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Kenichi Komatsu, Keiko Imamura, Hirofumi Yamashita, Jean-Pierre Julien, Ryosuke Takahashi, Haruhisa Inoue
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset, fatal disorder in which motor neurons selectively degenerate. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was found to be a causative gene of familial ALS, and mutant SOD1 transgenic mice recapitulated ALS phenotypes. Analysis of these mice showed accumulation of misfolded SOD1 protein in motor neurons. Misfolded SOD1 accumulation was found in spinal motor neurons of both familial ALS patients with the SOD1 mutation and sporadic ALS patients. However, it is unclear what condition causes wild-type SOD1 misfolding in patients without the SOD1 mutation...
November 14, 2017: Neuroreport
Zhi Ren, Xia Zou, Chuzhi You, Junlong Luo, Wei Liu
This study investigated motivational effect of reward and punishment on directed forgetting using the event-related potential technique. Participants were instructed to encode two-character words in Chinese, followed by the indicator of 'remember' or 'forget'. Then, participants were required accomplishing the judgment task of old and new words. The results suggest that (i) directed forgetting effect is significant in the punishment condition but not in the reward condition, and (ii) a positive amplitude is induced in the punishment condition but not in the reward condition...
November 14, 2017: Neuroreport
Mayumi Machida, György Lonart, Larry D Sanford
Controllability is an important factor in determining stress outcomes. Uncontrollable stress is associated with the development of psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder, whereas controllable stress is associated with adaptive stress responses and positive outcomes. In this study, we investigated how controllability affects poststress neurobiology by assessing transcriptional levels of activity-dependent genes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, regions important in mediating stress outcomes...
November 13, 2017: Neuroreport
Changjun Li, Guocheng Yang, Meiling Li, Bo Li
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between fluid intelligence (gF) and the pattern of the functional characteristics in the resting state in adults using multivariate pattern analysis. Resting-state functional images from 100 participants in the Human Connectome Project data set were analyzed. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was first calculated, and a support vector regression approach was used to identify the association with gF. To discover whether the connectivity of the gF-associated areas was also related to gF, we further checked the seed-based functional connectivity using the seeds from the ALFF...
November 13, 2017: Neuroreport
Kenmei Mizutani, Shigeru Sonoda, Hideaki Wakita
It has been suggested that serotonin (5-HT) may be implicated in functional recovery after stroke; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the role of 5-HT was verified using ritanserin, a potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, and protein expression and modification were analyzed to further understand the association between paralysis recovery and molecular mechanisms in the brain. Experimental cerebral cortex infarctions were induced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise was initiated 2 days after surgery...
November 10, 2017: Neuroreport
Sachin S Tiwari, Yuki M Shirai, Yuri L Nemoto, Kumiko Kojima, Kenichi G N Suzuki
Prion proteins (PrPc) are receptors for amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) oligomers, but we do not know the impact of Aβ1-42 binding to PrPc on the interaction of membrane-bound PrPc with molecules that regulate downstream biological pathways. Stability of the PrPc dimeric complex and subsequent intermolecular interactions with membranous or cytoplasmic molecules are important for physiological functions of PrPc including neuroprotection. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether homodimer lifetime of PrPc is affected by the presence of Aβ1-42 oligomers...
November 8, 2017: Neuroreport
Gang Luo, Yinuo Huang, Baixue Jia, Xuelei Zhang, Dapeng Mo, Ning Ma, Feng Gao, Ligang Song, Bo Wang, Zhongrong Miao
β-Amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuronal toxicity is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Quetiapine (QTP) is an atypical antipsychotic drug that has neuroprotectant properties, but little is known about its direct protective effects on neurons against the Aβ-induced cell toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of QTP on Aβ25-35-induced cell death and the possible underlying mechanisms in primary cultures of neurons. Exposure of cortical neurons to 10 μM or more Aβ25-35 caused significant viability loss in a MTT assay, and the toxic effects were not significantly prevented by the simultaneous coadministration of QTP...
November 8, 2017: Neuroreport
Keon Sung Shin, Hyun Jin Park, Keun Hong Park, Kyung Sook Lee, Sung Woo Jeong, Bang Yeon Hwang, Chong Kil Lee, Myung Koo Lee
Gynosaponins have pharmacological effects on 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-related or dopamine-related neurological diseases; however, the neuroprotective functions of single compound of gynosaponins remain undefined. This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of gynosaponin TN-2 on L-DOPA in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. Gynosaponin TN-2, at 0.5-3 μM, did not exhibit cytotoxicity and protected against L-DOPA (100 and 200 μM)-induced cell death. Gynosaponin TN-2 (0.5 and 1.0 μM) inhibited the L-DOPA (100 and 200 μM)-induced sustained extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation...
November 8, 2017: Neuroreport
Won Min Lee, Sunghyon Kyeong, Eun Young Park, Hee Seung Yang, Hyunkoo Kang, Dae Hyun Kim
The role of the right hemisphere in recovery of language function after left hemisphere stroke remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to determine the relationship between bilateral hemispheric changes and severity of aphasia in patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. Twenty-three patients with left hemisphere stroke with aphasia and 10 healthy control patients underwent high-resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Patients with aphasia were assessed using the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery, and severity of aphasia was quantified in terms of aphasia quotient; patients were classified into two groups - the mild-to-moderate and severe groups - on the basis of severity of aphasia...
November 8, 2017: Neuroreport
Chunping Yan, Yunyun Li, Qin Zhang, Lixia Cui
Previous studies have suggested that the effects of reward on memory processes are affected by certain factors, but it remains unclear whether the effects of reward at retrieval on recognition processes are influenced by emotion. The event-related potential was used to investigate the combined effect of reward and emotion on memory retrieval and its neural mechanism. The behavioral results indicated that the reward at retrieval improved recognition performance under positive and negative emotional conditions...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
Gilles Clément
We explored the effect of gravity on the accuracy for estimating durations of 3.5, 7, and 14 s. Experiments were performed on board an Airbus A310 during parabolic flights eliciting repeated exposures to short periods of 0, 1, and 1.8 g. Two methods for obtaining duration estimates were used, reproduction and production of duration, in two conditions: a control counting condition and a concurrent reading condition. Simple reaction times were also measured to assess attention. The results showed that the temporal accuracies during the reproduction task in the concurrent reading condition were significantly underestimated in 0 g compared with 1 g...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
Yunyun Li, Qin Zhang, Fang Liu, Lixia Cui
The present study used the event-related potentials to investigate the effect of task-irrelevant, high-approach versus low-approach motivational positive affect on proactive and reactive control, and their neural mechanisms. A cue stimulus and a probe stimulus were presented successively in each trial. Participants were required to maintain the information of the cue and respond to the probe. The results showed that high-approach positive affect reduced the amplitudes of P3b after the cue of low frequency and enlarged the amplitudes of contingent negative variation before all the probes...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
Yuan Lyu, Yujuan Wang, Xinrui Mao, Xian Li, Chunyan Guo
A number of recent studies have shown that familiarity can contribute to associative recognition, specifically when the to-be-paired items are perceived as a single unit; however, whether semantic relationship between two items can help them form a unitization is still heatedly debated, with largely inconsistent results. The present study uses event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether semantic relation can serve as a unitization approach by manipulating levels of unitization (LOU). Results revealed that semantic-related conditions were supported by both familiarity and recollection, whereas unrelated pairs solely by recollection, indicating that semantic relation can encourage unitization...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
Na Wang, Ying-Hong Hu, Li-Da Su
Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is implicated in the progression of excitotoxic neuronal injury and cerebral ischemia. Previous work suggests that cPLA2α increases aberrant electrophysiologic events through attenuating K channel functions. Nevertheless, which K channels are affected by cPLA2α needs to be determined. Here we examined K channels-mediated electrophysiologic responses in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from wild-type and cPLA2α mice using simultaneous patch-clamp recording and confocal Ca imaging...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
Sergei G Levin, Nikolai P Sirota, Miroslav N Nenov, Tatyana A Savina, Oleg V Godukhin
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and calpain inhibitor, PD150606, on the expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits in rat hippocampal slices exposed to repeated brief hypoxic episodes. We studied both individual and combinatory effects of PD150606 and IL-10 on the expression of AMPA receptor subunits under hypoxic conditions for GluA1 and GluA2 as well as their phosphorylated forms - pSer831-GluA1 and pSer880-GluA2...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
Liang Meng, Zijing Yang
With the aim of examining the positive effect of the formal feedback mechanism itself beyond its informational aspect, we engaged participants in the stopwatch task and recorded their electroencephalogram throughout the experiment. This task requires a button press to stop the watch within a given time interval, the completion of which is simultaneously accompanied by adequate information on task performance. In the self-controlled feedback mode, participants could freely choose whether to request formal feedback after completing the task...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
Yan Sun, Congcong Zhang, Shuxia Duan, Xiaoxia Du, Vince D Calhoun
The aim of this study was to investigate the spontaneous neural activity and functional connectivity (FC) in heavy metal music lovers (HMML) compared with classical music lovers (CML) during resting state. Forty HMML and 31 CML underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and seed-based resting-state FC were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration. A voxel-based two-sample t-test was used to test the differences between the two groups...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
Xiaoyu Xia, Yang Liu, Yang Bai, Ziyuan Liu, Yi Yang, Yongkun Guo, Ruxiang Xu, Xiaorong Gao, Xiaoli Li, Jianghong He
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied for the treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Timely and accurate assessments of its modulation effects are very useful. This study evaluated rTMS modulation effects on electroencephalography (EEG) oscillation in patients with chronic DOC. Eighteen patients with a diagnosis of DOC lasting more than 3 months were recruited. All patients received one session of 10-Hz rTMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and then 12 of them received consecutive rTMS treatment everyday for 20 consecutive days...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
Yuliang Wang, Xuewu Liu, Yuan Wang, Jinbo Chen, Tao Han, Lei Su, Kejun Zang
Adenosine (ADO) has been characterized as an endogenous anticonvulsant and alternative therapeutic drug, but its mechanism is not entirely clear. This study aimed to examine the relationship of ADO with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a Wistar rat model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced acute status epilepticus. ADO (200 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before PTZ (55-65 mg/kg) treatment, and Western blot assays and immunohistochemistry were performed 3 h after the onset of acute status epilepticus to detect phospho-TOR and the downstream target of mTOR, phospho-S6...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
Rhian S Thomas, Mouhamed Alsaqati, Justin S Bice, Martha Hvoslef-Eide, Mark A Good, Emma J Kidd
A major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing age, but the reason behind this association has not been identified. It is thought that the changes in endocytosis seen in AD patients are causal for this condition. Thus, we hypothesized that the increased risk of developing AD associated with ageing may be because of changes in endocytosis. We investigated using Western blotting whether the expression of endocytic proteins involved in clathrin-mediated and clathrin-independent endocytosis are altered by increasing age in a mouse model of amyloid pathology...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
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