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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771819/sharing-as-a-model-for-understanding-division
#1
Alexa Ellis, Xiaosu Hu, Craig E Smith, Pamela E Davis-Kean, Ioulia Kovelman
Emerging research suggests that children's ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18-23 years) during a task that evaluated their judgment of proportions in the context of sharing, as well as traditional numerical division tasks...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771818/suppressed-acoustic-startle-response-in-traumatic-brain-injury-masks-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-hyper-responsivity
#2
Grant M Liska, Jea-Young Lee, Kaya Xu, Paul R Sanberg, Cesario V Borlongan
An exaggerated acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a clinical indicator of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the prevalence of PTSD following traumatic brain injury (TBI), we studied the effects of TBI on ASR. Adult Sprague Dawley rats exposed to moderate controlled cortical impact injury model of TBI displayed suppression of ASR intensity and sensitivity. As patients with PTSD have been shown to display hyperactive startle responses, the present discrepant observation of TBI-induced suppression of ASR has clinical implications, in that the reduced, instead of elevated, startle response in patients with comorbid TBI/PTSD could be owing to a masking effect of TBI...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771820/effect-of-lgi1-antibody-positive-igg-on-hippocampal-neuron-survival-a-preliminary-study
#3
Neşe Ayşit-Altuncu, Canan Ulusoy, Gürkan Öztürk, Erdem Tüzün
Anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (anti-LGI1) encephalitis is one of the most frequently encountered forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Many patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis develop permanent hippocampal neuron loss and chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms, suggesting that LGI antibodies (Ab) might have a neurotoxic action. To investigate this hypothesis, purified serum IgG of three patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis and six healthy controls were incubated with cultured primary hippocampal neurons obtained from newborn mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762250/abnormal-expression-of-ephrin-a5-affects-brain-development-of-congenital-hypothyroidism-rats
#4
Guihai Suo, Feifei Shen, Baolan Sun, Honghua Song, Meiyu Xu, Youjia Wu
EphA5 and its ligand ephrin-A5 interaction can trigger synaptogenesis during early hippocampus development. We have previously reported that abnormal EphA5 expression can result in synaptogenesis disorder in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) rats. To better understand its precise molecular mechanism, we further analyzed the characteristics of ephrin-A5 expression in the hippocampus of CH rats. Our study revealed that ephrin-A5 expression was downregulated by thyroid hormone deficiency in the developing hippocampus and hippocampal neurons in rats...
May 14, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762249/numb-p72-but-not-numb-p65-contributes-to-the-trafficking-of-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#5
Na Wang, Xin-Yu Cai, Wei Gao, Ying Shen
The protein Numb localizes to clathrin-coated vesicles and participates in the trafficking of transmembrane receptors. We previous reported that Numb promotes the presence of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1) on neuronal membrane, and Numb deficiency impairs synaptic expression of mGlu1. However, the actions of different Numb isoforms on mGlu1 trafficking are unknown. Here, we found that Numb-p72 and Numb-p65 are distinctly expressed in HEK293T cells. Interestingly, Numb-p72, but not Numb-p65, binds to mGlu1α and promotes the membrane expression of mGlu1α by antagonizing its internalization...
May 14, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762248/vascular-delivery-of-intraperitoneal-evans-blue-dye-into-the-blood-brain-barrier-intact-and-disrupted-rat-brains
#6
Hwai-Lee Wang, Eva Yuhua Kuo, Ted Weita Lai
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity can be determined by tracer infusion into the circulation followed by measurements of its penetration into the brain parenchyma. Tracer injection through the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route (rather than intravascular injection) avoids confounding effects of animal anesthesia or immobilization/surgical stress. Evans blue dye (EBD) can be administered by i.p. injection, and once in circulation, it binds to plasma albumin to become an endogenous protein tracer. Here, we investigated whether a similar level of EBD is extravasated into the brain following i...
May 14, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742623/delayed-treatment-of-propofol-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-microglia-through-the-pi3k-pkb-pathway
#7
Jun Luo, Baoyi Huang, Zhijing Zhang, Min Liu, Tao Luo
Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent with potential neuroprotective effect. In this study, we aim to investigate whether delayed propofol treatment is protective against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Cultured BV2 microglial cells were exposed to propofol at various time points after initiation of LPS stimulation. Nitrite production and cell viability were assessed after stimulation with LPS for 24 h. The effect of propofol on mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was analyzed using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) 6 h after LPS stimulation...
May 8, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742622/fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-method-reveals-that-carboxyl-terminal-fragments-of-transactive-response-dna-binding-protein-43-truncated-at-the-amino-acid-residue-218-reduce-poly-a-rna-expression
#8
Shinji Higashi, Ryohei Watanabe, Tetsuaki Arai
Transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has emerged as an important contributor to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. To understand the association of TDP-43 with complex RNA processing in disease pathogenesis, we performed fluorescence in-situ hybridization using HeLa cells transfected with a series of deleted TDP-43 constructs and investigated the effect of truncation of TDP-43 on the expression of poly(A) RNA. Endogenous and overexpressed full-length TDP-43 localized to the perichromatin region and interchromatin space adjacent to poly(A) RNA...
May 8, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742621/mechanisms-of-ketamine-on-mice-hippocampi-shown-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomic-analysis
#9
Bin Lian, Jinjun Xia, Xun Yang, Chanjuan Zhou, Xue Gong, Siwen Gui, Qiang Mao, Ling Wang, Pengfei Li, Cheng Huang, Xunzhong Qi, Peng Xie
In the present study, we used a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics method to evaluate the effects of ketamine on mice hippocampi. Multivariate statistical analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis were then used to identify and explore the potential mechanisms and biofunction of ketamine. Compared with the control (CON) group, 14 differential metabolites that involved amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress metabolism were identified. After combination with 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) administration, six of the 14 metabolites remained significantly differentially expressed between the ketamine (KET) and KET+NBQX groups, including glycine, alanine, glutamine, aspartic acid, myoinositol, and ascorbate, whereas no difference was found in the levels of the other eight metabolites between the KET and KET+NBQX groups, including phosphate, 4-aminobutyric acid, urea, creatine, L-malic acid, galactinol, inosine, and aminomalonic...
May 8, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742620/ketamine-differentially-restores-diverse-alterations-of-neuroligins-in-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain-induced-depression
#10
Wei Pan, Guang-Fen Zhang, Hui-Hui Li, Mu-Huo Ji, Zhi-Qiang Zhou, Kuan-Yu Li, Jian-Jun Yang
Depression is present in a large proportion of patients suffering from chronic pain, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Neuroligins (NLs), as a family of cell-adhesion proteins, are involved in synaptic formation and have been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we studied the alterations in NL1 and NL2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the hippocampus in a rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression, and whether ketamine, a rapid and robust antidepressant, could restore these abnormalities...
May 8, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742619/loss-of-function-mutation-in-hippo-suppressed-enlargement-of-lysosomes-and-neurodegeneration-caused-by-dfig4-knockdown
#11
Yukie Kushimura, Yumiko Azuma, Ikuko Mizuta, Yuuka Muraoka, Akane Kyotani, Hideki Yoshida, Takahiko Tokuda, Toshiki Mizuno, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common hereditary neuropathy, and more than 80 CMT-causing genes have been identified to date. CMT4J is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Factor-Induced-Gene 4 (FIG4) gene, the product of which plays important roles in endosome-lysosome homeostasis. We hypothesized that Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST) 1 and 2, tumor-suppressor genes, are candidate modifiers of CMT4J. We therefore examined the interaction between dFIG4 and Hippo (hpo), Drosophila counterparts of FIG4 and MSTs, respectively, using the Drosophila CMT4J model with the knockdown of dFIG4...
May 8, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742618/the-facilitating-effect-of-positive-emotions-during-an-emotional-stroop-task
#12
Xingyu Liu, Yisheng Yang, Songxiu Jiang, Jie Li
Prior research has shown that negative emotions, even though task irrelevant, are capable of delaying a participant's response to the color in which a negative emotional word is presented, a phenomenon known as the 'emotional Stroop effect'. However, relatively little is known about whether positive emotions have a similar or an opposite effect. The current study sets out to confirm the facilitating effect of positive emotions on color naming, which is predicted by Barbara Fredrickson's 'broaden and build' theory...
May 8, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738354/sex-differences-in-a-chronometric-mental-rotation-test-with-cube-figures-a-behavioral-electroencephalography-and-eye-tracking-pilot-study
#13
Clara Scheer, Felipe Mattioni Maturana, Petra Jansen
In chronometric mental rotation tasks, sex differences are widely discussed. Most studies find men to be more skilled in mental rotation than women, which can be explained by the holistic strategy that they use to rotate stimuli. Women are believed to apply a piecemeal strategy. So far, there have been no studies investigating this phenomenon using eye-tacking methods in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) analysis: the present study compared behavioral responses, EEG activity, and eye movements of 15 men and 15 women while solving a three-dimensional chronometric mental rotation test...
May 7, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683871/sensorimotor-cortex-atrophy-in-patients-with-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#14
Lanbo Wang, Bing Yu, Qun Li, Fei Qi, Qiyong Guo
Previous studies have shown compensatory adaptive changes in cerebral functions before surgery in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), especially in the sensorimotor cortices. However, the structural changes in the sensorimotor cortices in patients with CSM remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the volumetric changes in the sensorimotor cortices using morphological MRI and to correlate these changes with clinical scales. We hypothesize that CSM causes atrophy in the sensorimotor cortices, which results in functional changes during CSM progression...
April 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683870/isosteviol-sodium-injection-improves-outcomes-by-modulating-tlrs-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#15
Jie Zan, Hao Zhang, Min-Yi Lu, Hui-Min Beng, Kai-Lun Zhong, Xiao-Ou Sun, Wen Tan
Previous studies have shown that isosteviol sodium (STVNa) protects against permanent cerebral ischemia injury by inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Overwhelming evidence shows that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the upstream regulators of NF-κB. On the basis of the similarity of the pathology caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, we speculated that STVNa may have a therapeutic effect against TBI through regulation of the TLRs/NF-κB signaling-mediated inflammatory response...
April 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672446/the-effects-of-treadmill-exercise-on-autophagy-in-hippocampus-of-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#16
Na Zhao, Xianliang Zhang, Chenghui Song, Youcai Yang, Biao He, Bo Xu
The β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is one of the major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Dysfunction in autophagy has been reported to lead to the Aβ deposition. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy activity and the Aβ deposition and to demonstrate whether exercise-induced reduction in the Aβ deposition was associated with changes in autophagy activity. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were divided into transgenic sedentary (TG-SED, n=12) and transgenic exercise (TG-EXE, n=12) groups...
April 18, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672445/glutathione-mimetic-d609-alleviates-memory-deficits-and-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-deposition-in-an-a%C3%AE-pp-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model
#17
Hui Yang, ZhaoHong Xie, LiFei Wei, Mao Ding, Ping Wang, JianZhong Bi
Excessive extracellular deposition of amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress is associated with the onset and progression of AD and contributes to Aβ generation. Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) is a glutathione (GSH)-mimetic compound. Although the antioxidant properties of D609 have been well-studied, its potential therapeutic significance on AD remains unclear. In the present study, we used a mouse model of AD to investigate the effects and the mechanism of action of D609 on AD...
April 18, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672444/emotion-intensity-modulates-perspective-taking-in-men-and-women-an-event-related-potential-study
#18
Pinchao Luo, Danna Xu, Fengjuan Huang, Fang Wei
When empathizing with another individual, one can imagine the individual's emotional states and how he or she perceives a situation. However, it is not known to what extent imagining the other differs from imagining oneself under different emotional intensity situations in both sexes. The present study investigated the regulatory effect of emotional intensity on perspective taking in men and women by event-related potentials. The participants were shown pictures of individuals in highly negative (HN), moderately negative, and neutral situations, and instructed to imagine the degree of pain perceived from either a self-perspective or an other-perspective...
April 18, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668504/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-over-right-intraparietal-sulcus-enhances-emotional-face-processing-in-the-left-visual-field
#19
Chenggui Fan, Chaoyang Wan, Junjun Zhang, Zhenlan Jin, Ling Li
The frontoparietal network is largely involved in the process of emotional face perception and attention. However, how the right intraparietal sulcus (rIPS) may guide this process is not yet established. The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intraparietal sulcus in the perception of emotional faces is still unclear. To address that, we applied a modified Posner attention task where participants discriminated backward-masked emotional faces at the valid side and delivered 10-Hz rTMS over rIPS and vertex...
April 17, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668503/tetrahydroxystilbene-glycoside-antagonizes-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-inflammatory-injury-in-microglia-cells-by-regulating-pu-1-expression
#20
Chenli Jiao, Feng Gao, Li Ou, Jinhua Yu, Min Li, Peifeng Wei, Feng Miu
Inhibiting β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial activation is proposed as an effective strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Tetrahydroxystilbene glycoside (TSG) is the main active ingredient of Polygonum multiflorum and has a wide range of biological properties, including antiinflammation. Here, we focused on the function and regulatory mechanism of TSG in Aβ-induced N9 and BV2 cells. The results showed that Aβ treatment induced the activation of microglia cells and the production of inflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase 2, and prostaglandin E2, which were significantly inhibited by TSG pretreatment...
April 17, 2018: Neuroreport
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