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International Journal of Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815306/the-effect-of-helmet-materials-and-simulated-bone-and-tissue-layers-on-bullet-behaviour-in-a-gelatine-model-of-overmatch-penetrating-head-injury
#1
Peter F Mahoney, Debra J Carr, David Miller, Michael Teagle
The aim of this work was to simulate an overmatch ballistic event against a head wearing a helmet. The experiments were designed to understand how layers of bone (or synthetic bone), synthetic skin and currently used helmet materials influence the behaviour of full metal jacket mild steel core (FMJ MSC) 7.62 × 39 mm bullets, impacting on targets with a mean velocity of 650 m/s. Bullet behaviour within 10% (by mass) gelatine blocks was assessed by measurements made of the temporary cavity within the blocks using high-speed video and of the permanent cavity by dissecting blocks post firing...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812137/myoglobinemia-markers-with-potential-applications-in-forensic-sample-analysis-lipid-markers-in-myoglobinemia-for-postmortem-blood
#2
Hiroko Abe, Daisuke Yajima, Yumi Hoshioka, Akina Nara, Sayaka Nagasawa, Hirotaro Iwase
The crush syndrome, in which rhabdomyolysis and trauma occur as a result of heat stroke and drug intoxication, can lead to myoglobinemia. This condition can be diagnosed by measuring myoglobin (Mb) levels in blood and urine. However, postmortem Mb levels are unreliable indicators, since blood Mb concentration drastically increases within a very short time after death and urine cannot always be obtained at dissection; this makes it difficult to diagnose myoglobinemia in a corpse. To address this issue, in this study, we used a lipidomics approach to identify markers that can be used to detect myoglobinemia in postmortem blood samples...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812130/studies-on-the-radiographic-visibility-of-the-periodontal-ligament-in-lower-third-molars-can-the-olze-method-be-used-in-the-chinese-population
#3
Yu-Cheng Guo, Mu-Jia Li, Andreas Olze, Sven Schmidt, Ronald Schulz, Hong Zhou, Heidi Pfeiffer, Teng Chen, Andreas Schmeling
The purpose of the present research is to study the radiographic visibility of the periodontal ligament in third molars from a northern Chinese population to determine if this methodology could be used for the 18-year threshold. A total of 1300 conventional orthopantomograms from 650 males and 650 females of northern Chinese subjects aged between 15 and 40 years were analyzed. The radiographic visibility of the periodontal membrane of fully mineralized third molars was assessed using the stages described by Olze et al...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803416/rapid-screening-method-for-male-dna-by-using-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#4
Masashi Kitamura, Seiji Kubo, Jin Tanaka, Tatsushi Adachi
Screening for male-derived biological material from collected samples plays an important role in criminal investigations, especially those involving sexual assaults. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting multi-repeat sequences of the Y chromosome for detecting male DNA. Successful amplification occurred with 0.5 ng of male DNA under isothermal conditions of 61 to 67 °C, but no amplification occurred with up to 10 ng of female DNA. Under the optimized conditions, the LAMP reaction initiated amplification within 10 min and amplified for 20 min...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803327/a-proclaimed-accidental-fall-of-an-infant-an-experimental-case-reconstruction-study
#5
S N Kunz, M Graw, J Adamec
The differentiation between a non-accidental injury and injuries resulting from accidents, such as falls to the ground or onto various objects, is a challenge not only for forensic experts but also for all clinicians caring for children. The forensic-biomechanical analysis of accidents in infants aims at the assessment of the loading characteristics based on the reconstruction of the particular incident. It includes an evidence-based analytical comparison between the actual injuries presented and the injuries that should be expected as a result of the proclaimed accident...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801843/sex-estimation-of-infants-through-geometric-morphometric-analysis-of-the-ilium
#6
Enrique J Estévez, Sandra López-Lázaro, Claudia López-Morago, Inmaculada Alemán, Miguel C Botella
In archeology or forensics, the analysis of the ilia is often used to determine the age and sex of unknown individuals. However, sex determination using the skeletal remains of individuals who did not develop secondary sexual characteristics remains controversial. Accurately estimating the sex of subadults is hampered by a small number of studies based on identified skeletal collections of juvenile individuals. Here, we analyzed the sexual dimorphism of the subadult ilia using geometric morphometric techniques and individuals from the osteological collection of identified subadults from San José's graveyard (Granada)...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780759/temporal-expression-of-chitinase-like-3-in-wounded-murine-skin
#7
Takehiko Murase, Takuma Yamamoto, Aki Koide, Yoichi Yagi, Shinichiro Kagawa, Shinichiro Tsuruya, Yuki Abe, Takahiro Umehara, Kazuya Ikematsu
In forensic practice, it is important to diagnose wound age accurately. We analyzed the proteome of injured murine skin to identify a novel protein marker of wound age after recent injury. We used samples from 3 days after injury, with 0 days as the control. The proteins were separated with two-dimensional electrophoresis. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a protein, chitinase-like 3 (Chil3). Chil3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression showed temporal changes, which included a peak increase at 2 days after injury...
August 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780758/investigation-of-metabolites-for-estimating-blood-deposition-time
#8
Karolina Lech, Fan Liu, Sarah K Davies, Katrin Ackermann, Joo Ern Ang, Benita Middleton, Victoria L Revell, Florence J Raynaud, Igor Hoveijn, Roelof A Hut, Debra J Skene, Manfred Kayser
Trace deposition timing reflects a novel concept in forensic molecular biology involving the use of rhythmic biomarkers for estimating the time within a 24-h day/night cycle a human biological sample was left at the crime scene, which in principle allows verifying a sample donor's alibi. Previously, we introduced two circadian hormones for trace deposition timing and recently demonstrated that messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers significantly improve time prediction accuracy. Here, we investigate the suitability of metabolites measured using a targeted metabolomics approach, for trace deposition timing...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770383/age-estimation-at-death-using-pubic-bone-analysis-of-a-virtual-reference-sample
#9
Frédéric Savall, Fabrice Hérin, Pierre Antoine Peyron, Daniel Rougé, Eric Baccino, Pauline Saint-Martin, Norbert Telmon
Age at death estimation is a major part of forensic anthropology, but is often poor in the latter decades of life and should benefit from specific population standards. The aim of this study was to test a virtual reference sample with a uniform age distribution in order to improve the accuracy of age estimation for individuals over 40 years of age. We retrospectively built a random virtual reference sample of pubic symphyses from 1100 clinical cases using computed tomography at two French hospitals; this was compared with a test sample (pubic symphyses from 75 corpses undergoing post-mortem computed tomography at a French forensic department) and with the sample originally used in the Suchey-Brooks (SB) system...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770382/population-specificity-of-sexual-dimorphism-in-cranial-and-pelvic-traits-evaluation-of-existing-and-proposal-of-new-functions-for-sex-assessment-in-a-greek-assemblage
#10
Eleni-Konstantina Oikonomopoulou, Efstratios Valakos, Efthymia Nikita
The current paper examines the accuracy of existing binary logistic regression equations for sex prediction based on pelvic and cranial traits in a modern Greek assemblage and proposes new equations with the aim of improving correct classification rates for Balkan material. Our results suggest that existing equations based on pelvic traits perform very well on the Greek material, which can be attributed to the fact that sexual dimorphism in the pelvis results from common evolutionary forces across populations...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755253/as-solid-as-a-rock-comparison-of-ce-and-mps-based-analyses-of-the-petrosal-bone-as-a-source-of-dna-for-forensic-identification-of-challenging-cranial-bones
#11
Galina Kulstein, Thorsten Hadrys, Peter Wiegand
Short tandem repeat (STR) typing from skeletal remains can be a difficult task. Dependent on the environmental conditions of the provenance of the bones, DNA can be degraded and STR typing inhibited. Generally, dense and compact bones are known to preserve DNA better. Several studies already proved that femora and teeth have high DNA typing success rates. Unfortunately, these elements are not present in all cases involving skeletal remains. Processing partial or singular skeletal elements, it is favorable to select bone areas where DNA preservation is comparably higher...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748403/evaluation-of-innotyper%C3%A2-21-in-a-sample-of-rio-de-janeiro-population-as-an-alternative-forensic-panel
#12
R S Moura-Neto, I C T Mello, R Silva, A P C Maette, C G Bottino, A Woerner, J King, F Wendt, B Budowle
The use of bi-allelic markers such as retrotransposable element insertion polymorphisms or Innuls (for insertion/null) can overcome some limitations of short tandem repeat (STR) loci in typing forensic biological evidence. This study investigated the efficiency of the InnoTyper® 21 Innul markers in an urban admixed population sample in Rio de Janeiro (n = 40) and one highly compromised sample collected as evidence by the Rio de Janeiro police. No significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected after the Bonferroni correction (α' ≈ 0...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748402/methodology-for-the-identification-of-vulnerable-asylum-seekers
#13
Sindi Visentin, Guido Pelletti, Thomas Bajanowski, Santo Davide Ferrara
Asylum seekers often experience situations of vulnerability, being frequently exposed to a heightened risk of harm, and thus require special care, support and protection. The categories of "vulnerable persons", identified by International Legislation, and an individual's classification as a "vulnerable asylum seeker", have important implications in the reception procedures, in the decision-making phase and in the definition of therapeutic needs and rehabilitation. The Istanbul Protocol, the first international guideline approved by the United Nations and applied in different contexts, is not applicable for the assessment of the totality of the conditions (medical and otherwise), and therefore, the identification and assessment of conditions of vulnerability is largely delegated to questionnaires administered by non-medical personnel...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741057/the-role-of-angiography-in-the-congruence-of-cardiovascular-measurements-between-autopsy-and-postmortem-imaging
#14
Renaud Troxler, Costin Minoiu, Paul Vaucher, Katarzyna Michaud, Francesco Doenz, Kewin Ducrot, Silke Grabherr
INTRODUCTION: Postmortem CT angiography is the method of choice for the postmortem imaging investigations of the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, autopsy still remains the gold standard for CV measurement. Nevertheless, there are not any studies on CV measurements on the multi-phase postmortem angiography (MPMCTA) which includes comparisons with autopsy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare CV measurements between the native CT scan and the three phases of the MPMCTA to find out which of these modalities correlate the best with autopsy measurements...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733797/population-genetic-analysis-of-a-21-plex-dip-panel-in-seven-chinese-ethnic-populations
#15
Youjing Jiang, Wang He, Hui Wang, Dan Chen, Xiaogang Bai, Jienan Li, Weibo Liang, Lin Zhang
A 21-plex DIP (deletion and insertion polymorphism) panel has a good performance in analyzing biogeographic ancestry in three main global population groups (European, African, and Asian). This panel was used to investigate 450 unrelated individuals in seven Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Dong, Miao, Zhuang, Uyghur, Tibetan, and Mongolian). Allele frequencies were calculated. Mho (mean value of observed heterozygosity) ranged from 0.3019 to 0.4367, MHe (mean value of expected heterozygosity) ranged from 0.31175 to 0...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730502/establishment-of-11-linked-x-str-loci-within-1-1-mb-to-assist-with-kinship-testing
#16
James Chun-I Lee, Chun-Yen Lin, Li-Chin Tsai, Yu-Jen Yu, Keng-Hsien Liao, Adrian Linacre, Hsing-Mei Hsieh
This report identifies and characterizes 10 novel short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the human X chromosome, all of which are within a range of 1.1 Mb. These newly characterized loci were developed to aid in kinship assignment when the X chromosome is specifically required. The repeat DNA sequences were identified initially using data in GenBank and are located immediately upstream and downstream from the previously described locus DXS6807. Only those loci with seven or more observed alleles were used for further study resulting in the identification of 10 new loci...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730501/the-pseudo-sah-sign-an-imaging-pitfall-in-postmortem-computed-tomography
#17
Go Shirota, Wataru Gonoi, Masako Ikemura, Masanori Ishida, Yukako Shintani, Hiroyuki Abe, Masashi Fukayama, Tomohiko Higashida, Hidemi Okuma, Osamu Abe
Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) of the brain has an important role in detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which has a high mortality rate. However, a phenomenon known as "pseudo-SAH," or high-attenuation areas along the cisterns mimicking SAH, may be seen on CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of brain PMCT for SAH and to identify the characteristics of pseudo-SAH. Findings on PMCT (sulcal effacement, asymmetry, maximum thickness of SAH signs, presence of acute/subacute intraventricular/intraparenchymal hemorrhage) and clinical history (left ventricular assist device [LVAD] implantation, anticoagulation therapy/coagulation disorder, global ischemia) were compared between subjects with true SAH and those with pseudo-SAH...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725932/dna-methylation-in-elovl2-and-c1orf132-correctly-predicted-chronological-age-of-individuals-from-three-disease-groups
#18
M Spólnicka, E Pośpiech, B Pepłońska, R Zbieć-Piekarska, Ż Makowska, A Pięta, J Karłowska-Pik, B Ziemkiewicz, M Wężyk, P Gasperowicz, T Bednarczuk, M Barcikowska, C Żekanowski, R Płoski, Wojciech Branicki
Improving accuracy of the available predictive DNA methods is important for their wider use in routine forensic work. Information on age in the process of identification of an unknown individual may provide important hints that can speed up the process of investigation. DNA methylation markers have been demonstrated to provide accurate age estimation in forensics, but there is growing evidence that DNA methylation can be modified by various factors including diseases. We analyzed DNA methylation profile in five markers from five different genes (ELOVL2, C1orf132, KLF14, FHL2, and TRIM59) used for forensic age prediction in three groups of individuals with diagnosed medical conditions...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721468/are-animal-models-predictive-for-human-postmortem-muscle-protein-degradation
#19
Bianca Ehrenfellner, Angela Zissler, Peter Steinbacher, Fabio C Monticelli, Stefan Pittner
A most precise determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a crucial aspect in forensic casework. Although there are diverse approaches available to date, the high heterogeneity of cases together with the respective postmortal changes often limit the validity and sufficiency of many methods. Recently, a novel approach for time since death estimation by the analysis of postmortal changes of muscle proteins was proposed. It is however necessary to improve the reliability and accuracy, especially by analysis of possible influencing factors on protein degradation...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717964/wound-morphology-in-contact-shots-from-blank-cartridge-handguns-a-study-on-composite-models
#20
Rebecca Pircher, Markus Große Perdekamp, Annette Thierauf-Emberger, Lena Kramer, Stefan Pollak, Dorothee Geisenberger
It is a well-known fact that blank cartridge guns can cause penetrating and even fatal injuries when discharged in contact or at very close ranges. In these cases, the gas jet perforates the skin leaving an entrance wound similar to that from a conventional gun. In order to investigate the wound morphology in contact shots from blank firearms, test shots were fired at composite models of pig skin and gelatin blocks using three different calibre 9-mm blank cartridge handguns (two pistols and one revolver) and two types of ammunition...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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