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Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679527/effects-of-a-new-chlorhexidine-varnish-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-vitro
#1
Ali Hayati, Farhud Najafi, Fahimeh Sadat Tabatabaei
BACKGROUND: Local sustained-release drug delivery systems increase the substantivity of drugs in the oral environment and subsequently enhance their therapeutic effects. This study sought to compare the effects of two commercially available varnishes and one experimental chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish on formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The solubility rates of the varnishes were evaluated as well. METHODS: Standard acrylic discs were fabricated and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surfaces, namely, V-varnish, Pascal, and experimental CHX varnish...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672272/rabbits-and-men-relating-their-ages
#2
REVIEW
Sulagna Dutta, Pallav Sengupta
Rabbit, a member of the Lagomorpha order, is the closest phylogenetic relative to humans, next to primates. It possesses greater acceptability as a laboratory mammal than primates in terms of husbandry, breeding ease, cost effectiveness, and legal ethical conveniences. Moreover, as a laboratory animal, the rabbit also owns its advantages over mice or rats, in terms of phylogenetic resemblance to human, size, blood volume, responsiveness, and other congruences enabling them to better imitate human physiological characteristics in biomedical research...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672271/anti-ulcerogenic-effect-of-the-methanol-extract-of-chasmanthera-dependens-hochst-stem-on-male-wistar-rats
#3
Stephanie Abiola Tijani, Samuel B Olaleye, Ebenezer O Farombi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and free radical-mediated processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. This study investigated the ability of the methanol extract of Chasmanthera dependens to protect the gastric mucosal from oxidative damage induced by oral administration of indomethacin in rats. METHODS: The C. dependens stems were chopped into pieces, air-dried, and pulverized into powder. One kilogram of the powder was macerated in 1 L of methanol for 72 h...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672270/role-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-in-controlling-diabetic-nephropathy-in-rats
#4
Lakhwinder Singh, Atul Arya, Sumeet Gupta
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a downregulator of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), resulting in reduced nitric oxide level and low expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by which nitric oxide level get reduced. In the present study, we examined the role of ANP in reduced nitric oxide level, which may be responsible in controlling diabetic nephropathy in rats. METHODS: Serum nitrite/nitrate ratio, blood urea nitrogen, protein in urine, urinary output, serum creatinine, serum cholesterol, kidney weight, kidney hypertrophy, renal cortical collagen content, thiobarbituric acid level, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672269/garlic-allium-sativum-increases-sirt1-and-sirt2-gene-expressions-in-the-kidney-and-liver-tissues-of-stz-and-stz-niacinamide-induced-diabetic-rats
#5
Zahra Arab Sadeghabadi, Nasrin Ziamajidi, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir, Roohollah Mohseni
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy and liver damage are important complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Various factors, such as sirtuins (silent information regulators or SIRTs) are associated with these complications. Sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent proteins, and seven types of these can be found in mammalians. In this study, we evaluated the effects of aqueous garlic extract (G) on the expressions of SIRT1 and SIRT2 genes in the kidney and liver tissues of rats with types 1 and 2 diabetes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668464/effects-of-%C3%AE-prazosin-and-yohimbine-and-%C3%AE-receptors-activity-on-camp-generation-and-ucp1-gene-expression-in-brown-adipocytes
#6
Hirendra M Biswas
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. In the literature, the activity of α-adrenoreceptors is less documented, and their functions still remain puzzling. The present investigation has been undertaken to understand α-adrenoreceptors' activity and their relation between uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA expression and cyclic AMP (cAMP) generation in BAT. METHODS: BAT precursor cells from young mice were grown in culture...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652665/effect-of-flavonol-and-its-dimethoxy-derivatives-on-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-mice
#7
Vijaykumar Sayeli, Jagan Nadipelly, Parimala Kadhirvelu, Binoy Varghese Cheriyan, Jaikumar Shanmugasundaram, Viswanathan Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is the dose limiting side effect of many anticancer drugs. Flavonoids exhibit good antinociceptive effect in animal models. Their efficacy against different types of nociception has been documented. The present study investigated the effect of flavonol (3-hydroxy flavone), 3',4'-dimethoxy flavonol, 6,3'-dimethoxy flavonol, 7,2'-dimethoxy flavonol and 7,3'-dimethoxy flavonol against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. METHODS: A single dose of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg, i...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648998/orphan-drugs-trends-and-issues-in-drug-development
#8
REVIEW
Proteesh Rana, Shalini Chawla
Research in rare diseases has contributed substantially toward the current understanding in the pathophysiology of the common diseases. However, medical needs of patients with rare diseases have always been neglected by the society and pharmaceutical industries based on their small numbers and unprofitability. The Orphan Drug Act (1983) was the first serious attempt to address the unmet medical needs for patients with rare diseases and to provide impetus for the pharmaceutical industry to promote orphan drug development...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648997/interactive-effects-of-alcohol-and-chloroquine-on-hematologic-profile-of-wistar-rats
#9
Dimkpa Uchechukwu, Kelechi Loveth Ezeudensi, Babatunde Ishola Adejumo, Chinwe Obianuju Ewenighi, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Grace Ottah Umahi, Albert Nkereuwem Eteudo, Bright Uneze
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of information on the adverse effects of alcohol - chloroquine interaction on hematological parameters. To investigate the effects of concurrent administration of chloroquine and ethanol on hematologic parameters of adult Wistar rats and the ameliorative role of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on any adverse effects. METHODS: Some 30 adult Wistar rats weighing 120-200 g were assigned to six major groups of five rats each according to their weights...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641414/comparative-hypoglycemic-potentials-and-phytochemical-profiles-of-12-common-leafy-culinary-vegetables-consumed-in-nsukka-southeastern-nigeria
#10
Patrick Emeka Aba, Ifeanyi Ronald Udechukwu
BACKGROUND: Metabolic disease like diabetes mellitus is on the increase in developing countries due to lack of access to orthodox medicine owing to its high cost. Health benefits of culinary vegetables cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore aims to profile the hypoglycaemic potentials of 12 common leafy vegetables consumed in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria and advise diabetic patients accordingly. METHODS: A total of 75 albino Wistar rats assigned to 15 groups of five rats per group were used for the study...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634486/anti-plasmodial-activity-of-sodium-acetate-in-plasmodium-berghei-infected-mice
#11
Adam O Abdulkareem, Abdulkareem O Babamale, Lucky O Owolusi, Simbiat A Busari, Lawrence A Olatunji
BACKGROUND: Continuous increase in drug resistance has hindered the control of malaria infection and resulted in multi-drug-resistant parasite strains. This, therefore, intensifies the search for alternative treatments with no or less side effects. Several histone deacetylase inhibitors have been characterised to possess anti-malaria activity; however, their further development as anti-malaria agents has not recorded much success. The present study investigated the anti-plasmodial activity of sodium acetate in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice, aiming at finding a better alternative source of malaria chemotherapy...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634485/autonomic-responses-during-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-the-rat-model-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis
#12
Theofilos M Kolettis, Marianthi Kontonika, Panagiotis Lekkas, Antonios P Vlahos, Giannis G Baltogiannis, Konstantinos A Gatzoulis, George P Chrousos
BACKGROUND: Autonomic responses participate in the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction, but their precise time course remains unclear. Here, we investigated the autonomic activity and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in conscious, unrestrained rats post-infarction. METHODS: The left coronary artery was ligated in 12 Wistar rats, and six rats were sham operated, followed by 24-h electrocardiographic recording via implanted telemetry transmitters. Sympathetic activity was assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis and vagal activity by time- and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634484/haloperidol-induced-parkinsonism-is-attenuated-by-varenicline-in-mice
#13
Amit K Sharma, Sparsh Gupta, Ranjan K Patel, Neeta Wardhan
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). However, there is no known drug to stop/slow down this neurodegeneration. Varenicline is an anti-smoking drug and has the potential to prevent neurodegeneration. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of varenicline in animal models of PD. METHODS: Levodopa and haloperidol were administered in doses of 30 and 1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634483/anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-secretory-activity-in-experimental-type-2-diabetic-rats-treated-orally-with-magnesium
#14
Abayomi Oluwatosin Ige, Olanrewaju Amos Ajayi, Eunice Olufunke Adewoye
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus causes low-grade chronic inflammation which leads to the development of long-term complications. Oral magnesium (Mg) intake amongst other effects was reported to reduce the levels of inflammatory markers. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and insulin secretory activities in experimental type-2 diabetic rats (n=32) orally treated with Mg. METHODS: Experimental type-2 diabetic rats were induced with high fat diet and alloxan (50 mg/kg, single i...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634482/influence-of-loranthus-micranthus-on-hepatic-and-renal-antioxidant-status-and-impaired-glycolytic-flux-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Azubuike P Ebokaiwe, Omamuyovwi M Ijomone, Oscar Edeh, Ifebunachi Oteh, David E Ebuka
BACKGROUND: The use of Loranthus micranthus in folklore medicine for treatment of diabetes and its associated complications is a common practice around the world. The present study investigated this traditional affirmation by in vivo investigation into the effect of L. micranthus leaf extract on hepatic and renal, oxidative status and glucose metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634481/effects-of-acetone-extract-of-cola-nitida-on-brain-sodium-potassium-adenosine-triphosphatase-activity-and-spatial-memory-in-healthy-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-female-wistar-rats
#16
Aminat Omolola Imam-Fulani, Kamaldeen Olalekan Sanusi, Bamidele Victor Owoyele
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to investigate the effects of acetone extract of Cola nitida on brain Na+/K+-ATPase activity and spatial memory of healthy and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic female Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-two female Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly distributed into six groups (n=7). Rats in group 1 were used as control and were administered normal saline; group 2 rats were healthy rats administered 50 mg/kg of kola nut extract per day; group 3 rats were healthy rats administered 100 mg/kg of kola nut extract per day; group 4 rats were a diabetic group also administered normal saline; group 5 rats were diabetic rats administered 50 mg/kg of kola nut extract per day; and group 6 rats were diabetic rats administered 100 mg/kg of kola nut extract per day...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617268/antidiabetic-and-renoprotective-effect-of-anogeissus-acuminata-leaf-extract-on-experimentally-induced-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Archana M Navale, Archana Paranjape
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation are some of the mechanisms involved in renal damage. Anogeissus acuminata (AA) is used in India as an antidiabetic agent and has potent antioxidant activity. However, it has never been evaluated for its effect on diabetic nephropathy. Hence, in the present study we aimed to evaluate its effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and its renal complications...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584613/effect-of-l-carnitine-on-the-skeletal-muscle-contractility-in-simvastatin-induced-myopathy-in-rats
#18
Mohammad Ghalwash, Ahlam Elmasry, Nabil El-Adeeb
BACKGROUND: Statins therapy is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events. However, its use is associated with skeletal muscle myopathy, which may be severe enough to discontinue statin therapy, thus exposing patients to more morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of L-carnitine on the skeletal muscle contractility in a rat model of statin-induced myopathy and to clarify its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Twenty-one female Sprague Dawley rats were used throughout this study...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570449/effects-of-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-infection-and-diminazene-aceturate-administration-on-the-blood-pressure-heart-rate-and-temperature-of-wistar-albino-rats
#19
Olushola Emmanuel Adeleye, Jude Makinde Ale, Emmanuella Olubanke Amope Sogebi, Ladoke A Durotoye, Adenike Iyabo Adeleye, Samuel Olufemi Adeyemi, Johnny Olufemi Olukunle
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to determine the blood pressure changes in experimentally Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected Wistar albino rats and diminazene aceturate-treated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four rats were purchased and divided into four groups consisting of six rats each. Control group (CON) received 0.5 mL of distilled water, i.m., infected but not treated group (INF) received 2×106 trypanosome/mL i.m., infected but diminazene aceturate-treated group (INFDIM) received 2×106 trypanosome/mL, 3...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570448/a-comparative-study-of-the-effect-of-stress-on-the-cognitive-parameters-in-women-with-increased-body-mass-index-before-and-after-menopause
#20
M B Ramesh, S Ammu, A K Nayanatara, N A Vinodini, K C Pratik, N Anupama, K Bhagyalakshmi
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
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