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Zhilei Zhao, Seiichiro Jinde, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Kiyoto Kasai
Several recent gene expression studies on schizophrenia, including one using monozygotic twins discordant for the disease, have reported the upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), which was initially identified as a vasodilator hormone. It has been hypothesized that upregulation of ADM may be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia, although the exact role of ADM in the central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, we used a microarray analysis to investigate the changes in global gene expression induced by the administration of exogenous ADM in SK-N-SH cells, which allowed us to evaluate the effects of elevated ADM on the central nervous system...
October 21, 2016: Neuroreport
In-Sik Kang, Jin-Hwa Cho, In-Sun Choi, Do-Yeon Kim, Il-Sung Jang
Cell bodies of trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) neurons are located within the central nervous system, and therefore, peripheral as well as central acidosis can modulate the excitability of Vmes neurons. Here, we report the effect of acidic pH on voltage-gated Na channels in acutely isolated rat Vmes neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Acidic pH (pH 6.0) slightly but significantly shifted both the activation and steady-state fast inactivation relationships toward depolarized potentials...
October 14, 2016: Neuroreport
Takayuki Ishiwata, Arisa Oshimoto, Takehito Saito, Yasunori Kotani, Shigeki Nomoto, Yasutsugu Aihara, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Benjamin N Greenwood
We previously reported that tetrodotoxin (TTX) perfusion into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), which contains the cell bodies of serotonin (5-HT) neurons, induced a considerable body temperature reduction under normal and low ambient temperatures (23 and 5°C, respectively) in freely moving rats but showed no such effect under high ambient temperature (35°C). In the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanism(s) of body temperature reduction after TTX perfusion into the MRN by measuring tail skin temperature (an index of heat loss), heart rate (an index of heat production), and locomotor activity (Act) under normal ambient temperature (23°C)...
October 12, 2016: Neuroreport
Nadia Justel, Mariana Psyrdellis, Ricardo M Pautassi
During extinction, the organism learns that a conditioned stimulus or a conditioned response is no longer associated with an unconditioned stimulus, and as a consequence, a decrement in the response is presented. The exposure to novel situations (e.g. exploration of a novel open field) has been used widely to modulate (i.e. either enhance or deteriorate) learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to test whether open-field exposure could modulate consummatory extinction. The results indicated that open-field exposure accelerated the extinction response (i...
October 4, 2016: Neuroreport
Min-Hee Lee, Youngjin Lee, Yoon Ho Hwang, Areum Min, Bong Soo Han, Dong Youn Kim
Sleep restriction (SR) is defined as the condition of not having enough sleep, and it can cause brain injury. In this study, we examined the impact of SR on the structural brain network. We obtained diffusion MRI (dMRI) data for the SR group of fourteen participants who got less than or equal to 5.5 h of sleep for the last 1 month and normal group of the same number of participants who got 7 h of sleep. We constructed the structural brain networks from the dMRI data and analyzed them using graph theoretical approaches...
September 30, 2016: Neuroreport
Lei Cao, Wei Fu, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
Functional connectivity changes in the attention network are viewed as a physiological signature of visual spatial neglect (VSN). The left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) is known to initiate and monitor top-down attentional control and dynamically adjust behavioral performance. This study aimed to investigate whether increasing the activity of the LDLPFC through intermittent θ burst stimulation (iTBS) could modulate the resting-state functional connectivity in the attention network and facilitate recovery from VSN...
September 29, 2016: Neuroreport
Yunzhi Pan, Wenna Liang, Xiaoyang Zhao, Luping Liu, Yang Qing, Yongmei Li
microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer development and progression. In this study, we explored the expression and biological roles of miR-548b in human gliomas. The expression of miR-548b in human glioma tissues and cell lines was examined. Gain-of-function experiments were conducted to determine the roles of miR-548b in glioma cell growth, invasiveness, and tumorigenesis. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assays were performed to identify direct target genes for miR-548b. miR-548b was underexpressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines...
September 27, 2016: Neuroreport
Yutaka Shinohe, Satomi Higuchi, Makoto Sasaki, Masahito Sato, Mamoru Noda, Shigeharu Joh, Kenichi Satoh
Conscious sedation with propofol sometimes causes amnesia while keeping the patient awake. However, it remains unknown how propofol compromises the memory function. Therefore, we investigated the changes in brain activation induced by visual stimulation during and after conscious sedation with propofol using serial functional MRI. Healthy volunteers received a target-controlled infusion of propofol, and underwent functional MRI scans with a block-design paradigm of visual stimulus before, during, and after conscious sedation...
September 22, 2016: Neuroreport
Carol Devadasan, Beryl Starr, Karen M Doyle
The effect of N1-dansylspermine, a polyamine analogue and competitive polyamine antagonist, and Ro25,6981, a noncompetitive polyamine antagonist with good affinity and selectivity for the GluN2B subunit, on locomotor activity in naive mice was investigated. Furthermore, the ability of the polyamine antagonists to reverse reserpine-induced hypokinesia was assessed, 24 h after injection of a catecholamine-depleting dose of reserpine (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous), to investigate the therapeutic potential of polyamine antagonists in Parkinson's disease...
September 20, 2016: Neuroreport
Yingli Jing, Fan Bai, Hui Chen, Hao Dong
The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of melatonin on spinal cord perfusion, the permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), and edema at the contusion epicenter and regions rostral and caudal to the injury site in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (12 animals in each group): sham, SCI, and melatonin groups. Melatonin (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at 30 min after a moderate injury at T10 in the melatonin group (twice a day)...
September 17, 2016: Neuroreport
Tian Gan, Liming Wang, Lisha Zhang, Wei Fang, Ruolei Gu
This study used the event-related potential technique to explore the neural correlates of outcome evaluation about helping others during a decision task. The results showed that the amplitude of feedback-related negativity elicited by 'failed outcome' (indicating a failure in helping others) was larger than that elicited by 'successful outcome' (indicating a success in helping others). Failed outcome also elicited a larger and longer P300 than successful outcome. The feedback-related negativity and P300 reflect the automatic process in an early stage and the control process in a late stage of outcome evaluation, respectively...
December 7, 2016: Neuroreport
Brandi L Drisdelle, Greg L West, Pierre Jolicoeur
We tracked the deployment of visual spatial attention, as indexed by an electrophysiological event-related potential named the N-2-posterior-contralateral (N2pc). We expected that a stronger and/or earlier deployment of attention would predict faster responses in a visual search task. We tested this hypothesis by sorting the electrophysiological segments into two categories (slow vs. fast) by trial-by-trial response times (RTs), for each participant, on the basis of the median RT within each condition of the experiment...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Caitlin O'Connell, Leon C Ho, Matthew C Murphy, Ian P Conner, Gadi Wollstein, Rakie Cham, Kevin C Chan
Human visual performance has been observed to show superiority in localized regions of the visual field across many classes of stimuli. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to determine whether the visual information processing in the human brain is dependent on the location of stimuli in the visual field and the corresponding neuroarchitecture using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion kurtosis MRI, respectively, in 15 healthy individuals at 3 T...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Junsuk Kim, Yoon Gi Chung, Soon-Cheol Chung, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Sung-Phil Kim
In this functional MRI study, we investigated how the human brain activity represents tactile location information evoked by pressure stimulation on fingers. Using the searchlight multivoxel pattern analysis, we looked for local activity patterns that could be decoded into one of four stimulated finger locations. The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the thalamus were found to contain distinct multivoxel patterns corresponding to individual stimulated locations. In contrast, the univariate general linear model analysis contrasting stimulation against resting phases for each finger identified activations mainly in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), but not in SMG or in thalamus...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Mohammad Saied Salehi, Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah, Behnoosh Vasaghi-Gharamaleki, Mohammad Javad Zamiri
Hindlimb unloading (HU) can cause motion and cognition dysfunction, although its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the stereological parameters of the brain areas involved in motion (motor cortex) and spatial learning - memory (hippocampus) under an HU condition. Sixteen adult male rats, kept under a 12 : 12 h light-dark cycle, were divided into two groups of freely moving (n=8) and HU (n=8) rats. The volume of motor cortex and hippocampus, the numerical cell density of neurons in layers I, II-III, V, and VI of the motor cortex, the entire motor cortex as well as the primary motor cortex, and the numerical density of the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus subregions of the hippocampus were estimated...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Greg L West, Sarah Lippé
Chronological age is related positively to a participant's ability to inhibit distracting information. Inhibition can be measured using the trajectory deviation of a saccade. Saccadic curvature away from distracting visual information is controlled through top-down inhibition mediated by the frontal eye fields. In the present study, we aimed to further test the saccadic trajectory deviation paradigm's sensitivity to the development of frontal inhibitory procuresses by comparing its measure of saccadic inhibition with that of a widely used paradigm, namely, the antisaccade task...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Sungmin Han, Donghwee Kim, Hyungmin Kim, Jong Woong Park, Inchan Youn
The current study aimed to investigate whether electrical stimulation could prevent apoptotic neuronal cell death during treatment with cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). From in-vitro experiments, the effects of electrical stimulation were assessed on neurite fragmentation and neuronal cell death in ara-C-treated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. Ara-C treatment increased neurite fragmentation and neuronal cell death in DRG explants and activated caspase-3 by cleaving it, which could induce apoptosis. Electrical stimulation can significantly reduce neurite fragmentation and neuronal cell death compared with nonelectrically stimulated groups...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Jing Lv, Su-Yang Zhan, Guang-Xie Li, Dan Wang, Ying-Shun Li, Qing-Hua Jin
The hippocampus is the key structure for learning and memory in mammals and long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important cellular mechanism responsible for learning and memory. The influences of norepinephrine (NE) on the modulation of learning and memory, as well as LTP, through β-adrenoceptors are well documented, whereas the role of α1-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP is not yet clear. In the present study, we measured extracellular concentrations of NE in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region using an in-vivo brain microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques during the acquisition and extinction of active-avoidance behavior in freely moving conscious rats...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Chuhan Li, Min Wang, Ping Yang, Xianxian Kong, Ling Li
We examined the influence of spatial selective attention on the processing of emotional faces (happy neutral, and fear) using behavioral as well as event-related potential recordings. Emotional stimuli were rapidly presented randomly to the right or the left visual field while participants attended to one visual field at a time, detecting smaller stimuli that were shown in the attended field. Behavioral results showed decreased accuracy for the fearful faces compared with neutral and happy faces. Event-related potential data showed that compared with the neutral and happy faces, fearful faces appearing in the right visual field elicited enhanced contralateral P1 amplitudes in the unattended condition, whereas fearful faces appearing in the left visual field elicited decreased contralateral N170 activity in the attended condition...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Kirill A Kryukov, Kira K Kim, Lev G Magazanik, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Seizure-induced memory deficits are frequent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this memory impairment are not entirely clear. Persistent changes in synaptic efficacy, long-term potentiation (LTP), and depression are considered a cellular substrate underlying the learning and memory processes. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE) in rats, the present study investigated whether the induction of LTP was altered in hippocampal slices obtained 3 h, 1, 3, and 7 days after SE...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
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