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Sheng-Nan Wang, Chun-Ping Gu, Guang-Hui Liu, Zhen-Zhou Lin, Ping Zheng, Su-Yue Pan, Shi-Ting Liu
This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic concentration range of phenobarbital (PB) for adults, as well as the influence of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on plasma concentration of PB. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients diagnosed with refractory status epileptic (RSE) and treated with a bolus injection of PB as well as TPE, admitted to our neurocritical care unit from November 2015 to October 2016. Continuous electroencephalographic monitoring was performed routinely for these patients...
September 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Ginetta Collo, Laura Cavalleri, Cristiano Chiamulera, Emilio Merlo Pich
The mechanisms underlying the prolonged antidepressant effects after a single infusion of ketamine are only partially understood. Ketamine's half-life of ∼2 h cannot explain antidepressant effects that last for 1 week, suggesting the triggering of long-lasting neuroplasticity. Recent human pharmacokinetics (PK) data indicate that a ketamine metabolite, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK), persists in the high submicromolar range for additional 6-12 h. As in rodents HNK can induce dendrite outgrowth through AMPA receptor-mediated mechanisms, in this work, we aimed to show that HNK produces similar effects in human neurons at concentrations and exposure time compatible with human PK after ketamine infusion...
September 11, 2018: Neuroreport
Natalie S Dailey, Ryan Smith, John R Vanuk, Adam C Raikes, William D S Killgore
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can alter the structure of the brain and result in a range of symptoms, including elevated aggression. Neurological damage associated with mTBI is traditionally viewed as transient, yet a growing number of studies suggest long-lasting psychological and neurological changes following mTBI. However, research examining the neural basis of emotion processing in the chronic stage of mTBI recovery remains sparse. In the current study, we utilized resting state functional MRI to explore the association between default mode network connectivity and aggression in 17 healthy controls and 17 adults at least 6 months post-mTBI...
September 10, 2018: Neuroreport
Da-Wei Li, Jin-Zhi Liu, Shu-Chen Li, Jin-Bin Yang, Huan-Huan Sun, Ai-Hua Wang
Fear memory is important for the survival of animals and is associated with certain anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder. A thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of fear memory, especially associative fear memory, is imperative. MicroRNA-138 (miR-138) is a widely distributed microRNA in the brain and is locally enriched at synaptic sites. The role of miR-138 in the formation of fear memory is still largely unknown. In this study, a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm, bioinformatic methods, a luciferase assay, real-time PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the detailed effects of miR-138 on fear memory...
September 7, 2018: Neuroreport
Fei Jiang, Fei-Fei Zeng, Chen Yu, Yin-Quan Ye, Xian-Jun Zeng
The study aimed to compare the whole-brain gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) difference between primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) patients and health controls (HCs) using a voxel-based morphometry method. A total of 27 patients with PACG (17 males and 10 females) and 27 HCs (17 males and 10 females), closely matched for age and education, were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The MRI data were processed using SPM8 software in voxel-based morphometry 8 toolbox...
September 7, 2018: Neuroreport
Yunlong Huang, Minghu Jiang, Qian Guo, Fan-Pei G Yang
It remains an open question whether the amplitude of N400 reflects combinatory postlexical semantic integration processing. To examine the issue, we repeatedly presented strictly simplified, N400-eliciting three-word structures for seven times, mixed with their plausible counterparts, followed immediately by a much more enriched and informative sentence containing two keywords of the incongruous structure, for the purpose of reinitiating semantic integration processing. Event-related potentials were recorded and compared at the first, fourth, seventh, and eighth time...
September 7, 2018: Neuroreport
Kanoko Okumura, Hisaya Kakinuma, Ryunosuke Amo, Hitoshi Okamoto, Kyo Yamasu, Sachiko Tsuda
Voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging enables fast, direct, and simultaneous detection of membrane potentials from a population of neurons forming neuronal circuits. This enables the detection of hyperpolarization together with depolarization, whose balance plays a pivotal role in the function of many brain regions. Among these is the cerebellum, which contains a significant number of inhibitory neurons. However, the mechanism underlying the functional development remains unclear. In this study, we used a model system ideal to study neurogenesis by applying VSD imaging to the cerebellum of zebrafish larvae to analyze the neuronal activity of the developing cerebellum, focusing on both excitation and inhibition...
September 5, 2018: Neuroreport
Shaofeng Pu, Shuangyue Li, Yongming Xu, Junzhen Wu, Yingying Lv, Dongping Du
Nerve damage often leads to nervous system dysfunction and neuropathic pain. The serine-threonine kinases receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and 3 (RIP3) are associated with inflammation and cell necrosis. This study aimed to explore the role of RIP1 and RIP3 in sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) in mice. On a total of thirty mice, sciatic nerve CCI was performed. The paw withdrawal threshold was measured using Von Frey filaments. The mRNA expression and protein levels of inflammatory factors RIP1 and RIP3 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord (SC) and hippocampus (HIP) were also determined...
September 5, 2018: Neuroreport
Yuriko Fukuda, Sayaka Katsunuma, Atsuhiro Uranagase, Jumpei Nota, Ken-Ichi Nibu
In the mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE), neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime, by replacing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) lost by normal turnover in the postnatal period. However, this ability decreases with age and/or because of various toxic factors. To date, no effective treatment for olfactory dysfunction especially because of aging is available in clinical practice. Here, we examined the effects of intranasal administration of fibroblast growth factor-2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 in gelatin hydrogel on the degenerated OE of aging mice induced by methimazole administration...
August 31, 2018: Neuroreport
Xue Wang, Yang Yu, Rui Ma, Na Shao, Hongmei Meng
Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) and neuronal loss are important pathological features of chronic epilepsy closely related to the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures. However, the pathological mechanism of MFS remains unclear. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) is a cytoplasmic protein highly expressed in the nervous system and is involved in axon/dendrite specification and axonal growth. It is possibly associated with the development of MFS. Lacosamide (LCM), a novel antiepileptic drug, was recently found to inhibit the CRMP2-mediated neurite outgrowth...
August 30, 2018: Neuroreport
Shanshan Gao, Jian Chen, Yuxia Wang, Yanhua Zhong, Qingfu Dai, Qi Wang, Jiancheng Tu
MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate the translation of target mRNA transcripts. MiR-592 has been considered to play important roles in the initiation and progression of cancer by targeting various molecules in several human cancers, but its role in glioma has not been explored. This study aims to explore the suppressive mechanism of miR-592 in the regulation of glioma development, an effect that is crucial for the further exploration of miR-592 as a novel therapeutic target for glioma...
August 30, 2018: Neuroreport
Stephanie C Leach, Erin Conwell
Words that can be used as both noun and verb create regions of syntactic ambiguity that could create processing challenges for listeners. However, acoustic properties, such as duration, differ between noun and verb uses of such words, and listeners may use these differences to facilitate ambiguity processing. In this study, we replaced noun uses of ambiguous words with verb uses to determine whether these manipulations affected the N400 event-related potential, which is associated with semantic violations, or the P600 component, which is associated with syntactic ambiguity...
August 30, 2018: Neuroreport
Zhigang Zhong, Kui Yuan, Xiaoxin Tong, Jun Hu, Zubiao Song, Guogao Zhang, Xiaobo Fang, Weixi Zhang
The aberrant deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) is closely linked to the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MiR-16 was abnormally downregulated and may be related to the development of AD. However, the functional role and molecular mechanism of miR-16 in AD pathogenesis are still not well elucidated. The expressions of miR-16 and β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) mRNA and protein levels in AD brain tissues and Aβ-treated PC12 cellular AD model were examined by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses...
August 23, 2018: Neuroreport
Michael Vesia, Jody C Culham, Gaayathiri Jegatheeswaran, Reina Isayama, Ada Le, Marco Davare, Robert Chen
Recent findings suggest that the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial pathway, is involved in grasp control. It is unclear, however, whether human PMd transfers grasp-related information to the primary motor cortex hand area (M1HAND) during action preparation. The present study tested whether ipsilateral cortico-cortical connections between PMd and M1HAND in the left hemisphere are modulated during grasp preparation. Ten participants performed object-directed grasps and reaches with the right hand...
August 16, 2018: Neuroreport
Yu-Juan Zhou, Hao Zhao, Ying Wang, Jing Yu, Liang Tian, Jing Wang
The vestibular center of the brainstem contains afferent and efferent vestibular neurons, which play an important role in information perception, processing, and sensory integration. Vestibular efferent neurons (VENs) can receive changes in vestibular afferent information and regulate peripheral vestibular function; however, it remains unclear how VENs change after vestibular afferent information increases or weakens. In this study, we used animal models with altered vestibular afferent information by electrically stimulating or destroying the vestibular medial nucleus (MVe)...
October 17, 2018: Neuroreport
Qun Liu, Songmin Li, Chen Lu, C Ron Yu, Liquan Huang
Most olfactory receptors in vertebrates are G protein-coupled receptors, whose activation by odorants initiates intracellular signaling cascades through heterotrimeric G proteins consisting of α, β, and γ subunits. Abolishment of the α subunits such as Gαolf in the main olfactory epithelium and Gαi2 and Gαo in the vomeronasal organ resulted in anosmia and/or impaired behavioral responses. In this study, we report that a G protein γ subunit, Gγ13, is expressed in a spatiotemporal manner similar to those of Gαolf and Gαi2 in the olfactory system and vomeronasal organ, respectively...
October 17, 2018: Neuroreport
Luping Zhou, Xiaocong Yan
Impaired print tuning in dyslexia has been shown in alphabetic languages; whether we can observe the same in a nonalphabetic language such as Chinese is still questionable. The present study investigated the N170 component in response to Chinese words versus nonword pseudo-words in 10-year-old children with developmental dyslexia (DD) when they were asked to performed a lexical decision task. The N170 was enhanced for DD group than control group, regardless of Chinese words or pseudo-words. The group effect of N170 amplitudes was more robust for Chinese words over pseudo-words...
October 17, 2018: Neuroreport
Angelika B Mennecke, Julie Rösch, Burkhard S Kasper, Manuel A Schmidt, Frederik B Laun, Karl Rössler, Roland Coras, Hajo M Hamer, Arnd Dörfler
This study aims to investigate the diffusion metrics of left versus right temporal lobe epilepsy in a well-defined subgroup of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) because of unilateral hippocampal sclerosis while taking into account interhemispheric differences. Eighteen patients with TLE [nine left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and nine right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE)] and a norm group of 36 nonepileptic individuals were scanned with a multiband accelerated diffusion tensor imaging protocol at 3T...
October 17, 2018: Neuroreport
Zuotian Wu, Gaohua Wang, Yanyan Wei, Ling Xiao, Huiling Wang
Early neurodevelopmental dysplasia or disorder is an important stimulus for depression, but early stress can easily damage nerve development and lead to decreased neural plasticity. Because of the characteristics of nerve cell, nerve loop, structure instability and so on, stress can often lead to the occurrence and recurrence of depression. Stress is often associated with the release of inflammatory factors in the central nervous system. Recent studies suggest that neuroinflammatory factors are most likely involved in the occurrence and development of stress-induced depression, attacking neuronal cells through central inflammatory factors...
October 17, 2018: Neuroreport
Xin Huang, Fu-Qing Zhou, Han-Dong Dan, Yin Shen
The study aimed to determine alterations in intrinsic brain activity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) individuals using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method. Sixteen RP individuals (10 men and six women) and 14 healthy controls (HCs) (six men and eight women) closely matched in age, sex, and education were enrolled in the study. The ALFF/fALFF method was applied to compare different intrinsic brain activities between the RP group and the HC group...
October 17, 2018: Neuroreport
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