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Mechanisms of Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341396/beyond-d-arcy-thompson-future-challenges-for-quantitative-biology
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Gregor
The centennial of "On Growth and Form" is a good opportunity to reflect on the progress in the quantitative study of living systems and where we would like to see it heading. The era of the physical sciences being a mere vehicle for tool building for biological investigations is over. The approaches taken nowadays are analogous to those that physical scientists have taken within their respective fields for centuries, only that now they ask them about biological phenomena and function. Here I give a brief reflection on where we are and where we should head next, both from the perspective of the research endeavor as a whole, but also with respect to teaching the next generation of scientists joining the field...
March 21, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341395/gonocytes-to-spermatogonia-transition-initiates-prior-to-birth-in-murine-testes-and-it-requires-fgf-signaling
#2
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
Spermatogenesis is a continuous and highly coordinated process of spermatozoa production. In mice, this process is believed to initiate shortly after birth with the emergence of nascent spermatogonia in the testes. However, because the nascent spermatogonia originated from the gonocytes are morphologically indistinguishable from their predecessors and there is no clear definition for the gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST), it remains unclear when and how spermatogenesis is initiated in the mouse testes...
March 21, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315388/mechano-devo
#3
REVIEW
Olivier Hamant
In "On growth and form", D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1917) stresses the inevitable interactions between physics and developmental biology. With the recent progress in molecular genetics, live imaging, micromechanics and modeling, the study of morphogenesis has been rejuvenated in the present century: the activity of developmental genes can be interpreted in terms of mechanical properties to dissect the chain of events behind shape changes; in turn, patterns of shape- and growth-derived mechanical stress are calculated and shown to act as signals controlling cell effectors, in synergy with biochemical cues, thereby channeling morphogenesis...
March 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263788/discovery-of-a-novel-oocyte-specific-kr%C3%A3-ppel-associated-box-domain-containing-zinc-finger-protein-required-for-early-embryogenesis-in-cattle
#4
Jacqelyn M Hand, Kun Zhang, Lei Wang, Prasanthi P Koganti, Kristen Mastrantoni, Sandeep K Rajput, Mohamed Ashry, George W Smith, Jianbo Yao
Zinc finger (ZNF) transcription factors interact with DNA through zinc finger motifs and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, development, apoptosis, and intracellular signal transduction. One-third of ZNF proteins in metazoans contain a highly conserved N-terminal motif known as the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain, which acts as a potent, DNA-binding dependent transcriptional repression module. Analysis of RNA-Seq data generated from a bovine oocyte cDNA library identified a novel transcript, which encodes a KRAB-containing ZNF transcription factor (named ZNFO)...
March 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189795/how-complexity-increases-in-development-an-analysis-of-the-spatial-temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-in-ciona-intestinalis
#5
Irepan Salvador-Martínez, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad
The increase in complexity in an embryo over developmental time is perhaps one of the most intuitive processes of animal development. It is also intuitive that the embryo becomes progressively compartmentalized over time and space. In spite of this intuitiveness, there are no systematic attempts to quantify how this occurs. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the compartmentalization and spatial complexity of Ciona intestinalis over developmental time by analyzing thousands of gene expression spatial patterns from the ANISEED database...
February 9, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163199/chemical-activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-inhibits-innervation-and-causes-skeletal-tissue-malformations-during-axolotl-limb-regeneration
#6
Sabina Wischin, Cristina Castañeda-Patlán, Martha Robles-Flores, Jesús Chimal-Monroy
Limb regeneration involves several interrelated physiological processes in which a particular signalling pathway may play a variety of functions. Blocking the function of Wnt/β-catenin signalling during limb regeneration inhibits regeneration in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). Limb development shares many features with limb regeneration, and Wnt/β-catenin activation has different effects depending on the developmental stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling activation during axolotl limb regeneration has different effects when activated at different stages of regeneration...
February 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132765/zebrafish-akt2-is-essential-for-survival-growth-bone-development-and-glucose-homeostasis
#7
Dawei Zhang, Jing Wang, Chi Zhou, Wuhan Xiao
As one of three akt isoforms, akt2 plays a key role in the regulation of widely divergent cellular processes in mammals. However, its role and underlying mechanisms in zebrafish remain largely unknown. To elucidate the function of akt2 in zebrafish, we generated zebrafish lacking akt2 gene via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Akt2-null zebrafish exhibit partial lethality and severe growth deficiency, which is different from those observed in akt2-null mice. Furthermore, akt2-null zebrafish display deficiency in fin ray development, but their cartilage is not affected...
January 26, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108070/corrigendum-to-regulation-of-polycomb-group-genes-psc-and-su-z-2-in-drosophila-melanogaster-mech-dev-128-2012-536-547
#8
Sung Yeon Park, Yuri B Schwartz, Tatyana G Kahn, Dalal Asker, Vincenzo Pirrotta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093265/developmental-tracing-of-oocyte-development-in-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-deficiency-medaka-oryzias-latipes-using-a-transgenic-approach
#9
Guijun Guan, Kaiqing Sun, Xi Zhang, Xiaomiao Zha, Mingyou Li, Yan Yan, Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Meisheng Yi, Yunhan Hong
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is reported to be a male initiator in medaka based on loss- and gain- of function via targeted disruption, or transgenic over-expression. However, little is known about how gsdf promotes undifferentiated gonad entry into male pathways or prevents entry into the female pathway. We utilized a visible folliculogenesis system with a reporter cassette of dual-color fluorescence expression to identify difference between oocyte development from wildtype and gsdf deficiency medaka...
January 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087460/identification-of-the-doublesex-protein-binding-sites-that-activate-expression-of-lozenge-in-the-female-genital-disc-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Shunsuke Wagamitsu, Dan Takase, Fugaku Aoki, Masataka G Suzuki
Normal sexual differentiation in the genital organs is essential for the animal species that use sexual reproduction. Although it is known that doublesex (dsx) is required for the sexual development of the genitalia in various insect species, the direct target genes responsible for the sexual differentiation of the genitalia have not been identified. The lozenge (lz) gene is expressed in the female genital disc and is essential for developments of spermathecae and accessory glands in Drosophila melanogaster...
January 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077304/drosophila-dorsal-closure-an-orchestra-of-forces-to-zip-shut-the-embryo
#11
REVIEW
Peran Hayes, Jérôme Solon
Dorsal closure, a late-embryogenesis process, consists in the sealing of an epidermal gap on the dorsal side of the Drosophila embryo. Because of its similarities with wound healing and neural tube closure in humans, it has been extensively studied in the last twenty years. The process requires the coordination of several force generating mechanisms, that together will zip shut the epidermis. Recent works have provided a precise description of the cellular behavior at the origin of these forces and proposed quantitative models of the process...
January 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332982/mod-special-issue-on-the-roles-of-physical-forces-in-animal-development
#12
EDITORIAL
Christian Dahmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013027/forces-directing-germ-band-extension-in-drosophila-embryos
#13
REVIEW
Deqing Kong, Fred Wolf, Jörg Großhans
Body axis elongation by convergent extension is a conserved developmental process found in all metazoans. Drosophila embryonic germ-band extension is an important morphogenetic process during embryogenesis, by which the length of the germ-band is more than doubled along the anterior-posterior axis. This lengthening is achieved by typical convergent extension, i.e. narrowing the lateral epidermis along the dorsal-ventral axis and simultaneous extension along the anterior-posterior axis. Germ-band extension is largely driven by cell intercalation, whose directionality is determined by the planar polarity of the tissue and ultimately by the anterior-posterior patterning system...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825898/the-balancing-roles-of-mechanical-forces-during-left-right-patterning-and-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Rita R Ferreira, Julien Vermot
Left-right patterning and asymmetric morphogenesis arise from a complex set of molecular and cellular interactions that are particularly dynamic and associated with mechanical forces. How do mechanical forces translate into tissular asymmetries? Are these forces asymmetrical de novo, or do they build up from pre-existing asymmetries? Advances in developmental genetics, live imaging and cell biology have recently shed light on the origins of mechanical forces generated at the cell scale and their implication in asymmetric patterning and morphogenesis is now emerging...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784612/forces-shaping-the-drosophila-wing
#15
REVIEW
M C Diaz de la Loza, B J Thompson
How genes encode the three-dimensional shape of tissues is a fascinating problem in biology. Pioneering genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila have identified key genes that control the generation of force patterns in the developing wing. Shortrange force patterns generated by planar polarised myosins can promote boundary formation and tissue elongation during the larval wing disc stage. Long-range force patterns are also crucial to shaping the wing during the pupal stage. We review the different ways in which both local and global force patterns can be generated, such as: patterned acto-myosin contractility, patterned anchorage to the extracellular matrix, and patterned tissue growth...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771340/apoptotic-forces-in-tissue-morphogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Arnaud Ambrosini, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
It is now well established that apoptosis is induced in response to mechanical strain. Indeed, increasing compressive forces induces apoptosis in confined spheroids of tumour cells, whereas releasing stress reduces apoptosis in spheroids cultivated in free suspension (Cheng et al., 2009). Apoptosis can also be induced by applying a 100 to 250MPa pressure, as shown in different cultured cells (for review, see (Frey et al., 2008)). During epithelium development, the pressure caused by a fast-growing clone can trigger apoptosis at the vicinity of the clone, mediating mechanical cell competition (Levayer et al...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697520/forces-driving-cell-sorting-in-the-amphibian-embryo
#17
REVIEW
Rudolf Winklbauer, Serge E Parent
Adhesion differences are the main driver of cell sorting and related processes such as boundary formation or tissue positioning. In the early amphibian embryo, graded variations in cadherin density and localized expression of adhesion-modulating factors are associated with regional differences in adhesive properties including overall adhesion strength. The role of these differences in embryonic boundary formation has not been studied extensively, but available evidence suggests that adhesion strength differentials are not essential...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697519/mechanical-perspectives-on-the-anterior-posterior-axis-polarization-of-mouse-implanted-embryos
#18
REVIEW
Isao Matsuo, Ryuji Hiramatsu
In most mammals, embryonic development and growth proceed in the maternal uterus. Mouse late blastocyst embryos implant on the uterine epithelium around embryonic day (E)4.5, and immediately afterward the whole embryo's shape is dynamically changed from a bowl-like shape to an elongated egg-cylinder until E5.5. Concurrently, mouse anterior-posterior (A-P) axis polarization occurs by the emergence of distal visceral endoderm (DVE) cells at the cellular and molecular levels as the proximal-distal (P-D) axis. The embryonic growth and axis polarization are considered to be controlled primarily by multiple growth factors' signaling...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087459/wnt-signaling-balances-specification-of-the-cardiac-and-pharyngeal-muscle-fields
#19
Amrita Mandal, Andrew Holowiecki, Yuntao Charlie Song, Joshua S Waxman
Canonical Wnt/β-catenin (Wnt) signaling plays multiple conserved roles during fate specification of cardiac progenitors in developing vertebrate embryos. Although lineage analysis in ascidians and mice has indicated there is a close relationship between the cardiac second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscle (PM) progenitors, the signals underlying directional fate decisions of the cells within the cardio-pharyngeal muscle field in vertebrates are not yet understood. Here, we examined the temporal requirements of Wnt signaling in cardiac and PM development...
February 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039065/microrna-224-delays-oocyte-maturation-through-targeting-ptx3-in-cumulus-cells
#20
Xiufang Li, Huidan Wang, Yan Sheng, Zhongqing Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been improved to regulate oocyte development in a cell- or stage-specific manner. In this study, we aimed to clarify microRNA-224's (miR-224) role in cumulus cells (CCs), to find out whether a change level of miR-224 in CCs could influence the maturation of oocyte. We found that overexpression of miR-224 of CCs led to the impairment of cell expansion, along with a decrease in the gene expression associated with cell expansion and maturation of oocyte. The increased expression of miR-224 in CC interrupted oocyte cell cycle at the GV stage...
December 28, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
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