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International Journal of Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314903/diatoms-in-drowning-cases-in-forensic-veterinary-context-a-preliminary-study
#1
Nadia Fucci, Carlo P Campobasso, L Mastrogiuseppe, C Puccinelli, S Marcheggiani, L Mancini, L Marino, V L Pascali
In this preliminary study, a digestive method used in forensic context to extract diatoms has been applied in organs taken from ten wildlife animals belonging three species of mammals (a deer, a roe and five otters) and one species of birds (two magpies). Only four carcasses were recovered from aquatic environments (bath trough for animals, bathtub irrigation, river) and only in three cases out of ten that the cause of death was ruled out as drowning. In seven cases, the death was due to other causes: gunshot injuries for one otter, blunt trauma for a magpie, and traumatic injuries followed by motor vehicle collision in other four otters and a roe...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303395/movement-of-steel-jacketed-projectiles-in-biological-tissue-in-the-magnetic-field-of-a-3-t-magnetic-resonance-unit
#2
Stephan A Bolliger, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho, Sebastian A Poschmann, Sebastian Eggert
PURPOSE: The fact that ferromagnetic bullets can move in air or gelatine when subjected to magnetic resonance (MR) units is well known. A previous study showed that the movement of 7.5-mm GP 11 Suisse bullets also depends on their orientation toward the gantry. In order to compare the movement in gelatine to that in real tissue, we decided to measure the movement of these bullets, as well as 9-mm Luger bullets, in the brain and liver. METHODS: The GP 11 and 9-mm Luger bullets were inserted into the fresh calf brain or pig liver either vertically or horizontally in the x- or z-axis to the gantry...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303394/sudden-death-and-toxic-metals-following-ingestion-of-a-button-battery
#3
LETTER
P D Pigatto, A Ronchi, F Pallotti, G Guzzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275858/erratum-to-blood-trace-evidence-on-washed-textiles-a-systematic-approach
#4
Carolin Edler, A Gehl, J Kohwagner, M Walther, O Krebs, C Augustin, A Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271364/does-preliminary-optimisation-of-an-anatomically-correct-skull-brain-model-using-simple-simulants-produce-clinically-realistic-ballistic-injury-fracture-patterns
#5
P F Mahoney, D J Carr, R J Delaney, N Hunt, S Harrison, J Breeze, I Gibb
Ballistic head injury remains a significant threat to military personnel. Studying such injuries requires a model that can be used with a military helmet. This paper describes further work on a skull-brain model using skulls made from three different polyurethane plastics and a series of skull 'fills' to simulate brain (3, 5, 7 and 10% gelatine by mass and PermaGel™). The models were subjected to ballistic impact from 7.62 × 39 mm mild steel core bullets. The first part of the work compares the different polyurethanes (mean bullet muzzle velocity of 708 m/s), and the second part compares the different fills (mean bullet muzzle velocity of 680 m/s)...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271363/yfiler-%C3%A2-plus-population-samples-and-dilution-series-stutters-analytic-thresholds-and-drop-out-probabilities
#6
Mikkel Meyer Andersen, Helle Smidt Mogensen, Poul Svante Eriksen, Niels Morling
The Yfiler (Ⓡ) Plus Amplification Kit amplifies 27 Y chromosomal small tandem repeat (STR) markers. The kit has five-fluorescent dye chemistry and the improved PCR buffer system of modern STR kits. We validated the kit for accredited investigations of crime scene samples by a thorough study of kit dynamics and performance. We determined dye-dependent analytical thresholds by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and made a customised artefact filter that includes theoretical known artefacts by use of previously analysed population samples...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258488/flexplex27-highly-multiplexed-rapid-dna-identification-for-law-enforcement-kinship-and-military-applications
#7
Ranjana Grover, Hua Jiang, Rosemary S Turingan, Julie L French, Eugene Tan, Richard F Selden
Rapid DNA identification is the use of a rugged, field-deployable system to generate short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in law enforcement, military, immigration, and homeland security applications. A performance verification study was conducted on the ANDE Rapid DNA identification system using FlexPlex27, a highly multiplexed, 27 locus assay that generates data for the expanded CODIS core loci and all additional STR loci required for international databasing. The assay contains 23 autosomal loci (D1S1656, D2S1338, D2S441, D3S1358, D5S81, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D10S1248, D12S391, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, D22S1045, FGA, CSF1PO, Penta E, TH01, vWA, TPOX, and SE33), three Y-chromosomal loci (DYS391, DYS576, and DYS570), and Amelogenin...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246934/forensic-characteristics-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-the-chinese-yi-population-via-19-x-chromosomal-str-loci
#8
GuangLin He, Ye Li, Xing Zou, Ping Li, PengYu Chen, Feng Song, Tianzhen Gao, Miao Liao, Jing Yan, Jin Wu
The demographic characteristics and genetic polymorphism data of 56 Chinese nationalities or 31 administrative divisions in Chinese mainland have repeatedly been the genetic research hotspots. While most genetic studies focused on some particular Chinese populations based on autosomal or Y-chromosomal genetic markers, the forensic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the seventh largest Chinese population (Yi ethnicity) on the X-chromosomal genetic markers are scarce. Here, allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters for 19 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci (DXS7424-DXS101, DXS6789-DXS6809, DXS7423-DXS10134, DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101, DXS10159-DXS10162-DXS10164, DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378, and DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074-DXS10075) of 331 Chinese Yi individuals were obtained...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243773/how-many-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-snps-are-needed-to-replace-short-tandem-repeats-strs-in-forensic-applications
#9
Hyo-Jung Lee, Jae Won Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Mira Park
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are the most commonly used forms of genetic information in forensic identification. In recent times, advances in the information on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have raised the possibility that these markers could replace the forensically established STRs. In this work, we conducted comparative simulation studies that allowed us to estimate the number of SNPs needed if these markers were used instead of STRs in criminal cases and paternity investigations.
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243772/diagnosis-of-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning-using-a-new-analytical-approach-forensic-application-to-a-lethal-intoxication
#10
Hui Yan, Ping Xiang, Sujing Zhang, Baohua Shen, Min Shen
Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is an effective and cheap pesticide that is commonly used worldwide, but it is also a common cause of human poisoning and carries a high mortality rate. AlP reacts with moisture in air, water, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach to produce phosphine (PH3) gas. Two routes of exposure are ingestion of AlP and inhalation of phosphine generated by the action of moisture on AlP. Absorbed phosphine is rapidly metabolized into phosphite and hypophosphite. A method is described for the analysis of the phosphine metabolites in various biological matrices...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243771/analysis-of-four-novel-x-chromosomal-short-tandem-repeats-within-71%C3%A2-kb-of-the-xp22-3-region
#11
Takeki Nishi, Kenji Fukui, Kimiharu Iwadate
DNA testing using X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) polymorphisms has been used in maternity/paternity and complex kinship cases. Analyses of repeat sequences, surveys on racial statistics, and development of practical applications for DNA testing continue to be reported. In this study, we identified four novel tetranucleotide STR loci located in the X chromosome, which is the basis of X-STR research. These four tetranucleotide STRs were located within 71 kb of the chromosome Xp22.3 region. Using sequence analysis of the structure of repeat sequences, we identified simple repeat sequences of TAAA, CTTT, TATC, and GATA with rare insertions...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243770/sudden-aortic-death-proposal-for-a-comprehensive-diagnostic-approach-in-forensic-and-in-clinical-pathology-practice
#12
Hans H de Boer, Fabrice Dedouit, Nina Chappex, Allard C van der Wal, Katarzyna Michaud
BACKGROUNDS: Aortic rupture or dissection as immediate cause of sudden death is encountered in forensic and clinical autopsy practice. Despite a common denominator of 'sudden aortic death' (SAD), we expect that in both settings the diagnostic workup, being either primarily legal or primarily disease related, differs substantially, which may affect the eventual diagnoses. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed case records of deceased persons who fitted a diagnosis of SAD in the continuous autopsy cohorts in a forensic (Suisse) and a clinical setting (The Netherlands)...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236045/detection-and-quantification-of-12-anabolic-steroids-and-analogs-in-human-whole-blood-and-20-in-hair-using-lc-hrms-ms-application-to-real-cases
#13
Nicolas Fabresse, Stanislas Grassin-Delyle, Isabelle Etting, Jean-Claude Alvarez
We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233103/expression-times-for-hsp27-and-hsp70-as-an-indicator-of-thermal-stress-during-death-due-to-fire
#14
E Doberentz, L Genneper, R Wagner, B Madea
The expression of heat shock proteins (hsps) increases in cases of hyperthermal cellular stress in order to protect cellular structures. Hsps can be visualized with immunohistochemical staining. We examined 48 cases of death from fire and excessive heat and a control group of 100 deaths without any perimortem thermal stress, measuring both the hsp27 and hsp70 expressions in myocardial, pulmonary, and renal tissues. The results revealed a correlation between hsp expression and survival time. Hsps are expressed rapidly within seconds or minutes after exposure to heat stress...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233102/estimating-a-child-s-age-from-an-image-using-whole-body-proportions
#15
Teghan Lucas, Maciej Henneberg
The use and distribution of child pornography is an increasing problem. Forensic anthropologists are often asked to estimate a child's age from a photograph. Previous studies have attempted to estimate the age of children from photographs using ratios of the face. Here, we propose to include body measurement ratios into age estimates. A total of 1603 boys and 1833 girls aged 5-16 years were measured over a 10-year period. They are 'Cape Coloured' children from South Africa. Their age was regressed on ratios derived from anthropometric measurements of the head as well as the body...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233101/luminescence-of-thermally-altered-human-skeletal-remains
#16
Tristan Krap, Kevin Nota, Leah S Wilk, Franklin R W van de Goot, Jan M Ruijter, Wilma Duijst, Roelof-Jan Oostra
Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220303/estimation-of-stature-from-femur-length-measured-using-computed-tomography-after-the-analysis-of-three-dimensional-characteristics-of-femur-bone-in-korean-cadavers
#17
Sookyoung Lee, Ho-Hyeon Gong, Jin-Young Hyun, Hyung-Nam Koo, Han-Young Lee, Nak-Eun Chung, Young-Shik Choi, Kyung-Moo Yang, Byung Ha Choi
Estimation of stature is a basic and important forensic procedure in identifying decomposed or skeletonized bodies. Due to advances in radiologic equipment, forensic science frequently uses computed tomography (CT) and software to apply these findings to investigations. Technical developments have increased the accuracy of the measurement of various bones. However, there are still some inaccuracies, such as defining correct landmarks in three-dimensional (3D) images. Femur length is frequently used for calculation of stature, but because it is a 3D structure, the digital image may not always correlate with the femur length measured with an osteometric board...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220302/sex-estimation-using-computed-tomography-of-the-mandible
#18
Tanya Sella Tunis, Rachel Sarig, Haim Cohen, Bahaa Medlej, Nathan Peled, Hila May
Sex estimation of skeletal parts is of great value even in the DNA era. When computed tomography (CT) facilities were introduced to forensic institutes, new possibilities for sex estimation emerged. The aim of this study was to develop a CT-based method for sex estimation using the mandible. Twenty-five CT-based measurements of the mandible were developed and carried out on 3D reconstructions (volume rendering) and cross sections of the lower jaw of 438 adult individuals (214 males and 224 females). Intraobserver and interobserver variances of the measurements were examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#19
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213867/re-establishment-of-rigor-mortis-evidence-for-a-considerably-longer-post-mortem-time-span
#20
Chiara Crostack, Susanne Sehner, Tobias Raupach, Sven Anders
Re-establishment of rigor mortis following mechanical loosening is used as part of the complex method for the forensic estimation of the time since death in human bodies and has formerly been reported to occur up to 8-12 h post-mortem (hpm). We recently described our observation of the phenomenon in up to 19 hpm in cases with in-hospital death. Due to the case selection (preceding illness, immobilisation), transfer of these results to forensic cases might be limited. We therefore examined 67 out-of-hospital cases of sudden death with known time points of death...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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