journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Mechanisms of Development

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031909/the-retromer-subunit-vps26-mediates-notch-signaling-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#1
Rebecca Starble, Nancy J Pokrywka
During endocytosis, molecules are internalized by the cell through the invagination of the plasma membrane. Endocytosis is required for proper cell function and for normal development in Drosophila. One component of the endocytic pathway is the retromer complex, which recycles transmembrane proteins to other parts of the cell such as the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. Previous studies have shown that mutations to the retromer complex result in developmental defects in Drosophila. In humans, retromer dysfunction has been implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, but little is known about the role of the retromer complex in Drosophila oogenesis...
October 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986126/the-evolution-of-asymmetric-photosensitive-structures-in-metazoans-and-the-nodal-connection
#2
REVIEW
Agnès Boutet
Asymmetries are observed in a great number of taxa in metazoans. More particularly, functional lateralization and neuroanatomical asymmetries within the central nervous system have been a matter of intense research for at least two hundred years. While asymmetries of some paired structures/organs (e.g. eyes, ears, kidneys, legs, arms) constitute random deviations from a pure bilateral symmetry, brain asymmetries such as those observed in the cortex and epithalamus are directional. This means that molecular and anatomical features located on one side of a given structure are observed in most individuals...
October 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939119/patched1-patterns-fibroblast-growth-factor-10-and-forkhead-box-f1-expression-during-pulmonary-branch-formation
#3
Uda Y Ho, Brandon J Wainwright
Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, Fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) and Forkhead box F1 (Foxf1) are each individually important for directing pulmonary branch formation but their interactions are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that Hh signalling is vital in regulating Foxf1 and Fgf10 expression during branching. The Hedgehog receptor Patched1 (Ptch1) was conditionally inactivated in the lung mesenchyme by Dermo1-Cre in vivo or using a recombinant Cre recombinase protein (HNCre) in lung cultures resulting in cell autonomous activation of Hh signalling...
September 19, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888421/neural-crest-and-cancer-divergent-travelers-on-similar-paths
#4
REVIEW
Kristin L Gallik, Randall W Treffy, Lynne M Nacke, Kamil Ahsan, Manuel Rocha, Abigail Green-Saxena, Ankur Saxena
Neural crest cells are multipotent progenitors that dynamically interpret diverse microenvironments to migrate significant distances as a loosely associated collective and contribute to many tissues in the developing vertebrate embryo. Uncovering details of neural crest migration has helped to inform a general understanding of collective cell migration, including that which occurs during cancer metastasis. Here, we discuss several commonalities and differences of neural crest and cancer cell migration and behavior...
September 6, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807725/the-rnf146-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-is-required-for-the-control-of-wnt-signaling-and-body-pattern-formation-in-xenopus
#5
Xuechen Zhu, Rui Xing, Renbo Tan, Rongyang Dai, Qinghua Tao
The RING finger protein Rnf146 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase capable of targeting poly-ADP-ribosylated substrates for proteasomal degradation. Rnf146 has been identified as a critical regulator of Axin1 and thus of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However its physiological significance in vertebrate embryonic development remains to be demonstrated. In this study, we take advantages of early Xenopus embryos to demonstrate that Rnf146 is essential for embryonic pattern formation. Depletion of zygotic Rnf146 using a translation blocking morpholino oligo (MO) results in anteriorized development and increased expression the anterior marker gene Otx2, consistent the notion that Rnf146 is a positive regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through negatively regulating Axin1 expression...
August 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760667/cell-adhesion-molecules-expression-pattern-indicates-that-somatic-cells-arbitrate-gonadal-sex-of-differentiating-bipotential-fetal-mouse-gonad
#6
Rafal P Piprek, Michal Kolasa, Dagmara Podkowa, Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak
Unlike other organ anlagens, the primordial gonad is sexually bipotential in all animals. In mouse, the bipotential gonad differentiates into testis or ovary depending on the genetic sex (XY or XX) of the fetus. During gonad development cells segregate, depending on genetic sex, into distinct compartments: testis cords and interstitium form in XY gonad, and germ cell cysts and stroma in XX gonad. However, our knowledge of mechanisms governing gonadal sex differentiation remains very vague. Because it is known that adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a key role in organogenesis, we suspected that diversified expression of CAMs should also play a crucial role in gonad development...
July 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757382/editorial
#7
EDITORIAL
Kristin Bruk Artinger, Dominique Alfandari, Lisa A Taneyhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603004/ion-channel-signaling-influences-cellular-proliferation-and-phagocyte-activity-during-axolotl-tail-regeneration
#8
Brandon M Franklin, S Randal Voss, Jeffrey L Osborn
Little is known about the potential for ion channels to regulate cellular behaviors during tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized an amphibian tail regeneration assay coupled with a chemical genetic screen to identify ion channel antagonists that altered critical cellular processes during regeneration. Inhibition of multiple ion channels either partially (anoctamin1/Tmem16a, anoctamin2/Tmem16b, KV2.1, KV2.2, L-type CaV channels and H/K ATPases) or completely (GlyR, GABAAR, KV1.5 and SERCA pumps) inhibited tail regeneration...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577909/sox7-expression-is-critically-required-in-flk1-expressing-cells-for-vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-during-mouse-embryonic-development
#9
Andrew J Lilly, Andrzej Mazan, Daryl A Scott, Georges Lacaud, Valerie Kouskoff
The transcriptional program that regulates the differentiation of endothelial precursor cells into a highly organized vascular network is still poorly understood. Here we explore the role of SOX7 during this process, performing a detailed analysis of the vascular defects resulting from either a complete deficiency in Sox7 expression or from the conditional deletion of Sox7 in FLK1-expressing cells. We analysed the consequence of Sox7 deficiency from E7.5 onward to determine from which stage of development the effect of Sox7 deficiency can be observed...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549975/knockdown-of-epigenetic-transcriptional-co-regulator-brd2a-disrupts-apoptosis-and-proper-formation-of-hindbrain-and-midbrain-hindbrain-boundary-mhb-region-in-zebrafish
#10
Tami Murphy, Heather Melville, Eliza Fradkin, Giana Bistany, Gregory Branigan, Kelly Olsen, Catharine R Comstock, Hayley Hanby, Ellie Garbade, Angela J DiBenedetto
Brd2 is a member of the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET) family of proteins and functions as an acetyl-histone-directed transcriptional co-regulator and recruitment scaffold in chromatin modification complexes affecting signal-dependent transcription. While Brd2 acts as a protooncogene in mammalian blood, developmental studies link it to regulation of neuronal apoptosis and epilepsy, and complete knockout of the gene is invariably embryonic lethal. In Drosophila, the Brd2 homolog acts as a maternal effect factor necessary for segment formation and identity and proper expression of homeotic loci, including Ultrabithorax and engrailed...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536000/an-analysis-of-myod-dependent-transcription-using-crispr-cas9-gene-targeting-in-xenopus-tropicalis-embryos
#11
Caitlin McQueen, Mary Elizabeth Pownall
Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) are known to have essential roles in both the establishment and differentiation of the skeletal muscle cell lineage. MyoD is expressed early in the Xenopus mesoderm where it is present and active several hours before the activation of muscle differentiation genes. Previous studies in cultured cells and in Xenopus laevis have identified sets of genes that require MyoD prior to differentiation of skeletal muscle. Here we report results from experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 to target the MyoD gene in the diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis, that are analysed by RNA-seq at gastrula stages...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684256/new-insights-from-a-high-resolution-look-at-gastrulation-in-the-sea-urchin-lytechinus-variegatus
#12
Megan L Martik, David R McClay
BACKGROUND: Gastrulation is a complex orchestration of movements by cells that are specified early in development. Until now, classical convergent extension was considered to be the main contributor to sea urchin archenteron extension, and the relative contributions of cell divisions were unknown. Active migration of cells along the axis of extension was also not considered as a major factor in invagination. RESULTS: Cell transplantations plus live imaging were used to examine endoderm cell morphogenesis during gastrulation at high-resolution in the optically clear sea urchin embryo...
July 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673691/emx2-activates-slow-myosin-heavy-chain-2-gene-expression-in-embryonic-muscle-fibers
#13
Kristina Hatch, Amanda Pabon, Joseph X DiMario
Avian myogenesis is partly characterized by commitment of distinct myoblast cell lineages to the formation of specific muscle fiber types. Previous studies have identified the transcription factor EMX2 as a regulator of slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene expression in fast/slow primary muscle fibers. We report here the interaction of EMX2 with the slow MyHC2 transcriptional regulatory region in fast/slow embryonic muscle fibers. Promoter activity and electromobility shift assays localized the site of interaction of EMX2 with the slow MyHC2 gene within a defined binding site located between 3336 and 3326bp from the 3' end of the cloned slow MyHC2 DNA containing the transcriptional regulatory region...
June 30, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633909/resolving-in-vivo-gene-expression-during-collective-cell-migration-using-an-integrated-rnascope-immunohistochemistry-and-tissue-clearing-method
#14
Jason A Morrison, Mary Cathleen McKinney, Paul M Kulesa
During collective cell migration individual cells display diverse behaviors that complicate our understanding of group cell decisions of direction and cohesion. In vivo gene and protein expression analyses would shed light on the underlying molecular choreography. However, this information has been limited due to difficulties to integrate single cell detection methods and the simultaneous readout of multiple signals deep within the embryo. Here, we optimize and integrate multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization by RNAscope, immunohistochemistry, and tissue clearing to visualize transcript and protein localization within single cells deep within intact chick embryos...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#15
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610887/a-hormonal-cue-promotes-timely-follicle-cell-migration-by-modulating-transcription-profiles
#16
Lathiena Manning, Jinal Sheth, Stacey Bridges, Afsoon Saadin, Kamsi Odinammadu, Deborah Andrew, Susan Spencer, Denise Montell, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
Cell migration is essential during animal development. In the Drosophila ovary, the steroid hormone ecdysone coordinates nutrient sensing, growth, and the timing of morphogenesis events including border cell migration. To identify downstream effectors of ecdysone signaling, we profiled gene expression in wild-type follicle cells compared to cells expressing a dominant negative Ecdysone receptor or its coactivator Taiman. Of approximately 400 genes that showed differences in expression, we validated 16 candidate genes for expression in border and centripetal cells, and demonstrated that seven responded to ectopic ecdysone activation by changing their transcriptional levels...
June 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549497/mod-special-issue-celebrating-100-years-since-on-growth-and-form-by-d-arcy-wentworth-thompson
#17
EDITORIAL
Timothy E Saunders, Philip W Ingham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467887/cadherins-function-during-the-collective-cell-migration-of-xenopus-cranial-neural-crest-cells-revisiting-the-role-of-e-cadherin
#18
REVIEW
Hélène Cousin
Collective cell migration is a process whereby cells move while keeping contact with other cells. The Xenopus Cranial Neural Crest (CNC) is a population of cells that emerge during early embryogenesis and undergo extensive migration from the dorsal to ventral part of the embryo's head. These cells migrate collectively and require cadherin mediated cell-cell contact. In this review, we will describe the key features of Xenopus CNC migration including the key molecules driving their migration. We will also review the role of the various cadherins during Xenopus CNC emergence and migration...
April 30, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460893/a-framework-for-understanding-morphogenesis-and-migration-of-the-zebrafish-posterior-lateral-line-primordium
#19
REVIEW
Damian Dalle Nogare, Ajay B Chitnis
A description of zebrafish posterior Lateral Line (pLL) primordium development at single cell resolution together with the dynamics of Wnt, FGF, Notch and chemokine signaling in this system has allowed us to develop a framework to understand the self-organization of cell fate, morphogenesis and migration during its early development. The pLL primordium migrates under the skin, from near the ear to the tip of the tail, periodically depositing neuromasts. Nascent neuromasts, or protoneuromasts, form sequentially within the migrating primordium, mature, and are deposited from its trailing end...
April 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442367/d-arcy-thompson-s-on-growth-and-form-from-soap-bubbles-to-tissue-self-organization
#20
REVIEW
Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
Tissues are thought to behave like fluids with a given surface tension. Differences in tissue surface tension (TST) have been proposed to trigger cell sorting and tissue envelopment. D'Arcy Thompson in his seminal book 'On Growth and Form' has introduced this concept of differential TST as a key physical mechanism dictating tissue formation and organization within the developing organism. Over the past century, many studies have picked up the concept of differential TST and analyzed the role and cell biological basis of TST in development, underlining the importance and influence of this concept in developmental biology...
April 23, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
journal
journal
30626
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"