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Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology

Ganiyu Oboh, Adeniyi A Adebayo, Ayokunle O Ademosun
BACKGROUND: Herbs have been used from ages to manage male sexual dysfunction. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effects of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) and Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) stem bark extracts on some enzymes implicated in erectile dysfunction in vitro. METHODS: The extracts were prepared, and their effects on phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), arginase, and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) as well as pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation were assessed...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Hemlata Gupta, Shripad B Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the manufacture of plastics, has toxic effects on various systems of the human body including the reproductive system. BPA possesses estrogenic activity and is implicated in altering oogenesis, ovulation, and fertility. In addition to ovulatory changes, uterine contractility is an important factor for fertility. However, the effects of BPA on myometrial contractions are not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of BPA on rat uterine contractions...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Teesta V Katte, Malempati Rajyalakshmi, Ravindranath H Aladakatti
BACKGROUND: The exploration of the biological assessment of technical azadirachtin, a tetranortritarpinoid from the neem seed kernel, was reviewed. The present study was, therefore, designed to evaluate the dose-dependent in vitro effects of azadirachtin-A, particularly on the functional studies and determination of molecular events, which are critical in the process of sperm capacitation. METHODS: To assess the effects of the azadirachtin-A on the functional studies, sperm capacitation, the total sperm adenosine triphosphate levels, acrosome reaction (AR), the sperm-egg interaction and the determination of molecular events like cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate and calcium levels, the appropriate volumes of the sperm suspension were added to the medium to a final concentration of 1×106 sperm/mL and incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 37°C...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Rohit S Loomba, Abhinav Bhushan, Adeleye J Afolayan
BACKGROUND: Cilia are involved in several physiologic processes, and at least a single primary cilium can be found on nearly every cell in the human body. Various factors, such as pH, temperature, exposure to medications and toxins can impact ciliary function as is manifested by changes in the ciliary beat frequency. Those with ciliary dyskinesia may also have congenital cardiac malformations and may require care in a cardiac intensive care unit. This study investigates the effect on the ciliary beat frequency of medications frequently used in a cardiac intensive care unit...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Lazare Belemnaba, Sylvin Ouédraogo, Mathieu Nitiéma, Thierry Chataigneau, Innocent Pierre Guissou, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Bernard Bucher, Cyril Auger
BACKGROUND: Anogeissus leiocarpus is a Sahel tree traditionally used by the residents of Burkina Faso for its antihypertensive properties. In this study, experiments were conducted to evaluate whether an aqueous extract of the Anogeissus leiocarpus (AEAL) trunk bark induces a vasorelaxant effect on porcine coronary artery rings and to investigate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: AEAL-induced relaxations were assessed using porcine coronary artery rings suspended in organ chambers...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Kazeem O Ajeigbe, Benjamin O Emikpe, Samuel Babafemi Olaleye
BACKGROUND: Antimalarial drugs have been shown to predispose the stomach to ulceration in rats. However, their role in the modulation of gastric ulcer healing is not known. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of artemisinin-based combination therapies on ulcer healing. METHODS: Gastric kissing ulcers were induced in 40 male albino rats (150-180 g) using 0.2 mL 50% acetic acid. One day after the ulcer induction, experimental rats were divided into four groups and treated once daily orally for 3 days as follows: (1) normal saline, (2) artemether-lumefantrine (2/12 mg/kg), (3) artesunate-amodiaquine (4/10 mg/kg), and (4) artesunate (2 mg/kg) only...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Ali Hayati, Farhud Najafi, Fahimeh Sadat Tabatabaei
BACKGROUND: Local sustained-release drug delivery systems increase the substantivity of drugs in the oral environment and subsequently enhance their therapeutic effects. This study sought to compare the effects of two commercially available varnishes and one experimental chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish on formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The solubility rates of the varnishes were evaluated as well. METHODS: Standard acrylic discs were fabricated and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surfaces, namely, V-varnish, Pascal, and experimental CHX varnish...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Sulagna Dutta, Pallav Sengupta
Rabbit, a member of the Lagomorpha order, is the closest phylogenetic relative to humans, next to primates. It possesses greater acceptability as a laboratory mammal than primates in terms of husbandry, breeding ease, cost effectiveness, and legal ethical conveniences. Moreover, as a laboratory animal, the rabbit also owns its advantages over mice or rats, in terms of phylogenetic resemblance to human, size, blood volume, responsiveness, and other congruences enabling them to better imitate human physiological characteristics in biomedical research...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Stephanie Abiola Tijani, Samuel B Olaleye, Ebenezer O Farombi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and free radical-mediated processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. This study investigated the ability of the methanol extract of Chasmanthera dependens to protect the gastric mucosal from oxidative damage induced by oral administration of indomethacin in rats. METHODS: The C. dependens stems were chopped into pieces, air-dried, and pulverized into powder. One kilogram of the powder was macerated in 1 L of methanol for 72 h...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Lakhwinder Singh, Atul Arya, Sumeet Gupta
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a downregulator of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), resulting in reduced nitric oxide level and low expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by which nitric oxide level get reduced. In the present study, we examined the role of ANP in reduced nitric oxide level, which may be responsible in controlling diabetic nephropathy in rats. METHODS: Serum nitrite/nitrate ratio, blood urea nitrogen, protein in urine, urinary output, serum creatinine, serum cholesterol, kidney weight, kidney hypertrophy, renal cortical collagen content, thiobarbituric acid level, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Zahra Arab Sadeghabadi, Nasrin Ziamajidi, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir, Roohollah Mohseni
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy and liver damage are important complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Various factors, such as sirtuins (silent information regulators or SIRTs) are associated with these complications. Sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent proteins, and seven types of these can be found in mammalians. In this study, we evaluated the effects of aqueous garlic extract (G) on the expressions of SIRT1 and SIRT2 genes in the kidney and liver tissues of rats with types 1 and 2 diabetes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Hirendra M Biswas
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. In the literature, the activity of α-adrenoreceptors is less documented, and their functions still remain puzzling. The present investigation has been undertaken to understand α-adrenoreceptors' activity and their relation between uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA expression and cyclic AMP (cAMP) generation in BAT. METHODS: BAT precursor cells from young mice were grown in culture...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Vijaykumar Sayeli, Jagan Nadipelly, Parimala Kadhirvelu, Binoy Varghese Cheriyan, Jaikumar Shanmugasundaram, Viswanathan Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is the dose limiting side effect of many anticancer drugs. Flavonoids exhibit good antinociceptive effect in animal models. Their efficacy against different types of nociception has been documented. The present study investigated the effect of flavonol (3-hydroxy flavone), 3',4'-dimethoxy flavonol, 6,3'-dimethoxy flavonol, 7,2'-dimethoxy flavonol and 7,3'-dimethoxy flavonol against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. METHODS: A single dose of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg, i...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Proteesh Rana, Shalini Chawla
Research in rare diseases has contributed substantially toward the current understanding in the pathophysiology of the common diseases. However, medical needs of patients with rare diseases have always been neglected by the society and pharmaceutical industries based on their small numbers and unprofitability. The Orphan Drug Act (1983) was the first serious attempt to address the unmet medical needs for patients with rare diseases and to provide impetus for the pharmaceutical industry to promote orphan drug development...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Dimkpa Uchechukwu, Kelechi Loveth Ezeudensi, Babatunde Ishola Adejumo, Chinwe Obianuju Ewenighi, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Grace Ottah Umahi, Albert Nkereuwem Eteudo, Bright Uneze
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of information on the adverse effects of alcohol - chloroquine interaction on hematological parameters. To investigate the effects of concurrent administration of chloroquine and ethanol on hematologic parameters of adult Wistar rats and the ameliorative role of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on any adverse effects. METHODS: Some 30 adult Wistar rats weighing 120-200 g were assigned to six major groups of five rats each according to their weights...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Patrick Emeka Aba, Ifeanyi Ronald Udechukwu
BACKGROUND: Metabolic disease like diabetes mellitus is on the increase in developing countries due to lack of access to orthodox medicine owing to its high cost. Health benefits of culinary vegetables cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore aims to profile the hypoglycaemic potentials of 12 common leafy vegetables consumed in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria and advise diabetic patients accordingly. METHODS: A total of 75 albino Wistar rats assigned to 15 groups of five rats per group were used for the study...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Adam O Abdulkareem, Abdulkareem O Babamale, Lucky O Owolusi, Simbiat A Busari, Lawrence A Olatunji
BACKGROUND: Continuous increase in drug resistance has hindered the control of malaria infection and resulted in multi-drug-resistant parasite strains. This, therefore, intensifies the search for alternative treatments with no or less side effects. Several histone deacetylase inhibitors have been characterised to possess anti-malaria activity; however, their further development as anti-malaria agents has not recorded much success. The present study investigated the anti-plasmodial activity of sodium acetate in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice, aiming at finding a better alternative source of malaria chemotherapy...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Theofilos M Kolettis, Marianthi Kontonika, Panagiotis Lekkas, Antonios P Vlahos, Giannis G Baltogiannis, Konstantinos A Gatzoulis, George P Chrousos
BACKGROUND: Autonomic responses participate in the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction, but their precise time course remains unclear. Here, we investigated the autonomic activity and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in conscious, unrestrained rats post-infarction. METHODS: The left coronary artery was ligated in 12 Wistar rats, and six rats were sham operated, followed by 24-h electrocardiographic recording via implanted telemetry transmitters. Sympathetic activity was assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis and vagal activity by time- and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Amit K Sharma, Sparsh Gupta, Ranjan K Patel, Neeta Wardhan
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). However, there is no known drug to stop/slow down this neurodegeneration. Varenicline is an anti-smoking drug and has the potential to prevent neurodegeneration. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of varenicline in animal models of PD. METHODS: Levodopa and haloperidol were administered in doses of 30 and 1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Abayomi Oluwatosin Ige, Olanrewaju Amos Ajayi, Eunice Olufunke Adewoye
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus causes low-grade chronic inflammation which leads to the development of long-term complications. Oral magnesium (Mg) intake amongst other effects was reported to reduce the levels of inflammatory markers. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and insulin secretory activities in experimental type-2 diabetic rats (n=32) orally treated with Mg. METHODS: Experimental type-2 diabetic rats were induced with high fat diet and alloxan (50 mg/kg, single i...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
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