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Mechanisms of Development

Z E Plyler, S E Birket, B D Schultz, J S Hong, S M Rowe, C F Petty, M R Crowley, D K Crossman, T R Schoeb, E J Sorscher
This study utilizes morphological and mechanistic endpoints to characterize the onset of bilateral atresia of the vas deferens in a recently derived cystic fibrosis (CF) rat model. Embryonic reproductive structures, including Wolffian (mesonephric) duct, Mullerian (paramesonephric) duct, mesonephric tubules, and gonad, were shown to mature normally through late embryogenesis, with involution of the vas deferens and/or epididymis typically occurring between birth and postnatal day 4 (P4), although timing and degree of atresia varied...
October 31, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Jean Defourny, Nicolas Thelen, Marc Thiry
Many of the mutations in GJB2 and GJB6, which encode connexins 26 and 30 (Cx26 and Cx30), impair the formation of membrane channels and cause autosomal syndromic and non-syndromic hearing loss. In cochlear non-sensory supporting cells, Cx26 and Cx30 form two types of homomeric and heteromeric gap junctions. The biogenesis processes of these channels occurring in situ remain largely unknown. Here we show that Cx30 homomeric and Cx26/Cx30 heteromeric gap junctions exhibit distinct assembly mechanisms in the cochlea...
October 5, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Aurélie Clément, Bernardo Blanco-Sánchez, Judy L Peirce, Monte Westerfield
The semicircular canals in the inner ear sense angular acceleration. In zebrafish, the semicircular canals develop from epithelial projections that grow toward each other and fuse to form pillars. The growth of the epithelial projections is driven by the production and secretion of extracellular matrix components by the epithelium. The conserved oligomeric Golgi 4 protein, Cog4, functions in retrograde vesicle transport within the Golgi and mutations can lead to sensory neural hearing loss. In zebrafish cog4 mutants, the inner ear is smaller and the number of hair cells is reduced...
October 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Catalina Manieu, Gonzalo H Olivares, Franco Vega-Macaya, Mauricio Valdivia, Patricio Olguín
During musculoskeletal system development, mechanical tension is generated between muscles and tendon-cells. This tension is required for muscle differentiation and is counterbalanced by tendon-cells avoiding tissue deformation. Both, Jbug/Filamin, an actin-meshwork organizing protein, and non-muscle Myosin-II (Myo-II) are required to maintain the shape and cell orientation of the Drosophila notum epithelium during flight muscle attachment to tendon cells. Here we show that halving the genetic dose of Rho kinase (Drok), the main activator of Myosin-II, enhances the epithelial deformation and bristle orientation defects associated with jbug/Filamin knockdown...
September 10, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Ricardo Fuentes, Joaquín Letelier, Benjamin Tajer, Leonardo E Valdivia, Mary C Mullins
Understanding how the genome instructs the phenotypic characteristics of an organism is one of the major scientific endeavors of our time. Advances in genetics have progressively deciphered the inheritance, identity and biological relevance of genetically encoded information, contributing to the rise of several, complementary omic disciplines. One of them is phenomics, an emergent area of biology dedicated to the systematic multi-scale analysis of phenotypic traits. This discipline provides valuable gene function information to the rapidly evolving field of genetics...
August 18, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Fernanda M Bizotto, Renan S Ceratti, Antonio S K Braz, Hana Paula Masuda
Change in cell morphogenesis is an important feature for proper development of eukaryotes. It is necessary for cell polarity and asymmetry and is essential for asymmetric cell division. RAM/MOR is a conserved signaling network that coordinates cell polarity determinants important for asymmetric cell division and cell polarity establishment. Mo25 is a scaffold protein that acts as a master regulator of the germinal center kinase (GCK) which triggers the downstream signaling of this network. Little is known about RAM/MOR network or Mo25 protein homologs in plants...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Junpei Kuroda, Atsuko H Iwane, Shigeru Kondo
The embryonic fins and the tip of adult fins of teleost fish are supported by rows of straight, unmineralized fibrils called actinotrichia. The proximal ends of the actinotrichia are bundled and the mineralized bones called lepidotrichia are made along them. Since malformation in actinotrichia causes wavy fin bones, the correct configuration of actinotrichia is essential for the correct construction of the fin shape. Past studies suggested that two types of cells, basal keratinocytes, and mesenchymal cells involve in the formation of actinotrichia...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Skyler Berardi, Alanna McFall, Amanda Toledo-Hernandez, Carolyn Coote, Hillary Graham, Laurel Stine, Kyle Rhodehouse, Anna Auernhamer, Priscilla M Van Wynsberghe
Germline stem cells are maintained in the distal region of the C. elegans gonad. These cells undergo mitotic divisions, and GLP-1/Notch signaling dictates whether they remain in this state. The somatic distal tip cell (DTC) caps the end of the distal gonad and is essential for maintenance of the germline mitotic zone. As germ cells move away from the DTC they exit mitosis and enter early meiotic prophase. Here we identify the Period protein homolog LIN-42 as a new regulator of germline development in C. elegans...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Catalina Casillas, Henk Roelink
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is characterized by non-cell autonomy; cells expressing Shh do not respond to the ligand. Here, we identify several Shh mutations that can activate the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway cell-autonomously. Cell-autonomous pathway activation requires the extracellular cysteine rich domain of Smoothened, but is otherwise independent of the Shh receptors Patched1 and -2. Many of the Shh mutants that gain activity fail to undergo auto processing resulting in the perdurance of the Shh pro-peptide, a form of Shh that is sufficient to activate the Hh response cell-autonomously...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Nikhita Pasnuri, Purnati Khuntia, Aprotim Mazumder
Single molecule Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (smFISH) for mRNA provides a powerful quantitative handle on expression from endogenous gene loci. While the method has been widely applied in cells in culture, applications to primary tissue samples remain fewer, and often use involved cryosectioning. Even apart from quantitative access to absolute transcript counts in specific tissue volumes, many other advantages of smFISH can be envisaged in tissue samples. Primary among these are the ability to report on subtle differences in expression among different cell types within a tissue, and the ability to correlate the expression from different target genes...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Warren A Vieira, Kaylee M Wells, Roni Milgrom, Catherine D McCusker
Urodele amphibians such as the axolotl regenerate complete limbs as adults, and understanding how the "blueprint", or pattern, of the regenerate is established and manipulated are areas of intense interest. Nutrient signaling plays an important role in pattern formation during regeneration. Retinoic acid signaling is the most characterized pathway during this process. Exogenous retinoic acid (RA) reprograms the pattern information in regenerating cells to a more posterior, ventral, and proximal identity...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Gabriel Silva Pescador, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin, Ricardo Castilho Garcez
The neural crest (NC) is one of the most fascinating structures during embryonic development. Unique to vertebrate embryos, these cells give rise to important components of the craniofacial skeleton, such as the jaws and skull, as well as melanocytes and ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. Worldwide, several groups have been studying NC development and specifically in the Latin America (LA) they have been growing in numbers since the 1990s. It is important for the world to recognize the contributions of LA researchers on the knowledge of NC development, as it can stimulate networking and improvement in the field...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Rodolfo Martín-Del-Campo, Annelisse Bárcenas-Ibarra, Itzel Sifuentes-Romero, Raúl Llera-Herrera, Alejandra García-Gasca
Normal development involves the interplay of genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Pax6 is an eye-selector factor responsible for initiating the regulatory cascade for the development of the eyes. For the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), a threatened species, eye malformations have been reported. In order to study the DNA methylation status of the putative promoter of the Pax6 gene in embryos with ocular malformations, an exploratory study was carried out in which DNA was isolated from embryos with anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and cyclopia, as well as from their normal counterparts...
August 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Sandra Sofía Edwards, María Graciela Delgado, Guilherme Pedreira de Freitas Nader, Matthieu Piel, Yohanns Bellaïche, Ana María Lennon-Duménil, Álvaro Glavic
Thanks to the power of Drosophila genetics, this animal model has been a precious tool for scientists to uncover key processes associated to innate immunity. The fly immune system relies on a population of macrophage-like cells, also referred to as hemocytes, which are highly migratory and phagocytic, and can easily be followed in vivo. These cells have shown to play important roles in fly development, both at the embryonic and pupal stages. However, there is no robust assay for the study of hemocyte migration in vitro, which limits our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved...
August 7, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Santiago Cerrizuela, Guillermo A Vega-López, María Belén Palacio, Celeste Tríbulo, Manuel J Aybar
The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent migratory embryonic population that is formed during late gastrulation and gives rise to a wide array of derivatives, including cells from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the craniofacial bones and cartilages, peripheral glial cells, and melanocyte cells, among others. In this work we analyzed the role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway effector gli2 in Xenopus NC. We provide evidence that the gli2 gene is expressed in the prospective, premigratory and migratory NC...
August 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
João Vitor Cardoso Uliana, Guilherme Thomaz Pereira Brancini, James Castelli-Gair Hombría, Luciano Antonio Digiampietri, Luiz Paulo Andrioli, Nadia Monesi
Understanding the evolution of the developmental programs active during dipteran embryogenesis depends on comparative studies. As a counterpoint to the intensively investigated and highly derived cyclorrhaphan flies that include the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we are studying the basal Diptera Bradysia hygida, a member of the Sciaridae family that is amenable to laboratory cultivation. Here we describe the B. hygida embryogenesis, which lasts 9 days at 22 °C. The use of standard fixation D...
August 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Ricardo Fuentes, Mary C Mullins, Juan Fernández
Establishment and movement of cytoplasmic domains is of great importance for the emergence of cell polarity, germline segregation, embryonic axis specification and correct sorting of organelles and macromolecules into different embryonic cells. The zebrafish oocyte, egg and zygote are valuable material for the study of cytoplasmic domains formation and dynamics during development. In this review we examined how cytoplasmic domains form and are relocated during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Distinct cortical cytoplasmic domains (also referred to as ectoplasm domains) form first during early oogenesis by the localization of mRNAs to the vegetal or animal poles of the oocyte or radially throughout the cortex...
August 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Meline Coelho da Costa, Andréa Gonçalves Trentin, Giordano Wosgrau Calloni
The developmental mechanisms that control the building of the complex head of vertebrates and particularly, facial skeletogenesis, remain poorly known. Progenitor cells derived from the embryonic neural crest (NC) are the major constituents and players of facial tissue development. Deciphering the cellular and molecular machinery that controls NC cell (NCC) differentiation into bone, cartilage, fat and other mesenchymal tissues, is thus a main issue for understanding vertebrate facial variations. In this work, we investigated the effects of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), two signaling molecules essential for craniofacial development, on the in vitro differentiation and multipotentiality of mesencephalic NCCs (MNCCs) isolated from the quail embryo...
August 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Helena Araujo, Alison Julio, Maira Cardoso
Embryonic development repeatedly deploys a finite number of signaling pathways to control a multitude of processes such as patterning, growth and differentiation. Diversity in gene expression resulting from these signals depends on the epigenetic landscape as well as the network of interactions between different pathways at a given time. A third mechanism to generate diversity from a sole signal is to modify downstream pathway effectors by modulatory protein activity. The calcium-dependent calpain proteases are modulatory proteases that cleave proteins at specific sites, generating fragments, or neoproteins, with novel functions...
August 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Hao Zhang, Hongqiang Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that are capable of differentiate into multilineage cell types including bone in vitro and in vivo. AIM OF THE STUDY: They have been widely developed as a therapeutic approach for bone tissue repair and regeneration. However, the efficiency of lineage specific differentiation still needs improvement. We investigated the effect of Tricin on the proliferation of human adult MSCs by alamar blue assay, the mineralization of MSCs by staining of calcium deposition, and the expression levels of the osteoblastic marker genes during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs...
August 2018: Mechanisms of Development
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