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Mechanisms of Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467887/cadherins-function-during-the-collective-cell-migration-of-xenopus-cranial-neural-crest-cells-revisiting-the-role-of-e-cadherin
#1
REVIEW
Hélène Cousin
Collective cell migration is a process whereby cells move while keeping contact with other cells. The Xenopus Cranial Neural Crest (CNC) is a population of cells that emerge during early embryogenesis and undergo extensive migration from the dorsal to ventral part of the embryo's head. These cells migrate collectively and require cadherin mediated cell-cell contact. In this review, we will describe the key features of Xenopus CNC migration including the key molecules driving their migration. We will also review the role of the various cadherins during Xenopus CNC emergence and migration...
April 30, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460893/a-framework-for-understanding-morphogenesis-and-migration-of-the-zebrafish-posterior-lateral-line-primordium
#2
REVIEW
Damian Dalle Nogare, Ajay B Chitnis
A description of zebrafish posterior Lateral Line (pLL) primordium development at single cell resolution together with the dynamics of Wnt, FGF, Notch and chemokine signaling in this system has allowed us to develop a framework to understand the self-organization of cell fate, morphogenesis and migration during its early development. The pLL primordium migrates under the skin, from near the ear to the tip of the tail, periodically depositing neuromasts. Nascent neuromasts, or protoneuromasts, form sequentially within the migrating primordium, mature, and are deposited from its trailing end...
April 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442367/d-arcy-thompson-s-on-growth-and-form-from-soap-bubbles-to-tissue-self-organization
#3
REVIEW
Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
Tissues are thought to behave like fluids with a given surface tension. Differences in tissue surface tension (TST) have been proposed to trigger cell sorting and tissue envelopment. D'Arcy Thompson in his seminal book 'On Growth and Form' has introduced this concept of differential TST as a key physical mechanism dictating tissue formation and organization within the developing organism. Over the past century, many studies have picked up the concept of differential TST and analyzed the role and cell biological basis of TST in development, underlining the importance and influence of this concept in developmental biology...
April 23, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442366/regulating-distal-tip-cell-migration-in-space-and-time
#4
REVIEW
Alyssa D Cecchetelli, Erin J Cram
Gonad morphogenesis in the nematode C. elegans is guided by two leader cells, the distal tip cells (DTC). The DTCs migrate along a stereotyped path, executing two 90° turns before stopping at the midpoint of the animal. This migratory path determines the double-U shape of the adult gonad, therefore, the path taken by the DTCs can be inferred from the final shape of the organ. In this review, we focus on the mechanism by which the DTC executes the first 90° turn from the ventral to dorsal side of the animal, and how it finds its correct stopping place at the midpoint of the animal...
April 23, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433748/the-repertoire-of-epithelial-morphogenesis-on-display-progressive-elaboration-of-drosophila-egg-structure
#5
REVIEW
Juan Carlos Duhart, Travis T Parsons, Laurel A Raftery
Epithelial structures are foundational for tissue organization in all metazoans. Sheets of epithelial cells form lateral adhesive junctions and acquire apico-basal polarity perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Genetic analyses in the insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, have greatly advanced our understanding of how epithelial organization is established, and how it is modulated during tissue morphogenesis. Major insights into collective cell migrations have come from analyses of morphogenetic movements within the adult follicular epithelium that cooperates with female germ cells to build a mature egg...
April 19, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428068/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-for-several-migrating-cell-types-identifies-cell-migration-regulators
#6
Young-Kyung Bae, Frank Macabenta, Heather Leigh Curtis, Angelike Stathopoulos
Cell migration is an instrumental process that ensures cells are properly positioned to support the specification of distinct tissue types during development. To provide insight, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate two migrating cell types from the Drosophila embryo: caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells, precursors of longitudinal muscles of the gut, and hemocytes (HCs), the Drosophila equivalent of blood cells. ~350 genes were identified from each of the sorted samples using RNA-seq, and in situ hybridization was used to confirm expression within each cell type or, alternatively, within other interacting, co-sorted cell types...
April 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400144/-cell-and-tissue-shell-and-bone-leaf-and-flower-on-growth-and-form-in-context
#7
REVIEW
Matthew Jarron
D'Arcy Thompson wrote his most celebrated book, On Growth and Form, at University College, Dundee in the 1910s. This paper explores some of the influences on Thompson's ideas and the context in which the book was written. It examines the controversial nature of some of the book's content and the connections between science and art that it embodies. The book's reception is discussed and the gradual take-up of his ideas within biology, as well as looking at the many other fields that have been influenced by Thompson's ideas...
April 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396045/drosophila-p115-is-required-for-cdk1-activation-and-g2-m-cell-cycle-transition
#8
Consuelo Ibar, Álvaro Glavic
Golgi complex inheritance and its relationship with the cell cycle are central in cell biology. Golgi matrix proteins, known as golgins, are one of the components that underlie the shape and functionality of this organelle. In mammalian cells, golgins are phosphorylated during mitosis to allow fragmentation of the Golgi ribbon and they also participate in spindle dynamics; both processes are required for cell cycle progression. Little is known about the function of golgins during mitosis in metazoans in vivo...
April 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366718/the-physics-of-development-100years-after-d-arcy-thompson-s-on-growth-and-form
#9
REVIEW
James Briscoe, Anna Kicheva
By applying methods and principles from the physical sciences to biological problems, D'Arcy Thompson's On Growth and Form demonstrated how mathematical reasoning reveals elegant, simple explanations for seemingly complex processes. This has had a profound influence on subsequent generations of developmental biologists. We discuss how this influence can be traced through twentieth century morphologists, embryologists and theoreticians to current research that explores the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tissue growth and patterning, including our own studies of the vertebrate neural tube...
March 30, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351699/imag-in-ing-growth-and-form
#10
REVIEW
Timothy E Saunders
On Growth and Form has stood at the forefront of our understanding of the development of biological form for the past century. In this essay, I take a look at how modern techniques are enabling unprecedented insight into the spatio-temporal regulation of development, which facilitates testing of the ideas that D'Arcy Thompson laid down so brilliantly 100years ago.
March 25, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341396/beyond-d-arcy-thompson-future-challenges-for-quantitative-biology
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Gregor
The centennial of "On Growth and Form" is a good opportunity to reflect on the progress in the quantitative study of living systems and where we would like to see it heading. The era of the physical sciences being a mere vehicle for tool building for biological investigations is over. The approaches taken nowadays are analogous to those that physical scientists have taken within their respective fields for centuries, only that now they ask them about biological phenomena and function. Here I give a brief reflection on where we are and where we should head next, both from the perspective of the research endeavor as a whole, but also with respect to teaching the next generation of scientists joining the field...
March 21, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341395/gonocytes-to-spermatogonia-transition-initiates-prior-to-birth-in-murine-testes-and-it-requires-fgf-signaling
#12
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
Spermatogenesis is a continuous and highly coordinated process of spermatozoa production. In mice, this process is believed to initiate shortly after birth with the emergence of nascent spermatogonia in the testes. However, because the nascent spermatogonia originated from the gonocytes are morphologically indistinguishable from their predecessors and there is no clear definition for the gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST), it remains unclear when and how spermatogenesis is initiated in the mouse testes...
March 21, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315388/mechano-devo
#13
REVIEW
Olivier Hamant
In "On growth and form", D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1917) stresses the inevitable interactions between physics and developmental biology. With the recent progress in molecular genetics, live imaging, micromechanics and modeling, the study of morphogenesis has been rejuvenated in the present century: the activity of developmental genes can be interpreted in terms of mechanical properties to dissect the chain of events behind shape changes; in turn, patterns of shape- and growth-derived mechanical stress are calculated and shown to act as signals controlling cell effectors, in synergy with biochemical cues, thereby channeling morphogenesis...
March 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263788/discovery-of-a-novel-oocyte-specific-kr%C3%A3-ppel-associated-box-domain-containing-zinc-finger-protein-required-for-early-embryogenesis-in-cattle
#14
Jacqelyn M Hand, Kun Zhang, Lei Wang, Prasanthi P Koganti, Kristen Mastrantoni, Sandeep K Rajput, Mohamed Ashry, George W Smith, Jianbo Yao
Zinc finger (ZNF) transcription factors interact with DNA through zinc finger motifs and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, development, apoptosis, and intracellular signal transduction. One-third of ZNF proteins in metazoans contain a highly conserved N-terminal motif known as the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain, which acts as a potent, DNA-binding dependent transcriptional repression module. Analysis of RNA-Seq data generated from a bovine oocyte cDNA library identified a novel transcript, which encodes a KRAB-containing ZNF transcription factor (named ZNFO)...
March 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332982/mod-special-issue-on-the-roles-of-physical-forces-in-animal-development
#15
EDITORIAL
Christian Dahmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013027/forces-directing-germ-band-extension-in-drosophila-embryos
#16
REVIEW
Deqing Kong, Fred Wolf, Jörg Großhans
Body axis elongation by convergent extension is a conserved developmental process found in all metazoans. Drosophila embryonic germ-band extension is an important morphogenetic process during embryogenesis, by which the length of the germ-band is more than doubled along the anterior-posterior axis. This lengthening is achieved by typical convergent extension, i.e. narrowing the lateral epidermis along the dorsal-ventral axis and simultaneous extension along the anterior-posterior axis. Germ-band extension is largely driven by cell intercalation, whose directionality is determined by the planar polarity of the tissue and ultimately by the anterior-posterior patterning system...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825898/the-balancing-roles-of-mechanical-forces-during-left-right-patterning-and-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Rita R Ferreira, Julien Vermot
Left-right patterning and asymmetric morphogenesis arise from a complex set of molecular and cellular interactions that are particularly dynamic and associated with mechanical forces. How do mechanical forces translate into tissular asymmetries? Are these forces asymmetrical de novo, or do they build up from pre-existing asymmetries? Advances in developmental genetics, live imaging and cell biology have recently shed light on the origins of mechanical forces generated at the cell scale and their implication in asymmetric patterning and morphogenesis is now emerging...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784612/forces-shaping-the-drosophila-wing
#18
REVIEW
M C Diaz de la Loza, B J Thompson
How genes encode the three-dimensional shape of tissues is a fascinating problem in biology. Pioneering genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila have identified key genes that control the generation of force patterns in the developing wing. Shortrange force patterns generated by planar polarised myosins can promote boundary formation and tissue elongation during the larval wing disc stage. Long-range force patterns are also crucial to shaping the wing during the pupal stage. We review the different ways in which both local and global force patterns can be generated, such as: patterned acto-myosin contractility, patterned anchorage to the extracellular matrix, and patterned tissue growth...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771340/apoptotic-forces-in-tissue-morphogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Arnaud Ambrosini, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
It is now well established that apoptosis is induced in response to mechanical strain. Indeed, increasing compressive forces induces apoptosis in confined spheroids of tumour cells, whereas releasing stress reduces apoptosis in spheroids cultivated in free suspension (Cheng et al., 2009). Apoptosis can also be induced by applying a 100 to 250MPa pressure, as shown in different cultured cells (for review, see (Frey et al., 2008)). During epithelium development, the pressure caused by a fast-growing clone can trigger apoptosis at the vicinity of the clone, mediating mechanical cell competition (Levayer et al...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697520/forces-driving-cell-sorting-in-the-amphibian-embryo
#20
REVIEW
Rudolf Winklbauer, Serge E Parent
Adhesion differences are the main driver of cell sorting and related processes such as boundary formation or tissue positioning. In the early amphibian embryo, graded variations in cadherin density and localized expression of adhesion-modulating factors are associated with regional differences in adhesive properties including overall adhesion strength. The role of these differences in embryonic boundary formation has not been studied extensively, but available evidence suggests that adhesion strength differentials are not essential...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
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