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International Journal of Legal Medicine

Paul-Louis Pröve, Eilin Jopp-van Well, Ben Stanczus, Michael M Morlock, Jochen Herrmann, Michael Groth, Dennis Säring, Markus Auf der Mauer
Age assessment is used to estimate the chronological age of an individual who lacks legal documentation. Recent studies indicate that the ossification degree of the growth plates in the knee joint correlates with chronological age of adolescents and young adults. To verify this hypothesis, a high number of datasets need to be analysed. An approach which enables an automated detection and analysis of the bone structures may be necessary to handle large datasets. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automatic 2D knee segmentation based on 3D MR images using convolutional neural networks...
November 3, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lena Marie Lindenberger, Hanns Ackermann, Markus Parzeller
Worldwide, many people are exposed to biannual time changes. The benefit of Daylight Saving Time (DST) is controversially discussed and its impact on human health is largely unknown. The present study examines, whether effects of these time changes are seen in a forensic autopsy database. The mortality study is based on autopsy protocols provided by the Institute of Legal Medicine, University Clinic of the Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main, covering a period of 10 years (2006-2015). Data regarding mode and cause of death, age, and gender were evaluated for 4 weeks around the transition to and from DST in spring and autumn...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Øyvind Bleka, Veslemøy Rolseth, Pål Skage Dahlberg, Antoine Saadé, Marianne Saadé, Liliana Bachs
We have created the tool BioAlder as an age prediction model based on the systems Greulich and Pyle (hand) and the Demirjian's grading of the third molar tooth. The model compiles information from studies representing a total of 17,151 individuals from several parts of the world. The model offers a solution where issues as group-wise data format and age mimicry bias are bypassed. The model also provides a solution for combining the two grading systems, hand and tooth, to one combined age prediction result assuming independency...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Sarah Scheirs, Britt Hevink, Marisa Ortega-Sánchez, Xavier Jordana, Hannah McGlynn, Alfonso Rodriguez-Baeza, Assumpció Malgosa, Ignasi Galtés
This study aims to improve a previous study that reported new traits to characterize a perimortem fracture pattern in human long bones. This second study aims to acquire further knowledge about these perimortem traits, specifically by improving the experimental setting-by using a Blunt Force Trauma Simulator-and increasing the sample size with a total of 43 autopsy specimens and 57 reproduced fractures. Additionally, we investigated whether these traits could be related to muscular contractions by adding axial compression in the experimentally fractured specimens...
October 30, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Atif Adnan, Allah Rakha, Kadirya Kasim, Anam Noor, Shahid Nazir, Sibte Hadi, Hao Pang
Pakistan harbors 18 major ethnic groups and Hazara is one of the distinct but smaller groups comprising 0.090% of the total population. Hazara individuals have typical Mongolian facial features and they claim to be descendants of Genghis Khan's army in the first quarter of the thirteenth century AD. In this study, we genotyped 153 unrelated males living in Quetta, Baluchistan, Pakistan, for a total of 26 (n = 153) to 30 (n = 47) Y-chromosomal STR loci. One hundred forty unique haplotypes were developed for Hazara population using the PowerPlex Y23 loci...
October 30, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hsiao-Lin Hwa, Ming-Yih Wu, Wan-Chia Chung, Tsang-Ming Ko, Chih-Peng Lin, Hsiang-I Yin, Tsui-Ting Lee, James Chun-I Lee
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies enable the simultaneous analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). MPS also enables the detection of alleles of the minor contributors in imbalanced DNA mixtures. In this study, 59 STRs (amelogenin, 27 autosomal STRs, 7 X-STRs, and 24 Y-STRs) and 94 identity-informative SNPs of 119 unrelated Taiwanese (50 men, 69 women) were sequenced using a commercial MPS kit. Forty-eight nondegraded and 44 highly degraded two-person artificial DNA mixtures with various minor to major ratios (1:9, 1:19, 1:29, 1:39, 1:79, and 1:99) were analyzed to examine the performance of this system for detecting the alleles of the minor contributors in DNA mixtures...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hui Jian, Li Wang, Hui Wang, Xiaogang Bai, Meili Lv, Weibo Liang
The Qiagen Investigator® DIPplex Kit multiplexes 30 autosomal INDELs plus amelogenin for forensic use. The aim of this study was to estimate the diversity of 30 INDEL loci in a sample of 530 Tibetan individuals from Qinghai Province, China, and to evaluate the usefulness of these loci for forensic genetics. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 14.3 to 53.4%, and combined power of discrimination, matching probability, and cumulative probability of exclusion were 0.99999999999172, 8.27999 × 10-12 , and 0...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ka Tak Wai, Peter Gunn, Mark Barash
Mitochondrial DNA is a reliable genetic material for estimating maternally related haplogroups and ancestries. Exploring maternal DNA inheritance is particularly useful when nuclear DNA is degraded or limited, as the copy number of mitochondrial DNA is far greater than the copy number of nuclear DNA. Normal mitochondrial DNA copy number has been estimated to 100 copies per buccal epithelial cell, 4000 copies in skeletal cells and 7000 copies in myocardial cells. This estimation is usually performed via extrapolation from the nuclear DNA quantitation...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
K Scholl, R Huhn, St Ritz-Timme, F Mayer
The immunohistochemical detection of dityrosine, troponins I (cTNI) and T (cTnT), and connexin 43 has been proposed as a tool for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction with short survival times. Results of clinical and experimental studies reveal that gender and/or ischemic preconditioning of the heart may have an influence on severity and magnitude of myocardial infarction. To clarify the question, if the above-mentioned markers are influenced by sex or ischemic preconditioning, experiments on isolated rat hearts using the Langendorff technique were performed...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Atif Adnan, Kadirya Kasim, Allah Rakha, Anam Noor, Ammar Sabir Cheema, Sibte Hadi, Jiaxin Xing
Mongol-like-horsemen-turned-merchants from Manchuria are known as Manchus, originally their homeland was centered around what is nowadays the city of Shenyang in Northeast China. Previously, worldwide analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci and Y-STR databases with PowerPlex® Y23 System (Promega Corporation Madison, USA) kit were created with collaborative efforts, but Manchu population data was missing. In current study, PowerPlex® Y23 System loci were examined in 328 unrelated Manchu male individuals from Xiuyan and Huanren Manchu autonomous counties in Liaoning province, to calculate the forensic parameters of the 23 STR loci...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Li Yuan, Wen Chen, Dong Zhao, Yunli Li, Shicheng Hao, Yan Liu, Di Lu
Two five-color fluorescence multiplex amplification systems of 13 Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci (DYF387S1, DYF399S1, DYF403S1a/b, DYF404S1, DYS449, DYS518, DYS526a/b, DYS547, DYS570, DYS576, DYS612, DYS626, and DYS627) have been designed. A study was conducted measuring the mutation rates of the 13 Y-STRs in 501 father-son pairs of Han origin in Beijing, China. Among 7515 allele transmissions in 501 father-son pairs, 75 single-step and 2 two-step mutations were observed. Two father-son pairs had mutations at two different loci in 13 Y-STRs...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xiangpei Zeng, Kyleen Elwick, Carrie Mayes, Maiko Takahashi, Jonathan L King, David Gangitano, Bruce Budowle, Sheree Hughes-Stamm
Skeletal remains recovered from missing persons' cases are often exposed to harsh environmental conditions resulting in the DNA being damaged, degraded, and/or the samples containing PCR inhibitors. In this study, the efficacy of common extraction methods was evaluated to remove high levels of PCR inhibitors commonly encountered with human remains, and their downstream compatibility with the two leading sequencing chemistries and platforms for human identification purposes. Blood, hair, and bone samples were spiked with high levels of inhibitors commonly identified in each particular substrate in order to test the efficiency of various DNA extraction methods prior to sequencing...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
John M Rickman, James Shackel
When perforated by a projectile, sandwich bones typically exhibit wounds with a distinct conoidal morphology that is widely utilised both in wound diagnosis and trajectory determinations. However, the dynamic fracture mechanisms underlying this intriguing wound type have yet to be experimentally verified. The most frequently quoted hypothesis for their formation, plug and spall, is difficult to reconcile with the conoidal morphology exhibited by such wounds. The present article carries out a high-speed videographic and micro-computerised tomographic (μ-CT) analysis of perpendicularly produced projectile wounds induced from 139...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
A Sandras, C Guilbeau-Frugier, F Savall, N Telmon, C Capuani
Identifying tool mark and involved weapon in sharp force trauma is essential to understanding the circumstances of death. But accuracy and reliability of such expert testimony remains unknown, and validation studies are rare in forensic literature. That is why, we conducted an experiment in order to determine error rates and predictive values on identifying the right implement through different types of knife-inflicted trauma. Human bone cut marks were analysed through epifluorescence microscopy. The samples were examined through a randomised, blinded, controlled study by three researchers with varying degrees of experience with direct and indirect observation of cut marks (photography)...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Oguzhan Ekizoglu, Ercan Inci, Suna Ors, Elif Hocaoglu, Ismail Ozgur Can, Can Doruk Basa, Ismail Eralp Kacmaz, Elena F Kranioti
The most commonly used radiological method for age estimation of living individuals is X-ray. Computed tomography is not commonly used due to high radiation exposure, which raises ethical concerns. This problem can be solved with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which avoids the use of ionizing radiation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of MRI analysis of the proximal humeral epiphyses for forensic age estimations of living individuals. In this study, 395 left proximal humeral epiphyses (patient age 12-30 years) were evaluated with fast-spin-echo proton density-weighted image (FSE PD) sequences in a coronal oblique orientation on shoulder MRI images...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hyun-Chul Park, Eun-Jung Lee, Youn-Hyung Nam, Nam-Soo Cho, Si-Keun Lim, Won Kim
Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used to analyze male-specific DNA. Although biallelic patterns due to duplication events have been detected at some loci, Y-STRs generally appear as a single peak except for DYS385 because the Y chromosome is haploid. STR loci in regions of segmental duplication by homologous recombination on the Y chromosome exhibit double allelic peaks, rather than single peaks. In this study, we report a bi- and triallelic pattern observed simultaneously in DYS390, DYS518, and DYS643...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
G Martínez-Cortés, F Zuñiga-Chiquette, A S Celorio-Sánchez, E Ruiz García, A B Antelo-Figueroa, V Dalpozzo-Valenzuela, A Valenzuela-Coronado, H Rangel-Villalobos
Mexican Mestizos (admixed) have been poorly studied for short tandem repeats (STRs) included for new human identification (HID) kits, such as the GlobalFiler PCR Amplification kit. Therefore, this kit was analyzed in 784 unrelated volunteers from the city of Tijuana (n = 381) and Sonora state (n = 403) in the northwest region of Mexico. Allele frequencies, forensic parameters, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and linkage equilibrium were estimated or evaluated for 21 autosomal STRs, respectively. For this HID kit, the combined power of discrimination (PD) was > 0...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Marta Diepenbroek, Sandra Cytacka, Maria Szargut, Joanna Arciszewska, Grażyna Zielińska, Andrzej Ossowski
In Poland, during the World War II, almost 3 million people were killed during the Nazi occupation, and about 570,000 during the Soviet occupation. Furthermore, historians have estimated that after the World War II at least 30,000 people were killed during the Stalinist regime in Poland (1944-1956). The exact number is unknown, because both executions and burials were kept secret. Thousands of people just vanished. As a response to those events, forensic scientists from the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin in cooperation with historians from the Institute of National Remembrance started the project of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism, which aim is to identify victims killed in the years 1939-1956...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Katrin Brodbeck, Stefanie Kern, Sylvia Schick, Arnd Steinbrück, Michael Schwerer, Birgit Bayer, Katja Anslinger, Steffen Peldschus
INTRODUCTION: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) elevations were remarked in the blood of trauma patients. Published increases refer to comparative values of a healthy control group, ignoring thereby inter- and intra-individual differences under normal conditions. The aim of this study was to quantify cfDNA in patients in the time course of a planned orthopedic surgery, which constitutes the advantage of obtaining individual pre- and post-trauma values for each patient. By this approach, a basis should be established for the potential future application of cfDNA as biomarker for the detection of mild injuries related to volunteer experiments in forensic biomechanics...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ijaz Anwar, Shahid Hussain, Atta Ur Rehman, Manzoor Hussain
Pakistan is located at an important cross-road of human history and has been a passageway for many invaders and dynasties in the past. The historic human migrations across this country have resulted in a blend of ancient civilizations, which are still reflected in the current socio-cultural fabrication of this population. This makes Pakistan an ideal country to study the genetic differentiation and various other genomic aspects of a human population.
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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