael Riedel, Hans-Jürgen Möller
The objective of the present study was the application and comparison of common remission and recovery criteria between patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) under inclusion of other outcome parameters. Patients with schizophrenia and MDD who were treated as inpatients at the beginning of the study were examined within two naturalistic follow-up trials from admission to discharge of an inpatient treatment period and the one-year follow-up assessment. PANSS criteria of the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG) for schizophrenia and HAMD criteria of the ACNP Task Force in MDD for depressive patients as well as the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) were applied as symptomatic outcome measures additionally to functional outcome parameters...
October 26, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783216/clinical-and-treatment-related-predictors-of-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder-focus-on-visual-paired-associative-learning
#10
Kalliopi Tournikioti, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Ioannis Michopoulos, Maria Alevizaki, Constantin R Soldatos, Dimitris Dikeos, Athanasios Douzenis
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impairment in cognitive domains such as verbal memory and executive functions. However, visual paired associative learning (PAL) has been far less researched. Neurocognitive dysfunction in BD patients has been related to several clinical factors, but data on the effect of medication are relatively scarce and inconsistent. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of clinical and treatment-related parameters on executive functions and visual memory/learning, including PAL, in BD...
October 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783215/translational-medicine-from-disease-and-patient-specific-stem-cell-research-to-clinical-trials-and-back-again
#11
EDITORIAL
Matthias Jung, Dan Rujescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770284/aberrant-activity-and-connectivity-of-the-posterior-superior-temporal-sulcus-during-social-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#12
Daniela Mier, Sarah Eisenacher, Franziska Rausch, Susanne Englisch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Vera Zamoscik, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink, Peter Kirsch
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in social cognition. These impairments have been shown to go along with altered activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). However, studies that investigate connectivity of pSTS during social cognition in schizophrenia are sparse. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls completed a social-cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging that allows the investigation of affective Theory of Mind (ToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761652/stigmatization-of-psychiatric-symptoms-and-psychiatric-service-use-a-vignette-based-representative-population-survey
#13
Julia F Sowislo, Claudia Lange, Sebastian Euler, Henning Hachtel, Marc Walter, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Christian G Huber
Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent...
October 19, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752828/erratum-to-further-evidence-for-the-association-between-a-polymorphism-in-the-promoter-region-of-slc6a3-dat1-and-adhd-findings-from-a-sample-of-adults
#14
Lucas A de Azeredo, Diego L Rovaris, Nina R Mota, Evelise R Polina, Francine Z Marques, Verônica Contini, Eduardo S Vitola, Paulo Belmonte-de-Abreu, Luis A Rohde, Eugenio H Grevet, Claiton H D Bau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752827/a-randomized-controlled-trial-reporting-functional-outcomes-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-medication-treated-adults-with-adhd-and-comorbid-psychopathology
#15
Susan Young, Brynjar Emilsson, Jon Fridrik Sigurdsson, Mizanur Khondoker, Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Gisli Baldursson, Halldora Olafsdottir, Gisli Gudjonsson
Studies assessing psychological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults are increasingly reported. However, functional outcomes are often neglected in favour of symptom outcomes. We investigated functional outcomes in 95 adults with ADHD who were already treated with medication and randomized to receive treatment as usual (TAU/MED) or psychological treatment (CBT/MED) using a cognitive-behavioural programme, R&R2ADHD, which employs both group and individual modalities. RATE-S functional outcomes associated with ADHD symptoms, social functioning, emotional control and antisocial behaviour were given at baseline, end of treatment and three-month follow-up...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752826/psychopathological-and-demographic-characteristics-of-hallucinating-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder-an-analysis-based-on-amdp-data
#16
Christopher Baethge, Michaela Jänner, Wolfgang Gaebel, Jaroslav Malevani
Hallucinations are at the core of the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and many neuroscience studies focus on hallucinations. However, there is a lack of data on prevalence, subtyping, and clinical correlates of hallucinations as well as on the comparison of hallucinating schizophrenia versus hallucinating schizoaffective patients. Analysis of all psychopathology evaluations is based on the AMDP scale in a German psychiatric university hospital between 2007 and 2013 regarding patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to ICD-10)...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695935/clinical-response-in-a-risperidone-medicated-naturalistic-sample-patients-characteristics-and-dose-dependent-pharmacokinetic-patterns
#17
Michael Paulzen, Ekkehard Haen, Benedikt Stegmann, Stefan Unterecker, Christoph Hiemke, Gerhard Gründer, Georgios Schoretsanitis
The purpose of this study was to disentangle an association between plasma concentrations of risperidone (RIS), its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIS) and the active moiety, AM (RIS + 9-OH-RIS), and clinical response in a naturalistic sample. Plasma concentrations of RIS, 9-OH-RIS and AM in patients out of a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database were compared between responders (n = 64) and non-responders (n = 526) using the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale. Daily dosage of risperidone did not differ between responders and non-responders...
October 1, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662886/heightened-early-attentional-stimulus-orienting-and-impulsive-action-in-men-with-antisocial-personality-disorder
#18
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658669/differences-in-the-association-between-childhood-trauma-history-and-borderline-personality-disorder-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnoses-in-adulthood
#19
Marc Ferrer, Óscar Andión, Natalia Calvo, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga, Mònica Prat, Montserrat Corrales, Miguel Casas
Common environmental etiological factors between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been fully studied. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma histories, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), with adult BPD, ADHD or BPD-ADHD diagnoses. Comorbid BPD-ADHD patients exhibited significantly higher clinical severity and higher scores in the Total Neglect Scale, compared to BPD and ADHD patients, and only a marginal difference was observed for Sexual Abuse when BPD and ADHD patients were compared...
September 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629158/altered-intracortical-myelin-staining-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-severe-mental-illness
#20
Evelyn M R Lake, Eric A Steffler, Christopher D Rowley, Manpreet Sehmbi, Luciano Minuzzi, Benicio N Frey, Nicholas A Bock
Imaging and postmortem studies into the severe mental illnesses of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) have revealed deficiencies in the myelination of deep white matter tracts of the brain. Recent studies have further suggested that deficits could extend to myelinated fibers running through the cortex in those illnesses. Disruptions in this intracortical myelin may underlie functional symptomology in MDD, BD, and SZ; thus, in this study, we hypothesized that individuals with these illnesses may have reduced myelin staining relative to controls in the cerebral cortex...
September 14, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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