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Mechanisms of Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913119/mechanical-forces-during-muscle-development
#1
REVIEW
Sandra B Lemke, Frank Schnorrer
Muscles are the major force producing tissue in the human body. While certain muscle types specialise in producing maximum forces, others are very enduring. An extreme example is the heart, which continuously beats for the entire life. Despite being specialised, all body muscles share similar contractile mini-machines called sarcomeres that are organised into regular higher order structures called myofibrils. The major sarcomeric components and their organisational principles are conserved throughout most of the animal kingdom...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913118/forces-controlling-organ-growth-and-size
#2
REVIEW
Dominik Eder, Christof Aegerter, Konrad Basler
One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838261/evolution-of-the-rax-family-of-developmental-transcription-factors-in-vertebrates
#3
Daniela P Orquera, Flávio S J de Souza
Rax proteins comprise a small family of paired-type, homeodomain-containing transcription factors with essential functions in eye and forebrain development. While invertebrates possess only one Rax gene, vertebrates can have several Rax paralogue genes, but the evolutionary history of the members of the family has not been studied in detail. Here, we present a thorough analysis of the evolutionary relationships between vertebrate Rax genes and proteins available in diverse genomic databases. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that Rax genes went through a duplication in an ancestor of all jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata), giving rise to the ancestral vertebrate Rax1 and Rax2 genes...
November 9, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825898/the-balancing-roles-of-mechanical-forces-during-left-right-patterning-and-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Rita R Ferreira, Julien Vermot
Left-right patterning and asymmetric morphogenesis arise from a dynamic set of molecular and cellular interactions that are particularly dynamic and associated with mechanical forces. How do mechanical forces translate into tissular asymmetries? Are these forces asymmetrical de novo, or do they build up from pre-existing asymmetries? Advances in developmental genetics, live imaging and cell biology have recently shed light on the origins of mechanical forces generated at the cell scale and their implication in asymmetric patterning and morphogenesis is now emerging...
November 4, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794491/vegf-regulates-relative-allocation-of-isl1-cardiac-progenitors-to-myocardial-and-endocardial-lineages
#5
Zhiheng He, Myriam Grunewald, Yuval Dor, Eli Keshet
A fundamental issue in organogenesis is how dichotomous fate decisions are made securing proper allocation of multipotent progenitors to their respective descendants. Previous lineage tracing analyses showing Isl1(+)/VEGFR2(+) cardiac progenitors in the second heart field give rise to both endocardium and myocardium suggest VEGF plays a role in this fate decision, conceivably promoting an endocardial fate. Isl1(+) multipotent progenitors and lineage-committed descendants thereof were visualized and quantified within their transition zone in the outflow tract...
October 26, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784612/forces-shaping-the-drosophila-wing
#6
REVIEW
M C Diaz de la Loza, B J Thompson
How genes encode the three-dimensional shape of tissues is a fascinating problem in biology. Pioneering genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila have identified key genes that control the generation of force patterns in the developing wing. Shortrange force patterns generated by planar polarisedmyosins can promote boundary formation and tissue elongation during the larval wing disc stage. Long-range force patterns are also crucial to shaping the wing during the pupal stage. We review the different ways in which both local and global force patterns can be generated, such as: patterned acto-myosin contractility, patterned anchorage to the extracellular matrix, and patterned tissue growth...
October 23, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773632/repression-activity-of-tailless-on-h-1-and-eve-1-pair-rule-stripes
#7
Luiz Paulo Andrioli, Wesley Silva Dos Santos, Francisco Dos Santos Aguiar, Luciano Antonio Digiampietri
We investigated the hypothesis that several transcriptional repressors are necessary to set the boundaries of anterior pair-rule stripes in Drosophila. Specifically, we tested whether Tailless (Tll) is part of a repression mechanism that correctly sets the anterior boundaries of hairy 1 (h 1) and even-skipped 1 (eve 1) stripes. Single mutant tll embryos displayed subtle deviations from the normal positions of h 1 and eve 1 stripes. Moreover, we observed stronger stripe deviations in embryos lacking both Tll and Sloppy-paired 1 (Slp 1), a common repressor for anterior pair-rule stripes...
October 20, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771340/apoptotic-forces-in-tissue-morphogenesis
#8
Arnaud Ambrosini, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
It is now well established that apoptosis is induced in response to mechanical strain. Indeed, increasing compressive forces induces apoptosis in confined spheroids of tumour cells, whereas releasing stress reduces apoptosis in spheroids cultivated in free suspension (Abrams et al., 1993). Apoptosis can also be induced by applying a 100 to 250MPa pressure, as shown in different cultured cells (for review, see (Belacortu & Paricio, 2011)). During epithelium development, the pressure caused by a fast-growing clone can trigger apoptosis at the vicinity of the clone, mediating mechanical cell competition (Bertet et al...
October 19, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702607/development-and-diabetes-on-the-fly
#9
Juan Manuel Murillo-Maldonado, Juan Rafael Riesgo-Escovar
We review the use of a model organism to study the effects of a slow course, degenerative disease: namely, diabetes mellitus. Development and aging are biological phenomena entailing reproduction, growth, and differentiation, and then decline and progressive loss of functionality leading ultimately to failure and death. It occurs at all biological levels of organization, from molecular interactions to organismal well being and homeostasis. Yet very few models capable of addressing the different levels of complexity in these chronic, developmental phenomena are available to study, and model organisms are an exception and a welcome opportunity for these approaches...
October 1, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697520/forces-driving-cell-sorting-in-the-amphibian-embryo
#10
Rudolf Winklbauer, Serge E Parent
Adhesion differences are the main driver of cell sorting and related processes such as boundary formation or tissue positioning. In the early amphibian embryo, graded variations in cadherin density and localized expression of adhesion-modulating factors are associated with regional differences in adhesive properties including overall adhesion strength. The role of these differences in embryonic boundary formation has not been studied extensively, but available evidence suggests that adhesion strength differentials are not essential...
September 30, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697519/mechanical-perspectives-on-the-anterior-posterior-axis-polarization-of-mouse-implanted-embryos
#11
Isao Matsuo, Ryuji Hiramatsu
In most mammals, embryonic development and growth proceed in the maternal uterus. Mouse late blastocyst embryos implant on the uterine epithelium around embryonic day (E)4.5, and immediately afterward the whole embryo's shape is dynamically changed from a bowl-like shape to an elongated egg-cylinder until E5.5. Concurrently, mouse anterior-posterior (A-P) axis polarization occurs by the emergence of distal visceral endoderm (DVE) cells at the cellular and molecular levels as the proximal-distal (P-D) axis. The embryonic growth and axis polarization are considered to be controlled primarily by multiple growth factors' signaling...
September 30, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687541/cholesterol-rich-membrane-microdomains-modulate-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-morphogen-gradient-during-xenopus-development
#12
Alice H Reis, Marcela M Moreno, Lorena A Maia, Fernanda P Oliveira, Andressa S Santos, José Garcia Abreu
Wnt/β-catenin has been described as crucial for dorsal-ventral and antero-posterior patterning, playing multiple roles at different stages of development. Cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (CRMMs), cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched domains of the plasma membrane, are known as platforms for signaling pathways. Although we have demonstrated the importance of the CRMMs for head development, how they participate in prechordal plate formation and embryo axis patterning remains an open question. Moreover, the participation of the CRMMs in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity in vivo is unclear, particularly during embryonic development...
September 26, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639961/marsupial-tammar-wallaby-delivers-milk-bioactives-to-altricial-pouch-young-to-support-lung-development
#13
Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Lyn A Hinds, Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefevre, Kevin R Nicholas
Our research is exploiting the marsupial as a model to understand the signals required for lung development. Marsupials have a unique reproductive strategy, the mother gives birth to altricial neonate with an immature lung and the changes in milk composition during lactation in marsupials appears to provide bioactives that can regulate diverse aspects of lung development, including branching morphogenesis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. These effects are seen with milk collected between 25 and 100days postpartum...
September 14, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555501/regeneration-in-bipinnaria-larvae-of-the-bat-star-patiria-miniata-induces-rapid-and-broad-new-gene-expression
#14
Authors Nathalie Oulhen, Andreas Heyland, Tyler J Carrier, Vanesa Zazueta-Novoa, Tara Fresques, Jessica Laird, Thomas M Onorato, Daniel Janies, Gary Wessel
BACKGROUND: Some metazoa have the capacity to regenerate lost body parts. This phenomenon in adults has been classically described in echinoderms, especially in sea stars (Asteroidea). Sea star bipinnaria larvae can also rapidly and effectively regenerate a complete larva after surgical bisection. Understanding the capacity to reverse cell fates in the larva is important from both a developmental and biomedical perspective; yet, the mechanisms underlying regeneration in echinoderms are poorly understood...
August 20, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519569/the-mll-setd1b-methyltransferase-is-required-for-the-spemann-s-organizer-gene-activation-in-xenopus
#15
Hao Lin, Zheying Min, Qinghua Tao
Wdr5 is an essential component of SET/MLL methylase complexes that catalyze histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation. The maternal Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for the H3K4me3 deposition at organizer genes in early Xenopus embryos. However, it remains unknown whether any component of SET/MLL methylase complex is required for Wnt signaling to establish H3K4me3 at its targets during the organizer induction. Here, we provide evidence that Wdr5 is required for dorsal axis development and organizer gene activation in Xenopus...
August 9, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497746/the-zebrafish-goosepimples-myosin-vb-mutant-exhibits-cellular-attributes-of-human-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#16
Jaydeep Sidhaye, Clyde Savio Pinto, Shweta Dharap, Tressa Jacob, Shobha Bhargava, Mahendra Sonawane
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a life threatening enteropathy characterised by malabsorption and incapacitating fluid loss due to chronic diarrhoea. Histological analysis has revealed that enterocytes in MVID patients exhibit reduction of microvilli, presence of microvillus inclusion bodies and intestinal villus atrophy, whereas genetic linkage analysis has identified mutations in myosin Vb gene as the main cause of MVID.In order to understand the cellular basis of MVID and the associated formation of inclusion bodies, an animal model that develops ex-utero and is tractable genetically as well as by microscopy would be highly useful...
August 3, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443627/gametic-synapses-nanotubes-and-sperm-rnas-redefining-the-origin-of-maternal-determinants
#17
REVIEW
Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak, Szczepan M Bilinski
The female germline cells, i.e., the oocytes/eggs, contain a subpopulation of unique organelles and molecules (RNA and proteins) collectively called "the maternal determinants" that are indispensable for the determination of cell fate in the developing embryo. Although it has been known for some time that somatic cells deliver low-molecular-weight molecules to the oocyte/egg, the paradigm has been that the larger molecules and organelles are synthesized by the female germline cells without input from the surrounding somatic cells...
August 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378074/loss-of-histone-deacetylase-hdac1-induces-cell-death-in-drosophila-epithelial-cells-through-jnk-and-hippo-signaling
#18
Tianyi Zhang, Zhentao Sheng, Wei Du
Inactivation of HDAC1 and its homolog HDAC2 or addition of HDAC inhibitors in mammalian systems induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and developmental defects. Although these phenotypes have been extensively characterized, the precise underlying mechanisms remain unclear, particularly in in vivo settings. In this study, we show that inactivation of Rpd3, the only HDAC1 and HDAC2 ortholog in Drosophila, induced apoptosis and clone elimination in the developing eye and wing imaginal discs. Depletion of Rpd3 by RNAi cell-autonomously increased JNK activities and decreased activities of Yki, the nuclear effecter of Hippo signaling pathway...
August 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373510/steroid-5-reductases-are-functional-during-early-frog-development-and-are-regulated-via-dna-methylation
#19
Sonja Bissegger, Valerie S Langlois
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373508/regulation-of-amino-acid-transporters-in-pluripotent-cell-populations-in-the-embryo-and-in-culture-novel-roles-for-sodium-coupled-neutral-amino-acid-transporters
#20
Boon Siang Nicholas Tan, Peter D Rathjen, Alexandra J Harvey, David K Gardner, Joy Rathjen
The developmental outcomes of preimplantation mammalian embryos are regulated directly by the surrounding microenvironment, and inappropriate concentrations of amino acids, or the loss of amino acid-sensing mechanisms, can be detrimental and impact further development. A specific role for l-proline in the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells, a cell population derived from the blastocyst, has been shown in culture. l-proline acts as a signalling molecule, exerting its effects through cell uptake and subsequent metabolism...
August 2016: Mechanisms of Development
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