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International Journal of Legal Medicine

Guy Willems, Sang-Seob Lee, Andre Uys, Herman Bernitz, Maria Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, Steffen Fieuws, Patrick Thevissen
AIM: The aims of our study were to develop new maturity scores for dental age estimation in South African black children according to the Willems method, which was developed based on Belgian Caucasian (BC) reference data (Willems et al. J Forensic Sci 46(4):893-895, 2001), and to compare age prediction performance of both methods. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 986 panoramic radiographs of healthy South African black (SAB) children (493 males and 493 females) in the age range of 4...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Sarah Keller, Tony M Schmidt, Anne Catherine Kim, Roland Fischer, Axel Heinemann, Gerhard Adam, Jin Yamamura
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess postmortem changes of the hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at multiple time points in the time interval of 16 hours postmortem in comparison to in vivo controls and to literature data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hepatic diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was repeatedly performed at 1.5 Tesla (b values 50, 400, and 800 s/mm(2)) in 2-hourly steps within 16 hours postmortem in 19 cases (male to female 13:6, mean age 68...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Florian Greis, Alexandra Reckert, Katinka Fischer, Stefanie Ritz-Timme
Ageing of the human organism results in the accumulation of modified molecules. Some of these molecular changes may be used for age estimation, as already shown for aspartic acid racemization (AAR). Another example for an accumulation of damaged molecules is advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We examined, (1) if the correlation between the concentration of AGEs (pentosidine) in root dentine and age is close enough to be used as basis for age estimation, and (2) if the combined analysis of AGEs and AAR in dentine may be a useful approach to rule out or to detect relevant effects of confounding factors in age estimation...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Rutsuko Yamaguchi, Yohsuke Makino, Fumiko Chiba, Suguru Torimitsu, Daisuke Yajima, Go Inokuchi, Ayumi Motomura, Mari Hashimoto, Yumi Hoshioka, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Hirotaro Iwase
AIM: To determine the frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related injuries and factors involved in their occurrence, data based on forensic autopsy and postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) during implementation of the 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for CPR were studied. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data on adult patients with non-traumatic deaths who had undergone manual CPR and autopsy from January 2012 to December 2014. CPR-related injuries were analyzed on autopsy records and PMCT images and compared with results of previous studies...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
S Schmidt, C Ottow, H Pfeiffer, W Heindel, V Vieth, A Schmeling, R Schulz
Evaluation of the degree of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis plays a crucial role in determining with an adequate degree of probability whether legally relevant age boundaries after the age of 17 have been crossed. In view of the need to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure, establishing non-X-ray methods for investigating the clavicle has long been a key objective in forensic age assessment research. Based on magnetic resonance imaging examinations in a large sample of healthy subjects, the current study for the first time presents statistical measures which allow inferences to be drawn for forensic age assessment in both sexes...
September 9, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xiufeng Zhang, Linlin Liu, Runfang Xie, Guiyi Wang, Yuan Shi, Tao Gu, Liping Hu, Shengjie Nie
The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 21 kit were evaluated from 2068 unrelated, healthy individuals from the Chinese Han population of Yunnan Province in southwest China. All of the loci reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationships among the Yunnan Han and other Chinese populations were also estimated. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Emilienne Descloux, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Cristian Palmiere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
V Sterzik, P Hinderberger, S Panzer, M Bohnert
During the investigative process that typically follows a criminal act, it may prove necessary to work with and analyze evidence that is not recent but old. This could become necessary, for example, when a crime is discovered some time after it was committed or when a cold case is reopened. Due to this need, the present study focused on the detection and visualization of 2-year-old biological traces. To do so, an alternative light source and different filters were used. The optical behavior of 2-year-old samples of blood, semen, urine, saliva, and sweat located on 19 different materials was documented, analyzed, and compared with the optical behavior of the same samples when they were recent [1]...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Fidel A Acevedo, Esther J Kim, David A Chyatte, Vance G Nielsen
We present a case of a patient administered parasternal transdermal lidocaine patch therapy as part of a multimodal analgesic regime designed to diminish opioid-associated delirium after coronary bypass surgery. The patient presented with delirium and severe methemoglobinemia (41%) that responded to discontinuation of lidocaine therapy, oxygen administration, and methylene blue administration. The clinical contributors and medicolegal implications of this degree of lidocaine-associated methemoglobin-mediated delirium are presented in the hope of avoiding similar complications in the postoperative setting after coronary bypass surgery...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Guanglin He, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou, Zheng Wang
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are DNA regions with a variable number of repeated units (2-6 bp) and attractive to genetic application like forensic, population genetics, and anthropological studies. The Huaxia Platinum System allows the multiplex amplification of 23 autosomal STR loci and two gender determination loci. In the present study, genetic polymorphisms of these 23 autosomal STR loci were first obtained from 309 Sichuan Han individuals, southwest China. No evidence of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was identified...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Guanglin He, Ye Li, Xing Zou, Ying Zhang, Hepei Li, Mengge Wang, Jin Wu
The X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) with more informative than autosomal STRs in some complicated biological relationships identification due to its specific mode of genetic transmission can be used as a complementary tool in forensic case practices. In this study, we presented the population genetic data of 19 X-STRs, consisting of DXS10174, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS101, DXS10101, DXS10103, DXS10134, DXS10135, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS6789, DXS6809, DXS7132, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8378, and HPRTB loci, in a sample of 235 individuals of Tibetan nationality from Sichuan province, Southwest China...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Igor Veselinović, Dušan Vapa, Mihajla Djan, Nevena Veličković, Tanja Veljović, Galina Petrić
The analysis of 12 X-STR loci included in the Investigator® Argus X-12 kit was performed on a sample of 325 unrelated persons from Vojvodina Province, Republic of Serbia. No significant differences were observed in the allele frequencies in males and females. Heterozygosity values among the studied loci ranged from 67.62 to 94.28%. All loci in female individuals were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test. The combined power of discrimination values in male and female individuals was 0.9999999994 and 0...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xing Zou, Yongguo Li, Zehong Wei, Ting Wang, Yue Hu, Ying Zhu, Jianbo Li, Renkuan Tang
Autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), widely distributed in the whole human genome, play an important role in personal identification and parentage testing. In this study, the allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters of 21 autosomal STR loci included in the AGCU EX22 kit were obtained from 433 Chinese Han individuals residing in the Wanzhou District in the north of Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in all of the 21 STR loci. A total of 241 alleles were observed with allele frequencies ranging from 0...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yuxuan Liu, Huayu He, Shaohua Yi, Qingqing Hu, Wenqiong Zhang, Daixin Huang
Formalin fixation is considered an important process for preservation of human tissue samples for long periods. However, this process not only results in cross-linking complicating isolation of nucleic acid but also introduces polymerase "blocks" during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At present, many protocols have already been developed aiming at extracting high amounts of amplifiable DNA from formalin-fixed tissues (FFTs). However, there are few methods for repairing formalin-damaged DNA. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of several post-extraction enzymatic repair techniques, including Taq DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I and T4 DNA ligase, the PreCR™ Repair Mix and Restorase® DNA Polymerase, in restoring STR profiles from formalin-damaged DNA...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yohsuke Makino, Nozomi Idota, Hiroshi Ikegaya, Naoko Tanaka, Hiroshi Kinoshita, Ayumi Motomura, Takashi Uno, Hirotaro Iwase
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lena Lutz, Kirstin A Williams, Martin H Villet, Mfon Ekanem, Krzysztof Szpila
Necrophagous blowflies can provide an excellent source of evidence for forensic entomologists and are also relevant to problems in public health, medicine, and animal health. However, access to useful information about these blowflies is constrained by the need to correctly identify the flies, and the poor availability of reliable, accessible identification tools is a serious obstacle to the development of forensic entomology in the majority of African countries. In response to this need, a high-quality key to the adults of all species of forensically relevant blowflies of Africa has been prepared, drawing on high-quality entomological materials and modern focus-stacking photomicroscopy...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Karolina Lech, Fan Liu, Sarah K Davies, Katrin Ackermann, Joo Ern Ang, Benita Middleton, Victoria L Revell, Florence I Raynaud, Igor Hoveijn, Roelof A Hut, Debra J Skene, Manfred Kayser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mizuho Nosaka, Yuko Ishida, Akihiko Kimura, Hiroki Yamamoto, Takashi Kato, Yumi Kuninaka, Emi Shimada, Toshikazu Kondo
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a newly identified cell type, are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that co-express stem cell markers and Flk-1 (one of the receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor). In this study, double-color immunofluorescence analysis was performed using anti-CD34 and anti-Flk-1 antibodies in order to examine the time-dependent intrathrombotic appearance of EPCs, using the thrombi of DVT model mice with different thrombus ages (1-21 days). In thrombus cross-section specimens with an age of less than 3 days, CD34+/Flk-1+ EPCs were not detected...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Vail Johnson, Sophie Beckett, Nicholas Márquez-Grant
One of the roles of a forensic anthropologist is to assist medico-legal investigations in the identification of human skeletal remains. In some instances, only small fragments of bone may be present. In this study, a non-destructive novel technique is presented to distinguish between human and non-human long bones. This technique is based on the macroscopic and computed tomography (CT) analysis of nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramen of long bone diaphyses transmits the nutrient artery which provides much of the oxygen and nutrients to the bone...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Nazan Sirin, Christian Matzenauer, Alexandra Reckert, Stefanie Ritz-Timme
Age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization (AAR) in dentine is one of the most precise methods in adult age. Caries induces protein degradation and may have an impact on the kinetics of AAR in dentine. We systematically examined standardized prepared dentine samples from caries-affected teeth to clarify the question, if caries-affected teeth should not be used for age estimation based on AAR at all, or if the analysis of dentine samples from such teeth may be useful after removal of the caries-affected tissue according to clinical standards...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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