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Mechanisms of Development

Lautaro Gándara, Pablo Wappner
In the last years, several reports have established the notion that metabolism is not just a housekeeping process, but instead an active effector of physiological changes. The idea that the metabolic status may rule a wide range of phenomena in cell biology is starting to be broadly accepted. Thus, current developmental biology has begun to describe different ways by which the metabolic profile of the cell and developmental programs of the organism can crosstalk. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which metabolism impacts on processes governing development...
February 20, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Akiko Suzuki, Nada Abdallah, Mona Gajera, Goo Jun, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Junichi Iwata
Cleft palate (CP) is the most prevalent craniofacial deformity, with ethnic and geographic variation in prevalence in humans. Mice have been used as an animal model to study the cause(s) of CP by several approaches, including genetic and chemical-induced approaches. Mouse genetic approaches revealed that significant amounts of genes are involved in the CP pathology. The aim of this study was to identify common features of CP-associated genes and to explore the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) as important post-transcriptional regulators that may be involved in the regulation of CP genes...
February 20, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Ziyao Zhang, Rebecca Ursin, Samiksha Mahapatra, G Ian Gallicano
Although it is well understood that genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and epigenetic miscues can cause congenital birth defects, many defects are still labeled idiopathic, meaning their origin is not yet understood. microRNAs are quickly entering the causal fray of developmental defects. miRNAs use a 7-8 base-pair seed sequence to target a corresponding sequence on one or multiple mRNAs resulting in rapid down-regulation of translation. miRNAs can also control protein 'amounts' in cells. As a result if miRNAs are over or under expressed during development protein homeostasis can be compromised resulting in defects in the development of organ systems...
February 7, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Hiral Murawala, Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Epimorphic regeneration is a process allowing the animal to regain its lost structure which depends on the resident pluripotent stem cells as well as de-differentiation of existing cells to form multi-potent stem cells. Many studies have been done to understand the appendage regeneration mechanism. The animal model used since decades is an urodele amphibian the axolotl. However, this ability is also seen in some members of reptiles, mainly lizards which on autotomy of tail regain the same by forming a replica of its lost tail...
February 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
D Rashid, P Puettmann, E Roy, R S Bradley
In vertebrates, the neural crest is a unique population of pluripotent cells whose development is dependent on signaling from neighboring tissues. Cadherin family members, including protocadherins, are emerging as major players in neural crest development, largely through their roles in cell adhesion and sorting in embryonic tissues. Here, we show that Protocadherin 7 (Pcdh7), previously shown to function in sensorial layer integrity and neural tube closure in Xenopus, is also involved in neural crest specification and survival...
January 20, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
In the male mouse embryos, the primordial germ cells colonize the developing testes at E11.5. These resident germ cells termed gonocytes are the predecessors of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and differentiating spermatogonia. Both of which are essential for male fertility where the former maintains the continuity of spermatogenesis and the latter generates pioneering waves of spermatozoa. Therefore the timely initiation of gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST) is an important process during which the cell fates of gonocytes might be segregated...
January 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Eugenia M Del Pino
The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis, because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized...
January 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Amy Hughes, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp, Gabriel L Galea
Failure of neural tube closure in the early embryo causes neural tube defects including spina bifida. Spina bifida lesions predominate in the distal spine, particularly after exposure to the anticonvulsant valproic acid (VPA). How VPA specifically disturbs late stages of neural tube closure is unclear, as neurulation is usually viewed as a uniform 'zippering' process along the spine. We recently identified a novel closure site ("Closure 5") which forms at the caudal extremity of the mouse posterior neuropore (PNP) when completion of closure is imminent...
December 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Jason A Morrison, Mary Cathleen McKinney, Paul M Kulesa
During collective cell migration individual cells display diverse behaviors that complicate our understanding of group cell decisions of direction and cohesion. In vivo gene and protein expression analyses would shed light on the underlying molecular choreography. However, this information has been limited due to difficulties to integrate single cell detection methods and the simultaneous readout of multiple signals deep within the embryo. Here, we optimize and integrate multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization by RNAscope, immunohistochemistry, and tissue clearing to visualize transcript and protein localization within single cells deep within intact chick embryos...
December 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Rafal P Piprek, Michal Kolasa, Dagmara Podkowa, Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak
Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important scaffolding role in the establishment of organs structure during development. A great number of ECM components and enzymes (proteinases) regulating formation/degradation of ECM during organ remodeling have been identified. In order to study the role of ECM in the mouse gonad development, especially during sexual differentiation of the gonads when the structure of the testis and ovary becomes established, we performed a global analysis of transcriptome in three main cell types of developing gonad (supporting, interstitial/stromal and germ cells) using transgenic mice, cell sorting and microarray...
November 9, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Rebecca Starble, Nancy J Pokrywka
During endocytosis, molecules are internalized by the cell through the invagination of the plasma membrane. Endocytosis is required for proper cell function and for normal development in Drosophila. One component of the endocytic pathway is the retromer complex, which recycles transmembrane proteins to other parts of the cell such as the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. Previous studies have shown that mutations to the retromer complex result in developmental defects in Drosophila. In humans, retromer dysfunction has been implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, but little is known about the role of the retromer complex in Drosophila oogenesis...
October 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Agnès Boutet
Asymmetries are observed in a great number of taxa in metazoans. More particularly, functional lateralization and neuroanatomical asymmetries within the central nervous system have been a matter of intense research for at least two hundred years. While asymmetries of some paired structures/organs (e.g. eyes, ears, kidneys, legs, arms) constitute random deviations from a pure bilateral symmetry, brain asymmetries such as those observed in the cortex and epithalamus are directional. This means that molecular and anatomical features located on one side of a given structure are observed in most individuals...
October 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Uda Y Ho, Brandon J Wainwright
Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, Fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) and Forkhead box F1 (Foxf1) are each individually important for directing pulmonary branch formation but their interactions are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that Hh signalling is vital in regulating Foxf1 and Fgf10 expression during branching. The Hedgehog receptor Patched1 (Ptch1) was conditionally inactivated in the lung mesenchyme by Dermo1-Cre in vivo or using a recombinant Cre recombinase protein (HNCre) in lung cultures resulting in cell autonomous activation of Hh signalling...
October 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Xuechen Zhu, Rui Xing, Renbo Tan, Rongyang Dai, Qinghua Tao
The RING finger protein Rnf146 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase capable of targeting poly-ADP-ribosylated substrates for proteasomal degradation. Rnf146 has been identified as a critical regulator of Axin1 and thus of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However its physiological significance in vertebrate embryonic development remains to be demonstrated. In this study, we take advantages of early Xenopus embryos to demonstrate that Rnf146 is essential for embryonic pattern formation. Depletion of zygotic Rnf146 using a translation blocking morpholino oligo (MO) results in anteriorized development and increased expression the anterior marker gene Otx2, consistent the notion that Rnf146 is a positive regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through negatively regulating Axin1 expression...
October 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Rafal P Piprek, Michal Kolasa, Dagmara Podkowa, Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak
Unlike other organ anlagens, the primordial gonad is sexually bipotential in all animals. In mouse, the bipotential gonad differentiates into testis or ovary depending on the genetic sex (XY or XX) of the fetus. During gonad development cells segregate, depending on genetic sex, into distinct compartments: testis cords and interstitium form in XY gonad, and germ cell cysts and stroma in XX gonad. However, our knowledge of mechanisms governing gonadal sex differentiation remains very vague. Because it is known that adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a key role in organogenesis, we suspected that diversified expression of CAMs should also play a crucial role in gonad development...
October 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Kristina Hatch, Amanda Pabon, Joseph X DiMario
Avian myogenesis is partly characterized by commitment of distinct myoblast cell lineages to the formation of specific muscle fiber types. Previous studies have identified the transcription factor EMX2 as a regulator of slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene expression in fast/slow primary muscle fibers. We report here the interaction of EMX2 with the slow MyHC2 transcriptional regulatory region in fast/slow embryonic muscle fibers. Promoter activity and electromobility shift assays localized the site of interaction of EMX2 with the slow MyHC2 gene within a defined binding site located between 3336 and 3326bp from the 3' end of the cloned slow MyHC2 DNA containing the transcriptional regulatory region...
October 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
October 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Kristin L Gallik, Randall W Treffy, Lynne M Nacke, Kamil Ahsan, Manuel Rocha, Abigail Green-Saxena, Ankur Saxena
Neural crest cells are multipotent progenitors that dynamically interpret diverse microenvironments to migrate significant distances as a loosely associated collective and contribute to many tissues in the developing vertebrate embryo. Uncovering details of neural crest migration has helped to inform a general understanding of collective cell migration, including that which occurs during cancer metastasis. Here, we discuss several commonalities and differences of neural crest and cancer cell migration and behavior...
September 6, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Brandon M Franklin, S Randal Voss, Jeffrey L Osborn
Little is known about the potential for ion channels to regulate cellular behaviors during tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized an amphibian tail regeneration assay coupled with a chemical genetic screen to identify ion channel antagonists that altered critical cellular processes during regeneration. Inhibition of multiple ion channels either partially (anoctamin1/Tmem16a, anoctamin2/Tmem16b, KV2.1, KV2.2, L-type CaV channels and H/K ATPases) or completely (GlyR, GABAAR, KV1.5 and SERCA pumps) inhibited tail regeneration...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Andrew J Lilly, Andrzej Mazan, Daryl A Scott, Georges Lacaud, Valerie Kouskoff
The transcriptional program that regulates the differentiation of endothelial precursor cells into a highly organized vascular network is still poorly understood. Here we explore the role of SOX7 during this process, performing a detailed analysis of the vascular defects resulting from either a complete deficiency in Sox7 expression or from the conditional deletion of Sox7 in FLK1-expressing cells. We analysed the consequence of Sox7 deficiency from E7.5 onward to determine from which stage of development the effect of Sox7 deficiency can be observed...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
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