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Neuroreport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306608/evaluation-of-human-glioma-using-in-vivo-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-combined-with-expression-of-cyclooxygenase-2-a-preliminary-clinical-trial
#1
Wenqi Shi, Fuyan Li, Hongxia Li, Yanjie Xu, Qingshi Zeng
We sought to investigate the correlation between in-vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in human glioma, and to advance their roles in diagnostic mapping and monitoring of glioma biological behavior. Thirty-nine patients with different grades of glioma (WHO classification I-IV) included in this study were scanned at 3.0 T MR before operation or biopsy puncture. Tumor morphology and H-MRS metabolites ratio [choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr)] were evaluated independently by two experienced radiologists...
March 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306607/orexin-a-aggravates-the-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurons-caused-by-intermittent-hypoxemia-by-the-oxr-plc%C3%AE-1-erk1-2-pathway
#2
Guohua Li, Shi Tang, Heng Chi, Weiwei Huang, Shanshan Lu, Xin Lv, Xiaomin Liu, Yan Li, Yanpeng Wang, Jiyou Tang
Obstructive sleep apnea is a highly prevalent but under-recognized disorder that causes neurocognitive deficits such as spatial memory and learning deficits. These deficits are frequently accompanied by an increase in orexin-A, which has been shown to be involved in learning and memory as well as in neuronal apoptosis in brain areas involved in cognition, such as the hippocampus. The aim of this work was to study the possible harmful effects of orexin-A on intermittent hypoxemia-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and to investigate the potential underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in vitro...
March 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306606/spinal-microglial-p2x4-receptor-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-regulates-nicotine-withdrawal-induced-hyperalgesia
#3
Xiaodi Zhang, Pengcheng Xu, Chengbao Li, Wenchao Zhu, Shanshan Wu, Ailan Yu, Yonghong Ding, Qinghe Wang, Zongwang Zhang
Nicotine withdrawal (NTW) has been shown to increase pain sensitivity. However, the pathogenesis of NTW-induced hyperalgesia syndrome is unknown. Microglial activation, with increased expression of the P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as important markers, is associated with hyperalgesia; therefore, these markers may represent an unprecedented target to prevent hyperalgesia. In this study, we explored the contributions of spinal microglial P2X4R-BDNF signaling in NTW-induced hyperalgesia...
March 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296653/involvement-of-hypothalamic-nitric-oxide-signaling-in-the-modulation-of-a-rat-s-exercise-capacity
#4
Hongyu Liu, Jinjuan Xue
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of nitric oxide (NO) in some regions of the hypothalamus on exercise capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the role of central NO in exercise capacity, L-arginine (L-Arg, a precursor of NO synthesis), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor), or placebo saline was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle of rats once a day for 4 consecutive days. Thereafter, an one-time exhaustive treadmill exercise was performed, and the levels of nitrate/nitrite, as a marker of NO production, in blood plasma and hypothalamus were assayed...
March 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272265/reduced-response-cluster-size-in-early-visual-areas-explains-the-acuity-deficit-in-amblyopia
#5
Yufeng Huang, Lixia Feng, Yifeng Zhou
Focal visual stimulation typically results in the activation of a large portion of the early visual cortex. This spread of activity is attributed to long-range lateral interactions. Such long-range interactions may serve to stabilize a visual representation or to simply modulate incoming signals, and any associated dysfunction in long-range activation may reduce sensitivity to visual information in conditions such as amblyopia. We sought to measure the dispersion of cortical activity following local visual stimulation in a group of patients with amblyopia and matched normal...
March 7, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272264/the-elevated-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-activity-is-associated-with-the-occurrence-and-recurrence-of-acute-cerebral-infarction
#6
Lingli Wei, Zunyu Ke, Yu Zhao, Zhiyou Cai
There is a strong association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels and atherosclerosis-related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Lp-PLA2 in the ischemic stroke and further offer clinical evidence that measuring Lp-PLA2 helps predict the risk of stroke occurrence and recurrence. A total of 328 hospitalized patients were recruited, including 179 cases of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) and 149 non-ACI controls. The serum level of Lp-PLA2 in ACI was significantly higher than non-ACI...
March 7, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272263/response-inhibition-is-more-effortful-than-response-activation-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-evidence
#7
Heming Gao, Mingming Qi, Qi Zhang
The present study aimed to measure the response inhibition by embedding a secondary probe task within a Go/NoGo paradigm. The response time for the probe and the time course of the discrimination process for the probe shown by event-related potentials were measured to investigate the effect of response inhibition. The results showed that the probe response time were longer for the NoGo-probes versus Go-probes, indicating a more cognitively demanding process in processing NoGo stimuli. The event-related potential results showed that the NoGo stimuli evoked a more positive frontal P3 component relative to the Go stimuli...
March 7, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272262/accumulated-gaba-activates-presynaptic-gabab-receptors-and-inhibits-both-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-midbrain-periaqueductal-gray
#8
Guangying Li, Caifeng Shao, Qian Chen, Qiang Wang, Kun Yang
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, activates ionotropic GABAA receptors and metabotropic GABAB receptors in the central nervous system, respectively. In ventrolateral division of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), GABAB receptors play important roles in pain modulation. However, the role of endogenous GABA action in presynaptic GABAB receptors remains elusive. Using whole-cell recordings on acute PAG slices from adult rats, here, we show that ambient GABA exerts a tonic inhibition on presynaptic terminals by binding GABAB receptors...
March 7, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257396/maxi-anion-channels-play-a-key-role-in-glutamate-induced-atp-release-from-mouse-astrocytes-in-primary-culture
#9
Bin Zhao, Li Gu, Kaixi Liu, Mingming Zhang, Hongtao Liu
Astrocytes are an abundant source of ATP, which might be released from the cytosol into extracellular spaces under various conditions and even affect cell fate under some circumstances. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the pathway(s) contributing toward glutamate-induced ATP release from mouse astrocytes. Firstly, our study of cultured astrocytes showed marked ATP release in response to stimuli of glutamate at different concentrations (0.1-1 mM), with an interesting bimodal distribution in time course...
March 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257395/stereological-study-on-the-number-of-synapses-in-the-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn-with-painful-diabetic-neuropathy-induced-by-streptozotocin
#10
Jing-Yan Lin, Xiao-Li Huang, Jing Chen, Zheng-Wei Yang, Jing Lin, San Huang, Bin Peng
Our previous studies showed that direct injury to the sciatic nerve (chronic constriction injury or axotomy) is associated with a numerical increase in synaptic number in the rat spinal dorsal horn. The aim of this study was to determine whether painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was also associated with numerical changes in the synaptic or neuronal numbers in the spinal dorsal horn. Overall, 17 adult SD rats were allocated randomly into the control group (n=5) and the streptozotocin (STZ) group (n=12). STZ was injected intraperitoneally to induce diabetes...
March 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252551/effect-of-baicalin-on-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-endothelial-cell-damage
#11
Si Luo, Shi Li, Lei Zhu, Shu-Huan Fang, Jun-Li Chen, Qing-Qing Xu, Hong-Ying Li, Na-Chuan Luo, Cong Yang, Dan Luo, Lin Li, Xiao-Hui Ma, Rong Zhang, Hong Wang, Yun-Bo Chen, Qi Wang
Baicalin, a plant-derived flavonoid, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on ischemia-like or excitotoxic injury. To confirm this function and explore the possible mechanism, we investigated the protective effect of baicalin on an in-vitro model of ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation-treated endothelial cell). In the present study, we found that baicalin (100 μM) inhibited cell death, reduced cell membrane damage, and maintained the integrity of the nucleus. Flow cytometric analysis and Hoechst 33258/propidium iodide double staining results showed that the necroptosis ratio decreased with baicalin treatment...
March 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240725/assessment-of-mutations-in-kcnn2-and-znf135-to-patient-neurological-symptoms
#12
Vijeta Raghuram, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber, Dong-Hui Chen, Thomas D Bird, James Maylie, John P Adelman
Exome sequencing from a patient with neurological and developmental symptoms revealed two mutations in separate genes. One was a homozygous transition mutation that results in an in-frame, premature translational stop codon in the ZNF135 gene predicted to encode a transcriptional repressor. Another mutation was heterozygous, a single nucleotide duplication in the KCNN2 gene that encodes a Ca-activated K channel, SK2, and leads to a translational frame shift and a premature stop codon. Heterologous expression studies, brain slice recordings, and coordination tests from a transgenic mouse line carrying the SK2 mutation suggest that it does not contribute to the patient's symptoms...
February 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240724/spatial-working-memory-encoding-type-modulates-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#13
Yuhei Oi, Yosuke Kita, Kota Suzuki, Yasuko Okumura, Hideyuki Okuzumi, Haruo Shinoda, Masumi Inagaki
Spatial working memory (SWM) involves both simultaneous and sequential encoding, but the differences in their neural correlates are unclear. We investigated the differences in prefrontal cortex activity related to these SWM encoding types. We also examined the patterns of brain activity influencing individual visuospatial abilities (VSA). We conducted SWM tasks with two different conditions, sequential and simultaneous encoding, and examined hemodynamic activity in 39 healthy adults using near-infrared spectroscopy...
February 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240723/prolonged-duration-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-impairs-spatial-recognition-memory-through-the-activation-of-jnk1-2-in-the-hippocampus-of-mice
#14
Shan Jiang, Bei Miao, Ying Chen
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a frequent complication with surgery and anesthesia, and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of different durations of isoflurane anesthesia on spatial recognition memory and activation of JNK1/2 in the hippocampus of mice. In the present study, adult male mice were anesthetized with isoflurane for different durations (1.5% isoflurane for 1, 2, and 4 h). Spatial recognition memory was determined using spontaneous alternation and two-trial recognition memory in Y-maze at 24 h after anesthesia...
February 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240721/cucurbitacin-iia-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-on-mice-exposed-to-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#15
Shi-Meng Zhou, Shao-Yu Guan, Le Yang, Liu-Kun Yang, Lu Wang, Hui-Fang Nie, Xiang Li, Ming-Gao Zhao, Qi Yang, Hong Wu
Cucurbitacin IIa (CuIIa) is the major active component of the Helmseya amabilis root and is known to have antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the antidepressant-like effects of CuIIa in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms. To evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of CuIIa on depression-like behaviors, mice were subjected to the open-field test, the elevated plus-maze test, the forced-swimming test, and the tail-suspension test...
February 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240720/role-of-mir-122-5p-negatively-regulating-t-box-brain-1-expression-on-the-differentiation-of-mouse-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Yu Yang, Zhaoliang Shen, Wei Sun, Shuang Gao, Yuanlong Li, Yue Guo
To achieve neuronal differentiation of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) into neuron-like cells and explore the role of miR-122-5p that may regulate T-box brain 1 (Tbr1) expression during the induction. BMSCs were cultured and induced with butylated hydroxyanisole, retinoic acid (RA), basic fibroblast growth factor, and nerve growth factor in vitro. The cells were stained for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and β-III-tubulin by immunocytochemistry/immunofluorescence. MiR-122-5p that may regulate Tbr1 expression was predicted by bioinformatics and identified using a Dual-Luciferase assay...
February 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225481/the-dysfunction-of-inhibition-control-in-pituitary-patients-evidence-from-the-go-nogo-event-related-potential-study
#17
Chenglong Cao, Jian Song, Shun Yao, Yan Yan, Shun Li, Guibao Peng, Pan Ma, Hao Du, Cheng Huang, Huichao Ding, Yuanzhi He, Ronghui Sun, Guozheng Xu
Pituitary tumor is an intracranial tumor; because of the development of neuroimaging technology in recent years, morbidity is likely to increase. Evidence showed impaired cognitive ability of patients with pituitary adenoma. There is evidence that neurobehavioral disorders are common in pituitary adenoma patients. This disorder is because of the cognitive and emotional function of the important functional areas of the brain oppressed and hormone imbalance. Individuals' mental activity is controlled by the brain and the abnormal mental activity is caused by both the structural abnormalities of the brain and neurochemical dysfunction...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225480/nmda-receptor-subunit-and-camkii-changes-in-rat-hippocampus-by-congenital-hcmv-infection-a-mechanism-for-learning-and-memory-impairment
#18
De Wu, Li Yang, Xiaosong Bu, Jiulai Tang, Xiaocheng Fan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of congenital human cytomegalovirus infection on the expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NRs) and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the hippocampal neurons of neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant SD rats were divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=10 in each group). Spatial learning and memory of the offspring of SD rats were evaluated using the Morris water-maze test. Pathological studies of hippocampus sections were carried out...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225479/long-lasting-training-in-the-barnes-maze-prompts-hippocampal-spinogenesis-and-habituation-in-rats
#19
Maia Uriarte, Olalekan M Ogundele, Joaquin Pardo
There is a constant need to assess spatial memory in small rodents to elucidate the basics of cognition in neuroscience experiments. Thus, the significance of the Barnes maze in the biology of hippocampal and cortical neural function cannot be overemphasized. Despite the wide use of the Barnes maze, the effect of maze task training on the structure of hippocampal neurons is yet to be elucidated. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intense training on the Barnes maze (3 months). Subsequently, the hippocampus (cornus ammonis and dentate gyrus) of separate sets of rats was processed for Golgi Colonnier techniques (silver impregnation) and adenoviral-green fluorescent protein labeling (immunohistochemistry)...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181916/4-phenylbutyric-acid-and-metformin-decrease-sensitivity-to-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-in-a-malin-knockout-model-of-lafora-disease
#20
Gentzane Sánchez-Elexpuru, José M Serratosa, Pascual Sanz, Marina P Sánchez
Lafora disease (LD) is a rare adolescent-onset progressive myoclonic epilepsy caused by loss-of-function mutations either in the EPM2A gene encoding laforin or in the EPM2B gene encoding malin. Mouse models with deletion in the Epm2a or the Epm2b gene show intracellular aggregates of polyglucosans (Lafora bodies) and neurological complications that resemble those observed in patients with LD. In the absence of laforin or malin expression, mice also show different degrees of hyperexcitability, as reflected by an enhanced response to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)...
February 8, 2017: Neuroreport
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