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International Journal of Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#1
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213867/re-establishment-of-rigor-mortis-evidence-for-a-considerably-longer-post-mortem-time-span
#2
Chiara Crostack, Susanne Sehner, Tobias Raupach, Sven Anders
Re-establishment of rigor mortis following mechanical loosening is used as part of the complex method for the forensic estimation of the time since death in human bodies and has formerly been reported to occur up to 8-12 h post-mortem (hpm). We recently described our observation of the phenomenon in up to 19 hpm in cases with in-hospital death. Due to the case selection (preceding illness, immobilisation), transfer of these results to forensic cases might be limited. We therefore examined 67 out-of-hospital cases of sudden death with known time points of death...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210814/post-mortem-external-examination-competence-education-and-accuracy-of-general-practitioners-in-a-metropolitan-area
#3
Ann Sophie Schröder, Sandra Wilmes, Susanne Sehner, Maren Ehrhardt, Hanna Kaduszkiewicz, Sven Anders
In several countries, general practitioners conduct post-mortem external examination (PMEE) and certify death in out-of-hospital cases. A possible lack of accuracy has been repeatedly criticised, although data on everyday practice of PMEE on outpatients are scarce. To evaluate medical practitioner's competence, education and accuracy regarding PMEE, we conducted a fax-survey among 1343 medical doctors in the metropolitan area of Hamburg, Germany. The results indicate considerable shortcomings in up to 63% regarding the inspection of body orifices and hidden areas, palpation of osseous structures, ectropionisation of the eyelids and use of aids...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210813/a-comprehensive-y-str-portrait-of-yousafzai-s-population
#4
Sadia Tabassum, Muhammad Ilyas, Inam Ullah, Muhammad Israr, Habib Ahmad
In the current study, 17 Y-Chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) included in theAmpFlSTR Y-Filer amplification kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) were investigated in 146 unrelated Yousafzai males residing in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. A total of 94 (89.52%) unique haplotypes were observed. Discrimination capacity was 71.92%. Haplotype diversity ranged from 0.354 (DYS456) to 0.663 (DYS458). Both Rst pairwise analysis and multidimensional scaling plot showed that the genetic structure of the Yousafzais is significantly different from neighbouring populations...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204948/blood-trace-evidence-on-washed-textiles-a-systematic-approach
#5
Carolin Edler, A Gehl, J Kohwagner, M Walther, O Krebs, C Augustin, A Klein
Luminol has been used for a long time for detecting latent blood traces during police investigations because it is easy to use and does not pose any health risks, while providing trace evidence for DNA analysis. It is often the method of choice for examining clothing. Clothes worn during the offense are often destroyed or washed afterwards by the offenders. The purpose of this study is to show the possibilities of blood and DNA detection on washed clothes by documenting the macroscopic results and their chemiluminescence after washing...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185072/the-geometrical-precision-of-virtual-bone-models-derived-from-clinical-computed-tomography-data-for-forensic-anthropology
#6
Kerri L Colman, Johannes G G Dobbe, Kyra E Stull, Jan M Ruijter, Roelof-Jan Oostra, Rick R van Rijn, Alie E van der Merwe, Hans H de Boer, Geert J Streekstra
Almost all European countries lack contemporary skeletal collections for the development and validation of forensic anthropological methods. Furthermore, legal, ethical and practical considerations hinder the development of skeletal collections. A virtual skeletal database derived from clinical computed tomography (CT) scans provides a potential solution. However, clinical CT scans are typically generated with varying settings. This study investigates the effects of image segmentation and varying imaging conditions on the precision of virtual modelled pelves...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180986/what-are-the-differences-in-injury-patterns-of-young-and-elderly-traffic-accident-fatalities-considering-death-on-scene-and-death-in-hospital
#7
Daniela Heinrich, Christopher Holzmann, Anja Wagner, Anja Fischer, Roman Pfeifer, Matthias Graw, Sylvia Schick
Older traffic participants have higher risks of injury than the population up to 65 years in case of comparable road traffic accidents and further, higher mortality rates at comparable injury severities. Rib fractures as risk factors are currently discussed. However, death on scene is associated with hardly survivable injuries and might not be a matter of neither rib fractures nor age. As 60% of traffic accident fatalities are estimated to die on scene, they are not captured in hospital-based trauma registries and injury patterns remain unknown...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213869/persistence-of-touch-dna-on-burglary-related-tools
#8
Céline M Pfeifer, Peter Wiegand
Experts are increasingly concerned by issues regarding the activity level of DNA stains. A case from our burglary-related casework pointed out the need for experiments regarding the persistence of DNA when more than one person touched a tool handle. We performed short tandem repeat (STR) analyses for three groups of tools: (1) personal and mock owned tools; (2) tools, which were first "owned" by a first user and then handled in a burglary action by a second user; and (3) tools, which were first owned by a first user and then handled in a moderate action...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160051/characterization-and-identification-of-eight-designer-benzodiazepine-metabolites-by-incubation-with-human-liver-microsomes-and-analysis-by-a-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometer
#9
Souleiman El Balkhi, Maxime Chaslot, Nicolas Picard, Sylvain Dulaurent, Martine Delage, Olivier Mathieu, Franck Saint-Marcoux
Designer benzodiazepines (DBZDs) have become of particular importance in the past few years. The metabolite monitoring of DBZD in biological fluids could be of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. However, DBZD metabolites are not known or not commercially available. The identification of some DBZD metabolites has been mostly explored by self-administration studies or by in vitro studies followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The question arose whether a unit resolution instrument could be efficient enough to allow the identification of DBZD metabolites...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154923/the-effect-of-impact-tool-geometry-and-soft-material-covering-on-long-bone-fracture-patterns-in-children
#10
Haim Cohen, Chen Kugel, Hila May, Bahaa Medlej, Dan Stein, Viviane Slon, Tamar Brosh, Israel Hershkovitz
INTRODUCTION: The effect of impact tool geometry and soft material covering on bone fracture patterns plays a major role in fracture patterns. However, the literature is nearly void of such studies and only general correlations between the fracture pattern and the mechanism underlying the insult were reported. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to reveal the association between the geometry of the impact tool and the presence of soft material covering on bone fracture patterns...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154922/experimental-measurement-of-breath-exit-velocity-and-expirated-bloodstain-patterns-produced-under-different-exhalation-mechanisms
#11
P H Geoghegan, A M Laffra, N K Hoogendorp, M C Taylor, M C Jermy
In an attempt to obtain a deeper understanding of the factors which determine the characteristics of expirated bloodstain patterns, the mechanism of formation of airborne droplets was studied. Hot wire anemometry measured air velocity, 25 mm from the lips, for 31 individuals spitting, coughing and blowing. Expirated stains were produced by the same mechanisms performed by one individual with different volumes of a synthetic blood substitute in their mouth. The atomization of the liquid at the lips was captured with high-speed video, and the resulting stain patterns were captured on paper targets...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144748/influence-of-immunologic-status-on-age-prediction-using-signal-joint-t-cell-receptor-excision-circles
#12
Sohee Cho, Hee Jin Seo, Ji Hyun Lee, Moon Young Kim, Soong Deok Lee
Age estimation based on quantifying signal joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) in T cells has been established to be a promising approach in forensic practice and demonstrated in different ethnic groups. Considering that the homeostasis of T cells carrying sjTRECs is closely related to the immunologic status of a person, it is important to investigate the influence of various immunologic statuses on the age estimation model. In this study, quantification of sjTREC contents was performed for groups of people with various immune system statuses, and the result showed less correlation with chronological age (r (2) = 0...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138758/luminol-chemiluminescence-contribution-to-postmortem-interval-determination-of-skeletonized-remains-in-portuguese-forensic-context
#13
Catarina Ermida, David Navega, Eugénia Cunha
Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the main challenges of forensic anthropology, and there are several referenced methods that consider intrinsic and extrinsic factors to the skeletonized remains. Therefore, there is an important need to develop a precise, economic, easy and reproducible technique, which will operate as a presumptive test. The chemical reaction that occurs in the presence of luminol, chemiluminescence, is used as a work tool to evaluate the PMI. This is given by luminol high affinity for haemoglobin, which is secured in bone tissue by its high mineral content, after the blood supply ceases postmortem...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138757/genetic-variations-of-15-autosomal-and-17-y-str-markers-in-sindhi-population-of-pakistan
#14
Rukhsana Perveen, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Muhammad Shafique, Muhammad Shahzad, Tayyab Husnain
This study comprises genetic characterization of 15 autosomal and 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in 103 unrelated male inhabitants of the Sindhi population to establish its lineage and parameters of forensic interest. The examined autosomal STRs revealed high combined power of discrimination, combined power of exclusion, and the combined matching probability as 0.99999999999999999042580, 0.9999977141, and 9.5742 × 10(-18), respectively. A total of 89 unique haplotypes were obtained, of which 84 were observed once with a haplotype diversity value of 0...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127629/genetic-polymorphisms-of-24-y-str-loci-in-hani-ethnic-minority-from-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#15
Liping Hu, Tao Gu, Xiaodong Fan, Xiaokun Yuan, Min Rao, Jing Bo Pang, Aiting Nie, Lei Du, Xiufeng Zhang, Shengjie Nie
In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 250 unrelated Hani male individuals from Lvchun county, Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Hani group ranged from 0.2683 (DYS437) to 0.8837 (DYS447). According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 204 different haplotypes were obtained, 174 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Hani group were 0...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116498/plastic-waste-sacks-alter-the-rate-of-decomposition-of-dismembered-bodies-within
#16
Kassra Scholl, Colin Moffatt
As a result of criminal activity, human bodies are sometimes dismembered and concealed within sealed, plastic waste sacks. Consequently, due to the inhibited ingress of insects and dismemberment, the rate of decomposition of the body parts within may be different to that of whole, exposed bodies. Correspondingly, once found, an estimation of the postmortem interval may be affected and lead to erroneous inferences. This study set out to determine whether insects were excluded and how rate of decomposition was affected inside such plastic sacks...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111702/acknowledgement-to-referees
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105495/relevance-of-medical-reports-in-criminal-investigations-of-cases-of-suspected-child-abuse
#18
Katharina Janßen, Dominik Greif, Markus A Rothschild, Sibylle Banaschak
If a case of physical child abuse is suspected in Germany, the general feeling is often that "it does not matter whether you make a report or not" because, generally, no conviction is made anyway. This study investigates the juridical analysis of complaint cases of physical child abuse [criminal complaint parag. 225 StGB (German penal code) with filial victim]. It focuses on the doctor's role and the impact of their practice in relation to a later conviction. It is based on the analysis of 302 files of the enquiry from 2004-2009 from the department of public prosecution in Cologne, Germany...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105494/suicide-with-two-makes-of-captive-bolt-guns-livestock-stunners-fired-simultaneously-to-the-forehead
#19
Rebecca Pircher, Dorothee Geisenberger, Markus Große Perdekamp, Merja Neukamm, Stefan Pollak, Ulrike Schmidt, Annette Thierauf-Emberger
In humans, most fatalities from slaughterer's guns are suicides committed by persons familiar with stunning devices. The great majority of cases accounts for shots to the head, especially the frontal region. Only a small number of two subsequent cranial shots from captive-bolt humane killers have been reported up to now. In the case presented by the authors, a suicide by simultaneous shots to the head fired from two different makes of captive-bolt guns (one of them having two separate outlets for the combustion gases in the muzzle plane, the other type having no additional openings) is described for the first time...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102433/advanced-forensic-validation-for-human-spermatozoa-identification-using-sperm-hy-liter%C3%A2-express-with-quantitative-image-analysis
#20
Ayari Takamura, Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu
Identification of human semen is indispensable for the investigation of sexual assaults. Fluorescence staining methods using commercial kits, such as the series of SPERM HY-LITER™ kits, have been useful to detect human sperm via strong fluorescence. These kits have been examined from various forensic aspects. However, because of a lack of evaluation methods, these studies did not provide objective, or quantitative, descriptions of the results nor clear criteria for the decisions reached. In addition, the variety of validations was considerably limited...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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