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International Journal of Legal Medicine

Arsène Gambier, Camille Rérolle, Maxime Faisant, Julia Lemarchand, Arnaud Paré, Pauline Saint-Martin
Forensic age estimation of a living individual is frequently performed in clinical forensic medicine. Medicolegal physicians are usually called upon by the authorities to estimate the age of a living person requesting asylum or to determine whether a suspected offender is subject to juvenile or adult criminal law. Dental age is one of the parameters studied to estimate biological age. Several methods are used, and among these, analysis of the eruption of the third molar (M3) on an orthopantomogram (OPG) is one of the common methods...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Qiu-Xiang Du, Na Li, Li-Hong Dang, Ta-Na Dong, Han-Lin Lu, Fu-Xia Shi, Qian-Qian Jin, Cao Jie, Jun-Hong Sun
Although many time-dependent parameters involved in wound healing have been exhaustively investigated, establishing an objective and reliable means for estimating wound age remains a challenge. In this study, 78 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into a control group and contusion groups at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, and 48 h post-injury (n = 6 per group). The expression of 35 wound healing-related genes was explored in contused skeletal muscle by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Angelina Hafke, Peter Schürmann, Thomas Rothämel, Thilo Dörk, Michael Klintschar
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that inflammation plays a role in the etiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Immune system dysregulation seems to be the background of higher infection susceptibility in SIDS infants. This phenotype is possibly determined by genetic factors. METHODS: Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the following 13 candidate genes governing the immune system were successfully genotyped in 251 Caucasian SIDS cases and 336 controls from Germany: ADAR1, CSF2RB, DDX58, IFNA1, IFNA21, IFNA8, IFNAR2, IFNG, IL6, MX2, OAS1, OAS3, and TNFA...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mariano Paternoster, Mauro Perrino, Antonio Travaglino, Antonio Raffone, Gabriele Saccone, Fulvio Zullo, Francesco Paolo D'Armiento, Claudio Buccelli, Massimo Niola, Maria D'Armiento
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth is defined by the WHO as birth of a fetus with no vital signs, at or over 28 weeks of pregnancy age. The estimation of time of death in stillbirth appears crucial in forensic pathology. However, there are no validated methods for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the available literature regarding the estimation of the time of death in stillborn fetuses, in terms of hours or days. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from their inception to August 2018 for relevant articles...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Cornelius Courts, Johanna Preuß-Wössner
We report a case of identity testing in which a patient charged us with the verification of a semen sample that he had donated and cryopreserved more than 20 years ago and now was suspecting of having been inadvertently interchanged. We found a non-match of the DNA profiles of the patient's blood and the semen samples but could show that this was due to the patient having received a stem cell transplantation of his full brother as part of a cancer therapy in 1997 which was not known to us when the samples were first tested...
January 7, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Marianne Hädener, Tim J Gelmi, Marie Martin-Fabritius, Wolfgang Weinmann, Matthias Pfäffli
In Switzerland, only cannabis with a total Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content higher than 1% is controlled by the narcotics legislation. Cannabis products rich in cannabidiol (CBD) and low in THC can be legally sold as tobacco substitutes. In this paper, we address analytical and forensic toxicological issues related to the increasing availability and consumption of these products. Based on the analysis of 531 confiscated cannabis samples, we could establish classification thresholds: plant material with a ratio of total THC/total CBD ≥ 3 is graded as THC-rich/CBD-poor, whereas samples with a ratio ≤ 0...
January 5, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Juliana Martinez, Fernanda Silva Polverari, Flávia Alves de Jesus Silva, Danilo Faustino Braganholi, Joyce Aparecida Martins Lopes Ferraz, Leonor Gusmão, Regina Maria Barretto Cicarelli
X-chromosomal markers can be useful in some forensic cases, where the analysis of the autosomal markers is not conclusive. In this study, a population sample of 500 unrelated individuals born in São Paulo State was characterized for 32 X-InDel markers. No deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected, except for MID1361. The 32 X-InDels showed an accumulated power of discrimination of 0.9999999999993 in females and 0.99999993 in males and an exclusion chance of 0.999996 in trios and 0.99995 in duos...
January 5, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Huyen Linh Tran, Hong Trang Nguyen, Thanh Tung Pham, Mau Hung Nguyen, Ha Hoang, Hoang Ha Chu
We collected and analysed the autosomal STR data of 2040 unrelated Kinh individuals living in Vietnam. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated, showing high values for the combined powers of discrimination and exclusion. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to determine the genetic relationship of the Kinh population with other Asian populations.
January 5, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Atif Adnan, Allah Rakha, Shahid Nazir, Muhammad Farhan Khan, Sibte Hadi, Jinfeng Xuan
Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used to study population histories, discover ancestral relationships, and identify males for criminal justice purposes. Y-STRs being largely in forensic use have low haplotype diversity in some populations and cannot discriminate between paternal male relatives. Rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) were breakthrough and have been paid much attention. A set of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs (DYF387S1, DYF399S1, DYF403S1a/b1/b2, DYF404S1, DYS449, DYS518, DYS526I/II, DYS547, DYS570, DYS576, DYS612, DYS626, and DYS627) typically reveals higher haplotype diversities than the commercially available Y-STR sets and allows differentiating male relatives for which commercial Y-STR sets are usually not informative...
January 4, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ankit Srivastava, Ramkishan Kumawat, Shivani Dixit, Kamlesh Kaitholia, Divya Shrivastava, Vijay Kumar Yadav, Kriti Nigam, Harsh Sharma, Veena Ben Trivedi, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Pankaj Shrivastava
In the present study, the statistical forensic parameters were evaluated for the loci present in PowerPlex 21 autosomal and PowerPlex 23 Y-STR multiplex systems in 168 unrelated individuals living in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The combined discrimination power (CPD) and combined exclusion power (CPE) was 1 and 0.999999 respectively for all 20 autosomal STR loci. Penta E showed the greatest (0.980) and CSF1PO showed the lowest (0.855) power of discrimination in the studied population. The haplotype diversity for 23 Y-STR loci was observed to be 0...
January 4, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hongyan Huang, Ting Yao, Weibin Wu, Chuangyan Zhai, Tianshan Guan, Yali Song, Yunxia Sun, Cheng Xiao, Peiyan Liang, Ling Chen
Vaginal fluid and saliva are of great importance in forensic sciences. The identification of vaginal fluid or saliva is especially important in criminal cases. Microbes are considered as a promising marker for the identification of body fluids. In this study, 18 salivary fluids and 18 vaginal fluid samples were collected from 18 healthy women of the Han population in Guangdong province, China. The microbes of the above samples were analyzed by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the microbes whose proportions are over 1% in saliva samples distributed across 12 genera and 57 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and in vaginal fluid distributed across 4 genera and 9 OTUs...
January 4, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Alexandra G Gheorghe, Christina Jacobsen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet, Niels Lynnerup, Claus B Andersen, Andreas Fuchs, Klaus F Kofoed, Jytte Banner
The Agatston score (AS) is the gold standard CT calcium scoring method in clinical practice. However, the AS is an indirect method of determining calcium amount, whereas atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) can directly measure the calcium amount. Our primary aim was to investigate the association between the AS and the coronary calcium amount measured by AAS. Furthermore, we compared our outcome to the macroscopic and histological coronary calcification and stenosis assessment, thus allowing us to infer a clinical coronary artery status based on post-mortem findings...
January 4, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Magda Blaszkowska, Ambika Flavel, Daniel Franklin
The transposition of traditional biological profiling methods to virtual skeletal reconstructions represents a relatively novel practice that is proving to be versatile in a variety of forensic contexts. Widespread acknowledgement of the disadvantages associated with archaeological and/or other non-contemporary skeletal collections has prompted an increase in the use of medical imaging modalities for the purposes of formulating population-specific reference standards used to estimate characteristics such as chronological age...
January 4, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jie Wu, Jing-Long Li, Meng-Lei Wang, Jian-Ping Li, Zhi-Chao Zhao, Qi Wang, Shu-Dong Yang, Xin Xiong, Jing-Long Yang, Ya-Jun Deng
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is widely used in forensic genetics to study short tandem repeats (STRs). Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have facilitated the development of new strategies for forensic DNA typing. Several studies have shown that NGS successfully analyzes challenging samples. However, because NGS is complicated and time-consuming, it remains unclear whether NGS platforms offer significant advantages over CE for all forensic cases. Here, the MiSeq FGx system was used to test some cases that had previously been analyzed using CE...
January 2, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Franziska Gaunitz, Andreas Thomas, Mathias Fietzke, Florian Franz, Volker Auwärter, Mario Thevis, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
Despite the increasing relevance of synthetic cannabinoids as one of the most important classes within "New Psychoactive Substances", there is still a lack of knowledge concerning their metabolism in humans. Due to the extensive metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids, metabolites are necessarily the best target analytes in urine, posing additional challenges to forensic analysis. The aims of this study were to identify appropriate urinary targets indicating intake of THJ-018 or THJ-2201 as well as to elucidate the most important cytochrome P450 isoenzymes within the metabolism of THJ-018 and THJ-2201 in vitro...
December 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Cornelius Hess, Moritz Losacker, Alexandra Maas
The differentiation between single methamphetamine consumption and co-consumption with amphetamine is difficult, however possible by enantioselective analysis due to different preferred synthesis pathways of both substances. We quantified (R)-(-) and (S)-(+)-enantiomers of methamphetamine and amphetamine by a fast liquid chromatographic tandem-mass spectrometric method using a Lux® 3-μm AMP 150 × 3.0 mm analytical column after simple protein precipitation with methanol. Method validation for quantitative detection showed limits of quantification < 5 ng/mL, linearity in a range between 5 and 300 ng/mL and bias and imprecision data < 15%...
December 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Marin A Pilloud, Donovan M Adams, Joseph T Hefner
Dental morphology is becoming increasingly visible in forensic anthropology as part of the estimation of ancestry. As methods are developed based on these data, it is important to understand the role of observer error in data collection and method application. In this study, 10 observers collected dental morphological data on 19 traits on the same set of nine plaques. Various measures of interrater reliability were calculated to assess observer error. Data were then input into one of three ancestry estimation methods based on dental morphology to understand the role of observer error in these methods...
December 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Guang-Yao Fan, Yu-Ran An, Chang-Xiu Peng, Ji-Liang Deng, Li-Peng Pan, Yi Ye
We have analyzed the Y chromosome haplotypes of 510 non-related Yi males grouped in three Chinese provinces (Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan) using the Yfiler® Plus Kit. A total of 484 haplotypes were detected, out of which 460 were unique. The observed haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were 0.9998 and 0.9490, respectively. To investigate the genetic relationship of the studied population, multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree phylogenetic analyses were constructed which demonstrated that the Y chromosome lineage among the Yi ethnicity was different...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mitchell J Flies, Peter K Larsen, Niels Lynnerup, Chiara Villa
Accurate and precise documentation of lesions is an important aspect of the forensic pathologists' work. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to take precise measurements from photographs. These photographs are normally acquired with single camera photographs, but the procedure is quite time-consuming. Video recording has the potential to record a larger amount of image data faster. We documented 33 cadaveric skin lesions, using photographs and video recordings. The dimensions of the lesions ranged between 0...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Janine Helmus, Manuel Pfeifer, Laura-Kim Feiner, Laura Jasmin Krause, Thomas Bajanowski, Micaela Poetsch
DNA transfer in aqueous solutions as well as the persistence of DNA on washed items has become a major subject of research in recent years and is often a significant problem in court. Despite these approaches, the question about the "mobility" of DNA especially in capital offenses cannot be answered in every case, since a variety of scenarios for DNA transfer are possible. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DNA traces could be distributed by cleaning an object. For this purpose, a large table surface and fabric piece were artificially provided with skin contact traces and body fluids (saliva and blood) in two series of experiments and then wiped off with water or with soap water (218 samples in total)...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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