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International Journal of Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350270/genetic-data-for-26-autosomal-str-markers-from-brazilian-population
#1
Tamiris Fátima Correia Pereira, Marcelo Malaghini, João Carlos Maciel Magalhães, Rodrigo Moura-Neto, Vanessa Santos Sotomaior
The allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 26 mini short tandem repeat (mini-STR) loci in a sample of 1575 unrelated individuals from five different Brazilian regions were obtained. All the analyzed loci showed great diversity and were highly informative. The results were compared with those of the US Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic population studies. This study aimed to contribute to forensic analysis for human identification and inference of the evidential value in familial bond tests...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350269/exome-analysis-in-34-sudden-unexplained-death-sud-victims-mainly-identified-variants-in-channelopathy-associated-genes
#2
Jacqueline Neubauer, Maria Rita Lecca, Giancarlo Russo, Christine Bartsch, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Wolfgang Berger, Cordula Haas
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide, mostly involving coronary artery disease in the elderly. In contrary, sudden death events in young victims often represent the first manifestation of undetected genetic cardiac diseases, which remained without any symptoms during lifetime. Approximately 30% of these sudden death cases have no definite cardiac etiology after a comprehensive medicolegal investigation and are therefore termed as sudden unexplained death (SUD) cases. Advances in high-throughput sequencing approaches have provided an efficient diagnostic tool to identify likely pathogenic variants in cardiovascular disease-associated genes in otherwise autopsy-negative SUD cases...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349700/adrenergic-and-metabolic-effects-of-electrical-weapons-review-and-meta-analysis-of-human-data
#3
REVIEW
S N Kunz, H G Calkins, J Adamec, M W Kroll
INTRODUCTION: Electronic control with the CEW (conducted electrical weapon) has gained widespread acceptance as the preferred force option due to its significant injury reduction. However, a CEW application does stress the human body. In the case of the CEW, the human body response is similar to the challenge of physical exercise combined with emotional stress over a very short time interval. There has been concern whether the tension of the skeletal-muscle system together with the emotional stress of being exposed to the effects of a CEW, can lead to severe metabolic dysfunction...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344721/post-mortem-mr-angiography-quantitative-investigation-and-intravascular-retention-of-perfusates-in-ex-situ-porcine-hearts
#4
Bridgette Webb, Thomas Widek, Sylvia Scheicher, Thorsten Schwark, Rudolf Stollberger
As the implementation of minimally invasive imaging techniques in both forensic and pathological practice increases, research in this area focuses on addressing recognised diagnostic weaknesses of current approaches. Assessment of sudden cardiac death (SCD) can be considered one such area in which post-mortem imaging still shows diagnostic weaknesses. We hypothesise that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an angiographic adjunct may improve the visualisation and interpretation of cardiac pathologies in a post-mortem setting...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340764/correction-to-population-data-of-21-autosomal-str-loci-in-the-hausa-igbo-and-yoruba-people-of-nigeria
#5
Victoria O Okolie, Selena Cisana, Moses S Schanfield, Alani Sulaimon Akanmu, Khalid O Adekoya, Olufemi A Oyedeji, Daniele Podini
In the original paper author Alani Sulaimon Akanmu was erroneously omitted from the author list. Prof. Akanmu has now been added as 4th author. Prof. Akanmu acted as an academic supervisor of the study and additionally contributed to the publication by reading, commenting and editing the manuscript.
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335777/fully-automatic-ct-histogram-based-fat-estimation-in-dead-bodies
#6
Michael Hubig, Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Felix Güttler, Andreas Heinrich, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Post-mortem body cooling is the foundation of temperature-based death time estimations (TDE) in homicide cases. Forensic science generally provides two types of p.m. body cooling models, the phenomenological and the physical models. Since both of them have to implement important individual parameters like the quantity of abdominal fat explicitly or implicitly, a more exact quantification and localization of abdominal fat is a desideratum in TDE. Particularly for the physical models, a better knowledge of the abdominal fat distribution could lead to relevant improvements in TDEs...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313099/genetic-variation-and-forensic-characterization-of-highland-tibetan-ethnicity-reveled-by-autosomal-str-markers
#7
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Understanding the origin and genetic background of Chinese high-altitude Tibetans play a pivotal role in medical genetics, archeology, anthropology, and forensics. In this study, to investigate the forensic characterization and genetic diversity of Chinese Tibetan, allele frequencies and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of 15 autosomal STRs included in the AmpFℓSTR® Sinofiler™ kit were obtained from 1220 Tibetan individuals residing in Lhasa country, Tibet Autonomous Region. We identified 191 alleles with corresponding allele frequencies varied from 0...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308532/violence-against-african-migrant-women-living-in-turin-clinical-and-forensic-evaluation
#8
Paola Castagna, Rossana Ricciardelli, Federica Piazza, Grazia Mattutino, Beatrice Pattarino, Antonella Canavese, Sarah Gino
The phenomenon of migration is often related to violence and exploitation. Data collection in conflict-affected countries is hard and complicated by the lack of literature, especially on the health of migrant female victims of violence. The aim of our study has been to realise a clinical and forensic evaluation on African female migrant's global health through their admissions to the Rape Centre "Soccorso Violenza Sessuale" at Sant'Anna Hospital in Turin. In our sample, we considered several aspects such as place where the violence occurred, number and the identity of the perpetrators, use of physical restraint instruments and/or substances, kidnapping, prostitution under duress, abuses, pregnancies and outcomes, injuries and complained symptoms, female genital mutilation, and sexually transmitted diseases...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306988/acute-phase-response-after-fatal-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Benjamin Ondruschka, Sandra Schuch, Dirk Pohlers, Heike Franke, Jan Dreßler
An inflammatory response occurring after fatal traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates time-dependent cascades of acute phase response. This may offer the potential to monitor postmortem biomarker levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines to gain information about the cause of death and the trauma survival time. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were collected from forensic autopsies of 95 adult cadavers after postmortem intervals up to 6 days. The cases were divided according to their cause of death into fatal TBI (n = 46) with different survival times and age- and gender-matching non-TBI fatalities as controls (n = 49)...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299666/proposals-for-best-quality-immunohistochemical-staining-of-paraffin-embedded-brain-tissue-slides-in-forensics
#10
Florian Trautz, Jan Dreßler, Ruth Stassart, Wolf Müller, Benjamin Ondruschka
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an integral part in forensic histopathology over the last decades. However, the underlying methods for IHC vary greatly depending on the institution, creating a lack of comparability. The aim of this study was to assess the optimal approach for different technical aspects of IHC, in order to improve and standardize this procedure. Therefore, qualitative results from manual and automatic IHC staining of brain samples were compared, as well as potential differences in suitability of common IHC glass slides...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279961/assessment-of-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy-detected-on-commercial-panel-using-mps-system-with-artificial-mixture-samples
#11
Sohee Cho, Moon Young Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Soong Deok Lee
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is a potential genetic marker for forensic mtDNA analysis as well as phylogenic studies. Frequency of mtDNA heteroplasmy has been investigated in different populations through massively parallel sequencing (MPS) analysis, revealing various levels of frequency based on different MPS systems. For accurate heteroplasmy identification, it is essential to explore reliable detection threshold on various MPS systems. In addition, software solutions and pipelines need to be evaluated to analyze data effectively...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273824/accuracy-of-the-third-molar-maturity-index-in-assessing-the-legal-age-of-18%C3%A2-years-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Bianca Marques Santiago, Leopoldina Almeida, Yuri Wanderley Cavalcanti, Marcela Baraúna Magno, Lucianne Cople Maia
The age estimation is a complex procedure required in the daily practice of legal medicine. The maturity of third molars stands out by the age of 18 because these teeth are still in development. This systematic review aimed to assess the accuracy of the third molar maturity index (I 3M), proposed by Cameriere et al. (2008), in discriminating whether an individual is under or over 18 years. Seven electronic databases were screened: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SIGLE, and CAPES...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270839/revisited-larval-morphology-of-thanatophilus-rugosus-coleoptera-silphidae
#13
Martin Novák, Pavel Jakubec, Jarin Qubaiová, Hana Šuláková, Jan Růžička
Determination of insect species and their instars, occurring on human remains, is important information that allows us to use insects for estimation of postmortem interval and detect possible manipulation with the body. However, larvae of many common species can be identified only by molecular methods, which is not always possible. The instar determination is even more challenging, and qualitative characters that would allow a more precise identification are mostly unknown. Thanatophilus rugosus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a common necrophagous beetle in the whole Palaearctic region from Europe to Japan...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260394/validation-and-evaluation-of-measuring-methods-for-the-3d-documentation-of-external-injuries-in-the-field-of-forensic-medicine
#14
Ursula Buck, Kirsten Buße, Lorenzo Campana, Christian Schyma
Three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are gaining importance in many areas. The latest developments brought more cost-effective, user-friendly, and faster technologies onto the market. Which 3D techniques are suitable in the field of forensic medicine and what are their advantages and disadvantages? This wide-ranging study evaluated and validated various 3D measurement techniques for the forensic requirements. High-tech methods as well as low-budget systems have been tested and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, expenditure of time, mobility, cost, necessary knowhow, and their limitations...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260393/the-application-of-the-kvaal-method-to-estimate-the-age-of-live-korean-subjects-using-digital-panoramic-radiographs
#15
Byung-Yoon Roh, Won-Joon Lee, Ji-Won Ryu, Jong-Mo Ahn, Chang-Lyuk Yoon, Sang-Seob Lee
Dental age estimation of the living is limited because observing the histological structure of teeth is difficult. Therefore, several methods have been proposed to estimate age by observing changes on dental radiographs of pulpal size caused by secondary dentin deposition. This study aims to evaluate the validity of the Kvaal method to estimate the ages of Korean subjects using digital panoramic radiographs and formulate regression equations for use in Korean subjects. We included 266 Korean subjects (age 21-69 years) visiting Chosun University Dental Hospital (Gwangju, South Korea)...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260392/nose-profile-morphology-and-accuracy-study-of-nose-profile-estimation-method-in-scottish-subadult-and-indonesian-adult-populations
#16
Erli Sarilita, Christopher Rynn, Peter A Mossey, Sue Black, Fahmi Oscandar
This study investigated nose profile morphology and its relationship to the skull in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations, with the aim of improving the accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstruction. Samples of 86 lateral head cephalograms from Dundee Dental School (mean age, 11.8 years) and 335 lateral head cephalograms from the Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia (mean age 24.2 years), were measured. The method of nose profile estimation based on skull morphology previously proposed by Rynn and colleagues in 2010 (FSMP 6:20-34) was tested in this study...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256137/estimating-the-postmortem-interval-of-human-skeletal-remains-by-analyzing-their-fluorescence-at-365-and-490%C3%A2-nm
#17
V Sterzik, F Holz, T E N Ohlwärther, M Thali, C G Birngruber
The study presented here is regarded as a continuation of the experiments of Sterzik et al., who developed a new practical method to distinguish between historical and recent human skeletal remains. Bone cross-sections were illuminated using light with wavelengths of 365 and 490 nm, causing fluorescence. The fluorescence was documented by photography and further analyzed to examine the areal extent of a certain fluorescent color. Contrary to the previous experiments of Sterzik et al., the present study focused on bones with postmortem intervals (PMIs) ≥ 50 years...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248959/the-third-molar-maturity-index-in-indicating-the-legal-adult-age-in-kosovar-population
#18
Jeta Kelmendi, Roberto Cameriere, Ferit Koçani, Ivan Galić, Blerim Mehmeti, Marin Vodanović
The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248958/reliability-of-the-greulich-and-pyle-method-for-chronological-age-estimation-and-age-majority-prediction-in-a-spanish-sample
#19
M Alcina, A Lucea, M Salicrú, D Turbón
Estimating the forensic age of living individuals is ever more important in forensic practice, due to the ongoing increase of migratory flows, amongst other causes. Using the Greulich and Pyle method on a sample of 1150 individuals of the Spanish population (n = 560, 0-18 years for girls, and n = 590, 0-19 years for boys), the mean difference between the bone and chronological ages was obtained: 0.01 years (- 0.81, + 0.92) for girls and 0.33 years (- 1.15, + 0.34) for boys. For a same class of age and sex, the inherent variability was also evaluated: [Formula: see text] (0...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248957/ancestry-inference-of-96-population-samples-using-microhaplotypes
#20
Ozlem Bulbul, Andrew J Pakstis, Usha Soundararajan, Cemal Gurkan, Jane E Brissenden, Janet M Roscoe, Baigalmaa Evsanaa, Ariunaa Togtokh, Peristera Paschou, Elena L Grigorenko, David Gurwitz, Sharon Wootton, Robert Lagace, Joseph Chang, William C Speed, Kenneth K Kidd
Microhaplotypes have become a new type of forensic marker with a great ability to identify and deconvolute mixtures because massively parallel sequencing (MPS) allows the alleles (haplotypes) of the multi-SNP loci to be determined directly for an individual. As originally defined, a microhaplotype locus is a short segment of DNA with two or more SNPs defining three or more haplotypes. The length is short enough, less than about 300 bp, that the read length of current MPS technology can produce a phase-known sequence of each chromosome of an individual...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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