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Vladimir I Arkhipov, Ekaterina V Pershina, Sergey G Levin
Cytokines, in addition to their participation in immune and inflammatory processes, play an important role in synaptic plasticity, neoneurogenesis, and cognitive functions. In our work, we aimed to clarify the role of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which is recognized as a multifunctional cytokine, in memory processes. Behavioral experiments were carried out in rats using step-through passive avoidance test. The results obtained showed that the learning of animals after treatment with SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β receptors, was impaired, which indicated a significant memory deterioration...
January 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Flavia L Esposito, Hans Supèr
In line with a possible role of vergence in orienting visual attention, we sought to study this eye movement in young children to provide insights on face perception. For this purpose, we measured the modulation in the angle of eye vergence in a sample of 39 children aged 6-36 months and compared it when presenting static human face images versus their scrambled version. We observed enhanced vergence responses to faces compared with scrambled images. Our data suggest a role of eye vergence in face processing...
January 10, 2018: Neuroreport
Yi Sun, Yupeng Wang, Xin Zhao, Xiaoping Pu
DJ-1, originally identified as an oncogene product, is involved in multiple processes, including cellular transformation, the oxidative stress response, and transcriptional regulation. We had previously found that DJ-1 was closely associated with the proliferation and differentiation of cultured neuronal stem cells. In this study, we further investigated the functions of DJ-1 to determine how adult neurogenesis was affected in the subgranular zones (SGZ), subventricular zone (SVZ), and olfactory bulb (OB), which are brain areas closely related to early nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, using a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease...
January 5, 2018: Neuroreport
Raúl Aguilar-Roblero, Adriana Mejía-López, Dominique Cortés-Pedroza, José L Chavez-Juárez, Miguel A Gutierrez-Monreal, Gabriela Domínguez, Paula Vergara, José Segovia
Calcium-regulated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin-1 has been recently identified in neurons. In neurons, which express the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, activation of CaCCs increases firing frequency, by reversion between the Cl equilibrium potential and the membrane resting potential, leading to membrane depolarization by Cl extrusion from the cell. Although there are no reports of CaCCs present in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the fact that Na-K-2Cl cotransporter is present in SCN neurons, where it has been shown to be involved in the excitatory effects of γ-aminobutyric acid, together with the increase of neuronal firing rate induced by release of intracellular Ca after administration of 100 nM ryanodine, leads us to determine whether CaCCs are present in the SCN...
January 5, 2018: Neuroreport
Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Tomoshi Watanabe, Toru Sunagawa, Hiroshi Kurumadani, Hanan Abd El-Rahman, Mitsuo Ochi, Nobuo Adachi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of finger-tip touch on the somatosensory cortex under mirror imaging conditions. Magnetoencephalographic recordings of somatosensory-evoked field responses to mechanical tactile stimulation of the index finger in both hands were obtained for the right-handed healthy participants as part of the following mirror or nonmirror tasks. Both hands were screened and mechanical stimuli were delivered to the right index finger pulp. A mirror was placed in front of the patient with the right hand facing the reflective surface, as if it were the left side (mirror task)...
January 4, 2018: Neuroreport
Haiying Dong, Shuqin Wu, Nan Hu, Guihua Xing
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has no cure at present. This study was carried out to evaluate whether the combination of β-asarone and tenuigenin could improve the efficacy of memantine as a monotherapy in the treatment of AD. Patients with AD were recruited and assigned to two groups. Patients in the control group received memantine (5-20 mg/day) and those in the experimental group received memantine (5-20 mg/day), β-asarone (20 mg/day), and tenuigenin (20 mg/day)...
January 2, 2018: Neuroreport
Ivan E Lazarev, Ksenia E Sayfulina, Elena G Chernysheva, Dmitri V Bryzgalov, Boris V Chernyshev
Currently, there are two opposing views on feature binding in the auditory modality: according to behavioral studies, this process requires focused attention, whereas electrophysiological studies suggest that feature binding may be fully automatic and independent of attention. Here, we examined whether feature binding depends on higher-level attentional processes by manipulating the attentional focus. We used four auditory stimuli that differed in two features: pitch and location. Two rare deviants could be detected within a sequence of two frequent standards exclusively by feature conjunctions rather than by any single feature alone...
December 29, 2017: Neuroreport
Hassan Azhdari-Zarmehri, Elmira Ghasemi, Nima Heidari-Oranjaghi, Mehdi Sadegh
Repeated administration of morphine or orexin-A produces tolerance to their antinociceptive effects. We investigated the possible incidence of cross-tolerance between orexin-A and morphine. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were used. Under deep anesthesia, a stereotaxic apparatus was used to implant a 23 G cannula into the lateral ventricle for an intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection. The antinociceptive effect of three different doses of orexin-A (5, 20, and 40 µM; dissolved in 5 µl sterile saline; ICV) was examined using the hot-plate test at 15, 30, 60, and 90 min after infusion...
December 29, 2017: Neuroreport
Yue Zhang, Dawei Zhu, Jilei Wang, Liangxin Yang, Liecheng Wang, Yuanyin Wang
Pannexin-1 (Panx 1) is a large-pore membrane channel that is expressed widely in the nervous system and is involved in the physiological and pathological processes of some neurological diseases. Here, we investigate the expression of Panx 1 in a rat model of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). After chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the infraorbital nerve (ION), rats showed mechanical hypersensitivity responses to mechanical stimuli by von Frey hairs in contrast to sham rats. In comparison with sham rats, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot showed that Panx 1 expression was upregulated in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of ION-CCI rats...
December 29, 2017: Neuroreport
Mark Hoffman, Marc Norcross, Sam Johnson
To compare the maximum Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) and the maximum M-wave (H : M) ratio of the H-reflex in men and women when all participants showed similar saliva levels of estradiol and progesterone. This is a cohort design study involving healthy men and women with a mean age of 22.4±3.4 years. The H : M ratio of the H-reflex was assessed in women and men at a point in time when naturally occurring levels of estradiol and progesterone were similar. The female participants had a significantly higher H : M ratio compared with the male participants, whereas no differences in the saliva levels of progesterone and estradiol were detected...
December 29, 2017: Neuroreport
Kulpreet Cheema, Nicole Lantz, Jacqueline Cummine
Although the role of cortical structures in skilled and impaired reading has been the topic of considerable investigation, the contribution of subcortical structures to reading performance is less well understood. Here, we assess the role of the caudate, putamen, and thalamus in adults with and without reading impairment. Thirty-three individuals (19 skilled readers and 14 reading impaired individuals) participated in two functional MRI tasks: (a) silent reading of real words and (b) silent reading of nonwords...
December 29, 2017: Neuroreport
Yang Li, Ying Sheng, Jian-Min Liang, Juan Hu, Xiao-Yong Ren, Yan Cheng
After intense sound exposure, the lack of obvious degeneration in type III fibrocytes suggests that they might protect themselves against acoustic trauma. However, it is unknown whether and how type III fibrocytes play this role in other cochlear damage models. In this study, we investigated the self-protection of type III fibrocytes against severe cochlear energy failure induced by local administration of 3-nitropropionic acid to the inner ear. We detected that the type III fibrocytes did not degenerate significantly after 500 mM 3-nitropropionic acid application, and showed increased expression of proliferation marker Ki67...
December 26, 2017: Neuroreport
Kai-Hsiang Chen, Ying-Zu Huang
The effect of the eyes closed and eyes open states on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor cortex response remains unclear. This study evaluated the difference in TMS-induced motor cortical responses between the eyes open and eyes closed states. Ten healthy right-handed participants participated in three experiments. The stimulation-response curve of motor-evoked potential, short-interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation, and cortical silent period were determined in both the eyes open and eyes closed states, in random order...
December 26, 2017: Neuroreport
Ruiwei Gao, Minjie Wang, Jie Lin, Lan Hu, Zhihua Li, Chao Chen, Lin Yuan
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are pluripotent components of the extracellular matrix in the brain. Although previous studies have examined the developmental change in certain CSPGs in the whole brain, no known systematic studies have been carried out on the temporal or spatial expression of CSPGs. Here, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the CSPG mRNAs expression in the postnatal developing rat brain starting from postnatal day 5-42, mainly focusing on the parietal cortex, hippocampus, and corpus callosum...
December 21, 2017: Neuroreport
Guoliang Yu, Shikan Zheng, Hao Zhang
It is known that oxidative stress produced by proinflammatory myeloid cells plays an important role in demyelination and neuronal injury in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidative enzyme released from myeloid cells during inflammation. It has been shown that MPO-dependent oxidative stress plays important roles in inducing tissue injury in many inflammatory diseases. In this report, we treated NOD experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, a murine model of progressive MS, with N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide (KYC), a novel specific MPO inhibitor...
December 20, 2017: Neuroreport
Luyao Xia, Lixia Cui, Qin Zhang, Xiaofei Dong, Guangyuan Shi
There are still some controversies that attentional bias to negative emotions in individuals with high-trait anxiety (HTA), as compare with those with low-trait anxiety (LTA), occurs in the engagement or disengagement facet of attentional selectivity and whether this attentional bias is affected by negative emotional types. In this study, we explored the different attentional selectivity mechanisms for threatening emotions of anger and disgust between individuals with HTA and LTA using the variant attentional-probe paradigm...
December 19, 2017: Neuroreport
Aiwen Yi, Zhuoming Chen, Yanqun Chang, Hong Wang, Limei Wu
Language switching is an important issue in the study of bilinguals. However, how the nontarget language affects the production of the target language under the language switch condition is still unclear, especially for bilinguals who speak two dialects (bidialectals). In the present study, we investigate this issue by a picture-naming task and using an event-related potential (ERP) technique. Two groups of proficient bidialectals, Mandarin (L1)-Cantonese (L2) and Cantonese (L1)-Mandarin (L2), participated in the study...
December 18, 2017: Neuroreport
Praveen K Giri, Yang Lu, Shan Lei, Weisong Li, Juan Zheng, Haixia Lu, Xinlin Chen, Yong Liu, Pengbo Zhang
Laboratory studies suggested that general anesthetics induce neuroapoptosis and inhibit neurogenesis in developing brains of animals. Minocycline exerts neuroprotection against a wide range of toxic insults in neurodegenerative diseases models. Here, we investigate whether minocycline can alleviate neurogenetic damage and improve cognition following midazolam exposure in neonatal rats. Postnatal 7 days rats were divided randomly into three groups: control group (C), midazolam group (M), and minocycline pretreatment group (MP)...
December 18, 2017: Neuroreport
Jae-Chang Kim, Sunghyon Kyeong
Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is one of the most important neuroimaging modalities for investigating alterations in the resting-state networks of the human brain, given that abnormal neural activity during the resting state is associated with neurological disorders. However, neuroimaging results obtained from rsfMRI have rarely been replicated with repeated measurements. Therefore, we aimed to develop new measures to extract highly reliable and reproducible functional neuroimaging metrics from rsfMRI data...
December 13, 2017: Neuroreport
Shao-Wei Xue, Yonghu Guo
Entropy analysis of resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) is a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics and facilitates the identification of abnormal brain activity caused by several disease conditions. However, Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related brain entropy mapping based on R-fMRI has not been assessed. Here, we measured the sample entropy and voxel-wise connectivity of the network degree centrality (DC) of the intrinsic brain activity acquired by R-fMRI in 26 patients with AD and 26 healthy controls...
December 12, 2017: Neuroreport
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