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International Journal of Legal Medicine

Kenji Kuwayama, Maika Nariai, Hajime Miyaguchi, Yuko T Iwata, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Kenji Tsujikawa, Tadashi Yamamuro, Hiroki Segawa, Hiroko Abe, Hirotaro Iwase, Hiroyuki Inoue
During investigations of unnatural death, the time of death is generally estimated using anatomical examinations. However, it can be difficult to accurately determine the day of death, because postmortem changes in the body tissues can be greatly affected by the circumstances of the location of the corpse. We recently developed a method to estimate the day of drug ingestion, using micro-segmental hair analysis based on internal temporal markers (ITMs). In this method, ITMs are ingested at a specific time interval before hair collection to mark timescales within individual hair strands...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Tania Ivorra, Anabel Martínez-Sánchez, Santos Rojo
Intraguild interactions play a prominent role in sarcosaprophagous communities, so intraspecific and interspecific competition phenomena between fly larvae take place. Synthesiomyia nudiseta is a species that has recently been recorded on human corpses in Europe, and it has been cited in forensic cases in Spain and Italy. The mature larvae are known to be facultative predators on necrophagous fly larvae, but their role as predators is unknown. The aim of this paper is to investigate the predatory behavior of S...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lisa Riesinger, S Fichtner, C G Schuhmann, H L Estner, T Czermak, M Graw, F Fischer, K Lackermair
BACKGROUND: Postmortem interrogation of cardiac implantable electrical devices (CIED) in autopsy is not routinely performed. Thus, it remains unclear whether an interrogation might clarify time and cause of death. METHODS: Seventy of 4401 patients (1.6%) undergoing autopsy in 2014 and 2015 presented with a CIED. The explanted CIED were interrogated with respect to time and possible cause of death. Battery and lead parameters, clinical and technical alerts, and arrhythmia episodes were reviewed and afterwards correlated with the results of autopsy and clinical data...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Benno Hartung, Julia Schaper, Katinka Fischer, Stefanie Ritz-Timme
Dental neglect may have serious consequences for children's health. Moreover, it may indicate general negligence and it can be associated with child abuse. Therefore, a highly professional case management is of utmost importance, but also poses a great challenge for dentists. In order to develop effective strategies for an optimization of dental care in cases of dental neglect, a better understanding of the situation, and in particular an investigation into the unsolved questions of dentists in these cases, is needed...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
E Spinas, Stefano De Luca, L Lampis, L A Velandia Palacio, R Cameriere
This work aims to assess the validity of the cut-off value (0.08) of the third molar maturity index (I3M ) for discriminating minors from adults in Sardinian population. A sample of 336 digital panoramic radiographs of healthy Sardinian children and young minors (165 females and 171 males), aged between 15 and 23 years (mean age, 19.35 years in females and 18.80 years in males), was retrospectively evaluated. The left lower third molars were analysed by applying a specific cut-off value of 0.08 determined by Cameriere et al...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Patricia Villaescusa, Leire Palencia-Madrid, Magdalena Antònia Campaner, Jaione Jauregui-Rada, Miguel Guerra-Rodríguez, Ana María Rocandio, Marian M de Pancorbo
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found within the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) represent a powerful tool in forensic genetics for inferring the paternal ancestry of a vestige and complement the determination of biogeographical origin in combination with other markers like AIMs. In the present study, we introduce a panel of 15 Y-SNPs for a fine-resolution subtyping of the haplogroup R1b-DF27, in a single minisequencing reaction. This is the first minisequencing panel that allows a fine subtyping of R1b-DF27, which displays high frequencies in Iberian and Iberian-influenced populations...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Guillaume Rousseau, Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Clotilde Rougé-Maillart, Grzegorz Teresiński, Nathalie Jousset, Xavier Dieu, Floris Chabrun, Delphine Prunier-Mirabeau, Gilles Simard, Pascal Reynier, Cristian Palmiere
INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is a potentially lethal condition whose postmortem diagnosis is often complex to perform due to the absence of pathognomonic lesions and biomarkers. Our first study of human serum and urinary metabolome in hypothermia fatalities sought novel biomarkers with better diagnostic performances than those already existing. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thirty-two cases of hypothermia deaths and 16 cases excluding known antemortem exposure to cold or postmortem elements suggesting hypothermia were selected...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Anežka Kotěrová, Jana Velemínská, Eugénia Cunha, Jaroslav Brůžek
The age-at-death estimation thresholds have recently been shifted towards a more objective assessment of the aging process. Such a non-subjective approach offers quantitative methods of age estimation; for instance, the method relating to the surfaces of pubic symphyses of males published by Stoyanova et al. (J Forensic Sci 62:1434-1444, 2017). A validation study was conducted to test the method performance in European samples. The sample consisted of 96 meshes of pubic symphyses of male individuals (known sex and age) that came from four different samples (two Portuguese collections, one Swiss, and one Crete)...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Franziska Gaunitz, Sabrina Lehmann, Andreas Thomas, Mario Thevis, Markus A Rothschild, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
This case report centres on the post-mortem distribution of the synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA and its metabolites in the case of a 27-year-old man found dead after falling from the 24th floor of a high-rise building. Toxicological analysis of post-mortem samples confirmed, besides consumption of the synthetic cannabinoids MDMB-CHMICA (1.7 ng/mL femoral blood) and EG-018, the abuse of THC (9.3 ng/mL femoral blood), amphetamine (1050 ng/mL femoral blood), MDMA (275 ng/mL femoral blood), and cocaine. Regarding EG-018 and cocaine, only traces were detected in heart blood as well as in the brain (EG-018) and urine (cocaine), respectively, which is why no quantification was conducted in the femoral blood sample...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Petter Mostad, Fredrik Tamsen
During 2014-2015, Sweden received asylum applications from more than 240,000 people, of which more than 40,000 were termed unaccompanied minors. In a large number of cases, claims by asylum seekers of being below 18 years were not trusted by Swedish authorities. To handle the situation, the Swedish national board of forensic medicine (Rättsmedicinalverket, RMV) was assigned by the government to create a centralized system for medical age assessments. RMV introduced a procedure including two biological age indicators; x-ray of the third molars and magnetic resonance imaging of the distal femoral epiphysis...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Guanglin He, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Shouyu Wang, Yiping Hou, Zheng Wang
Genetic characterization of ethnically and geographically diverse populations via short tandem repeats (STRs) is relevant to various fundamental and applied areas of forensic genetics, population studies, and even molecular anthropology. In the present study, genetic polymorphisms of 15 autosomal STR loci were firstly obtained from 918 individuals (495 Nakhis and 423 Yis) residing in the foothills of the Himalayas. The cumulative powers of discrimination and probabilities of exclusion in the two studied ethnic groups were both larger than 0...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Paolo Fais, Maria Carla Mazzotti, Massimo Montisci, Chiara Palazzo, Ornella Leone, Giovanni Cecchetto, Guido Viel, Susi Pelotti
Thermal imaging (TI) allows the detection of thermal patterns emitted from objects as a function of their temperature in the long-infrared spectrum and produces visible images displaying temperature differences. The aim of this pilot study was to test TI to visualize the coronary circulation of swine hearts. Thirty swine hearts were prepared for ex situ coronarography, and thermal images were acquired through a FlirOne thermal camera (FLIR Systems®) paired with a Google Android Smartphone. Coronary arteries were cannulated, namely the anterior interventricular artery, the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, and the right coronary artery...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Zedeng Yang, Kun Geng, Yanfang Liu, Shule Sun, Dan Wen, Jiao Xiao, Yusong Zheng, Jifeng Cai, Lagabaiyila Zha, Ying Liu
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Demirjian method and the Demirjian method as revised by Willems for age estimation based on orthopantomograms from central southern Chinese Han population aged 8-16 years. Discrepancies between chronological and estimated ages were statistically evaluated by analyzing 1249 orthopantomograms from 603 girls and 646 boys. Using the Demirjian method, the mean age estimates underestimated chronological age by 0.03 years (p = 0.48) for girls and overestimated it by 0...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, Ingrid S Lan, Cindy W Christian, Brittany Coats, Susan S Margulies
Skull fractures are common injuries in young children, typically caused by accidental falls and child abuse. The paucity of detailed biomechanical data from real-world trauma in children has hampered development of biomechanical thresholds for skull fracture in infants. The objectives of this study were to identify biomechanical metrics to predict skull fracture, determine threshold values associated with fracture, and develop skull fracture risk curves for low-height falls in infants. To achieve these objectives, we utilized an integrated approach consisting of case evaluation, anthropomorphic reconstruction, and finite element simulation...
September 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Julia Sophie Schneider, Angela Gasse, Marianne Schürenkamp, Ursula Sibbing, Sabrina Banken, Heidi Pfeiffer, Jennifer Schürenkamp, Marielle Vennemann
We present a novel multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection of 12 polymorphisms within the UGT1A9 sequence, which codes for enzymes involved in phase II biotransformation. The assay combines a multiplexed amplification step with single-base extension sequencing. The method described here is fast, cost-effective, and easy-to-use, combining the relevant features of screening methods for research and diagnostics in pharmacogenetics. To validate the assay, we tested reproducibility and sensitivity and analysed allele frequencies of 110 Caucasian individuals...
September 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xiufeng Zhang, Hecheng Zheng, Chengjing Liu, Jun Guo, Jian Wu, Liping Hu, Shengjie Nie
The genetic polymorphisms of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the AmpFlSTR®Sinofiler™ kit were evaluated from 508 unrelated healthy individuals of the Lisu ethnic minority living in Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, southwest of China. Fourteen of the 15 loci reached the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationship between the Lisu population and other Chinese populations were also estimated...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Sandra Burkhardt, Pia Genet, Sara Sabatasso, Romano La Harpe
This is a description of a man, institutionalised for learning difficulties, known to have an allergy to seafood. After eating a pie, the patient quickly developed dyspnoea and vomiting. The staff at the institution administered epinephrine and called the emergency services. Despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient died shortly after being admitted to the emergency department of the University Hospitals of Geneva. In the light of the circumstances of the death and of a discrepancy between the information given to the police by the staff at the institution looking after the patient on the one hand, and the preliminary elements of the investigation on the other hand, it was suspected that there was failure in care of the patient and our institute was asked to carry out an autopsy...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Masahito Hitosugi, Misa Tojo, Masateru Kane, Naoto Shiomi, Takeshi Shimizu, Tetsuo Nomiyama
We report an unusual case of mercury vapor poisoning from using a heated tobacco product. The suspect had added grains of mercury into 20 cigarettes in a pack. When a 36-year-old Japanese man inserted one of these cigarettes into the battery powered holder, it was heated to a temperature of 350 °C, and he inhaled vaporized mercury. After using 14 of the cigarettes over 16 h, he noticed he had flu-like symptoms so he visited the hospital. Although no physical abnormalities were revealed, 99 μg/L of mercury was detected in his serum sample...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Anna-Liina Rahikainen, P Vauhkonen, H Pett, J U Palo, J Haukka, I Ojanperä, M Niemi, Antti Sajantila
Depression is known to be a risk factor for suicide. Currently, the most used antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Not all users, however, benefit from them. In such cases, treatment failure can be explained in part by genetic differences. In this study, we investigated the role of pharmacogenetic factors in citalopram-positive completed suicides (n = 349). Since citalopram is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 enzymes, the study population was genotyped for clinically relevant CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms and CYP2D6 copy number variation...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hsuan-Yun Hu, Shyh-Yuh Wei, Wei-Hsiang Huang, Chih-Hsin Pan
Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) commonly infects children and is usually asymptomatic. Lethal outcomes of PVB19 infection are unusual; nevertheless, the two cases reported here are rare examples of PVB19-induced hemophagocytic syndrome and myocarditis in infants and children. The two cases show the indisputable usefulness of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in the detection of PVB19. In the death investigations, histopathological examinations provided stronger evidence than did serology or molecular biology...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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