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Mechanisms of Development

Suman Gurung, Emilia Asante, Devynn Hummel, Ashley Williams, Oren Feldman-Schultz, Mary C Halloran, Vinoth Sittaramane, Anand Chandrasekhar
Contactin2 (Cntn2)/Transient Axonal Glycoprotein 1 (Tag1), a neural cell adhesion molecule, has established roles in neuronal migration and axon fasciculation in chick and mouse. In zebrafish, antisense morpholino-based studies have indicated roles for cntn2 in the migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons, the guidance of the axons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nucMLF), and the outgrowth of Rohon-Beard (RB) central axons. To study functions of Cntn2 in later stages of neuronal development, we generated cntn2 mutant zebrafish using CRISPR-Cas9...
May 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Pablo Armas, Nora Beatriz Calcaterra
During animal development, gene expression is orchestrated by specific and highly evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that take place accurately, both at spatial and temporal levels. The last decades have provided compelling evidence showing that chromatin state plays essential roles in orchestrating most of the stages of development. The DNA molecule can adopt alternative structures different from the helical duplex architecture. G-rich DNA sequences can fold as intrastrand quadruple helix structures called G-quadruplexes or G4-DNA...
May 11, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Carlos Alfonso-Gonzalez, Juan Rafael Riesgo-Escovar
The Fos oncogene gene family is evolutionarily conserved throughout Eukarya. Fos proteins characteristically have a leucine zipper and a basic region with a helix-turn-helix motif that binds DNA. In vertebrates, there are several Fos homologs. They can homo- or hetero-dimerize via the leucine zipper domain. Fos homologs coupled with other transcription factors, like Jun oncoproteins, constitute the Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) complex. From its original inception as an oncogene, the subsequent finding that they act as transcription factors binding DNA sequences known as TRE, to the realization that they are activated in many different scenarios, and to loss-of-function analysis, the Fos proteins have traversed a multifarious path in development and physiology...
May 10, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Paula Verneri, Juan José Romero, María Cecilia De Rossi, Yanina Alvarez, Camila Oses, Alejandra Guberman, Valeria Levi
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are capable of self-renewing and producing all cell types derived from the three germ layers in response to developmental cues, constituting an important promise for regenerative medicine. Pluripotency depends on specific transcription factors (TFs) that induce genes required to preserve the undifferentiated state and repress other genes related to differentiation. The transcription machinery and regulatory components such as TFs are recruited dynamically on their target genes making it essential exploring their dynamics in living cells to understand the transcriptional output...
May 10, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Steven J Deimling, Kimberly Lau, Chi-Chung Hui, Sevan Hopyan
Anteroposterior polarity of the early limb bud is essential for proper skeletal pattern formation. In order to establish anterior identity, hedgehog signalling needs to be repressed by GLI3 repressor activity, although the mechanism of repression is not well defined. Here we describe genetic interaction between Gli3 and Enhancer of Zeste 2 (Ezh2) that encodes the histone methyltransferase subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. Loss of anterior limb identity was evident in both Gli3 and conditional Ezh2 single mutant embryos...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Yongchao Gou, Jingyuan Li, Jian Wu, Rahul Gupta, Ihnbae Cho, Thach-Vu Ho, Yang Chai, Amy Merrill, Jun Wang, Jian Xu
Protein arginine methylation has been recently identified as an important form of post-translational modification (PTM). It is carried out by the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes, which in mammals consists of nine members. Among them, PRMT1 is the major arginine methyltransferase and participates in transcription, signal transduction, development and cancer. The function of PRMT1 in craniofacial development remains unclear. We generated Wnt1-Cre;Prmt1fl/fl mice with cranial neural crest (CNC)-specific deletion of Prmt1 and compared CNC-derived craniofacial bones from newborn control and Wnt1-Cre;Prmt1fl/fl mice...
May 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Francisco Carmona-Aldana, Cecilia Zampedri, Fernando Suaste-Olmos, Adrián Murillo-de-Ozores, Georgina Guerrero, Rodrigo Arzate-Mejía, Ernesto Maldonado, Rosa Navarro, Jesús Chimal-Monroy, Félix Recillas-Targa
Chromatin regulation and organization are essential processes that regulate gene activity. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a protein with different and important molecular functions related with chromatin dynamics. It is conserved since invertebrates to vertebrates, posing it as a factor with an important role in the physiology. In this work, we aimed to understand the distribution and functional relevance of CTCF during the embryonic development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We generated a zebrafish specific anti-Ctcf antibody, and found this protein to be ubiquitous, through different stages and tissues...
May 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Alisson M Gontijo, Andres Garelli
Many insects, like cockroaches, moths, and flies, can regenerate tissues by extending the growth-competent phases of their life cycle. The molecular and cellular players mediating this coordination between tissue growth and developmental timing have been recently discovered in Drosophila. The insulin/relaxin-like peptide, Dilp8, was identified as a factor communicating abnormal growth status of Drosophila larval imaginal discs to the neuroendocrine centers that control the timing of the onset of metamorphosis...
April 28, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Carla Ritagliati, Carolina Baró Graf, Cintia Stival, Dario Krapf
Mammalian sperm are unable to fertilize the egg immediately after ejaculation. In order to gain fertilization competence, they need to undergo a series of biochemical and physiological modifications inside the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation. Capacitation correlates with two essential events for fertilization: hyperactivation, an asymmetric and vigorous flagellar motility, and the ability to undergo the acrosome reaction. At a molecular level, capacitation is associated to: phosphorylation cascades, modification of membrane lipids, alkalinization of the intracellular pH, increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and hyperpolarization of the sperm plasma membrane potential...
April 22, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
H M Rodgers, V J Huffman, V A Voronina, M Lewandoski, P H Mathers
The Retinal homeobox gene (Rx; also Rax) plays a crucial role in the early development of the vertebrate eye. Germline deletion of Rx in mice results in the failure of optic vesicle formation, leading to anophthalmia. Recent research using conditional mouse knockout models provides some clues to the role of Rx in eye development following optic vesicle formation. However, the functions of Rx in embryonic retinogenesis are still not fully understood. We investigated the function of Rx in the mouse neural retina using a conditional knockout where the Pax6α-Cre driver deletes Rx activity in early retinal progenitors...
April 14, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Estefanía Sánchez-Vásquez, Nagif Alata Jimenez, Nicolás A Vázquez, Pablo H Strobl-Mazzulla
The central dogma of molecular biology statically says that the information flows from DNA to messenger RNA to protein. But the recent advances in mass spectrometry and high throughput technology have helped the scientists to view RNA as little more than a courier of genetic information encoded in the DNA. The dynamics of RNA modifications in coding and non-coding RNAs are just emerging as a carrier of non-genetic information, uncovering a new layer of complexity in the regulation of gene expression and protein translation...
April 11, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Paurav B Desai, Jovenal T San Agustin, Michael W Stuck, Julie A Jonassen, Carlton M Bates, Gregory J Pazour
Eukaryotic cilia are assembled by intraflagellar transport (IFT) where large protein complexes called IFT particles move ciliary components from the cell body to the cilium. Defects in most IFT particle proteins disrupt ciliary assembly and cause mid gestational lethality in the mouse. IFT25 and IFT27 are unusual components of IFT-B in that they are not required for ciliary assembly and mutant mice survive to term. The mutants die shortly after birth with numerous organ defects including duplex kidneys. Completely duplex kidneys result from defects in ureteric bud formation at the earliest steps of metanephric kidney development...
April 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
D Himmelhan, O Rawashdeh, H H A Oelschläger
This study characterizes the early postnatal development of the visual neocortex in C3H/HeNRj mice. These mice are homozygous for the Pde6brd1 mutation, which causes retinal degeneration starting from postnatal day 7 (P7). To monitor the development of the visual cortex between P3 and P28 we used eight antigens known to be expressed at different developmental stages (Nestin, tau3, β3- Tubulin, Calbindin, Doublecortin, MAP2, Parvalbumin and NeuN). Using semiquantitative analysis we traced the expression and localization of different developmental markers throughout the layers of the visual cortex...
March 18, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Violeta Trejo-Reveles, Lynn McTeir, Kim Summers, Joe Rainger
Precise anterior segment (AS) development in the vertebrate eye is essential for maintaining ocular health throughout life. Disruptions to genetic programs can lead to severe structural AS disorders at birth, while more subtle AS defects may disrupt the drainage of ocular fluids and cause dysregulation of intraocular pressure homeostasis, leading to progressive vision loss. To date, the mouse has served as the major model to study AS development and pathogenesis. Here we present an accurate histological atlas of chick AS formation throughout eye development, with a focus on the formation of drainage structures...
April 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Lyndsay G Selland, Sophie Koch, Malcolm Laraque, Andrew J Waskiewicz
The vertebrate hindbrain is composed of a series of lineage-restricted segments termed rhombomeres. Segment-specific gene expression drives unique programs of neuronal differentiation. Two critical embryonic signaling pathways, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Retinoic Acid (RA), regulate early embryonic rhombomere patterning. The earliest expressed hox genes, hoxb1b and hoxb1a in zebrafish, are logical candidates for establishing signaling networks that specify segmental identity. We sought to determine the mechanism by which hox genes regulate hindbrain patterning in zebrafish...
April 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Akiko Suzuki, Nada Abdallah, Mona Gajera, Goo Jun, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Junichi Iwata
Cleft palate (CP) is the most prevalent craniofacial deformity, with ethnic and geographic variation in prevalence in humans. Mice have been used as an animal model to study the cause(s) of CP by several approaches, including genetic and chemical-induced approaches. Mouse genetic approaches revealed that significant amounts of genes are involved in the CP pathology. The aim of this study was to identify common features of CP-associated genes and to explore the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) as important post-transcriptional regulators that may be involved in the regulation of CP genes...
April 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Ziyao Zhang, Rebecca Ursin, Samiksha Mahapatra, G Ian Gallicano
Although it is well understood that genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and epigenetic miscues can cause congenital birth defects, many defects are still labeled idiopathic, meaning their origin is not yet understood. microRNAs are quickly entering the causal fray of developmental defects. miRNAs use a 7-8 base-pair seed sequence to target a corresponding sequence on one or multiple mRNAs resulting in rapid down-regulation of translation. miRNAs can also control protein 'amounts' in cells. As a result if miRNAs are over or under expressed during development protein homeostasis can be compromised resulting in defects in the development of organ systems...
April 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Hiral Murawala, Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Epimorphic regeneration is a process allowing the animal to regain its lost structure which depends on the resident pluripotent stem cells as well as de-differentiation of existing cells to form multi-potent stem cells. Many studies have been done to understand the appendage regeneration mechanism. The animal model used since decades is an urodele amphibian the axolotl. However, this ability is also seen in some members of reptiles, mainly lizards which on autotomy of tail regain the same by forming a replica of its lost tail...
April 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Lautaro Gándara, Pablo Wappner
In the last years, several reports have established the notion that metabolism is not just a housekeeping process, but instead an active effector of physiological changes. The idea that the metabolic status may rule a wide range of phenomena in cell biology is starting to be broadly accepted. Thus, current developmental biology has begun to describe different ways by which the metabolic profile of the cell and developmental programs of the organism can crosstalk. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which metabolism impacts on processes governing development...
February 21, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
R S Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Mechanisms of Development
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