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Mechanisms of Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189795/how-complexity-increases-in-development-an-analysis-of-the-spatial-temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-in-ciona-intestinalis
#1
Irepan Salvador-Martínez, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad
The increase in complexity in an embryo over developmental time is perhaps one of the most intuitive processes of animal development. It is also intuitive that the embryo becomes progressively compartmentalized over time and space. In spite of this intuitiveness, there are no systematic attempts to quantify how this occurs. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the compartmentalization and spatial complexity of Ciona intestinalis over developmental time by analyzing thousands of gene expression spatial patterns from the ANISEED database...
February 9, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163199/chemical-activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-inhibits-innervation-and-causes-skeletal-tissue-malformations-during-axolotl-limb-regeneration
#2
Sabina Wischin, Cristina Castañeda-Patlán, Martha Robles-Flores, Jesús Chimal-Monroy
Limb regeneration involves several interrelated physiological processes in which a particular signalling pathway may play a variety of functions. Blocking the function of Wnt/β-catenin signalling during limb regeneration inhibits regeneration in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). Limb development shares many features with limb regeneration, and Wnt/β-catenin activation has different effects depending on the developmental stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling activation during axolotl limb regeneration has different effects when activated at different stages of regeneration...
February 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132765/zebrafish-akt2-is-essential-for-survival-growth-bone-development-and-glucose-homeostasis
#3
Dawei Zhang, Jing Wang, Chi Zhou, Wuhan Xiao
As one of three akt isoforms, akt2 plays a key role in the regulation of widely divergent cellular processes in mammals. However, its role and underlying mechanisms in zebrafish remain largely unknown. To elucidate the function of akt2 in zebrafish, we generated zebrafish lacking akt2 gene via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Akt2-null zebrafish exhibit partial lethality and severe growth deficiency, which is different from those observed in akt2-null mice. Furthermore, akt2-null zebrafish display deficiency in fin ray development, but their cartilage is not affected...
January 26, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108070/corrigendum-to-regulation-of-polycomb-group-genes-psc-and-su-z-2-in-drosophila-melanogaster-mech-dev-128-2012-536-547
#4
Sung Yeon Park, Yuri B Schwartz, Tatyana G Kahn, Dalal Asker, Vincenzo Pirrotta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093265/developmental-tracing-of-oocyte-development-in-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-deficiency-medaka-oryzias-latipes-using-a-transgenic-approach
#5
Guijun Guan, Kaiqing Sun, Xi Zhang, Xiaomiao Zha, Mingyou Li, Yan Yan, Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Meisheng Yi, Yunhan Hong
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is reported to be a male initiator in medaka based on loss- and gain- of function via targeted disruption, or transgenic over-expression. However, little is known about how gsdf promotes undifferentiated gonad entry into male pathways or prevents entry into the female pathway. We utilized a visible folliculogenesis system with a reporter cassette of dual-color fluorescence expression to identify difference between oocyte development from wildtype and gsdf deficiency medaka...
January 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087460/identification-of-the-doublesex-protein-binding-sites-that-activate-expression-of-lozenge-in-the-female-genital-disc-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Shunsuke Wagamitsu, Dan Takase, Fugaku Aoki, Masataka G Suzuki
Normal sexual differentiation in the genital organs is essential for the animal species that use sexual reproduction. Although it is known that doublesex (dsx) is required for the sexual development of the genitalia in various insect species, the direct target genes responsible for the sexual differentiation of the genitalia have not been identified. The lozenge (lz) gene is expressed in the female genital disc and is essential for developments of spermathecae and accessory glands in Drosophila melanogaster...
January 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087459/wnt-signaling-balances-specification-of-the-cardiac-and-pharyngeal-muscle-fields
#7
Amrita Mandal, Andrew Holowiecki, Yuntao Charlie Song, Joshua S Waxman
Canonical Wnt/β-catenin (Wnt) signaling plays multiple conserved roles during fate specification of cardiac progenitors in developing vertebrate embryos. Although lineage analysis in ascidians and mice has indicated there is a close relationship between the cardiac second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscle (PM) progenitors, the signals underlying directional fate decisions of the cells within the cardio-pharyngeal muscle field in vertebrates are not yet understood. Here, we examined the temporal requirements of Wnt signaling in cardiac and PM development...
January 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077304/drosophila-dorsal-closure-an-orchestra-of-forces-to-zip-shut-the-embryo
#8
REVIEW
Peran Hayes, Jérôme Solon
Dorsal closure, a late-embryogenesis process, consists in the sealing of an epidermal gap on the dorsal side of the Drosophila embryo. Because of its similarities with wound healing and neural tube closure in humans, it has been extensively studied in the last twenty years. The process requires the coordination of several force generating mechanisms, that together will zip shut the epidermis. Recent works have provided a precise description of the cellular behavior at the origin of these forces and proposed quantitative models of the process...
January 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039065/microrna-224-delays-oocyte-maturation-through-targeting-ptx3-in-cumulus-cells
#9
Xiufang Li, Huidan Wang, Yan Sheng, Zhongqing Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been improved to regulate oocyte development in a cell- or stage-specific manner. In this study, we aimed to clarify microRNA-224's (miR-224) role in cumulus cells (CCs), to find out whether a change level of miR-224 in CCs could influence the maturation of oocyte. We found that overexpression of miR-224 of CCs led to the impairment of cell expansion, along with a decrease in the gene expression associated with cell expansion and maturation of oocyte. The increased expression of miR-224 in CC interrupted oocyte cell cycle at the GV stage...
December 28, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013027/forces-directing-germ-band-extension-in-drosophila-embryos
#10
REVIEW
Deqing Kong, Fred Wolf, Jörg Großhans
Body axis elongation by convergent extension is a conserved developmental process found in all metazoans. Drosophila embryonic germ-band extension is an important morphogenetic process during embryogenesis, by which the length of the germ-band is more than doubled along the anterior-posterior axis. This lengthening is achieved by typical convergent extension, i.e. narrowing the lateral epidermis along the dorsal-ventral axis and simultaneous extension along the anterior-posterior axis. Germ-band extension is largely driven by cell intercalation, whose directionality is determined by the planar polarity of the tissue and ultimately by the anterior-posterior patterning system...
December 22, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011160/piraguaencodes-a-zinc-finger-protein-required-for-development-in-drosophila
#11
Nestor O Nazario-Yepiz, Juan R Riesgo-Escovar
We isolated and characterized embryonic lethal mutations in piragua (prg). The prg locus encodes a protein with an amino terminus Zinc Finger-Associated-Domain (ZAD) and nine C2H2 zinc fingers (ZF). prg mRNA and protein expression during embryogenesis is dynamic with widespread maternal contribution, and subsequent expression in epithelial precursors. About a quarter of prg mutant embryos do not develop cuticle, and from those that do a small fraction have cuticular defects. Roughly half of prg mutants die during embryogenesis...
December 20, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007475/mechanisms-of-retinoic-acid-signaling-during-cardiogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Sonia Stefanovic, Stéphane Zaffran
Substantial experimental and epidemiological data have highlighted the interplay between nutritional and genetic factors in the development of congenital heart defects. Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, plays a key role during vertebrate development including the formation of the heart. Retinoids bind to RA and retinoid X receptors (RARs and RXRs) which then regulate tissue-specific genes. Here, we will focus on the roles of RA signaling and receptors in gene regulation during cardiogenesis, and the consequence of deregulated retinoid signaling on heart formation and congenital heart defects...
December 19, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989746/tension-re-builds-biophysical-mechanisms-of-embryonic-wound-repair
#13
REVIEW
Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
Embryonic tissues display an outstanding ability to rapidly repair wounds. Epithelia, in particular, serve as protective layers that line internal organs and form the skin. Thus, maintenance of epithelial integrity is of utmost importance for animal survival, particularly at embryonic stages, when an immune system has not yet fully developed. Rapid embryonic repair of epithelial tissues is conserved across species, and involves the collective migration of the cells around the wound. The migratory cell behaviours associated with wound repair require the generation and transmission of mechanical forces, not only for the cells to move, but also to coordinate their movements...
December 15, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956219/hoxa1-and-hoxb1-are-required-for-pharyngeal-arch-artery-development
#14
Marine Roux, Brigitte Laforest, Nathalie Eudes, Nicolas Bertrand, Sonia Stefanovic, Stéphane Zaffran
Hox transcription factors play critical roles during early vertebrate development. Previous studies have revealed an overlapping function of Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 during specification of the rhombomeres from which neural crest cells emerge. A recent study on Hoxa1 mutant mice documented its function during cardiovascular development, however, the role of Hoxb1 is still unclear. Here we show using single and compound Hoxa1;Hoxb1 mutant embryos that reduction of Hoxa1 gene dosage in Hoxb1-null genetic background is sufficient to result in abnormal pharyngeal aortic arch (PAA) development and subsequently in great artery defects...
December 9, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913118/forces-controlling-organ-growth-and-size
#15
REVIEW
Dominik Eder, Christof Aegerter, Konrad Basler
One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development...
November 30, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913119/mechanical-forces-during-muscle-development
#16
REVIEW
Sandra B Lemke, Frank Schnorrer
Muscles are the major force producing tissue in the human body. While certain muscle types specialize in producing maximum forces, others are very enduring. An extreme example is the heart, which continuously beats for the entire life. Despite being specialized, all body muscles share similar contractile mini-machines called sarcomeres that are organized into regular higher order structures called myofibrils. The major sarcomeric components and their organizational principles are conserved throughout most of the animal kingdom...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838261/evolution-of-the-rax-family-of-developmental-transcription-factors-in-vertebrates
#17
Daniela P Orquera, Flávio S J de Souza
Rax proteins comprise a small family of paired-type, homeodomain-containing transcription factors with essential functions in eye and forebrain development. While invertebrates possess only one Rax gene, vertebrates can have several Rax paralogue genes, but the evolutionary history of the members of the family has not been studied in detail. Here, we present a thorough analysis of the evolutionary relationships between vertebrate Rax genes and proteins available in diverse genomic databases. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that Rax genes went through a duplication in an ancestor of all jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata), giving rise to the ancestral vertebrate Rax1 and Rax2 genes...
November 9, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825898/the-balancing-roles-of-mechanical-forces-during-left-right-patterning-and-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Rita R Ferreira, Julien Vermot
Left-right patterning and asymmetric morphogenesis arise from a dynamic set of molecular and cellular interactions that are particularly dynamic and associated with mechanical forces. How do mechanical forces translate into tissular asymmetries? Are these forces asymmetrical de novo, or do they build up from pre-existing asymmetries? Advances in developmental genetics, live imaging and cell biology have recently shed light on the origins of mechanical forces generated at the cell scale and their implication in asymmetric patterning and morphogenesis is now emerging...
November 4, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794491/vegf-regulates-relative-allocation-of-isl1-cardiac-progenitors-to-myocardial-and-endocardial-lineages
#19
Zhiheng He, Myriam Grunewald, Yuval Dor, Eli Keshet
A fundamental issue in organogenesis is how dichotomous fate decisions are made securing proper allocation of multipotent progenitors to their respective descendants. Previous lineage tracing analyses showing Isl1(+)/VEGFR2(+) cardiac progenitors in the second heart field give rise to both endocardium and myocardium suggest VEGF plays a role in this fate decision, conceivably promoting an endocardial fate. Isl1(+) multipotent progenitors and lineage-committed descendants thereof were visualized and quantified within their transition zone in the outflow tract...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687541/cholesterol-rich-membrane-microdomains-modulate-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-morphogen-gradient-during-xenopus-development
#20
Alice H Reis, Marcela M Moreno, Lorena A Maia, Fernanda P Oliveira, Andressa S Santos, José Garcia Abreu
Wnt/β-catenin has been described as crucial for dorsal-ventral and antero-posterior patterning, playing multiple roles at different stages of development. Cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (CRMMs), cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched domains of the plasma membrane, are known as platforms for signaling pathways. Although we have demonstrated the importance of the CRMMs for head development, how they participate in prechordal plate formation and embryo axis patterning remains an open question. Moreover, the participation of the CRMMs in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity in vivo is unclear, particularly during embryonic development...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
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