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International Journal of Legal Medicine

Keishu Murakami, Takashi Kawaguchi, Yumiko Hashizume, Kengo Kitamura, Misato Okada, Kohei Okumoto, Shoich Sakamoto, Yuko Ishida, Mizuho Nosaka, Akihiko Kimura, Akihiro Takatsu, Toshikazu Kondo
We describe a case of suicidal asphyxiation using a plastic bag combined with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas. A 20-year-old male, whose head was covered with a plastic bag, was found dead in his room. In the plastic bag, there were two glass-made cups containing liquid-like substance. Through crime scene investigation by police staffs, a bottle of citric acid and a box of baking soda were also discovered in his room. The forensic autopsy revealed that there were neither lesions nor injuries in all of the organs...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Weniko Caré, Islam-Amine Larabi, Jérôme Langrand, Chantal Medernach, Jean-Claude Alvarez, Antoine Villa
BACKGROUND: Eutectic mixtures of lidocaine and prilocaine are used during painful dermatological procedures. Poisoning is rarely reported in adults. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We report three cases of women who experienced lidocaine and prilocaine poisoning after laser-assisted hair removal. Plasma levels of local anesthetics were assayed by a fully validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. CASE REPORTS: The rules of application of the anesthetic cream were observed apart from the maximum dose and/or maximum surface area...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yanmei Huang, Liwei Guo, Mengge Wang, Cui Zhang, Lixia Kang, Kejie Wang, Yalei Ma, Huiyong Jiao, Xi Li, Hongyu Sun
A total of 39 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci included in the advanced commercial six-dye multiplex system (AGCU Database Y30 kit) and a custom-designed four-dye multiplex system were investigated in 259 unrelated healthy Chinese males residing in Henan Province, central China. The haplotype diversity (HD) values were 0.99997 and 1.0000 for the six and four fluorescent-multiplex amplification systems, respectively. The discrimination capacity (DC) values were 0.9961 and 1.0000, respectively. When the 39 Y-STR loci were considered, 259 unique haplotypes were obtained in Henan Han individuals with both the haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity being 1...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ye Li, Jihong Zeng, Yujiang Fan, Guanglin He, Mingkun Xie, Tianzhen Gao, Shouyu Wang, Jin Wu
The X chromosome has a special mode of inheritance, and is thus a rich resource for population studies. In this study, the allele frequencies and forensic statistics of the 19 X chromosomal short tandem repeat loci were evaluated in 500 Uyghur individuals from Aksu Prefecture in northwest China. We further aimed to study whether the Uyghur populations located in various regions of Xinjiang share similar allele and haplotype frequency distributions, as they have experienced genetic exchanges. Population comparisons, PCA and MDS were performed for the Uyghurs and 27 populations and the results indicate that the Uyghur minority in Aksu has a relatively close phylogenetic relationship with East Asians, especially the Kazakh minority...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mattias Haglund, Håkan Mörnstad
Assessment of third molar development on dental radiograms is one of the most commonly used methods of forensic age estimation. Despite widespread use and numerous studies, there is a paucity of aggregated data on how well a fully mature third molar identifies adulthood (> 18 years), the most important threshold in a medicolegal context. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 1229 studies were screened, and 82 studies were assessed for inclusion. Twenty-four studies, with a pooled cohort of 19,690 individuals, presented true positive (TP), true negative (TN), false positive (FP), and false negative (FN) outcomes, enabling meta-analysis...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Weian Du, Weibin Wu, Zihao Wu, Longjun Guo, Bangchao Wang, Ling Chen
Using AGCU Y24 Plus PCR Amplification Kit, 32 Y short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in 355 unrelated male participants of Meizhou city in Guangdong Province of China. By analyzing 341 different haplotypes, it was found that haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) were 0.9995 and 0.9605, respectively. Population relationships were analyzed by comparing Hakka population with ten other populations. The results indicate that Meizhou Hakka population was closely related to Guangdong Han population...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Øyvind Bleka, Torbjørn Wisløff, Pål Skage Dahlberg, Veslemøy Rolseth, Thore Egeland
This paper describes a strategy for estimating chronological age of individuals based on age indicators of X-ray of the hand and the third molar tooth. The great majority of studies in the field provide group-wise data of different formats, which makes them difficult to compare and utilize in a model. In this paper, we have provided a framework to utilize different types of data formats to build a common model for estimating chronological age. We used transition analysis to describe the relationship between the age indicators and chronological age...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Cristina Mondello, Luigi Cardia, Giovanni Bartoloni, Alessio Asmundo, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo
The aims of this study were to assess if dystrophin can be a tool for the forensic evaluation of sudden cardiac death due to coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD) and particularly if it can be a marker of early myocardial ischaemia. Then in this investigation, the dystrophin was compared to C5b-9 and fibronectin to analyze if there are some differences in the expression of these proteins. Two groups of CAD-related sudden cardiac death, respectively the group 1 with gross and/or histological evidence and the group 2 with no specific histological signs of myocardial ischaemia were used...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yuancun Zhao, Xiaogang Chen, Yiwen Yang, Xiaohong Zhao, Shu Zhang, Zehua Gao, Ting Fang, Yufang Wang, Ji Zhang
Diatom examination has always been used for the diagnosis of drowning in forensic practice. However, traditional examination of the microscopic features of diatom frustules is time-consuming and requires taxonomic expertise. In this study, we demonstrate a potential DNA-based method of inferring suspected drowning site using pyrosequencing (PSQ) of the V7 region of 18S ribosome DNA (18S rDNA) as a diatom DNA barcode. By employing a sparse representation-based AdvISER-M-PYRO algorithm, the original PSQ signals of diatom DNA mixtures were deciphered to determine the corresponding taxa of the composite diatoms...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
HaiJun He, Lagabaiyila Zha, JinHong Cai, Jian Huang
Autosomal genetic markers and Y chromosome markers have been widely applied in analysis of mixed stains at crime scenes by forensic scientists. However, true genotype combinations are often difficult to distinguish using autosomal markers when similar amounts of DNA are contributed by multiple donors. In addition, specific individuals cannot be determined by Y chromosomal markers because male relatives share the same Y chromosome. X-linked markers, possessing characteristics somewhere intermediate between autosomes and the Y chromosome, are less universally applied in criminal casework...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Coralie Hermetet, Pauline Saint-Martin, Arsène Gambier, Léo Ribier, Bénédicte Sautenet, Camille Rérolle
Medicolegal physicians are increasingly called upon to aid in determining the administrative age group affiliation of refugees with questionable unaccompanied minor claims. According to guidelines for forensic age assessment, age differentiation along the 18-year-old cut-off relies on clavicular ossification. The thin-slice computed tomography scan (TSCTs) of the medial clavicular epiphysis (MCE) is one of the methods contributing to this assessment, though it is not yet universally accepted. The aim of this systematic review was to identify scientific papers where age was assessed using TSCTs of the MCE and to observe whether this examination was reproducible and reliable in estimating a person's age relative to the 18-year-old threshold...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
D J Carr, T Stevenson, P F Mahoney
Blocks of gelatine are used in both lethality and survivability studies for broadly the same reason, i.e. comparison of ammunition effects using a material that it is assumed represents (some part of) the human body. The gelatine is used to visualise the temporary and permanent wound profiles; elements of which are recognised as providing a reasonable approximation to wounding in humans. One set of researchers aim to improve the lethality of the projectile, and the other to understand the effects of the projectile on the body to improve survivability...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Walther Gotsmy, Paolo Lombardo, Christian Jackowski, Eva Brencicova, Wolf-Dieter Zech
BACKGROUND: In forensic autopsy, the analysis of stomach contents is important when investigating drowning cases. Three-layering of stomach contents may be interpreted as a diagnostic hint to drowning due to swallowing of larger amounts of water or other drowning media. The authors experienced frequent discrepancies of numbers of stomach content layering in drowning cases between post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy in forensic casework. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare layering of stomach contents in drowning cases between PMCT and forensic autopsy...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Katja Koehler, Susanne Sehner, Martin Riemer, Axel Gehl, Tobias Raupach, Sven Anders
Post-mortem chemical excitability of the iris is one of the non-temperature-based methods in forensic diagnosis of the time since death. Although several authors reported on their findings, using different measurement methods, currently used time limits are based on a single dissertation which has recently been doubted to be applicable for forensic purpose. We investigated changes in pupil-iris ratio after application of acetylcholine (n = 79) or tropicamide (n = 58) and in controls at upper and lower time limits that are suggested in the current literature, using a digital photography-based measurement method with excellent reliability...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Alessandra Iuvaro, Carla Bini, Silvia Dilloo, Stefania Sarno, Susi Pelotti
The collection of biological debris beneath fingernails can be useful in forensic casework when a struggle between the victim and the offender is suspected. In the present study, we set up a controlled scratching experiment in which female volunteers scratched the male volunteers' forearms, simulating a defensive action during an assault. A total of 160 fingernail samples were collected: 80 "control samples" before the scratching, 40 samples immediately after the scratching (t = 0 h), and 40 samples 5 h after the scratching (t = 5 h)...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Gérald Quatrehomme, Steve Toupenay, Tania Delabarde, Bernard Padovani, Véronique Alunni
The terrorist attack of July 14, 2016 in Nice (France) was a devastating event. A man voluntarily drove a truck into a crowd gathered for the fireworks display on the seaside "Promenade des Anglais," plowing pedestrians down over more than 2 km before being shot dead. At the time of this report, a total of 86 casualties and more than 1200 formal complaints for physical and psychological injuries have been recorded. The aim of this work is to describe the forensic management of this event and its immediate aftermath...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Shota Inokuchi, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Kazuma Nishimura, Kazuyuki Saito
A total of 344 unrelated Japanese adults were genotyped to determine allele frequencies and evaluate forensic parameters for 10 autosomal supplementary non-CODIS loci and 2 autosomal CODIS loci using an Investigator® HDplex Kit for complex relationship testing.
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Nazan Sirin, Alexandra Reckert, Stefanie Ritz-Timme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Cristina Mondello, Debora Di Mauro, Giovanna Vermiglio, Alessio Asmundo, Elena Filippini, Angela Alibrandi, Giuseppina Rizzo
The post-mortem assessment of sepsis-related death can be carry out by many methods recently suggested as microbiological and biochemical investigations. In these cases, the cause of death is a multiple organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated inflammatory response occurring after the failure of infection control process. It was highlighted also that the heart can be a target organ in sepsis which determines the so-called septic cardiomyopathy characterized by myocardial depression. Several mechanisms to explain the pathophysiology of septic cardiomyopathy were suggested, but very few studies about the structural alterations of cardiac cells responsible for myocardial depression were carried out...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Fumiko Chiba, Yohsuke Makino, Suguru Torimitsu, Ayumi Motomura, Go Inokuchi, Namiko Ishii, Yumi Hoshioka, Hiroko Abe, Rutsuko Yamaguchi, Ayaka Sakuma, Sayaka Nagasawa, Hisako Saito, Daisuke Yajima, Yuta Fukui, Hirotaro Iwase
We aimed to reproduce the anthropometrical measurement of femoral dimensions using multi-planar reconstruction computed tomography (CT), assess the correlation between stature and femoral measurements obtained by this approach, and establish a regression equation for estimating stature in the modern Japanese population. We used data regarding 224 cadavers (116 males, 108 females) that were subjected to postmortem CT and subsequent forensic autopsy at our department between October 2009 and July 2016. To simulate the placement of the femur on the osteometric board using reconstructed CT images, we defined a virtual horizontal plane (VHP) based on the three most dorsal points of the femur (lateral condyle, medial condyle, and greater trochanter)...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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