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Neuroreport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926478/characterization-of-spontaneous-hydrocephalus-development-in-the-young-atherosclerosis-prone-mice
#1
Chuanguo Liu, Guorong Li, Pingping Wang, Yan Wang, Jie Pan
Little has been reported on whether abnormal lipid metabolism affects hydrocephalus, although congenital malformations and infectious diseases are major causal factors for hydrocephalus development. In a study on the pathogenesis of atherogenesis in mice, we unexpectedly discovered that hydrocephalus occurred in partial apolipoptotein E (apoE) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) double-knockout (apoE/LDLR) mice fed either chow or a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet between the ages of 4 and 12 weeks...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926477/monoamine-and-neuropeptide-connections-significantly-alter-the-degree-distributions-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-connectome
#2
Tianxiao Huang, Yan Sun, Zheng Zhang, Shixiong Deng, Rui Peng
To understand the behaviors of an individual, it is crucial to understand the neural connections of the nervous system, that is, the connectome. The hermaphrodite Caenorhabditis elegans connectome has served as a prototype for analytical studies since the chemical synapses and gap junctions among the 302 neurons were completely mapped. Recently, monoamine (MA) and neuropeptide (NP) connections were established, which form a multilayer connectome in conjunction with chemical synapses and gap junctions. In this study, we investigated the difference in the in-degree and out-degree distributions, respectively, among the connectomes with and without MA and NP connections...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926476/the-effects-of-brief-swaying-on-postural-control
#3
Sara Pagé, Maxime Maheu, Simon P Landry, François Champoux
Postural control can be improved with balance training. However, the nature and duration of the training required to enhance posture remains unclear. We studied the effects of 5 min of a self-initiated balance exercise along a single axis on postural control in healthy individuals. Postural control was measured before and after a 5-min period where members of the experimental group were asked to lean their entire body forward and backward and members of the control group were asked to remain seated. A significant improvement for sway velocity, a postural control variable significantly associated with an increased risk of falls, was found in the experimental group following the body sway exercise...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926475/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-default-mode-network-and-sensorimotor-network-in-heavy-metal-music-lovers
#4
Yan Sun, Congcong Zhang, Shuxia Duan, Xiaoxia Du, Vince D Calhoun
The aim of this study was to investigate the spontaneous neural activity and functional connectivity (FC) in heavy metal music lovers (HMML) compared with classical music lovers (CML) during resting state. Forty HMML and 31 CML underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and seed-based resting-state FC were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration. A voxel-based two-sample t-test was used to test the differences between the two groups...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926474/parasympathetic-activation-enhanced-by-slow-respiration-modulates-early-auditory-sensory-gating
#5
Atsushi Aoyama, Yu Shimura, Takao Ohmuta, Yohei Nomoto, Masashi Kawasumi
Sensory gating is a preattentional mechanism to filter irrelevant information from the environment. It is typically reflected as a suppression of the event-related P50 component for successive sounds in the auditory modality. Although stress-induced sympathetic activation has been reported to disrupt P50 suppression, little is known about the modulatory effect of parasympathetic activation on early auditory sensory gating. We determined the parasympathetic effect on the magnetic P50 (P50m) suppression by controlling the respiratory rhythm and recording data simultaneously with magnetoencephalography and electrocardiography, using three successive click sounds as stimulus and ten normal individuals as study participants...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926473/hydrogen-gas-attenuates-sevoflurane-neurotoxicity-through-inhibiting-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BA-light-chain-enhancer-of-activated-b-cells-signaling-and-proinflammatory-cytokine-release-in-neonatal-rats
#6
Yiwei Shi, Gang Wang, Jinyuan Li, Wenli Yu
Anesthesia neurotoxicity in developing brain has gained increasing attention. However, knowledge regarding its mitigating strategies remains scant. Sevoflurane, a commonly used anesthetic, is responsible for learning and memory deficits in neonates. Molecular hydrogen is reported to be a potential neuroprotective agent because of its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen gas on sevoflurane neurotoxicity. The newborn rats were treated with sevoflurane and/or hydrogen gas for 2 h...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926472/differential-sensitivity-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptors-in-rat-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray
#7
Qian Chen, Caifeng Shao, Hui Zhou, Rui Ma, Ping Jiang, Kun Yang
The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the midbrain plays a key role in the descending pain modulatory system. γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors belong to a metabotropic receptor subfamily and mediate both presynaptic and postsynaptic effects in PAG. It has been well documented that activation of GABAB receptors yields analgesia in some PAG subdivisions. In the present study, employing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on acute rat PAG slices, we simultaneously monitored the responses of presynaptic and postsynaptic GABAB receptors...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915148/adult-fmr1-knockout-mice-present-with-deficiencies-in-hippocampal-interleukin-6-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-expression
#8
Samantha L Hodges, Suzanne O Nolan, Joseph H Taube, Joaquin N Lugo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a single genetic mutation in the FMR1 gene. Mutations in the FMR1 gene are the largest monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and thus both disorders share many of the same cognitive and behavioral impairments. There is increasing evidence suggesting that dysregulated immune responses play a role in the pathophysiology of ASD; however, the association between FXS and altered immunity requires further investigation. This study examined whether Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice on a FVB/NJ background strain had altered cytokine expression at baseline levels in the hippocampus...
September 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915147/measuring-thrombin-activity-in-frozen-brain-tissue
#9
Gilad Reuveni, Valery Golderman, Efrat Shavit-Stein, Yossi Rosman, Shai Shrot, Joab Chapman, Sagi Harnof
Thrombin is a coagulation factor implicated in various pathological and physiological processes in the brain, exerting beneficial and deleterious effects in a concentration-dependent manner. Measurement of thrombin activity levels in pathological animal models is needed and in some cases, because of technical considerations, only frozen samples are available. In the current study, we used a quantitative method to evaluate thrombin activity in fresh and frozen brain sections of 43 male and female adult healthy mice...
September 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906346/time-course-of-changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-after-short-term-forearm-hand-immobilization
#10
Tetsuya Karita, Akihiro Matsuura, Yoshihiro Kondo, Kohta Tomimura, Nao Nakada, Futoshi Mori
The short-term joint immobilization induces a decrease of corticospinal excitability; however, detailed time course of the immobilization-induced central nervous system changes and their extent have not yet been clarified. To evaluate the time course of changes in corticospinal excitability during forearm/hand immobilization for 24 h and investigate the effect on muscle strength, adhesive casting tape was used to immobilize the nondominant forearm/hand. The amplitude of the motor-evoked potential of the flexor pollicis brevis muscle induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation was measured during immobilization and after cast removal...
September 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906345/folic-acid-exerts-antidepressant-effects-by-upregulating-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-glutamate-receptor-1-expression-in-brain
#11
Liangcai Gao, Xinnan Liu, Li Yu, Junlin Wu, Mingchu Xu, Yusi Liu
Folic acid is a vitamin with a variety of pharmacological effects. The present study aims to explore the beneficial effects of folic acid on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression-like behaviors and its possible mechanisms. The behavioral tests including open-field test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test were used to evaluate the antidepressant effects of folic acid. Then the changes of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) expression levels, and synaptic organization were assessed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of folic acid...
September 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902714/altered-subcellular-localization-of-fragile-x-mental-retardation-signaling-partners-and-targets-in-superior-frontal-cortex-of-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#12
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Paul D Thuras
Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating, neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1% of the world's population. Recent findings from our laboratory have identified reduced levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and several downstream FMRP targets in superior frontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that altered subcellular expression of FMRP and its signaling partners may explain these changes. In the current study we employed subcellular fractionation and western blotting to determine levels of FMRP, phosphorylated-FMRP as well as selected signaling partners [protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC), p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K), and amyloid-β A4 precursor protein (APP)] in the total homogenate, nuclear, and rough endoplasmic reticulum fractions in superior frontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia versus controls (N=12/group)...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902713/long-lasting-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-modulates-electroencephalography-oscillation-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#13
Xiaoyu Xia, Yang Liu, Yang Bai, Ziyuan Liu, Yi Yang, Yongkun Guo, Ruxiang Xu, Xiaorong Gao, Xiaoli Li, Jianghong He
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied for the treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Timely and accurate assessments of its modulation effects are very useful. This study evaluated rTMS modulation effects on electroencephalography (EEG) oscillation in patients with chronic DOC. Eighteen patients with a diagnosis of DOC lasting more than 3 months were recruited. All patients received one session of 10-Hz rTMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and then 12 of them received consecutive rTMS treatment everyday for 20 consecutive days...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902712/attenuation-of-pentylenetrazole-induced-acute-status-epilepticus-in-rats-by-adenosine-involves-inhibition-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#14
Yuliang Wang, Xuewu Liu, Yuan Wang, Jinbo Chen, Tao Han, Lei Su, Kejun Zang
Adenosine (ADO) has been characterized as an endogenous anticonvulsant and alternative therapeutic drug, but its mechanism is not entirely clear. This study aimed to examine the relationship of ADO with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a Wistar rat model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced acute status epilepticus. ADO (200 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before PTZ (55-65 mg/kg) treatment, and Western blot assays and immunohistochemistry were performed 3 h after the onset of acute status epilepticus to detect phospho-TOR and the downstream target of mTOR, phospho-S6...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902711/triggering-of-inflammasome-by-impaired-autophagy-in-response-to-acute-experimental-parkinson-s-disease-involvement-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#15
Sabrina Giacoppo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Several lines of evidence suggest that the inflammasome activation is involved in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relation between Parkinson's disease (PD) and the inflammasome is still unclear. This study was designed to assess the involvement of inflammasome in acute experimental PD. Specifically, acute PD was induced in C57BL/6 mice by an injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). At seven days from MPTP induction, mice were euthanized and the midbrains were sampled to carry out immunohistochemical evaluations and western blot analysis...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902710/a-novel-method-of-organotypic-spinal-cord-slice-culture-in-rats
#16
Jing-Jie Liu, Ya-Juan Huang, Li Xiang, Feng Zhao, Sheng-Li Huang
This study was undertaken to establish a method for the culture of organotypic spinal cord slices. A long-term organotypic spinal cord slice culture was conducted from postnatal rats. Lumbar spinal cord was isolated, and meninges were removed from the spinal cord. The spinal cord was embedded in 4% agarose, and was sectioned by vibratome into slices. Then the slices were cultured on the surface of the membrane inserts, which were placed in six-well plates containing 1 ml of growth medium at 37°C in an incubator with 5% humidified carbon dioxide...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902709/effect-of-food-deprivation-on-the-hypothalamic-gene-expression-of-the-secretogranin-ii-derived-peptide-em66-in-rat
#17
Fatima Trebak, Isabelle Dubuc, Marie Picot, Abdelilah Alaoui, Jérôme Leprince, Gaëtan Prévost, Youssef Anouar, Rabia Magoul, Nicolas Chartrel
EM66 is a peptide derived from the chromogranin, secretogranin II (SG-II). Recent findings in mice indicate that EM66 is a novel anorexigenic neuropeptide that regulates hypothalamic feeding behavior, at least in part, by activating the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of EM66 in the control of feeding behavior and, more specifically, its potential interactions with the NPY and POMC systems in rat. We analyzed by Q-PCR the gene expression of the EM66 precursor, SG-II, in hypothalamic extracts following 2, 3, or 4 days of food deprivation and compared it with the expression levels of the two major neuropeptidergic systems, that is, POMC and NPY, modulating feeding behavior...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902708/the-effects-of-mlc901-on-tau-phosphorylation
#18
Wei Thye Lee, Christopher Chen Li Hsian, Yun-An Lim
Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain and include Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, which lack effective disease-modifying treatments. The presence of NFTs is known to correlate with cognition impairment, suggesting that targeting tau hyperphosphorylation may be therapeutically effective. MLC901 is a herbal formulation that is currently used in poststroke recovery and consists of nine herbal components...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902707/impact-of-human-ca8-on-thermal-antinociception-in-relation-to-morphine-equivalence-in-mice
#19
Eugene S Fu, Diana M Erasso, Gerald Z Zhuang, Udita Upadhyay, Mehtap Ozdemir, Timothy Wiltshire, Konstantinos D Sarantopoulos, Shad B Smith, William Maixner, Eden R Martin, Roy C Levitt
Recently, we showed that murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) Car8 expression is a cis-regulated eQTL that determines analgesic responses. In this report, we show that transduction through sciatic nerve injection of DRG with human wild-type carbonic anhydrase-8 using adeno-associated virus viral particles (AAV8-V5-CA8WT) produces analgesia in naive male C57BL/6J mice and antihyperalgesia after carrageenan treatment. A peak mean increase of about 4 s in thermal hindpaw withdrawal latency equaled increases in thermal withdrawal latency produced by 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal morphine in these mice...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901999/recruitment-of-prefrontal-striatal-circuit-in-response-to-skilled-motor-challenge
#20
Yumei Guo, Zhuo Wang, Sandhya Prathap, Daniel P Holschneider
A variety of physical fitness regimens have been shown to improve cognition, including executive function, yet our understanding of which parameters of motor training are important in optimizing outcomes remains limited. We used functional brain mapping to compare the ability of two motor challenges to acutely recruit the prefrontal-striatal circuit. The two motor tasks - walking in a complex running wheel with irregularly spaced rungs or walking in a running wheel with a smooth internal surface - differed only in the extent of skill required for their execution...
September 8, 2017: Neuroreport
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