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International Journal of Legal Medicine

Zhenghui Li, Jian Zhang, Hantao Zhang, Ziqing Lin, Jian Ye
Short tandem repeats (STRs) play a vitally important role in forensics. Population data is needed to improve the field. There is currently no large population data-based data set in Chamdo Tibetan. In our study, the allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters of 18 autosomal STR loci (D5S818, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, VWA, D8S1179, D16S539, PentaE, TPOX, TH01, D19S433, D18S51, FGA, D6S1043, D13S317, and D12S391) included in the DNATyper™19 kit were investigated in 2249 healthy, unrelated Tibetan subjects living in Tibet Chamdo, Southwest China...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Micaela Poetsch, Manuel Pfeifer, Helen Konrad, Thomas Bajanowski, Janine Helmus
The detection of DNA of a certain person on the inside of a piece of clothing involved in a crime scene is usually seen as confirmation that this person is the owner or bearer and therefore participated in this crime. However, besides the possibilities of secondary or even tertiary transfer of DNA, the accused often argues that he lent the garment to another person who by chance did not leave any DNA while committing the crime. Then, forensic genetic scientists have to answer the question how long DNA persists on an item used in daily routine and how long a piece of clothing must be worn to definitively leave detectable DNA behind...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
M Falk, R Huhn, F Behmenburg, St Ritz-Timme, F Mayer
Myocardial infarctions go along with biomechanical stress, i.e. stretching of muscle fibres, and the expression of certain marker molecules. We tested if two of those markers, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), can be used as immunohistochemical markers for myocardial ischaemia/infarctions. The study included experiments with an animal model, the isolated perfused Langendorff heart, as well as the investigation of human tissue samples drawn during autopsies. The overall picture of our results showed that GDF-15 is very sensitive and expressed very fast, not only as a consequence of ischaemia/infarctions, but also under other circumstances...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Pengyu Chen, Yanyan Han, Guanglin He, Haibo Luo, Tianzhen Gao, Feng Song, Dengfu Wan, Jian Yu, Yiping Hou
Haplotype diversity for 23 Y chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci included in the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System was analyzed in the Chinese Gelao minority group of 234 unrelated males living in Daozhen Gelao-Miao Autonomous County in Guizhou Province, southwest China. A total of 216 different haplotypes were detected, of which 199 haplotypes were unique. The overall haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) were 0.9996 and 0.9231, respectively. The gene diversity (GD) ranged from 0.4159 (DYS438) to 0...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
T X Trinh, S Heinke, C Rode, S Schenkl, M Hubig, G Mall, Holger Muggenthaler
In blunt force trauma to the head caused by attacks with blunt instruments, contact forces can be estimated based on the conservation of momentum if impact velocities are known. The aims of this work were to measure maximum striking velocities and to examine the influence of rod parameters such as rod mass and length as well as volunteer parameters such as sex, age, body height, body mass, body mass index and the average amount of physical exercise. Steel rods with masses of 500, 1000 and 1500 g as well as lengths of 40, 65 and 90 cm were exemplarily tested as blunt instruments...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Travis Ruan, Mark Barash, Peter Gunn, David Bruce
Low levels of DNA from an unidentified human source, often referred to as trace DNA, are ubiquitous, can be transferred onto objects by either direct or indirect methods and have an unknown longevity in situ. Clothing items from crime scenes are often submitted for trace DNA analysis, usually in attempt to identify a person of interest. This study examined the transfer of DNA onto three 10 × 10 cm areas located on the front, back and shoulder of an individual's external clothing (n = 300) during a regular day's activity...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Emanuele Sironi, Franco Taroni, Claudio Baldinotti, Cosimo Nardi, Gian-Aristide Norelli, Matteo Gallidabino, Vilma Pinchi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the performance of a Bayesian method in the evaluation of dental age-related evidence collected by means of a geometrical approximation procedure of the pulp chamber volume. Measurement of this volume was based on three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography images. METHODS: The Bayesian method was applied by means of a probabilistic graphical model, namely a Bayesian network. Performance of that method was investigated in terms of accuracy and bias of the decisional outcomes...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xiaoye Jin, Wei Cui, Yuanyuan Wei, Yuling Mu, Qian Dong, Chong Chen, Yuxin Guo, Tingting Kong, Bofeng Zhu, Jiangang Chen
Allelic frequencies and genetic polymorphisms of 19 short tandem repeats loci were investigated so as to provide more genetic data for forensic applications in Chinese Uzbek group; besides, we evaluated phylogenetic relationships of Uzbek group with other populations. All loci were observed to conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni's correction. Two hundred and nine alleles were identified in 212 unrelated healthy Uzbek individuals and their allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0024 to 0.5259. The cumulative discrimination power and cumulative probability of exclusion were 0...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Enrique J Estévez, Sandra López-Lázaro, Claudia López-Morago, Inmaculada Alemán, Miguel C Botella
After publication of the original article, it was brought to authors' attention two errors that were included in the final publication.
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
SyedHassan SharifahNany RahayuKarmilla, Alwi R Aedrianee, Abd Rashid Nur Haslindawaty, Abdullah Nur Azeelah, Sundararajulu Panneerchelvam, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Zainuddin Zafarina
The original version of this article contains an error. The Author Abd Rashid Nur Haslindawaty has been added as to the above author group as third author. The original article was corrected.
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Erik Malmqvist, Elisabeth Furberg, Lars Sandman
According to European regulations and the legislations of individual member states, children who seek asylum have a different set of rights than adults in a similar position. To protect these rights and ensure rule of law, migration authorities are commonly required to assess the age of asylum seekers who lack reliable documentation, including through various medical methods. However, many healthcare professionals and other commentators consider medical age assessment to be ethically problematic. This paper presents a simplified and amended account of the main findings of a recent ethical analysis of medical age assessment in the asylum process commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yu-Cheng Guo, Guang Chu, Andreas Olze, Sven Schmidt, Ronald Schulz, Christian Ottow, Heidi Pfeiffer, Teng Chen, Andreas Schmeling
The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential application of radiographic visibility of the root pulp in lower third molars in a northern Chinese population, in order to determine if this methodology can be used to prove whether a person has surpassed the thresholds of 18 and 21 years of age. A total of 1300 orthopantomograms comprising equal numbers of females and males evenly distributed between the ages of 15 and 40 years were analyzed. The radiographic visibility of the root pulp of the lower third molars was assessed using the stages described by Olze et al...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Rafael Carballeira, Duarte N Vieira, Manuel Febrero-Bande, José I Muñoz Barús
The diatom test is considered a useful aid in determining the site of death from drowning. Nevertheless, there is disagreement within the scientific community concerning its reliability, and its findings have been challenged and sometimes overturned in courts of law. Using a model based on animal experimentation, we have developed a diatom test to discriminate between the locations of drowning sites from different aquatic systems. We carried out a complementary combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses together with a statistical analysis based on the Kullback-Leibler distance of the samples...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
H T Gelderman, L Boer, T Naujocks, A C M IJzermans, W L J M Duijst
The decomposition process of human remains can be used to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI), but decomposition varies due to many factors. Temperature is believed to be the most important and can be connected to decomposition by using the accumulated degree days (ADD). The aim of this research was to develop a decomposition scoring method and to develop a formula to estimate the PMI by using the developed decomposition scoring method and ADD.A decomposition scoring method and a Book of Reference (visual resource) were made...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Victoria O Okolie, Selena Cisana, Moses S Schanfield, Khalid O Adekoya, Olufemi A Oyedeji, Daniele Podini
The three major ethnic groups of Nigerian population namely the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba make up 29, 21 and 18% of the total population, respectively. To provide genetic information necessary for forensic analysis, this study was carried out to determine STR allele frequencies in 102 Hausa, 128 Igbo and 134 Yoruba individuals in Nigeria using 21 STR loci including the 20 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) loci plus SE33.
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Suguru Torimitsu, Yohsuke Makino, Hisako Saitoh, Namiko Ishii, Daisuke Yajima, Go Inokuchi, Ayumi Motomura, Fumiko Chiba, Rutsuko Yamaguchi, Yumi Hoshioka, Hirotaro Iwase
Sex determination for unidentified human remains is important because the determined sex is usually used as a foundation for the estimation of other biological profiles. This study investigated the sexual dimorphism of the adult hyoid bone and developed discriminant equations to accurately estimate sex in a contemporary Japanese population using measurements on two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images. The study sample comprised 280 cadavers (140 males, 140 females) of known age and sex that underwent postmortem CT and subsequent forensic autopsy...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Emilie Verdier, Céline Denis, Nacer Bourokba, Pierre Chauvin, Patrick Chariot
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the health and social conditions of arrestees, as compared to the general population. METHODS: We studied a sample of 600 adult arrestees in three locations in the Greater Paris area, prospectively included (February-May 2013). A descriptive analysis has been performed, then prevalence was estimated using an indirect standardisation according to age, based on data from a population-based, representative survey in the same area...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Birthe Heitkötter, Cornelius Kuhnen, Sven Schmidt, Daniel Wittschieber
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is the most common form of life-threatening small-vessel vasculitis. Although its exact pathogenesis remains unclear, GPA is believed to belong to the wide complex of autoimmune diseases due to the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibodies with cytoplasmic staining pattern (c-ANCA) that is expressed in activated neutrophils. GPA predominantly manifests at the upper and lower respiratory tract and the kidneys, but the impairment of multiple organ systems is possible as well...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hancheng Lin, Yiwen Luo, Lei Wang, Kaifei Deng, Qiran Sun, Ruoxi Fang, Xin Wei, Shuai Zha, Zhenyuan Wang, Ping Huang
Anaphylaxis is a rapid allergic reaction that may cause sudden death. Currently, postmortem diagnosis of anaphylactic shock is sometimes difficult and often achieved through exclusion. The aim of our study was to investigate whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy combined with pattern recognition methods would be complementary to traditional methods and provide a more accurate postmortem diagnosis of fatal anaphylactic shock. First, the results of spectral peak area analysis showed that the pulmonary edema fluid of the fatal anaphylactic shock group was richer in protein components than the control group, which included mechanical asphyxia, brain injury, and acute cardiac death...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Joo-Young Kim, Jung-Hyun Park, Man Il Kim, Hye Hyeon Lee, Hye Lim Kim, Kyu-Sik Jeong, Sang-Ok Moon, Pil-Won Kang, Ki-Won Park, Yang-Han Lee, Byung-Won Chun
Blood stain evidence obtained from a violent crime scene provides decisive clues that can enable a case to be solved through forensic analyses such as genetic identification. However, collected samples usually contain a mixture of biological material from different sources, making genetic identification difficult. To address this issue, we developed an activatable aptamer sensor targeting 17β-estradiol for detection of female-specific blood in mixed samples. With the sensor, we were able to detect blood originating from females using a variable light source (495 nm)...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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