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Neuroreport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906773/suppression-of-aimp1-protects-cognition-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-3xtg-ad
#1
Sooah Jang, Jung Ho Lee, Bo Kyung Sohn, Eosu Kim, Sang Gyu Park, Kang Jun Yoon, Minsun Park, Eun Woo Kim, Jihyeon Jeong, Jun-Young Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, Kee Namkoong
Neuroinflammation has been raised as a candidate of unifying pathogenesis and a target of a disease-modifying strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (ARS)-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1) is a cytokine that is known to amplify the actions of tumor necrosis factor-α and to be involved in microglial activation and neuronal death. In this respect, AIMP1 could be a plausible target for the treatment of AD. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether anti-AIMP1 antibody could exert therapeutic effects against cognitive impairment using 3xTg-AD mice...
November 30, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902527/white-matter-alterations-in-adults-with-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder-an-mri-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#2
Jacqueline Williams, Saman R Kashuk, Peter H Wilson, Graham Thorpe, Gary F Egan
Movement skill difficulties in children [or developmental coordination disorder (DCD)] often persist into adulthood (in up to 70% of cases). The suggestion of white matter microstructure alterations in children with DCD raises the question of whether similar alterations are present in adults with probable DCD (pDCD). Twelve adults with pDCD and 11 adults without pDCD underwent diffusion tensor imaging. The results showed that the pDCD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus and lower mean diffusivity in the internal capsule and inferior longitudinal fasciculus...
November 29, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893610/slit2-robo1-promotes-synaptogenesis-and-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Yang Li, Yan Gao, Xueqin Xu, Ruoshi Shi, Juying Liu, Wanjun Yao, Changbin Ke
Neuronal network reconstruction is a pivotal determinant for functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), the process of which includes synaptogenesis. Slit2 protein has been identified as a key regulator of axon regeneration and synapse formation in the vertebrate. Meanwhile, RhoA is the converging cascade of inhibitory molecules that interrupt synaptic plasticity in SCI. In the present study, we investigated the interaction among Slit2, Robo1, and RhoA and the potential roles of Slit2 in the pathological process of SCI...
November 23, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846040/evaluation-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-measurements-of-brain-injury-in-type-2-diabetics-with-retinopathy-by-diffusion-weighted-mri-at-3-0%C3%A2-t
#4
Zhongling Wang, Ziwei Lu, Jing Li, Changjie Pan, Zhongzhi Jia, Hanqi Chen, Xiaomin Ge
Diabetes is often associated with impairments in brain functioning. However, the injury of specific functioning areas of the brain is not clear. To address this problem, the present study was designed to investigate possible brain functioning change in specific brain areas, particularly in areas associated with vision function, in patients with proliferative and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and NPDR) using the diffusion-weighted imaging technology. Conventional MRI was performed in 45 diabetic patients, 30 of whom had diabetic retinopathy (DR) involvement (half PDR, and half NPDR) and 15 of whom were diabetic patients without retinopathy and with normal ophthalmologic examination...
November 11, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787475/enzyme-activities-involved-in-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-are-altered-to-reduce-glutamate-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#5
Araceli Diaz-Ruiz, Sergio Montes, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, Valente Maldonado, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Camilo Ríos
Glutamate (Glu) neurotransmitter is involved in the excitotoxic damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Glu is transformed into glutamine (Gln) by glutamine synthetase (GS) enzyme in glial cells. Once into the neurons, Gln is transformed back into Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). Glu is also a precursor for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid through the action of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzyme. The contribution of all these Glu biotransformations after SCI has not been determined...
October 26, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779555/a-meta-analysis-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-effects-on-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Han Wang, Huiqin Gao, Tianyu Jiao, Zhongli Luo
Postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) are common symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) shows a promising effect on PIGD. However, the quantitative effects of PPN DBS for PD, especially for PIGD, and the efficacy of PPN DBS combined with levodopa are controversial and ambiguous to clinical practice. We carried out a meta-analysis of original researches on PPN to PIGD/PD from the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE...
October 24, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776076/extracellular-elevation-of-adrenomedullin-a-gene-associated-with-schizophrenia-suppresses-heat-shock-protein-1a-1b-mrna
#7
Zhilei Zhao, Seiichiro Jinde, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Kiyoto Kasai
Several recent gene expression studies on schizophrenia, including one using monozygotic twins discordant for the disease, have reported the upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), which was initially identified as a vasodilator hormone. It has been hypothesized that upregulation of ADM may be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia, although the exact role of ADM in the central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, we used a microarray analysis to investigate the changes in global gene expression induced by the administration of exogenous ADM in SK-N-SH cells, which allowed us to evaluate the effects of elevated ADM on the central nervous system...
October 21, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755281/acidic-ph-modulation-of-na-channels-in-trigeminal-mesencephalic-nucleus-neurons
#8
In-Sik Kang, Jin-Hwa Cho, In-Sun Choi, Do-Yeon Kim, Il-Sung Jang
Cell bodies of trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) neurons are located within the central nervous system, and therefore, peripheral as well as central acidosis can modulate the excitability of Vmes neurons. Here, we report the effect of acidic pH on voltage-gated Na channels in acutely isolated rat Vmes neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Acidic pH (pH 6.0) slightly but significantly shifted both the activation and steady-state fast inactivation relationships toward depolarized potentials...
October 14, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741215/possible-mechanisms-of-hypothermia-after-inhibition-of-the-median-or-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-of-freely-moving-rats
#9
Takayuki Ishiwata, Arisa Oshimoto, Takehito Saito, Yasunori Kotani, Shigeki Nomoto, Yasutsugu Aihara, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Benjamin N Greenwood
We previously reported that tetrodotoxin (TTX) perfusion into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), which contains the cell bodies of serotonin (5-HT) neurons, induced a considerable body temperature reduction under normal and low ambient temperatures (23 and 5°C, respectively) in freely moving rats but showed no such effect under high ambient temperature (35°C). In the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanism(s) of body temperature reduction after TTX perfusion into the MRN by measuring tail skin temperature (an index of heat loss), heart rate (an index of heat production), and locomotor activity (Act) under normal ambient temperature (23°C)...
October 12, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749684/open-field-exposure-facilitates-consummatory-extinction
#10
Nadia Justel, Mariana Psyrdellis, Ricardo M Pautassi
During extinction, the organism learns that a conditioned stimulus or a conditioned response is no longer associated with an unconditioned stimulus, and as a consequence, a decrement in the response is presented. The exposure to novel situations (e.g. exploration of a novel open field) has been used widely to modulate (i.e. either enhance or deteriorate) learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to test whether open-field exposure could modulate consummatory extinction. The results indicated that open-field exposure accelerated the extinction response (i...
October 4, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749493/impact-of-sleep-restriction-on-the-structural-brain-network
#11
Min-Hee Lee, Youngjin Lee, Yoon Ho Hwang, Areum Min, Bong Soo Han, Dong Youn Kim
Sleep restriction (SR) is defined as the condition of not having enough sleep, and it can cause brain injury. In this study, we examined the impact of SR on the structural brain network. We obtained diffusion MRI (dMRI) data for the SR group of fourteen participants who got less than or equal to 5.5 h of sleep for the last 1 month and normal group of the same number of participants who got 7 h of sleep. We constructed the structural brain networks from the dMRI data and analyzed them using graph theoretical approaches...
September 30, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748671/intermittent-%C3%AE-burst-stimulation-modulates-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-attention-network-and-promotes-behavioral-recovery-in-patients-with-visual-spatial-neglect
#12
Lei Cao, Wei Fu, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
Functional connectivity changes in the attention network are viewed as a physiological signature of visual spatial neglect (VSN). The left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) is known to initiate and monitor top-down attentional control and dynamically adjust behavioral performance. This study aimed to investigate whether increasing the activity of the LDLPFC through intermittent θ burst stimulation (iTBS) could modulate the resting-state functional connectivity in the attention network and facilitate recovery from VSN...
September 29, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682888/mir-548b-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-malignant-gliomas-by-targeting-metastasis-tumor-associated-protein-2
#13
Yunzhi Pan, Wenna Liang, Xiaoyang Zhao, Luping Liu, Yang Qing, Yongmei Li
microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer development and progression. In this study, we explored the expression and biological roles of miR-548b in human gliomas. The expression of miR-548b in human glioma tissues and cell lines was examined. Gain-of-function experiments were conducted to determine the roles of miR-548b in glioma cell growth, invasiveness, and tumorigenesis. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assays were performed to identify direct target genes for miR-548b. miR-548b was underexpressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines...
September 27, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661198/changes-in-brain-activation-induced-by-visual-stimulus-during-and-after-propofol-conscious-sedation-a-functional-mri-study
#14
Yutaka Shinohe, Satomi Higuchi, Makoto Sasaki, Masahito Sato, Mamoru Noda, Shigeharu Joh, Kenichi Satoh
Conscious sedation with propofol sometimes causes amnesia while keeping the patient awake. However, it remains unknown how propofol compromises the memory function. Therefore, we investigated the changes in brain activation induced by visual stimulation during and after conscious sedation with propofol using serial functional MRI. Healthy volunteers received a target-controlled infusion of propofol, and underwent functional MRI scans with a block-design paradigm of visual stimulus before, during, and after conscious sedation...
September 22, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653937/effect-of-n1-dansylspermine-and-ro25-6981-on-locomotor-activity-in-naive-mice-and-in-the-reserpinized-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Carol Devadasan, Beryl Starr, Karen M Doyle
The effect of N1-dansylspermine, a polyamine analogue and competitive polyamine antagonist, and Ro25,6981, a noncompetitive polyamine antagonist with good affinity and selectivity for the GluN2B subunit, on locomotor activity in naive mice was investigated. Furthermore, the ability of the polyamine antagonists to reverse reserpine-induced hypokinesia was assessed, 24 h after injection of a catecholamine-depleting dose of reserpine (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous), to investigate the therapeutic potential of polyamine antagonists in Parkinson's disease...
September 20, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648716/meliorating-microcirculatory-with-melatonin-in-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury-using-laser-doppler-flowmetry
#16
Yingli Jing, Fan Bai, Hui Chen, Hao Dong
The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of melatonin on spinal cord perfusion, the permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), and edema at the contusion epicenter and regions rostral and caudal to the injury site in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (12 animals in each group): sham, SCI, and melatonin groups. Melatonin (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at 30 min after a moderate injury at T10 in the melatonin group (twice a day)...
September 17, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902556/stereological-quantification-of-age-related-changes-in-myelinated-fibers-of-rat-white-matter
#17
Chen Li, Lei Zhang, Fenglei Chao, Qian Xiao, Yanmin Luo, Yong Tang
We investigated changes in myelin sheaths in the myelinated fibers of subcortical white matter in young (6-8 months old), middle-aged (18 months old), and elderly (27-28 months old) female Long-Evans rats using transmission electron microscopy and unbiased stereological techniques. We observed three age-related changes in myelin sheaths in the white matter of elderly rats: local splitting of the major dense line, myelin ballooning, and the formation of abundant myelin sheaths. Stereological analysis showed that the total length of myelinated fibers in white matter was 115±12 km (mean±SD) in young rats, 135±21 km in middle-aged rats, and 62±11 km in elderly rats...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893609/swimming-exercise-reduces-preference-for-a-high-fat-diet-by-increasing-insulin-sensitivity-in-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Hai-Jun Wang, Hong-Tao Yang, Wei Chen
The present study examined the effect of 4-week swimming training on the preference for a high-fat diet and insulin sensitivity in mice. C57BL/6 J mice were placed on either a low-fat diet or a choice diet (with both low-fat and high-fat diets available) for 6 weeks. During this period, a group of mice on the free-choice diet were randomly selected to receive a 4-week swimming exercise intervention. Mice that received the swimming exercise intervention showed a reduced preference for the high-fat diet as well as a slower rate of weight gain...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893608/ape1-protects-against-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-through-erk1-2-signaling-in-pc12-cells
#19
Bei Kang, Shengzhi Mu, Qian Yang, Shenglong Guo, Xiaoli Chen, Hena Guo
Oxidative stress, induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is an apoptosis activator. Oxidative stress causes dopaminergic neuron loss and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A recent study showed that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1) decreases cytotoxicity and promotes neuron survival under oxidative stress. Furthermore, it has been proven that Ape1 is involved in the pathogenesis of PD. However, little is known about the contribution of Ape1 toward the development of PD...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893607/acupuncture-does-not-protect-against-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-induced-damage-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-preclinical-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Hui-Jun Yang, Yu Gao, Ji Young Yun, Young Eun Kim, Gwanhee Ehm, Ji Yeon Lee, Min-Yung Yoon, Young-Shin Lee, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon
Acupuncture treatment, a complementary and alternative medicine, is associated with a suggested neuroprotective effect in previous preclinical studies of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, results from human clinical trials have been mixed or unsuccessful. Recent systematic reviews of translational neuroprotective studies showed that the supposed efficacy is confounded by low methodological quality, particularly by a lack of randomization and concealed allocation. We sought to replicate previous experimental findings with a study design that mitigates the introduction of bias, including randomization, blinded outcome measures, sham acupuncture application, and allocation concealment by blinded neurotoxin administration...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
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