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Sara A Aldossary, Mohammad Alsalem, Heba Kalbouneh, Mansour Haddad, Belal Azab, Othman Al-Shboul, Ayman G Mustafa, Sarah Obiedat, Khalid El-Salem
Palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is a ligand at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPARα), a nuclear receptor that has anti-inflammatory effects. Herein, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model in rats and in-vitro calcium imaging studies were used to evaluate the mechanisms that underlie the antinociceptive effects of PEA, including modulating the activity of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, which is a key receptor involved in the development of inflammatory pain...
November 8, 2018: Neuroreport
Ryo Ueda, Naoki Yamada, Masahiro Abo, Atsushi Senoo
Intervention with combined low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and intensive occupational therapy can improve brain function in poststroke patients with motor paralysis. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between brain structure at the time of intervention and the degree of motor function improvement using this combination therapy. Twenty-five patients with upper limb paralysis after stroke were hospitalized for 15 days to receive 12 sessions of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the nonlesional hemisphere and occupational therapy...
November 5, 2018: Neuroreport
Miguel Bellés, Josep Carbonell, José M Blasco-Ibáñez, Carlos Crespo, Juan Nácher, Emilio Varea
Reelin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that modulates synaptic function and plasticity, with a crucial role in neuronal migration. Changes in the expression of this protein have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This molecule is produced by Cajal-Retzius neurons during development and by inhibitory neurons in the adult nervous system. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) present an early development of AD; therefore, we analyzed the alterations in this molecule and its receptors in the murine model for DS Ts65Dn as well as in human with DS...
November 1, 2018: Neuroreport
Alana B McCambridge, Chris Zaslawski, Lynley V Bradnam
Acupuncture is gaining interest as a potential treatment modality for various neurological conditions. Yet, the underlying mechanisms and efficacy on brain function are not well understood. Therefore, this study investigated the previously proposed hypothesis that acupuncture suppresses motor cortex excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy adults. The study was randomised, sham-controlled, and double-blinded. Single and paired-pulse TMS was delivered before, during, immediately after, and 30 min after removal of the needle...
November 1, 2018: Neuroreport
Liying Lv, Jinping Liu, Zunshu Du, Yizhi Song, Hui Li, Xue Li, Lirong Chang, Yan Wu
Many proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins have been involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. As the first identified antiapoptotic protein, apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells, and its functions and expressions in striated muscles and cancer cells have been widely studied. However, the expression alterations of ARC in amyloid β-induced early hippocampal neurotoxicity are less known. In this report, we not only confirm previous reports that ARC is expressed in the hippocampal neurons but also demonstrate for the first time that ARC is also expressed in the hippocampal astrocytes...
November 1, 2018: Neuroreport
Fuzhong Yang, Amy Cheung, Jing Tao, Nan Zhao, Wenbin Wan, Jianhua Sheng
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) is a crucial source of serotonin (5-HT) neurons involved in the regulation of stress-induced depression. Estrogen receptors have been identified in the DR, yet the role of estrogen in modulating this adaptive response is incompletely understood. The current study investigated the effects of different dosages of estradiol (E2, 10 and 50 μg/rat/day for 11 consecutive days) and selective estrogen receptor modulators: Diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 10 μg/rat/day for 11 consecutive days) and propyl pyrazole triol (PPT, 10 μg/rat/day for 11 consecutive days) on behavior and the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and glucocorticoid receptor in the DR of ovariectomized rats subjected to the forced swim test (FST)...
October 30, 2018: Neuroreport
Wakana Ohbayashi, Ryusuke Kakigi, Hiroki Nakata
Exposure to auditory white noise has been shown to facilitate cognitive function. This phenomenon is called stochastic resonance. The present study examined the effects of white noise duration on behavioral data [reaction time (RT), the SD of RT, and error rates] and the N140 and P300 components of event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. A Go or No-go stimulus was presented to the second or fifth digit of the left hand, respectively, at the same probability. Before recording event-related potentials, participants heard three different white noise durations (1, 3, and 5-min conditions), and performed somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms while listening to white noise...
October 29, 2018: Neuroreport
Tadakazu Abe, Wataru Taniguchi, Naoko Nishio, Terumasa Nakatsuka, Munehito Yoshida, Hiroshi Yamada
BACKGROUND: Baclofen is a lipophilic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative that exhibits strong intrinsic activity and a high affinity for GABAB receptors. Intrathecal baclofen therapy has been used as an antispasticity and muscle relaxant drug in the clinical treatment of patients with severe spasticity. However, the cellular mechanisms of the antispasticity effects of baclofen on the ventral horn neurons of the spinal cord are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the action of baclofen on excitatory synaptic transmission in ventral horn neurons in the rat spinal cord by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
October 26, 2018: Neuroreport
Weiyi Huang, Xiaopeng Ding, Hanbing Ye, Jingying Wang, Junfei Shao, Tao Huang
Widespread invasiveness, represented by the invasion and migration, is the most important characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and is the main reason for therapeutic failure and recurrence of the tumor. Hypoxia is one of the main microenvironment in determining tumor invasiveness. Therefore, intense efforts aimed at improved therapeutics are ongoing to demonstrate the molecular mechanisms governing GBM migration and invasion. This study aims to explore the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway and its relationship with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma U87 cells under hypoxia...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Yong Zhang, Fenfen He, Tianmiao Hua, Qingyan Sun
The current research probed into the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on ethanol-induced spatial learning and memory impairments and inquired the potential molecular mechanism in rats. Thirty 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (control, n=10), ethanol group (ethanol, n=10), and GTPs intervention group (GTP, n=10) received gavage administration of saline, ethanol, and ethanol-GTP solution, respectively, for 8 weeks. Morris water maze was applied to assess the spatial learning and memory function of rats in each group at the last week of treatment...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Linlin Sun, Yude Ma, Zhiyong Zhang, Xiaoliang Li, Yang Chen, Gang Liu, Aijun Fu
The role of autophagy in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of ROCK2 in the regulation of hippocampus autophagy after SAH. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups - the sham group, the SAH group, and the SAH+ ROCK2 inhibitor group (or the drug group) - and analyzed through a behavior test. The hippocampus tissues were analyzed using immunochemistry and western blot analysis. We observed injured morphology in the hippocampus and impaired learning and memory ability in the rats in the SAH group, accompanied by upregulated ROCK2 expression and increased beclin-1 and LC3-II expression...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Takako Suzuki, Makoto Suzuki, Toyohiro Hamaguchi
The integration of sensorimotor information is important for accurate goal-directed movement and affects corticospinal excitability (CE). This study investigated CE during the motor preparation period in a goal-directed movement task with temporal feedback gaps. Each trial began with a pair of first-informative and second-response beeps presented successively as cues. Trials with temporal feedback gaps showed that virtual hand movements lagged 400 ms behind actual performed movements. The participants were instructed to prepare for movement in accordance with the first beep, start the movement upon hearing the second beep, and perform movements that were both fast and accurate to the virtual target...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Ciaran S Hill, David K Menon, Michael P Coleman
The antiapoptotic, neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 reduces neurological deficits when administered to murine in-vivo models of traumatic brain injury. P7C3-A20 is thought to exert its activity through small-molecule activation of the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. This enzyme converts nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide, the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthesis. Alterations to this bioenergetic pathway have been shown to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) of the distal neurite following injury...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Dong-Mei Wu, Jun-Jian Zhang, Ning Guo, Shu-Jian Zheng, Quan-Fei Zhu, Yu-Qi Feng, Si-Si Peng, Yan-Hong Wu, Ming-Hui Tuo
Current evidence indicates that carotid atherosclerosis is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. Serum metabolomic analysis holds significant promise for uncovering the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the profiling of serum carbonyl compounds in subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (SCA) patients and to explore the relationship between serum carbonyl compounds and cognitive performance. We enrolled 51 SCA patients and 45 healthy control individuals using carotid ultrasound assessment...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Yanxia Ding, Ting Chen, Qin Wang, Yingying Yuan, Tianmiao Hua
Recent studies have indicated that the structure of the axon initial segment (AIS) of neurons is highly plastic in response to changes in neuronal activity. Whether an age-related enhancement of neuronal responses in the visual cortex is coupled with plasticity of AISs is unknown. Here, we compare the AIS length and the distribution of Nav1.6, a key Na ion channel in action potential (AP) initiation, along the AIS of layer II/III neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of young adult and aged rats, which were examined previously in a single-unit recording study...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
ChaoYuan Song, MaoYu Li, LinLin Xu, Yang Shen, Hui Yang, Mao Ding, XiangTian Liu, ZhaoHong Xie
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease, but the pathogenesis is unclear. Damaged mitochondrial biogenesis has been observed in AD. Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, but the exact mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used the amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutations K594N/M595L (APPswe)/presenilin 1 with the exon-9 deletion (PS1dE9) transgenic mouse model of AD, which was successfully established by the expression of amyloid β precursor protein and presenilin 1 (PS1)...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Tammy Z Movsas, Arivalagan Muthusamy
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is known to be a powerful vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-regulating hormone. It stimulates vascularization of the gravid uterus by upregulating VEGF expression. In the body, hCG activates the same receptor as luteinizing hormone (LH). Like hCG, LH is also strongly proangiogenic. Recently, it has been shown that LH/hCG receptors are present in the retina and that both LH and hCG are found in the eye. In fact, the human eye can synthesize its own hCG. We have previously shown that LH and VEGF are significantly correlated in mammalian eyes, potentially implicating LH-receptor/hCG-receptor activation in intraocular VEGF regulation...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Siyun Zhang, Wenda Wang, Baofeng Zhang, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Recent evidence has shown that auditory-motor integration for speech production is influenced by cognitive functions such as working memory and attention, suggesting that speech motor control is likely modulated by mechanisms mediated by prefrontal regions. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene plays an important role in dopamine breakdown in the prefrontal cortex and has been associated with a variety of prefrontal cognitive functions. The present event-related potential study investigated the association between COMT ValMet polymorphism and auditory-motor processing of vocal feedback errors...
December 12, 2018: Neuroreport
Xin Wang, Qinmeng Shu, Yingqin Ni, Gezhi Xu
Müller cells, as the predominant glial element in the sensory retina, play a crucial role in healthy and diseased retina. Overactivation of Müller cells in response to damage is detrimental to the retina tissue. Current research shows that inhibiting glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a sensitive indicator of Müller cell activation, attenuated glial reactions and promoted neuroprotection. Recent evidence suggests that the transcript factor SOX9 (sex-determining region Y box 9), part of the SOX family, regulates GFAP expression of astrocytes in the central nervous system...
December 5, 2018: Neuroreport
Chiao-Yun Chen
To investigate whether modulation of the excitability of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would alter proactive aggression, reactive aggression, or both. The Taylor Aggression Paradigm, considered to provide measures indicative of the two types of aggression, was presented with delivery of either anodal tDCS or sham tDCS over rVLPFC. Participants were required to select levels of negative feedback to delivery should they win on a competitive reaction-time task and the levels selected on initial trials (with no feedback from the opponent) were taken as measures of proactive aggression, whereas levels on subsequent trials (with feedback from the opponent) were indicators of reactive aggression...
December 5, 2018: Neuroreport
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