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International Journal of Legal Medicine

J L Carneiro, I M Caldas, A Afonso, H F V Cardoso
INTRODUCTION: The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on tooth mineralization has seldom been evaluated. This is important because SES can be used as a proxy for quantifying factors in the environmental that can impact mineralization but that can be difficult to measure directly, such as nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of SES on third molar mineralization, using a sample of children, adolescents and young adults from Porto, Portugal...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Laura Manthey, Richard L Jantz, Michael Bohnert, Katharina Jellinghaus
Crania are a reliable source for sex estimation in Euro-Americans, Europeans, and most other populations. Besides morphological assessments, the application of Fordisc® has become a useful tool within the last two decades, creating discriminant functions from morphometric data. Unfortunately, until now, white populations are mostly represented by measurements of American individuals. Therefore, classification rates are lower for European skulls than for Euro-Americans. The aim of this study was to show differences in sexual dimorphism between German and Euro-American crania...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou, Andreas Bertsatos, Christina Papageorgopoulou
The aim of this paper is to investigate ageing changes in craniofacial region in both sexes and evaluate whether these shape changes are substantial to achieve age discrimination of samples used in anthropological analyses. The study sample consisted of 157 crania of known sex and age (81 males and 76 females) belonging to individuals who lived in Greece during the twentieth century. The sample was divided in three age groups: young adults (YA, 18-39 years old), middle adults (MA, 40-59 years old) and old adults (OA, >60 years old)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Bruce Budowle, Christina Capt, Ranajit Chakraborty, Jianye Ge
In a criminal paternity case, which involved analysis of the product of conception, a rare circumstance was observed. The product of conception was triploidy, apparently due to an egg fertilized by two sperm. Since there is little guidance on how to calculate the probability of the DNA evidence given some basic hypotheses, the formulae were derived and are presented herein. These approaches could provide guidance for similar situations if they arise.
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hans Henrik Thodberg, Rick R van Rijn, Oskar G Jenni, David D Martin
The BoneXpert method for automated determination of bone age from hand X-rays was introduced in 2009, covering the Greulich-Pyle bone age ranges up to 17 years for boys and 15 years for girls. This paper presents an extension of the method up to bone age 19 years for boys and 18 years for girls. The extension was developed based on images from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study of 231 healthy children born in 1954-1956 and followed with annual X-rays of both hands until adulthood. The method was validated on two cross-sectional studies of healthy children from Rotterdam and Los Angeles...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mizuho Nosaka, Yuko Ishida, Akihiko Kimura, Takashi Kawaguchi, Hiroki Yamamoto, Yumi Kuninaka, Toshikazu Kondo
Deep vein thrombi are dissolved after fibrosis process along with an increase of thrombus age. Fibrocytes are circulating bone marrow-derived cells with mesenchymal features that potentially have a unique and critical function in fibrosis. In this study, a double-color immunofluorescence analysis was carried out by using anti-CD45 and anti-collagen type I antibodies to examine the time-dependent appearance of fibrocytes in the murine model of stasis-induced deep vein thrombosis. The thrombus ages were 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
P Duangto, A Iamaroon, S Prasitwattanaseree, P Mahakkanukrauh, A Janhom
Age estimation using developing third molar teeth is considered an important and accurate technique for both clinical and forensic practices. The aims of this study were to establish population-specific reference data, to develop age prediction models using mandibular third molar development, to test the accuracy of the resulting models, and to find the probability of persons being at the age thresholds of legal relevance in a Thai population. A total of 1867 digital panoramic radiographs of Thai individuals aged between 8 and 23 years was selected to assess dental age...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Craig S McIntosh, Ian R Dadour, Sasha C Voss
The rate of decomposition and insect succession onto decomposing pig carcasses were investigated following burning of carcasses. Ten pig carcasses (40-45 kg) were exposed to insect activity during autumn (March-April) in Western Australia. Five replicates were burnt to a degree described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) level #2, while five carcasses were left unburnt as controls. Burning carcasses greatly accelerated decomposition in contrast to unburnt carcasses. Physical modifications following burning such as skin discolouration, splitting of abdominal tissue and leathery consolidation of skin eliminated evidence of bloat and altered microambient temperatures associated with carcasses throughout decomposition...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Guangtao Xu, Ruibing Su, Junyao Lv, Xiaoping Lai, Xianxian Li, Jiayan Wu, Bo Hu, Long Xu, Ruilin Shen, Jiang Gu, Xiaojun Yu
Specific morphological changes may be absent in some cases of electrocution shocked by the voltage of 220 V or lower. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate that the anterior wrist and medial malleolus were the optimal sites with promising and significant changes in electric death through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway. We established an electric shock rat model and observed histopathologic changes in the anterior wrist and medial malleolus. The results showed that the current intensities in the left anterior wrist and right medial malleolus were remarkably higher than those in the other sites, and the nuclei long/short (L/S) axis ratios of the arterial endotheliocyte and the skeletal muscle cell in these two areas were significantly higher than those in other parts of the body...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
V Sterzik, B P Kneubuehl, M Bohnert, F Riva, M Glardon
In medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with lethal injuries caused by shots with modified guns. This might lead to the conclusion that such cases are extremely rare. However, there are cases again and yet again. During the investigation process, the modified gun is of particular importance since it can show an unusual ballistic behaviour. The present paper reports on a suicide of a 60-year-old man, committed with a modified revolver and a lead bullet. The man had a single gunshot wound with entrance at the right temporal bone...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Maximilian Timme, Jürgen Michael Steinacker, Andreas Schmeling
To maintain the principle of sporting fairness and to protect the health of athletes, it is essential that age limits for youth sporting competitions are complied with. Forensic scientists have developed validated procedures for age estimation in living individuals. Methods have also been published for age estimation in competitive sports. These methods make use of the ossification stage of an epiphyseal plate to draw conclusions about an athlete's age. This article presents published work on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for age estimation in competitive sports...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Min-Zhu Zhao, Yong-Guo Li, Peng Zhang, Jin-Cheng Xiong, Shi-Sheng Zhu, Xuan Xiao, Jian-Bo Li
In forensic medicine, the diagnosis of death due to neurogenic shock is considered to be an aporia, as lacking objective indicators and presenting atypical symptoms in autopsy. Medico-legal disputes and complaints occasionally result from this ambiguity. To explore potential objective indicators of neurogenic shock, we set up a model of neurogenic shock by applying an external mechanical force on the carotid sinus baroreceptor in rabbits. The serum atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) level was measured by radioimmunoassay in the control group (n = 8), survival group (n = 15) and death group (n = 5) both before and after the insult...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Daniel Wittschieber, Ronald Schulz, Heidi Pfeiffer, Andreas Schmeling, Sven Schmidt
In forensic age estimations of living individuals, computed tomography of the clavicle is widely used for determining the age of majority. To this end, the degree of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis can be determined by means of two classification systems complementing each other: a 5-stage system and an additional 6-stage system that further sub-classifies the stages 2 and 3. In recent years, practical experience and new data revealed that difficulties and even wrong stage determinations may occur especially when following the short descriptions of the fundamental 5-stage system only...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
S W Lin, S C Y Ip, T T Lam, T F Tan, W L Yeung, W M Tam
Latent fingerprint and touch DNA are the two most important contact evidence for individualization in forensic science which provide complementary information that can lead to direct and unequivocal identification of the culprit. In order to retrieve useful information from both fingerprints and DNA, which are usually mingled together, one strategy is to perform fingerprint examination prior to DNA analysis since common DNA sampling technique such as swabbing could disturb or even destroy fingerprint details...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Antonio Oliva, Vincenzo M Grassi, Oscar Campuzano, Maria Brion, Vincenzo Arena, Sara Partemi, Monica Coll, Vincenzo L Pascali, Josep Brugada, Angel Carracedo, Ramon Brugada
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young athlete represents a dramatic event, and an increasing number of medico-legal cases have addressed this topic. In addition to representing an ethical and medico-legal responsibility, prevention of SCD is directly correlated with accurate eligibility/disqualification decisions, with an inappropriate pronouncement in either direction potentially leading to legal controversy. This review summarizes the common causes of SCD in young athletes, divided into structural (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary artery anomalies, etc...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
A Lebbe, M Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, P Thevissen, A Verdonck, S Fieuws, G Willems
AIM: Recent research concerning tooth development and dental agenesis suggests that specific genes are associated with agenesis, and that these genetic factors could also cause delayed dental development of the remaining teeth. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dental development of patients with agenesis is delayed, compared to a control group. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Panoramic radiographs of 1145 patients with dental agenesis were collected (452 males, 693 females) aged 6...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Danuta Piniewska, Marek Sanak, Marta Wojtas, Nina Polanska
Advances in forensic identification using molecular genetics are helpful in resolving some historical mysteries. The aim of this study was to confirm the authenticity of shrunken-head artifacts exhibited by two Polish museums. Shrunken heads, known as tsantsas, were headhunting trophies of South American Indians (Jivaroan). A special preparation preserved their hair and facial appearance. However, it was quite common to offer counterfeit shrunken heads of sloths or monkeys to collectors of curiosities. We sampled small skin specimens of four shrunken-head skin from the museum collection from Warsaw and Krakow, Poland...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, Carolyn Rando, Yves Schuliar, Stéphane Chapenoire, Enrico R Crema, Julien Claes, Bernard Seret, Vincent Maleret, Ruth M Morgan
Accurate determination of the origin and timing of trauma is key in medicolegal investigations when the cause and manner of death are unknown. However, distinction between criminal and accidental perimortem trauma and postmortem modifications can be challenging when facing unidentified trauma. Postmortem examination of the immersed victims of the Yemenia airplane crash (Comoros, 2009) demonstrated the challenges in diagnosing extensive unusual circular lesions found on the corpses. The objective of this study was to identify the origin and timing of occurrence (peri- or postmortem) of the lesions...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Qiu-Ling Liu, Ye-Fei Chen, Xiao-Ling Huang, Kai-Yan Liu, Hu Zhao, De-Jian Lu
Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is a primary tool in forensic casework. Population data and mutation rates of STRs are very important for paternity testing and forensic genetics. However, the population data and mutation rates of STRs in Han nationality based on large samples have still not been fully described in China. In this study, the allelic frequencies, forensic parameters, and mutation rate of 19 STR loci (D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSFIPO, PentaD, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, and FGA) based on the Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A in Southern China Han nationality among seven provinces were investigated...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Edelmann J, Dobosz T, Sobieszczanska M, Kawecka-Negrusz M, Dreßler J, Nastainczyk-Wulf M
Congenital long QT-syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia, which is characterized by a prolonged QT interval which predisposes to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias. The altered functions are based on different mutations in LQTS-associated genes. In this study, we performed a mutation analysis for the detection of 125 LQTS-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) focused on the genes KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A by using the SNaPshot multiplex minisequencing technique. Furthermore, we investigated 152 autopsy-negative cases from younger adults and infants, as well as samples from patients with clinically suspicion for LQTS, in which we found two types of variations...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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