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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538522/frequency-specificity-and-left-ear-advantage-of-medial-olivocochlear-efferent-modulation-a-study-based-on-stimulus-frequency-otoacoustic-emission
#1
Dongjia Xing, Qin Gong
The medial olivocochlear (MOC) bundle is an auditory nucleus that projects efferent nerve fibers to the outer hair cells (OHCs) for synaptic innervation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible existence of frequency and ear specificity in MOC efferent modulation, as well as how MOC activation influences cochlear tuning. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) were used to study MOC efferent modulation. Therefore, the current experiment was designed to compare the degree of SFOAE suppression in the both ears of 20 individuals at 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538521/examination-of-the-validity-of-the-atlas-informed-approach-to-functional-parcellation-a-resting-functional-mri-study
#2
Tien-Wen Lee, Shao-Wei Xue
With the advancement in MRI, functional parcellation (FP) of brain structure(s) has become an important topic. However, the large number of voxels is a major obstacle. A-priori partitioning of the brain into several regions of interest (ROIs) is the main data-reduction strategy to simplify brain informatics. This study aims to examine the validity of ROI-based approach to FP by exploring the concordance of the relative distance structures between voxel-wise (raw data) and atlas-informed analyses. Structural and resting state functional MRI (rfMRI) scans of 26 right-handed healthy individuals were selected from the Rockland dataset...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538520/radiation-induced-cerebellar-cerebral-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#3
Qiongmin Ma, Ling-Li Zeng, Jian Qin, Zhiguo Luo, Jianpo Su, Donglin Wu, Shijun Qiu, Dewen Hu
The current study aimed to investigate the altered cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity (FC) induced by radiotherapy to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Twenty-four NPC patients without treatment, and 35 NPC patients receiving radiotherapy underwent functional MRI scanning. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was performed to evaluate the cognitive status of all participants. FC between 10 predefined cerebellar seeds, which were demonstrated to be involved in different brain functional networks, and all brain voxels was obtained for each participant...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538519/expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factors-neurotrophin-3-and-neurotrophin-4-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-heroin-dependency-and-withdrawal
#4
Yixin Li, Baijuan Xia, Rongrong Li, Dan Yin, Yanlin Wang, Wenmei Liang
Neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), have been implicated in the modulation of heroin dependency. This study was designed to explore the expression alterations of BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in the context of heroin dependence and withdrawal in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Heroin dependence was induced by a progressive intraperitoneal treatment of heroin. The results showed that the expression levels of BDNF and NT-4 were significantly decreased in the NAc of rats with heroin addiction in comparison with the control group, whereas there was a significant increase in BDNF and NT-4 expressions in the groups of rats with both naloxone-induced and spontaneous withdrawal...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538518/fetal-rhythm-based-language-discrimination-a-biomagnetometry-study
#5
Utako Minai, Kathleen Gustafson, Robert Fiorentino, Allard Jongman, Joan Sereno
Using fetal biomagnetometry, this study measured changes in fetal heart rate to assess discrimination of two rhythmically different languages (English and Japanese). Two-minute passages in English and Japanese were read by the same female bilingual speaker. Twenty-four mother-fetus pairs (mean gestational age=35.5 weeks) participated. Fetal magnetocardiography was recorded while the participants were presented first with passage 1, a passage in English, and then, following an 18 min interval, with passage 2, either a different passage in English (English-English condition: N=12) or in Japanese (English-Japanese condition: N=12)...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538517/greater-corticostriatal-activation-associated-with-facial-motor-imagery-compared-with-motor-execution-a-functional-mri-study
#6
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) relies on conscious mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output and can promote motor skill acquisition and facilitate rehabilitation for patients with stroke or neurological conditions. Although a plethora of neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural network of MI regarding different body parts, exploration of the neural correlates to facial MI remains warranted. Here, we used functional MRI with a large cohort of 41 participants who underwent motor execution (ME) and MI runs of mouth-stretching tasks...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538516/left-lateralization-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-the-presupplementary-motor-area-and-primary-language-areas
#7
William Lou, Kyung K Peck, Nicole Brennan, Arka Mallela, Andrei Holodny
An abundance of evidence points to the role of a presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in human language. This study explores the pre-SMA resting state connectivity network and the nature of its connections to known language areas. We tested the hypothesis that by seeding the pre-SMA, one would be able to establish language laterality to known cortical and subcortical language areas. We analyzed data from 30 right-handed healthy controls and performed the resting state functional MRI. A seed-based analysis using a manually drawn pre-SMA region of interest template was applied...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538515/effect-of-exposure-to-short-wavelength-light-on-susceptibility-to-motion-sickness
#8
Kyungshil Kim, Kazumi Hirayama, Kazuki Yoshida, Rika Yano, Masayuki Abe, Mika Otsuki, Satoshi Sakuraba, Shinya Sakai
This randomized cross-over study tested the hypothesis that exposure to short-wavelength light induces symptoms of motion sickness (MS). The study participants were 28 healthy adults (14 women; mean age±SD, 25.96±3.11 years). Two stimuli oscillating within a range of 0.4-0.6 Hz were used to induce MS: a blue wave stimulus with short-wavelength light (460 nm) and a green wave stimulus with middle-wavelength light (555 nm). All participants were exposed to both stimuli throughout two separate periods...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520620/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-ameliorates-memory-impairment-and-rescues-the-abnormal-synaptic-protein-levels-in-the-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Yufang Guo, Yan Zhao, Ying Nan, Xiang Wang, Yulong Chen, Shuang Wang
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic extract in green tea and it has attracted increasing attention for its multiple bioactive effects. However, the mechanisms by which EGCG exerts its neuroprotective actions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are presently lacking. In the present study, a sporadic AD transgenic mouse model known as senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) was used to investigate whether oral administration of EGCG could improve recognition and memory function through reduction of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau hyperphosphorylation...
May 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509815/serum-iron-concentration-is-associated-with-subcortical-deep-gray-matter-iron-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#10
Niels Bergsland, Simone Agostini, Maria M Laganà, Roberta Mancuso, Laura Mendozzi, Eleonora Tavazzi, Pietro Cecconi, Mario Clerici, Francesca Baglio
Iron deposition has been noted widely in the subcortical deep gray matter (SDGM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Recent evidence suggests that serum iron may cross the blood-brain barrier and might be associated with SDGM iron deposition. The aim of the current study was to assess whether an iron-sensitive MRI measure is related to serum iron concentrations. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 22 MS patients and 24 healthy controls (HCs), group matched for age and sex. Participants were imaged on a 1...
May 15, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505018/the-variation-of-the-5-hydroxytryptamine-system-between-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-rats-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-rats-induced-by-forced-treadmill-running
#11
Yin Cao, Qinglin Li
The aim of this study was to observe the variation in the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system between a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model and a chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) model. The total distance, the crossing pieces, and rearing times in the open-field test of the CUMS group and the CFS group were all less than those of the control group to different degrees. The concentrations of tryptophan, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA of the CUMS group were obviously lower than those of the control group. In the CFS model, the concentrations of tryptophan, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA were obviously higher than those of the control group...
May 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492417/cognitive-control-in-children-with-learning-disabilities-neuromarker-for-deficient-executive-functions
#12
Nsreen Alahmadi
The neural underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) are still not known. Recent discussions focus over whether domain-specific and/or domain-unspecific reasons might be responsible for LD either alone or in combination with each other. This study applied standard nonverbal Go-NoGo tasks (visual continuous performance test) to LD and healthy control children to examine whether they show deficient executive functions. During this Go-NoGo task, electroencephalogram was measured in addition to reaction times, hits, omissions, and commissions to the Go and NoGo stimuli...
May 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492416/cannabinoid-1-receptor-blockade-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-prevents-the-reinstatement-but-not-acquisition-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#13
Xin Zhao, Li Yao, Fang Wang, Han Zhang, Li Wu
The cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) signaling is strongly linked to conditioned rewarding effects of opiates. Learned associations between environmental contexts and discrete cues and drug use play an important role in the maintenance and/or relapse of morphine addiction. Although previous studies suggest that context-dependent morphine treatment alters endocannabinoid signaling and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, the role of endocannabinoid in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) and reinstatement remains unknown...
May 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489665/the-nogo-receptor-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-axonal-extension-by-transcriptionally-regulating-wnk1-in-pc12-cells
#14
Tao Yang, Kai Zhao, Haifeng Shu, Xin Chen, Jingmin Cheng, Song Li, Ziyi Zhao, Yongqin Kuang, Sixun Yu
Neuronal regeneration and axonal regrowth mechanisms in the injured mammalian central nervous system are largely unknown. As part of a major pathway for inhibiting axonal regeneration, activated neuronal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptor (NgR) interacts with LINGO-1 and p75NTR to form a complex at the cell surface. However, it was found in our previous report that upregulation of NgR stimulated by injury plays a key role in neuronal regeneration in the neonatal cortex freeze-lesion model, but its downstream signalling remains elusive...
May 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489664/changes-in-mitochondrial-ultrastructure-in-sh-sy5y-cells-during-apoptosis-induced-by-hemin
#15
Jiaxing Dai, Pei Wu, Shancai Xu, Yuchen Li, Yishi Zhu, Ligang Wang, Chunlei Wang, Peiquan Zhou, Huaizhang Shi
Hemorrhagic stroke is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Hemin is a decomposition product of hemoglobin that is related to neuronal apoptosis after hemorrhage, although the molecular basis for this association remains unclear. To address this issue, the present study investigated hemin-induced changes in the apoptotic index and mitochondrial ultrastructure in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell viability was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 and by terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labeling, western blotting, and flow cytometry...
May 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489663/use-dependent-inhibition-of-glycine-activated-chloride-current-in-rat-neurons-by-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-pretreated-with-hexafluoroisopropanol
#16
Elena I Solntseva, Julia V Bukanova
Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) is a nonpolar organic solvent that is often used to prepare β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) samples. In this work, we compare the effects of two different species derived from synthetic Aβ1-42 and prepared without HFIP (Aβ) or using HFIP (Aβ/HFIP) on the glycine-activated chloride current (IGly). The experiments were conducted on the pyramidal neurons isolated from CA3 region of rat hippocampus. Transmembrane currents were recorded using a conventional patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration...
May 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471848/l-borneol-induces-transient-opening-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-enhances-the-therapeutic-effect-of-cisplatin
#17
Yi Yin, Liu Cao, Hongfei Ge, Wangsheng Duanmu, Liang Tan, Jichao Yuan, Chen Tunan, Fei Li, Rong Hu, Fabao Gao, Hua Feng
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the central nervous system from external insults by limiting substance diffusion through the endothelial interface. The presence of the BBB makes drug delivery in neurological disorders very challenging. Cisplatin has been shown to be cytotoxic to glioma cells, but substantial limitations exist in its clinical applications due to difficulties in penetration across the BBB. Here, we show that L-borneol, a messenger drug widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, can induce transient disruption of the BBB after 20 min of oral administration...
May 3, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445249/study-on-the-mechanisms-of-seizure-like-events-suppression-effect-by-electrical-stimulation-using-a-microelectrode-array
#18
Sora Ahn, Sumin Jo, Sang Beom Jun, Hyang Woon Lee, Seungjun Lee
In this paper, we studied the mechanisms underlying the suppression of seizure-like events (SLEs) by electrical stimulation. We conducted an in-vitro experiment using entorhinal cortex combined hippocampal slices and two convulsant drugs, bicuculline and 4-aminopyridine, to induce spontaneous SLEs. We used a microelectrode array to observe network dynamics over the entire hippocampal area simultaneously, including regions far from the stimulation site. We stimulated the entorhinal cortex region, which has been determined to be a focus of SLEs by Granger causality analysis of multichannel time series data, by an external electrode...
April 25, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430709/vitamin-d3-repressed-astrocyte-activation-following-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation-in-vitro-and-in-neonatal-rats
#19
Ke-Ping Jiao, Shao-Min Li, Wen-Yan Lv, Ming-Liang Jv, Hai-Yan He
Vitamin D3 has been reported to be an immunity modulator and high levels of vitamin D3 are correlated with a decreased risk for developing diseases in the central nervous system. Astrocytes are important immune cells and contribute toward inflammation during neurological diseases. The vitamin D receptor has been reported to be expressed in astrocytes; however, the effect of vitamin D3 on astrocyte activation has not been studied. Here, we found that lipopolysaccharide stimulation in astrocytes could enhance the expression of vitamin D receptor and Cyp27B1, which encodes the enzyme for converting vitamin D3 into its active form...
April 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419056/response-characteristics-of-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-to-ultrasonic-communicative-vocalizations
#20
Yumi Saito, Kazuo Okanoya
Emotional communication involves transmitting information on affective states. Rat 50- and 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are emotional communication signals that reflect positive or negative states, respectively. In general, emotional communication signals that elicit changes in event-related potentials (ERPs), suggesting a specific mechanism for processing these signals. As this is observed in several communication systems including humans, we hypothesized that rat USVs can also trigger such changes...
April 17, 2017: Neuroreport
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