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Mechanisms of Development

Juan Ignacio Leal, Soraya Villaseca, Andrea Beyer, Gabriela Toro-Tapia, Marcela Torrejón
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population that migrates extensively during development. Ric-8A, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for different Gα subunits regulates cranial NC (CNC) cell migration in Xenopus through a mechanism that still remains to be elucidated. To properly migrate, CNC cells establish an axis of polarization and undergo morphological changes to generate protrusions at the leading edge and retraction of the cell rear. Here, we aim to study the role of Ric-8A in cell polarity during CNC cell migration by examining whether its signaling affects the localization of GTPase activity in Xenopus CNC using GTPase-based probes in live cells and aPKC and Par3 as polarity markers...
July 14, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Crystal D Rogers, Lisa Sorrells, Marianne E Bronner
Characterizing endogenous protein expression, interaction and function, this study identifies in vivo interactions and competitive balance between N-cadherin and E-cadherin in developing avian (Gallus gallus) neural and neural crest cells. Numerous cadherin proteins, including neural cadherin (Ncad) and epithelial cadherin (Ecad), are expressed in the developing neural plate as well as in neural crest cells as they delaminate from the newly closed neural tube. To clarify independent or coordinate function during development, we examined their expression in the cranial region...
July 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Julia Torres-Velarde, Raúl Llera-Herrera, Teresa García-Gasca, Alejandra García-Gasca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
María Belén Favarolo, Silvia L López
Bilaterian embryos are triploblastic organisms which develop three complete germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). While the ectoderm develops mainly from the animal hemisphere, there is diversity in the location from where the endoderm and the mesoderm arise in relation to the animal-vegetal axis, ranging from endoderm being specified between the ectoderm and mesoderm in echinoderms, and the mesoderm being specified between the ectoderm and the endoderm in vertebrates. A common feature is that part of the mesoderm segregates from an ancient bipotential endomesodermal domain...
June 22, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Claudia Solari, María Victoria Petrone, Camila Vázquez Echegaray, María Soledad Cosentino, Ariel Waisman, Marcos Francia, Lino Barañao, Santiago Miriuka, Alejandra Guberman
Redox homeostasis is vital for cellular functions and to prevent the detrimental consequences of oxidative stress. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have an enhanced antioxidant system which supports the preservation of their genome. Besides, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are proposed to be involved in both self-renewal maintenance and in differentiation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Increasing evidence shows that cellular systems related to the oxidative stress defense decline along differentiation of PSCs. Although redox homeostasis has been extensively studied for many years, the knowledge about the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in these systems is still limited...
June 19, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Haruhiko Adachi, Keisuke Matsuda, Teruyuki Niimi, Yasuhiro Inoue, Shigeru Kondo, Hiroki Gotoh
Insects can dramatically change their outer morphology at molting. To prepare for this drastic transformation, insects generate new external organs as folded primordia under the old cuticle. At molting, these folded primordia are physically extended to form their final outer shape in a very short time. Beetle horns are a typical example. Horn primordia are derived from a flat head epithelial sheet, on which deep furrows are densely added to construct the complex folded structure. Because the 3D structure of the pupa horn is coded in the complex furrow pattern, it is indispensable to know how and where the furrows are set...
June 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Sergio González-Itier, Esteban G Contreras, Juan Larraín, Álvaro Glavic, Fernando Faunes
Insect metamorphosis has been a classic model to understand the role of hormones in growth and timing of developmental transitions. In addition to hormones, transitions in some species are regulated by genetic programs, such as the heterochronic gene network discovered in C. elegans. However, the functional link between hormones and heterochronic genes is not clear. The heterochronic gene lin-28 is involved in the maintenance of stem cells, growth and developmental timing in vertebrates. In this work, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments to study the role of Lin-28 in larval growth and the timing of metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster...
June 13, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Hirofumi Kinoshita, Nanae Ohgane, Yuuri Fujino, Taijiro Yabe, Hiroki Ovara, Daisuke Yokota, Ayaka Izuka, Daichi Kage, Kyo Yamasu, Shinji Takada, Akinori Kawamura
Somites sequentially form with a regular interval by the segmentation from the anterior region of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The expression of several genes involved in the somite segmentation is switched off at the transition from the anterior PSM to somites. Zebrafish Ripply1, which down-regulates a T-box transcription factor Tbx6, is required for the suppression of segmentation gene expression. However, the functional roles of the Ripply-mediated suppression of segmentation gene expression at the anterior PSM remain elusive...
June 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Andrea M J Weiner
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that can control gene expression by base pairing to partially complementary mRNAs. Regulation by microRNAs plays essential roles in diverse biological processes such as neural crest formation during embryonic development. The neural crest is a multipotent cell population that develops from the dorsal neural fold of vertebrate embryos in order to migrate extensively and differentiate into a variety of tissues. Gene regulatory networks that coordinate neural crest cell specification and differentiation have been considerably studied so far...
May 31, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Francisca Bermedo-García, Jorge Ojeda, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Sylvain Marcellini, Juan Larraín, Juan Pablo Henríquez
The frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has been extensively used as a model system to dissect the mechanisms involved in synapse formation, maturation, maintenance, regeneration, and function. Early NMJ synaptogenesis relies on a combination of cell-autonomous and interdependent pre/postsynaptic communication processes. Due to their transparency, comparatively easy manipulation, and remarkable regenerative abilities, frog tadpoles constitute an excellent model to study NMJ formation and regeneration. Here, we aimed to contribute new aspects on the characterization of the ontogeny of NMJ formation in Xenopus embryos and to explore the morphological changes occurring at the NMJ after spinal cord injury...
May 26, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
María Clara Ingaramo, Juan A Sánchez, Andrés Dekanty
Tp53 is a central regulator of cellular responses to stress and one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers. P53 is activated by a myriad of stress signals and drives specific cellular responses depending on stress nature, cell type and cellular context. Additionally to its classical functions in regulating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence, newly described non-canonical functions of p53 are increasingly coming under the spotlight as important functions not only for its role as a tumour suppressor but also for its non-cancer associated activities...
May 23, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Pablo Armas, Nora Beatriz Calcaterra
During animal development, gene expression is orchestrated by specific and highly evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that take place accurately, both at spatial and temporal levels. The last decades have provided compelling evidence showing that chromatin state plays essential roles in orchestrating most of the stages of development. The DNA molecule can adopt alternative structures different from the helical duplex architecture. G-rich DNA sequences can fold as intrastrand quadruple helix structures called G-quadruplexes or G4-DNA...
May 18, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Suman Gurung, Emilia Asante, Devynn Hummel, Ashley Williams, Oren Feldman-Schultz, Mary C Halloran, Vinoth Sittaramane, Anand Chandrasekhar
Contactin2 (Cntn2)/Transient Axonal Glycoprotein 1 (Tag1), a neural cell adhesion molecule, has established roles in neuronal migration and axon fasciculation in chick and mouse. In zebrafish, antisense morpholino-based studies have indicated roles for cntn2 in the migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons, the guidance of the axons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nucMLF), and the outgrowth of Rohon-Beard (RB) central axons. To study functions of Cntn2 in later stages of neuronal development, we generated cntn2 mutant zebrafish using CRISPR-Cas9...
May 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Carlos Alfonso-Gonzalez, Juan Rafael Riesgo-Escovar
The Fos oncogene gene family is evolutionarily conserved throughout Eukarya. Fos proteins characteristically have a leucine zipper and a basic region with a helix-turn-helix motif that binds DNA. In vertebrates, there are several Fos homologs. They can homo- or hetero-dimerize via the leucine zipper domain. Fos homologs coupled with other transcription factors, like Jun oncoproteins, constitute the Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) complex. From its original inception as an oncogene, the subsequent finding that they act as transcription factors binding DNA sequences known as TRE, to the realization that they are activated in many different scenarios, and to loss-of-function analysis, the Fos proteins have traversed a multifarious path in development and physiology...
May 14, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Paula Verneri, Juan José Romero, María Cecilia De Rossi, Yanina Alvarez, Camila Oses, Alejandra Guberman, Valeria Levi
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are capable of self-renewing and producing all cell types derived from the three germ layers in response to developmental cues, constituting an important promise for regenerative medicine. Pluripotency depends on specific transcription factors (TFs) that induce genes required to preserve the undifferentiated state and repress other genes related to differentiation. The transcription machinery and regulatory components such as TFs are recruited dynamically on their target genes making it essential exploring their dynamics in living cells to understand the transcriptional output...
May 14, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Yongchao Gou, Jingyuan Li, Jian Wu, Rahul Gupta, Ihnbae Cho, Thach-Vu Ho, Yang Chai, Amy Merrill, Jun Wang, Jian Xu
Protein arginine methylation has been recently identified as an important form of post-translational modification (PTM). It is carried out by the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes, which in mammals consists of nine members. Among them, PRMT1 is the major arginine methyltransferase and participates in transcription, signal transduction, development and cancer. The function of PRMT1 in craniofacial development remains unclear. We generated Wnt1-Cre;Prmt1fl/fl mice with cranial neural crest (CNC)-specific deletion of Prmt1 and compared CNC-derived craniofacial bones from newborn control and Wnt1-Cre;Prmt1fl/fl mice...
May 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Francisco Carmona-Aldana, Cecilia Zampedri, Fernando Suaste-Olmos, Adrián Murillo-de-Ozores, Georgina Guerrero, Rodrigo Arzate-Mejía, Ernesto Maldonado, Rosa E Navarro, Jesús Chimal-Monroy, Félix Recillas-Targa
Chromatin regulation and organization are essential processes that regulate gene activity. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a protein with different and important molecular functions related with chromatin dynamics. It is conserved since invertebrates to vertebrates, posing it as a factor with an important role in the physiology. In this work, we aimed to understand the distribution and functional relevance of CTCF during the embryonic development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We generated a zebrafish specific anti-Ctcf antibody, and found this protein to be ubiquitous, through different stages and tissues...
May 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Alisson M Gontijo, Andres Garelli
Many insects, like cockroaches, moths, and flies, can regenerate tissues by extending the growth-competent phases of their life cycle. The molecular and cellular players mediating this coordination between tissue growth and developmental timing have been recently discovered in Drosophila. The insulin/relaxin-like peptide, Dilp8, was identified as a factor communicating abnormal growth status of Drosophila larval imaginal discs to the neuroendocrine centers that control the timing of the onset of metamorphosis...
April 30, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Steven J Deimling, Kimberly Lau, Chi-Chung Hui, Sevan Hopyan
Anteroposterior polarity of the early limb bud is essential for proper skeletal pattern formation. In order to establish anterior identity, hedgehog signalling needs to be repressed by GLI3 repressor activity, although the mechanism of repression is not well defined. Here we describe genetic interaction between Gli3 and Enhancer of Zeste 2 (Ezh2) that encodes the histone methyltransferase subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. Loss of anterior limb identity was evident in both Gli3 and conditional Ezh2 single mutant embryos...
June 2018: Mechanisms of Development
H M Rodgers, V J Huffman, V A Voronina, M Lewandoski, P H Mathers
The Retinal homeobox gene (Rx; also Rax) plays a crucial role in the early development of the vertebrate eye. Germline deletion of Rx in mice results in the failure of optic vesicle formation, leading to anophthalmia. Recent research using conditional mouse knockout models provides some clues to the role of Rx in eye development following optic vesicle formation. However, the functions of Rx in embryonic retinogenesis are still not fully understood. We investigated the function of Rx in the mouse neural retina using a conditional knockout where the Pax6α-Cre driver deletes Rx activity in early retinal progenitors...
June 2018: Mechanisms of Development
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