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International Journal of Legal Medicine

Wiebke Gekat, Svenja Binder, Christian Wetzel, Markus A Rothschild, Sibylle Banaschak
Providing concise proof of child abuse relies heavily on clinical findings, such as certain patterns of injury or otherwise not plausibly explainable trauma. Subdural hemorrhaging has been identified as a common occurrence in abused children whereas epidural hemorrhaging is related to accidents. In order to explore this correlation, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data of children under 19 years of age diagnosed with either injury. Reviewing 56 cases of epidural and 38 cases of subdural bleeding, it was shown that subdural bleeding is more common in young children and extremely often a result of suspected abuse in children under 2 years of age...
July 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Tiefang Zou, Hua Li, Ming Cai, Yuelin Li
Uncertainty analysis is an effective methodology to improve the reliability of an accident reconstruction result. Many existing methods can be employed in this field, which can confuse a practicing engineer who does not know these methods well. To make the selection easier, a case-oriented approach was proposed based on the evidence theory. Users only need to input uncertain traces and a selected accident reconstruction model to calculate the uncertainty of reconstructed results using the proposed approach...
July 5, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ilkka S Junttila, Alpo Vuorio, Bruce Budowle, Tanja Laukkala, Antti Sajantila
Diabetes mellitus (DM) could cause pilot incapacitation and result in aviation fatalities. The mechanisms could be directly as a consequence of acute hypoglycemia/subacute diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or indirectly as an acute cardiovascular event by contributing to the development of atherosclerosis in coronary or carotid and cerebral arteries. In this study, DM-related fatal flight accidents in the US National Transport Bureau's database between years 2011-2016 were analyzed with special emphasis on postmortem (PM) glucose levels and correlation of toxicological reports with anamnestic information on DM...
July 4, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Takahiro Umehara, Takehiko Murase, Yuki Abe, Hiromi Yamashita, Yoshinori Shibaike, Shinichiro Kagawa, Takuma Yamamoto, Kazuya Ikematsu
Diagnosis of fatal hypothermia is considered to be difficult in forensic practice and even if findings due to cold exposure are evident, cold exposure is not necessarily a direct cause of death. Identification of useful molecular markers for the diagnosis of fatal hypothermia has not been successful. In this study, to identify novel molecular markers that inform the diagnosis of fatal hypothermia, we focused on skeletal muscle, which plays a role in cold-induced thermogenesis in mammals. We made rat models of mild, moderate, and severe hypothermia and performed body temperature-dependent gene expression analysis in the iliopsoas muscle using next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
S Iwersen-Bergmann, S Lehman, A Heinemann, C Schröder, A Müller, H Jungen, H Andresen-Streichert, K Pueschel, C Vidal, K Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
BACKGROUND: Reports of intoxications with new psychoactive substances (NPS) mostly involve young people, as they are the main consumers of these types of drugs. This report centers on a case that was unusual due to it being a mass-poisoning event involving middle-aged individuals who had consumed a combination of the two different new psychoactive drugs 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E) and 1-(8-bromofuro[2,3-f][1]benzofuran-4-yl)-2-propanamine (Bromo-DragonFly, BDF). CASE HISTORY: The mass poisoning of 29 individuals (24-56 years old) resulted in their admission to six different hospitals with severe symptoms of intoxication...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
M M Poletto, M Malaghini, J S Silva, M G Bicalho, K Braun-Prado
The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (nucleotide position 16024-576) sequences were obtained through Sanger sequencing method for 122 individuals from Parana state, South of Brazil. We observed a total of 108 different haplotypes of which 97 were unique and 11 were shared by more than one individual. The haplogroups were classified according to the updated mtDNA phylogeny, by EMMA (estimating mitochondrial haplogroups using a maximum likelihood approach). Our results revealed the predominance of Amerindian haplogroups with a frequency of 49...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
H Muggenthaler, T Hunold, M Hubig, S Schenkl, G Mall
Forensic and biomechanical assessment in case of blunt force trauma can be a challenging task especially when deformable striking objects are used. Evaluations solely based on empirical knowledge can lead to misjudgments. Semi-quantitative and quantitative investigations give the forensic assessment a scientific basis comprising experimental and calculation methods. Based on a real case where a car wheel was used as a striking object, our work presents a simple test setup for contact force estimation in head contacts with deformable contact partners...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
E Keller, C Santos, D Cusack, M Väli, D Ferrara, B Ludes, P Mangin, J J Payne-James, D N Vieira
Article 25 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (adopted in Nice on 7 December 2000) recognizes and respects the rights of older people to lead a life of dignity and independence and to participate in social and cultural life. It also highlights the importance of prevention and recognition of elder abuse, especially since exposure to violence is likely as the population ages, either in familial or in institutional settings. Elder abuse has some issues in common with child abuse but in spite of this fact currently is less recognized...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lawrence Camarda, Antonio D'Arienzo, Emanuele Grassedonio, Stefania Zerbo, Antonina Argo, Michele D'Arienzo
Self-inflicted fractures simulating traffic accident represent a new social fraud opportunity for criminality. Recognising scams through an increase of awareness of existence of self-inflicted arm fractures for insurance fraud could help community health workers to report these injuries to the competent authorities. In this article, authors have recognised an unusual but consistent pattern of upper and lower limb fractures whose incidence does not coincide in numerical terms with what is reported in literature...
June 26, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Amanda Farias Gomes, Thiago de Oliveira Gamba, Mayra Cristina Yamasaki, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Francisco Haiter Neto, Rosana de Fátima Possobon
BACKGROUND: As sex estimation is an important step to delineate the biological profile, the development of tools employing anatomical structures which may maintain their integrity even after extreme events, such as the maxillary sinus, become useful for forensic identification. Thus, the aim in the present study was to develop and validate a formula for sex estimation through measurements in the maxillary sinuses in a Brazilian population, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans...
June 25, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
A Viero, M Montisci, G Pelletti, S Vanin
The activity of arthropods on corpses has been largely investigated, since they can produce information to reconstruct the peri-mortem events. However, the feeding/movement activity of insects around the crime scene, among the clothes and on the body, can also cause some alterations that can lead to wrong reconstruction and misinterpretations. This article summarises all the post-mortem arthropods artefacts related to the scene (i.e. fly artefacts and floor stripes) and the body (i.e. skin and other soft tissue alterations, bone alterations and hair alterations) that can mislead the forensic pathologist, discussing macroscopic and microscopic findings derived from forensic casework and from experimental laboratory studies, in order to provide a useful instrument to avoid misinterpretations and evaluation errors...
June 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Peng Chen, Wenjia Zhu, Fang Tong, Yan Pu, Youjia Yu, Shuainan Huang, Zheng Li, Lin Zhang, Weibo Liang, Feng Chen
The use of DNA to determine the ancestry of an individual is becoming more and more important in the areas of forensics. Kidd et al. (Forensic Sci Int Genet 12:215-224, 2014) have been the first to identify and catalog haplotypes, termed as minihaplotypes (1-10-kilobase spans) and microhaplotypes (≤ 200 bp), with potential use in forensic analysis. In the present study, we selected 10 short ancestry informative microhaplotypes by calculating the informativeness (I n ) according to Rosenberg et al. (Am J Hum Genet 73(6):1402-1422, 2003)...
June 23, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Aleena Ahmad Khan, Rukhsana Perveen, Nadeem Sheikh, Babar Hilal Ahmad Abbasi, Zunaira Batool, Muhammad Shahzad, Sana Kaleem
Allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters of 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) were evaluated in 200 genetically unrelated individuals of the Baloch population of Pakistan. Total 155 alleles were observed with allele frequencies ranged from 0.003 to 0.425. Among the 15 STRs, D2S1338 was found to be the most polymorphic and discriminating locus while TPOX was the least polymorphic and discriminating locus. The combined power of discrimination (CPD), combined power of exclusion (CPE), and combined matching probability (CMP) were found to be 0...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Qiong Lan, Hongdan Wang, Chunmei Shen, Yuxin Guo, Caiyong Yin, Tong Xie, Yating Fang, Yongsong Zhou, Bofeng Zhu
To further illustrate the mutation traits of 21 autosomal STR loci involved in the newly developed AGCU 21 + 1 kit, randomly selected 485 trios were focused on. We have previously confirmed the biological father-mother-child relationships of these trios. Then matters of mutation rates, steps, and origins of the 21 STR loci were statically analyzed. Results showed 35 mutation events occurred at 16 STR loci of the panel during 20,370 meiosis, and the locus-specific mutation rates ranged from 0.000 to 1.134% (D3S4529), with an overall mutation rate of 1...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
André Uys, H Bernitz, S Pretorius, M Steyn
Third molar development of 705 White and 563 Black South African individuals aged between 15 and 25 years was assessed from panoramic radiographs obtained from the School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria, South Africa. The maxillary and mandibular left third molars were scored according to a ten-stage scoring system. Ancestry and sex differences in dental maturity were assessed, and the likelihood of an individual being 18 years of age was determined for each developmental stage. Statistically significant differences were noted among ancestry groups for most developmental stages, with South African Black individuals consistently maturing earlier than the White individuals...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Wei-Qi Hao, Jing Liu, Li Jiang, Jun-Ping Han, Ling Wang, Jiu-Ling Li, Quan Ma, Chao Liu, Hui-Jun Wang, Cai-Xia Li
Inferring an unknown DNA's ancestry using a set of ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in forensic science is useful to provide investigative leads. This is especially true when there is no DNA database match or specified suspect. Thus, a set of SNPs with highly robust and balanced differential power is strongly demanded in forensic science. In addition, it is also necessary to build a genotyping database for estimating the ancestry of an individual or an unknown DNA. For the differentiation of Africans, Europeans, East Asians, Native Americans, and Oceanians, the Global Nano set that includes just 31 SNPs was developed by de la Puente et al...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Sylvia Schick, Daniela Heinrich, Matthias Graw, Raúl Aranda, Uta Ferrari, Steffen Peldschus
Fatal falls are frequent and seem to be an increasing problem in the elderly. Especially ground level falls (GLFs) and falls on or from stairs and steps (stairs falls) are worth examining for forensic classification and in order to improve the development of preventive measures. We retrospectively analyzed 261 fatal falls of elderly age 65 + years, which were autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Munich between 2008 and 2014. After careful screening, the sub-set of all 77 GLFs and 39 stairs falls were analyzed towards socio-demographic characteristics, fall circumstances, injuries, and circumstances of death...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Christine Lehn, Eva Maria Kalbhenn, Andreas Rossmann, Matthias Graw
Multi-element stable isotope analyses of δ13 C, δ15 N, δ34 S and δ2 H values were performed along scalp hair strands to detect isotopic changes resulting from different stays abroad. One hair strand with a hair length of more than 50 cm originated from a German woman, who frequently made long-distance travels of 1 to 4 weeks. The second hair strand with a length of 15 cm was taken from a Japanese woman who went to Germany for a period of some months. Stable isotopic influences due to the stays abroad were clearly reflected in the 5-mm segments along the proximal part of the hair strand; whereas in the more distal parts, the isotopic influences were blurred...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Annette Thierauf-Emberger, Andreas Lickert, Stefan Pollak
In urban traffic accidents, mainly pedestrians and cyclists are at risk of being injured and killed. Lethal injuries are usually caused by the immediate impact of a car or a tram. This paper presents a fatal accident without any direct contact with a motor vehicle. A 63-year-old woman sitting on a chair in a pavement cafe was killed by the impact of a 60-year-old male cyclist, who was flung in her direction after colliding with a car. Autopsy yielded intracutaneous haemorrhages on the impact sites of the female victim (left cheek, left shoulder and left upper arm)...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Christina Orfanou, Costas Tsiamis, Evika Karamagioli, Anastasia Pikouli, Agis Terzidis, Emmanuel Pikoulis
Doctors in Greece face the possibility of encountering a person that has suffered torture, especially since the high rates of refugees' and migrants' inflows that took place over the last years. In order to assess the awareness and the knowledge of doctors and senior medical students in Greece regarding a manual on effective investigation and documentation of torture such as Istanbul Protocol (official United Nation document since 1999), a cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured anonymous questionnaire...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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