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Current Protocols in Immunology

Christopher J Bohlen, F Chris Bennett, Mariko L Bennett
Microglia represent 5-10% of cells in the central nervous system and contribute to the development, homeostasis, injury, and repair of neural tissues. As the tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system, microglia execute core innate immune functions such as detection of pathogens/damage, cytokine secretion, and phagocytosis. However, additional properties that are specific to microglia and their neural environment are beginning to be appreciated. This article describes approaches for purification of microglia by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using microglia-specific surface markers and for enrichment of microglia by magnetic sorting and immunopanning...
November 10, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Soyoung A Oh, Akiko Seki, Sascha Rutz
CRISPR/Cas9 has enabled the rapid and efficient generation of gene knockouts across various cell types of several species. T cells are central players in adaptive immune responses. Gene editing in primary T cells not only represents a valuable research tool, but is also critical for next generation immunotherapies, such as CAR T cells. Broad application of CRIPSR/Cas9 for gene editing in primary T cells has been hampered by limitations in transfection efficiency and the requirement for TCR stimulation. In this article, we provide a detailed protocol for Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) transfection of primary mouse and human T cells without the need for TCR stimulation that achieves near complete loss of target gene expression at the population level...
October 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Bonnie Huang, Kristoffer Haurum Johansen, Pamela L Schwartzberg
The ability to alter gene expression directly in T lymphocytes has provided a powerful tool for understanding T cell biology, signaling, and function. Manipulation of T cell clones and primary T cells has been accomplished primarily through overexpression or gene-silencing studies using cDNAs or shRNAs, respectively, which are often delivered by retroviral or lentiviral transduction or direct transfection methods. The recent development of CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis has revolutionized genomic editing, allowing unprecedented genetic manipulation of many cell types with greater precision and ease...
October 12, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Samantha Solito, Laura Pinton, Francesco De Sanctis, Stefano Ugel, Vincenzo Bronte, Susanna Mandruzzato, Ilaria Marigo
This unit presents methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo in mice, as well as in biological samples from cancer patients. These methods could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover, they could be useful to assess the influence exerted by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs on immune suppressive pathways © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc...
October 10, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Rebecca L Riding, Jillian M Richmond, John E Harris
Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disease in which the pigment-producing melanocytes are destroyed by autoreactive CD8+ T cells. As a result, patients develop disfiguring white spots on the skin. This article discusses the first mouse model of vitiligo that develops epidermal depigmentation, similar to disease in human patients. To achieve epidermal depigmentation, mice are genetically engineered to retain melanocytes in the skin epidermis. Induction of disease occurs by adoptive transfer of melanocyte-specific CD8+ T cells into recipient mice and the subsequent activation of these T cells using a viral vector...
September 25, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Christian Humpel
Ex vivo cell culture models are of particular interest for neurobiologists, as these allow the study of brain cells in an isolated environment. Organotypic brain slice cultures allow growth of three-dimensional brain tissue that conserves the cellular architecture. This unit describes the preparation and culturing of organotypic brain slices from mice. In three basic protocols, the general procedure, the specific preparation of chopper slices, and slicing of whole-brain vibratome sections are described. Support protocols explain the use of postnatal or adult mice, the preparation of coronal or sagittal slices, the preparation of co-cultures, post-processing of slices, the use of extra filter membranes, and the re-use of membrane inserts...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Laure-Anne Ligeon, Monica Loi, Christian Münz
LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) is an unconventional form of autophagy that relies on parts of the canonical autophagy machinery for its function. LAP is triggered upon receptor-mediated phagocytosis and is characterized by the formation of a single-membrane vesicle decorated with the autophagy protein LC3. In professional phagocytic cells, such as macrophages, the role of LAP in immune processes has been characterized, although how LAP functions at the molecular level remains poorly defined. It is important to point out that as for all autophagic pathways, the study of LAP is still challenging for the scientific community because it is a dynamic and complex process, requiring interactions among several proteins...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Jesús Amo-Aparicio, Anna Martínez-Muriana, Alba Sánchez-Fernández, Rubèn López-Vales
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to irreversible devastating neurological disabilities. Accumulated evidence in the literature indicates that the inflammatory response that occurs in the spinal cord following injury contributes importantly to spread tissue damage to healthy regions adjacent to the lesion site, and consequently, to increase neurological deficits. Therefore, targeting inflammation could lead to the development of new therapies to prevent tissue damage and neurological impairments after SCI. Inflammation is regulated, in part, by the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines synthesized, mainly, by glial cells...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Muhammad S Alam
Proximity ligation assay (PLA), also referred to as Duolink® PLA technology, permits detection of protein-protein interactions in situ (at distances <40 nm) at endogenous protein levels. It exploits specific antibodies identifying (either directly or indirectly) the two proteins of interest and utilizes specific DNA primers covalently linked to the antibodies. A hybridization step followed by DNA amplification with fluorescent probes permit visualization of spots of proximity by fluorescence microscopy...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Nathalie Laflamme, Paul Préfontaine, Antoine Lampron, Serge Rivest
Bone marrow transplantation is the standard of care for a host of diseases such as leukemia and multiple myeloma, as well as genetically inherited metabolic diseases affecting the central nervous system. In mouse models, bone marrow transplantation has proven a valuable tool for understanding the hematopoietic system and the homing of hematopoietic cells to their target organs. Many techniques have been developed to create chimeric mice, animals with a hematopoietic system derived from a genetic background that differs from the rest of the body...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
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August 2, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Ilija Brizić, Berislav Lisnić, Wolfram Brune, Hartmut Hengel, Stipan Jonjić
This unit describes procedures for infecting newborn and adult mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Methods are included for propagating MCMV in cell cultures and for preparing a more virulent form of MCMV from salivary glands of infected mice. A plaque assay is provided for determining MCMV titers of infected tissues or virus stocks. Also, a method is described for preparing the murine embryonic fibroblasts used for propagating MCMV and for the plaque assay. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
July 25, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Andreas B den Hartigh, Susan L Fink
Pyroptosis is a form of programmed pro-inflammatory cell death that plays a protective role in the host response to infection, but can also promote pathogenic inflammation. Pyroptosis is mediated by the cysteine protease, caspase-1. Caspase-1 cleaves gasdermin D, releasing the N-terminal pore-forming domain, which inserts into the plasma membrane and drives osmotic lysis. Caspase-1 also proteolytically activates the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. This unit describes methods for stimulating pyroptosis and assessing subsequent loss of plasma membrane integrity...
July 20, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Alexander Maini, Juliet R Foote, Richard Hayhoe, Amit A Patel, Alastair O'Brien, Inbal Avraham-Davidi, Simon Yona
This article describes methods for isolating mouse monocytes and neutrophils, as well as in vitro protocols for measuring cell phagocytosis, migration, and polarization. The method employed here for the isolation of naive phagocytes overcomes many of the difficulties previously encountered concerning phagocyte activation. Three in vitro protocols are provided for the analysis of cell migration, one requiring no specialized equipment, one requiring a modified Boyden chamber, and the other employing a flow chamber, which measures cell adhesion, rolling, and migration...
July 3, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Lisette Krabbendam, Maho Nagasawa, Hergen Spits, Suzanne M Bal
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells of lymphoid origin that have important effector and regulatory functions in the first line of defense against pathogens, but also regulate tissue homeostasis, remodeling, and repair. Their function mirrors T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, but they lack expression of rearranged antigen-specific receptors. Distinct ILC subsets are classified in group 1 ILCs (ILC1s), group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), and group 3 ILCs (ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer cells), based on the expression of transcription factors and the cytokines they produce...
June 29, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Sol Beccari, Irune Diaz-Aparicio, Amanda Sierra
Apoptosis is a ubiquitous process occurring in the brain under both physiological and pathological conditions. The central nervous system (CNS) requires an active and efficient clean-up system to prevent the spillover of intracellular contents into the surrounding parenchyma and suppress the initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. Microglia, the resident professional phagocytes of the brain, are the cells in charge of the removal of these dead cells by the process named phagocytosis. Therefore, microglial phagocytosis is a vital mechanism to maintain tissue homeostasis...
May 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Roberto Biassoni, Mauro S Malnati
In the last 20 years, the study of human natural killer (NK) cells has moved from the first molecular characterizations of very few receptor molecules to the identification of a plethora of receptors displaying surprisingly divergent functions. We have contributed to the description of inhibitory receptors and their signaling pathways, important in fine regulation in many cell types, but unknown until their discovery in the NK cells. Inhibitory function is central to regulating NK-mediated cytolysis, with different molecular structures evolving during speciation to assure its persistence...
April 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Sakeen W Kashem, Daniel H Kaplan
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a highly specialized subset of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that reside in peripheral and lymphoid tissues. DCs capture antigen in the periphery and migrate to the lymph node where they prime naïve T cells. In addition, DCs have been recently appreciated to have function in innate immunity within tissues. In the skin, heterogeneous populations of DCs reside within the epidermis and the dermis. Analysis of the cutaneous DC subsets is complicated by requirements of distinct enzymatic digestion protocols for isolation of APCs from distinct anatomical compartments of the skin...
April 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Monica Manglani, Selamawit Gossa, Dorian B McGavern
A continual dialogue exists between the central nervous system (CNS) and immune system that contributes to neural homeostasis as well as protection from microbes, repair following damage, autoimmune disease, and neurodegeneration. Characterization of resident and peripherally derived leukocyte populations within the central nervous system can provide valuable information regarding how these cells contribute to steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Flow cytometry provides a method to conduct detailed multi-parameter analyses of immune cells isolated from various tissues...
April 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Richard Lavin, Nicholas DiBenedetto, Vladimir Yeliseyev, Mary Delaney, Lynn Bry
Animal models are essential to dissect host-microbiota interactions that impact health and the development of disease. In addition to providing pre-clinical models for the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostic biomarkers, mouse systems actively support microbiome studies by defining microbial contributions to normal development and homeostasis, and as well as their role in promoting diseases such as inflammatory auto-immune diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndromes, and susceptibilities to infectious agents...
April 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
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