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International Journal of Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091725/genetic-polymorphism-investigation-of-the-chinese-yi-minority-using-powerplex%C3%A2-y23-str-amplification-system
#1
GuangLin He, PengYu Chen, Xing Zou, Xu Chen, Feng Song, Jing Yan, YiPing Hou
Twenty-three Y-STR loci (DYS576, DYS389I, DYS389 II, DYS448, DYS19, DYS391, DYS481, DYS549, DYS533, DYS438, DYS437, DYS570, DYS635, DYS390, DYS439, DYS392, DYS393, DYS458 DYS456, DYS643, Y-GATA-H4, and DYS385a/b) included in the next-generation PowerPlex® Y23 System were first investigated in 311 unrelated, healthy male individuals from the Yi minority population residing in the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, China. A total of 179 alleles and 297 haplotypes were discovered in the Yi group. In total, 285 haplotypes among them were unique, and the remaining 12 haplotypes were observed in two or three individuals...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091724/automatic-ct-based-finite-element-model-generation-for-temperature-based-death-time-estimation-feasibility-study-and-sensitivity-analysis
#2
Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Michael Hubig, Bodo Erdmann, Martin Weiser, Stefan Zachow, Andreas Heinrich, Felix Victor Güttler, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Temperature-based death time estimation is based either on simple phenomenological models of corpse cooling or on detailed physical heat transfer models. The latter are much more complex but allow a higher accuracy of death time estimation, as in principle, all relevant cooling mechanisms can be taken into account.Here, a complete workflow for finite element-based cooling simulation is presented. The following steps are demonstrated on a CT phantom: Computer tomography (CT) scan Segmentation of the CT images for thermodynamically relevant features of individual geometries and compilation in a geometric computer-aided design (CAD) model Conversion of the segmentation result into a finite element (FE) simulation model Computation of the model cooling curve (MOD) Calculation of the cooling time (CTE) For the first time in FE-based cooling time estimation, the steps from the CT image over segmentation to FE model generation are performed semi-automatically...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084529/comparison-of-macroscopic-and-microscopic-stereomicroscopy-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-features-of-bone-lesions-due-to-hatchet-hacking-trauma
#3
Luísa Nogueira, Gérald Quatrehomme, Marie-France Bertrand, Christophe Rallon, Romain Ceinos, Philippe du Jardin, Pascal Adalian, Véronique Alunni
This experimental study examined the lesions produced by a hatchet on human bones (tibiae). A total of 30 lesions were produced and examined macroscopically (naked eye) and by stereomicroscopy. 13 of them were also analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The general shape of the lesion, both edges, both walls, the kerf floor and the extremities were described. The length and maximum width of the lesions were also recorded. The microscopic analysis of the lesions led to the description of a sharp-blunt mechanism...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078446/detection-of-rage-expression-and-its-application-to-diabetic-wound-age-estimation
#4
Xin-Yi Ji, Yang Chen, Guang-Hua Ye, Miao-Wu Dong, Ke-Zhi Lin, Jun-Ge Han, Xiang-Ping Feng, Xing-Biao Li, Lin-Sheng Yu, Yan-Yan Fan
With the prevalence of diabetes, it is becoming important to analyze the diabetic wound age in forensic practice. The present study investigated the time-dependent expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) during diabetic wound healing in mice and its applicability to wound age determination by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. After an incision was created in genetically diabetic db/db mice and control mice, mice were killed at posttraumatic intervals ranging from 6 h to 14 days, followed by the sampling of wound margin...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078445/energy-dependent-expansion-of-177-caliber-hollow-point-air-gun-projectiles
#5
Ronald Werner, Benno Schultz, Britta Bockholdt, Axel Ekkernkamp, Matthias Frank
Amongst hundreds of different projectiles for air guns available on the market, hollow-point air gun pellets are of special interest. These pellets are characterized by a tip or a hollowed-out shape in their tip which, when fired, makes the projectiles expand to an increased diameter upon entering the target medium. This results in an increase in release of energy which, in turn, has the potential to cause more serious injuries than non-hollow-point projectiles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, reliable data on the terminal ballistic features of hollow-point air gun projectiles compared to standard diabolo pellets have not yet been published in the forensic literature...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078444/mps-analysis-of-the-mtdna-hypervariable-regions-on-the-miseq-with-improved-enrichment
#6
Mitchell M Holland, Laura A Wilson, Sarah Copeland, Gloria Dimick, Charity A Holland, Robert Bever, Jennifer A McElhoe
The non-coding displacement (D) loop of the human mitochondrial (mt) genome contains two hypervariable regions known as HVR1 and HVR2 that are most often analyzed by forensic DNA laboratories. The massively parallel sequencing (MPS) protocol from Illumina (Human mtDNA D-Loop Hypervariable Region protocol) utilizes four sets of established PCR primer pairs for the initial amplification (enrichment) step that span the hypervariable regions. Transposase adapted (TA) sequences are attached to the 5'-end of each primer, allowing for effective library preparation prior to analysis on the MiSeq, and AmpliTaq Gold DNA polymerase is the enzyme recommended for amplification...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070634/increasing-the-reference-populations-for-the-55-aisnp-panel-the-need-and-benefits
#7
Andrew J Pakstis, Longli Kang, Lijun Liu, Zhiying Zhang, Tianbo Jin, Elena L Grigorenko, Frank R Wendt, Bruce Budowle, Sibte Hadi, Mariam Salam Al Qahtani, Niels Morling, Helle Smidt Mogensen, Goncalo E Themudo, Usha Soundararajan, Haseena Rajeevan, Judith R Kidd, Kenneth K Kidd
Ancestry inference for an individual can only be as good as the reference populations with allele frequency data on the SNPs being used. If the most relevant ancestral population(s) does not have data available for the SNPs studied, then analyses based on DNA evidence may indicate a quite distantly related population, albeit one among the more closely related of the existing reference populations. We have added reference population allele frequencies for 14 additional population samples (with >1100 individuals studied) to the 125 population samples previously published for the Kidd Lab 55 AISNP panel...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058573/anterior-wrist-and-medial-malleolus-as-the-novel-sites-of-tissue-selection-a-retrospective-study-on-electric-shock-death-through-the-hand-to-foot-circuit-pathway
#8
Guangtao Xu, Ruibing Su, Junyao Lv, Bo Hu, Huan Gu, Xianxian Li, Jiang Gu, Xiaojun Yu
Our previous work demonstrated that characteristic changes could occur in the anterior wrist and medial malleolus in electric deaths through the hand-to-foot electric circuit pathway in an electric shock rat model. However, whether the same phenomenon occurs in humans is unknown. The aim of the present retrospective study was to ascertain whether the anterior wrist and medial malleolus could also be selected as the promising and significant sites in electric death through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway. Nineteen human cases from the autopsy and one clinical survivor who sustained a severe electric shock through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway were analyzed...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058572/population-genetic-analyses-and-evaluation-of-22-autosomal-strs-in-indian-populations
#9
Mugdha Singh, Madhusudan R Nandineni
The allele frequencies and forensically relevant parameters for the 22 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) present in PowerPlex® Fusion (Promega, Madison, WI) were determined for 357 unrelated individuals from 11 states across India. The combined power of discrimination and probability of exclusion were 0.99999999999999999999999999875 and 0.999999997200846, respectively. The panel was found to be informative for Indian populations and generated a total of 275 alleles. Further, analyses with these loci did not show any noticeable clustering among the Indian populations...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058571/predictable-weathering-of-puparial-hydrocarbons-of-necrophagous-flies-for-determining-the-postmortem-interval-a-field-experiment-using-chrysomya-rufifacies
#10
Guang-Hui Zhu, Zheng-Jun Jia, Xiao-Jun Yu, Ku-Sheng Wu, Lu-Shi Chen, Jun-Yao Lv, M Eric Benbow
Preadult development of necrophagous flies is commonly recognized as an accurate method for estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). However, once the PMImin exceeds the duration of preadult development, the method is less accurate. Recently, fly puparial hydrocarbons were found to significantly change with weathering time in the field, indicating their potential use for PMImin estimates. However, additional studies are required to demonstrate how the weathering varies among species. In this study, the puparia of Chrysomya rufifacies were placed in the field to experience natural weathering to characterize hydrocarbon composition change over time...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054103/a-general-approach-for-postmortem-interval-based-on-uniformly-distributed-and-interconnected-qualitative-indicators
#11
Szymon Matuszewski
There are many qualitative indicators for postmortem interval (PMI) of human or animal cadavers. When such indicators are uniformly spaced over PMI, the resultant distribution may be very useful for the estimation of PMI. Existing methods of estimation rely on indicator persistence time that is, however, difficult to estimate because of its dependence on many interacting factors, of which forensic scientists are usually unaware in casework. In this article, an approach is developed for the estimation of PMI from qualitative markers in which indicator persistence time is not used...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#12
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032243/the-role-of-forensic-medicine-and-forensic-dentistry-in-estimating-the-chronological-age-of-living-individuals-in-hamburg-germany
#13
Hussam Mansour, Andreas Fuhrmann, Ioana Paradowski, Eilin Jopp van Well, Klaus Püschel
Age estimation represents one of the primary responsibilities of forensic medicine and forensic dentistry. It is an integral procedure aiming to estimate the chronological age of an individual, whose age is either unknown or doubtful, by means of assessing the stage of dental, skeletal, and physical development. The present publication reviews the methods and procedures used in estimating the age of young living individuals as well as the experiences of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, during the last 25 years...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032242/molecular-pathological-study-on-lrrc10-in-sudden-unexplained-nocturnal-death-syndrome-in-the-chinese-han-population
#14
Lei Huang, Shuangbo Tang, Yili Chen, Liyong Zhang, Kun Yin, Yeda Wu, Jinxiang Zheng, Qiuping Wu, Jonathan C Makielski, Jianding Cheng
Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) is a perplexing disorder to both forensic pathologists and clinic physicians. Clinical features of SUNDS survivors suggested that SUNDS is similar to Brugada syndrome (BrS). Leucine-rich repeat containing 10 (LRRC10) gene was a newly identified gene linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, a disease associated with sudden cardiac death. To investigate the prevalence and spectrum of genetic variants of LRRC10 gene in SUNDS and BrS, the coding regions of LRRC10 were genetically screened in 113 sporadic SUNDS victims (from January 2005 to December 2015, 30...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012128/death-of-a-seven-month-old-child-in-a-washing-machine-a-case-report
#15
Antonio Osculati, Silvia Damiana Visonà, Laura Re, Marta Sozzi, Francesca Castelli, Luisa Andrello, Claudia Vignali
The authors present a case which brings out a unique modality of child homicide by placing the baby in a washing machine and turning it on. The murder was perpetrated by the baby's mother, who suffered from a serious depressive disorder. A postmortem RX and then a forensic autopsy were performed, followed by histologic examinations and toxicology. On the basis of the results of the autopsy, as well as the histology and the negative toxicological data, the cause of death was identified as acute asphyxia. This diagnosis was rendered in light of the absence of other causes of death, as well as the presence of typical signs of asphyxia, such as epicardial and pleural petechiae and, above all, the microscopic examinations, which pointed out a massive acute pulmonary emphysema...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004195/the-periprostatic-venous-plexus-an-unusual-source-of-fatal-pulmonary-embolism-during-corporoplasty
#16
Nazario Foschi, Mauro Ragonese, Vincenzo M Grassi, Valentino De Matteis, Fabio De-Giorgio
When a sudden death occurs during a minor surgical intervention, it may require a careful and extensive postmortem investigation. One such case concerns a 61-year-old male patient affected by Peyronie's disease, who died suddenly during a corporoplasty procedure. Autopsy and histologic examinations showed a massive bilateral pulmonary micro-embolism brought on by periprostatic venous plexus thrombosis. The cause of death was attributed to intraoperative fatal pulmonary micro-embolism. Pulmonary thromboembolism is a major cause of death and is known to be a possible complication of surgery...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995319/prediction-of-biogeographical-ancestry-from-genotype-a-comparison-of-classifiers
#17
Elaine Y Y Cheung, Michelle Elizabeth Gahan, Dennis McNevin
DNA can provide forensic intelligence regarding a donor's biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and other externally visible characteristics (EVCs). A number of algorithms have been proposed to assign individual human genotypes to a BGA using ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels. This study compares the BGA assignment accuracy of the population clustering program STRUCTURE and three generic classification approaches including a Bayesian algorithm, genetic distance, and multinomial logistic regression (MLR). A selection of 142 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from existing marker panels (SNPforID 34-plex, Eurasiaplex, Seldin, and Kidd's AIM panels) to assess BGA classification at the continental level for Africans, Europeans, East Asians, and Amerindians...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990599/the-effect-of-sodium-fluoride-formaldehyde-and-storage-temperature-on-the-stability-of-methamidophos-in-post-mortem-blood-and-liver
#18
Zhiwen Wei, Qing Niu, Fan Zhang, Kun Xiao, Ling Liu, Yujin Wang, Juan Jia, Jie Cao, Shanlin Fu, Keming Yun
Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos makes up a significant portion of forensic identification cases in China. Stability of methamidophos during specimen storage remains largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the long-term stability of methamidophos in postmortem specimens. Three experimental dogs after oral administration of methamidophos were sacrificed, and blood and liver specimens were collected and stored at various conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to measure the methamidophos concentrations after 0, 4, 7, 12, 16, 60, and 180 days of storage...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981359/evaluation-of-the-ossification-of-the-medial-clavicle-according-to-the-kellinghaus-substage-system-in-identifying-the-18-year-old-age-limit-in-the-estimation-of-forensic-age-is-it-necessary
#19
Murat Serdar Gurses, Nursel Turkmen Inanir, Esra Soylu, Gokhan Gokalp, Elif Kir, Recep Fedakar
The evaluation of the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis being part of an assigned expert approach according to standard plays an important role within civil and criminal proceedings in assessing whether a person has reached her/his 19th or 22nd year of age. Evaluation of the medial clavicular epiphysis with thin-section CT is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics of the German Association of Forensic Medicine. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the thin-section CT (section thickness of 0...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957605/population-genetic-data-for-ten-ministr-loci-in-the-sri-lankan-population
#20
N D S Goonawardhana, G S K W Jayasekara, V Elanahai, P V Udagama, N D Fernandopulle
Allele frequencies and forensically important parameters of ten autosomal miniSTR loci, D1S1677, D2S1776, D10S1248, D11S4463, D12SATA, D14S1434, D17S974, D18S853, D20S482, and D22S1045, were obtained for 278 unrelated adults from the Sri Lankan population. The combined power of discrimination and probability of exclusion was found to be 0.999999999621539 and 0.9979620, respectively. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed except for D20S482 which conformed to HW expectations only after the application of a Bonferroni correction...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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