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International Journal of Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924407/muscidae-diptera-of-forensic-importance-an-identification-key-to-third-instar-larvae-of-the-western-palaearctic-region-and-a-catalogue-of-the-muscid-carrion-community
#1
Andrzej Grzywacz, Martin J R Hall, Thomas Pape, Krzysztof Szpila
The Muscidae is one of the main dipteran families recognized as important for medico-legal purposes. Although an association of adult flies with decomposing human and animal bodies is documented for about 200 taxa worldwide, cadavers and carrion represents a breeding habitat for considerably fewer species. Species that do colonize dead human bodies can do so under diverse environmental conditions and, under certain circumstances, Muscidae may be the only colonizers of a body. Because of difficulties in identification, many studies have identified immature and/or adult muscids only to the genus or family level...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924406/estimating-legal-age-based-on-fusion-of-the-proximal-humeral-epiphysis
#2
María Benito Sánchez, Sónia Codinha, Alexandra Muñoz García, José Antonio Sánchez Sánchez
The increasing demand which requires ascertaining the legal age of undocumented individuals who reach the various countries of the European Community means that new lines of research must be developed which help respond to questions posed by the Justice Administration. For this reason, this study has been designed on the basis of fusion times of the proximal humeral epiphysis. Moreover, the ultrasound scan has been used as the diagnostic method. It is a non-invasive technique, unlike the radiograph, which is used under current standards for the forensic diagnosis of age...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924405/an-analysis-of-dental-intercanine-distance-for-use-in-court-cases-involving-bite-marks
#3
Suzana Reinprecht, Paul J van Staden, Joyce Jordaan, Herman Bernitz
High levels of crime in South Africa and the resulting court cases requiring bite mark evidence have necessitated continuous research into the prevalence and interrelationship of recognisable dental features present in bite marks. This study represents the largest data set of descriptive statistics related to intercanine distance, in which the means, standard deviations, medians and interquartile ranges across four racial groups were determined. Intercanine distances were also statistically weighted by determining the common, uncommon and very uncommon values for each of the racial groups...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924404/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-distal-radial-epiphysis-a-new-criterion-of-maturity-for-determining-whether-the-age-of-18-has-been-completed
#4
M Timme, C Ottow, R Schulz, H Pfeiffer, W Heindel, V Vieth, A Schmeling, S Schmidt
To improve the accuracy of forensic age estimation where there is no legal basis for carrying out x-ray examinations, it would be useful to establish non-x-ray imaging techniques. The objective of this study was to provide reference data for the magnetic resonance imaging-based evaluation of the ossification stage of the distal radius. Furthermore, we tested a new criterion of the maturity of the distal radial epiphysis for determining whether an individual has completed the age of 18. We investigated 668 MRI scans of the distal radial epiphysis from 333 female and 335 male subjects ranging in age from 12 to 24...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915431/time-dependent-postmortem-redistribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-in-blood-and-alternative-matrices-application-of-ct-guided-biopsy-sampling
#5
Sandra N Staeheli, Dominic Gascho, Lars C Ebert, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Interpretation of postmortem morphine concentrations in forensic toxicology provides several pitfalls such as missing information on tolerance, analyte stability, or postmortem redistribution (PMR). Recently, it had been shown that computed tomography (CT)-guided collection of biopsies using a robotic arm (virtobot) provides a valuable strategy for systematic studies on time-dependent PMR. Using this technique, time-dependent PMR of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in 12 cases. At admission to the institute (t1), femoral and heart blood (right ventricle) as well as biopsies from the right lung, the right kidney, liver, spleen, and muscle tissue were collected...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913880/forensic-3d-documentation-of-skin-injuries
#6
Chiara Villa
An accurate and precise documentation of injuries is fundamental in a forensic pathological context. Photographs and manual measurements are taken of all injuries during autopsies, but ordinary photography projects a 3D wound on a 2D space. Using technologies such as photogrammetry, it is possible to create 3D detailed, to-scale, true-color documentation of skin injuries from 2D pictures. A comparison between the measurements of 165 lesions taken during autopsies and on photogrammetrically processed pictures was performed...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909868/dental-age-estimation-in-the-living-after-completion-of-third-molar-mineralization-new-data-for-gustafson-s-criteria
#7
M Timme, W H Timme, A Olze, C Ottow, S Ribbecke, H Pfeiffer, R Dettmeyer, A Schmeling
There is a need for dental age estimation methods after completion of the third molar mineralization. Degenerative dental characteristics appear to be suitable for forensic age diagnostics beyond the 18th year of life. In 2012, Olze et al. investigated the criteria studied by Gustafson using orthopantomograms. The objective of this study was to prove the applicability and reliability of this method with a large cohort and a wide age range, including older individuals. For this purpose, 2346 orthopantomograms of 1167 female and 1179 male Germans aged 15 to 70 years were reviewed...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909867/developmental-validation-of-the-homygene19-14y-system
#8
Weian Du, Ling Chen, Hong Liu, Pingming Qiu, Fayuan Li, Jing Gao, Yu Zhou, Bangchao Wang, Chao Liu
The HomyGene19+14Y System (HG19+14Y) is a PCR-based amplification kit that enables typing of 18 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci (i.e., CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D12S391, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, FGA, Penta E, TPOX, TH01, vWA), 14 widely used Y chromosome STR (Y-STR) loci (Y_GATA_H4, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635), and amelogenin. This multiplex system was designed for the simultaneous analysis of amelogenin-Y allele mutation, single-source searches, kinship (including familial searching), mixture profiles, international data sharing, and other forensic applications...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909866/the-influence-of-the-bullet-shape-on-the-width-of-abrasion-collars-and-the-size-of-gunshot-entrance-holes
#9
Rebecca Pircher, Demet Preiß, Stefan Pollak, Annette Thierauf-Emberger, Markus Große Perdekamp, Dorothee Geisenberger
To investigate if there is any correlation between the bullet design and the respective dimensions of the abrasion collar and the skin defect in gunshot entrance wounds, experimental studies were performed on dyed pig skin. For the test shots, .38 Special revolver cartridges with three different bullet designs (round nose, wadcutter, and truncated cone) were used. With the help of an image editing program in combination with an image analyzing system, the area size of the abrasion rings and the skin defects was calculated automatically...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900508/temperature-dependence-of-viscosity-relaxation-times-t1-t2-and-simulated-contrast-for-potential-perfusates-in-post-mortem-mr-angiography-pmmra
#10
Bridgette Webb, Thomas Widek, Bernhard Neumayer, Christine Bruguier, Sylvia Scheicher, Hanna Sprenger, Silke Grabherr, Thorsten Schwark, Rudolf Stollberger
Developments in post-mortem imaging increasingly focus on addressing recognised diagnostic weaknesses, especially with regard to suspected natural deaths. Post-mortem MR angiography (PMMRA) may offer additional diagnostic information to help address such weaknesses, specifically in the context of sudden cardiac death. Complete filling of the coronary arteries and acceptable contrast with surrounding tissue are essential for a successful approach to PMMRA. In this work, the suitability of different liquids for inclusion in a targeted PMMRA protocol was evaluated...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891547/severe-pelvic-injury-vascular-lesions-detected-by-ante-and-post-mortem-contrast-medium-enhanced-ct-and-associations-with-pelvic-fractures
#11
Mahmoud Hussami, Silke Grabherr, Reto A Meuli, Sabine Schmidt
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare arterial and venous contrast medium extravasation in severe pelvic injury detected by ante- and post-mortem multi-detector CT (MDCT) and determine whether vascular injury is associated with certain types of pelvic fracture. METHODS: We retrospectively included two different cohorts of blunt pelvic trauma with contrast medium extravasation shown by MDCT. The first group comprised 49 polytrauma patients; the second included 45 dead bodies undergoing multi-phase post-mortem CT-angiography (MPMCTA)...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885432/immunohistochemical-detection-of-early-myocardial-infarction-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Mondello, Luigi Cardia, Elvira Ventura-Spagnolo
The postmortem diagnosis of early myocardial infarction is a challenge for forensic pathologists because the routine histology is neither specific. Many authors have suggested the use of the immunohistochemistry to fill the gaps in the histological diagnosis of early myocardial infarction. This review aims to analyse advances of immunohistochemical detection of early cardiac damage due to ischaemia. To this purpose, we reviewed experimental studies that investigated immunohistochemical markers and their estimated timing of expression...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885431/forensic-age-assessment-of-asylum-seekers-in-finland
#13
Mari Metsäniitty, Olli Varkkola, Janna Waltimo-Sirén, Helena Ranta
In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885430/blood-species-discrimination-using-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#14
Elina Zailer, Bernd W K Diehl, Yulia B Monakhova
Blood species identification is an important challenge in forensic science. Conventional methods used for blood species analysis are destructive and associated with time-consuming sample preparation steps. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is known for its nondestructive properties and fast results. This research study presents a proton ((1)H) NMR method to discriminate blood species including human, cat, dog, elephant, and bison. Characteristic signals acting as markers are observed for each species...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878372/combined-effects-of-multiple-linked-loci-on-pairwise-sibling-tests
#15
Tomonori Tamura, Motoki Osawa, Yu Kakimoto, Eriko Ochiai, Takanori Suzuki, Takashi Nakamura
The advanced multiplex STR system, PowerPlex Fusion, includes four linked locus pairs. The conventional Identifiler system has one pair of linked loci. Therefore, sibling tests conducted using the advanced system might be more affected by linkage than those conducted using the conventional system. This study simulated single and combined effects of the four linked locus pairs on pairwise sibling tests. Simulated genotypes of 100,000 pairs of full siblings and nonrelatives were constructed according to allele frequencies of the Japanese population...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878371/characterization-of-globalfiler-loci-in-angolan-and-guinean-populations-inhabiting-southern-portugal
#16
Soraia Guerreiro, Teresa Ribeiro, Maria João Porto, Maria José Carneiro de Sousa, Paulo Dario
We analyzed the GlobalFiler short tandem repeat (STR) loci for 152 and 70 unrelated individuals from Angolan and Guinean immigrant populations inhabiting Southern Portugal, respectively. After Bonferroni correction, no significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were detected for either population. For the Angolan population, SE33 was the most informative marker. In contrast, D5S818 and D13S317 were the least informative loci. The combined power of discrimination was 99...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866267/luminol-testing-in-detecting-modern-human-skeletal-remains-a-test-on-different-types-of-bone-tissue-and-a-caveat-for-pmi-interpretation
#17
Giorgio Caudullo, Valentina Caruso, Annalisa Cappella, Emanuela Sguazza, Debora Mazzarelli, Alberto Amadasi, Cristina Cattaneo
When forensic pathologists and anthropologists have to deal with the evaluation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) in skeletal remains, luminol testing is frequently performed as a preliminary screening method. However, the repeatability of this test on the same bone, as well as comparative studies on different bones of the same individual, has never been performed. Therefore, with the aim of investigating the influence that different types of bones may exert on the response to the luminol test, the present study analysed three different skeletal elements (femoral diaphysis, vertebra and cranial vault), gathered from ten recent exhumed skeletons (all with a 20-year PMI)...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853877/genetic-polymorphisms-of-20-autosomal-str-loci-in-the-vietnamese-population-from-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#18
Xiufeng Zhang, Liping Hu, Lei Du, Aiting Nie, Min Rao, Jing Bo Pang, Shengjie Nie
The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 21 kit were evaluated in 522 healthy unrelated Vietnamese from Yunnan, China. All of the loci reached the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.999999999999999999999991 26 and 0.999999975, respectively. Results suggested that the 20 STR loci are highly polymorphic, which is suitable for forensic personal identification and paternity testing...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848012/of-pigs-and-men-comparing-the-development-of-calliphora-vicina-diptera-calliphoridae-on-human-and-porcine-tissue
#19
V Bernhardt, C Schomerus, M A Verhoff, J Amendt
Over the last decades, studies on juvenile development of forensically important Diptera were performed by using non-human tissues (e.g., beef liver) as a nutrition medium. Such developmental data are used as a reference in determining the age of juvenile necrophagous insects sampled from a human body and thereby to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). Despite the acceptance of these studies in the forensic community, some might ask whether such data appropriately reflect the growth of blow flies on human tissue...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841004/forensically-relevant-snapshot-%C3%A2-assays-for-human-dna-snp-analysis-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Bhavik Mehta, Runa Daniel, Chris Phillips, Dennis McNevin
Short tandem repeats are the gold standard for human identification but are not informative for forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic markers can be applied to both identification and FDP. The concept of DNA intelligence emerged with the potential for SNPs to infer biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs), which together enable the FDP process. For more than a decade, the SNaPshot(®) technique has been utilised to analyse identity and FDP-associated SNPs in forensic DNA analysis...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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