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Neuroreport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079628/interleukin-6-is-increased-in-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-community-dwelling-domestic-dogs-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#1
Hanne Gredal, Barbara B Thomsen, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Laurent Garosi, Clare Rusbridge, Daniel Anthony, Arne Møller, Bente Finsen, Tomas Deierborg, Kate L Lambertsen, Mette Berendt
Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up...
January 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059863/spatiotemporal-expression-of-ski-after-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Kaisheng Zhou, Wei Nan, Dongliang Feng, Zhigang Yi, Yandong Zhu, Zaiyun Long, Sen Li, Haihong Zhang, Yamin Wu
Ski is an evolutionarily conserved protein and widely participates in the regulation of various pathological and physiological processes such as wound healing, liver regeneration, development of the embryonic nervous system, muscle differentiation, and progression of many kinds of tumors. However, the distribution and function of Ski in central nervous system lesion and disease remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Ski in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats...
January 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984543/altered-electroencephalogram-complexity-in-autistic-children-shown-by-the-multiscale-entropy-approach
#3
Tian Liu, Yanni Chen, Desheng Chen, Chenxi Li, Yusheng Qiu, Jue Wang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopment disorder. This study tests the hypothesis that children with ASD show atypical intrinsic complexity of brain activity. Electroencephalogram data were collected from boys with ASD and matching normal typically developing children while performing an observation and an imitation task. The multiscale entropy was estimated within the 0.5-30 Hz frequency band over 30 time scales using a coarse-grained procedure. A decreased electroencephalogram complexity was observed in the ASD children both during the observation and during the imitation tasks...
December 15, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984542/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-opercular-somatosensory-region-does-not-influence-experimentally-induced-pain-a-triple-blind-sham-controlled-study
#4
Soichiro Koyama, Kei Nakagawa, Satoshi Tanaka
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the opercular somatosensory region (OP), which includes the secondary somatosensory cortex and the insular cortex, suppresses pain sensation. However, whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the OP has a similar effect on pain sensation remains unknown. We examined whether pain sensation would be suppressed by tDCS over the OP. Our experiment with a triple-blind, sham-controlled, crossover design involved 12 healthy participants. Participants were asked to rate their subjective pain intensity during and after three types of bihemispheric tDCS: right anodal/left cathodal OP tDCS, left anodal/right cathodal OP tDCS (2 mA, 12 min), and sham tDCS (15 s)...
December 15, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984541/crosstalk-between-notch-and-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Xiaoxing Ma, Anna Drannik, Fan Jiang, Randy Peterson, John Turnbull
The developmental morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) may continue to play a sustaining role in adult motor neurons, of potential relevance to motor neuron diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The Shh signaling pathway is incompletely understood and interactions with other signaling pathways are possible. We focus here on Notch, and first show that there is an almost linear reduction in light output from a Gli reporter in Shh Light II cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of the Notch inhibitor DAPT (r=0...
December 15, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984540/electrophysiological-dynamic-brain-connectivity-during-symbolic-magnitude-comparison-in-children-with-different-mathematics-achievement-levels
#6
Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Aurora Espinoza-Valdez, Rebeca Romo-Vazquez, Ricardo A Salido-Ruiz, Vanessa Ruiz-Stovel, Geisa B Gallardo-Moreno, Andrés A González-Garrido, Gustavo Berumen
Children with mathematical difficulties usually have an impaired ability to process symbolic representations. Functional MRI methods have suggested that early frontoparietal connectivity can predict mathematic achievements; however, the study of brain connectivity during numerical processing remains unexplored. With the aim of evaluating this in children with different math proficiencies, we selected a sample of 40 children divided into two groups [high achievement (HA) and low achievement (LA)] according to their arithmetic scores in the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th ed...
December 15, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977514/neural-correlates-of-brain-state-in-chronic-ischemia-and-stroke-combined-resting-state-electroencephalogram-and-transcranial-doppler-ultrasonographic-study
#7
Olga V Martynova, Galina V Portnova, Ksenya V Gladun
Clinical neurology is constantly searching for reliable indices of ischemic brain damage to prevent a possible development of stroke. We suggest that resting state electroencephalogram (rsEEG) with respect to other clinical data may provide important information about the severity of ischemia. We carried out correlation analysis of rsEEG, data of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of head vessels, and clinical assessment scores collected from healthy volunteers and four groups of patients with mild chronic microvascular ischemia (CMI-1), moderate CMI (CMI-2), severe atrophy of the cerebral hemisphere, ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery stroke, and ischemic stroke in the right middle cerebral artery stroke...
December 13, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787475/enzyme-activities-involved-in-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-are-altered-to-reduce-glutamate-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#8
Araceli Diaz-Ruiz, Sergio Montes, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, Valente Maldonado, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Camilo Ríos
Glutamate (Glu) neurotransmitter is involved in the excitotoxic damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Glu is transformed into glutamine (Gln) by glutamine synthetase (GS) enzyme in glial cells. Once into the neurons, Gln is transformed back into Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). Glu is also a precursor for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid through the action of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzyme. The contribution of all these Glu biotransformations after SCI has not been determined...
October 26, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779555/a-meta-analysis-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-effects-on-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Han Wang, Huiqin Gao, Tianyu Jiao, Zhongli Luo
Postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) are common symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) shows a promising effect on PIGD. However, the quantitative effects of PPN DBS for PD, especially for PIGD, and the efficacy of PPN DBS combined with levodopa are controversial and ambiguous to clinical practice. We carried out a meta-analysis of original researches on PPN to PIGD/PD from the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE...
October 24, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977513/short-duration-therapeutic-massage-reduces-postural-upper-trapezius-muscle-activity
#10
Antoinette R Domingo, Melissa Diek, Kathleen M Goble, Katrina S Maluf, Daniel J Goble, Harsimran S Baweja
Massage therapy has historically been used as a therapeutic treatment to help reduce pain and promote relaxation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of therapeutic massage on the upper trapezius muscles, which are commonly associated with increased muscle tension. This was a randomized crossover study. Seventeen healthy individuals (nine women; 24.5±4.0 years) participated in the study. All individuals participated in two sessions that were held 24 h apart. In one of the sessions, the participants received a moderate pressure massage applied to the shoulders and neck...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977512/schisandrin-b-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-glioma-cells-by-regulating-the-hotair-micorna-125a-mtor-pathway
#11
Yan Jiang, Qiuli Zhang, Jinsuo Bao, Chenghua Du, Jian Wang, Qiang Tong, Chang Liu
Glioma is one of the most common malignant central nervous system tumors in humans. Schisandrin B (Sch B) has been confirmed to cause the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. In the present study, the potential mechanism underlying the antitumor effect of Sch B on glioma cells was investigated. The glioma cell lines, U251 and U87, were exposed to Sch B, and the cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were determined using the MTT assay, flow cytometry, and transwell assay, respectively. Then, the effects of HOTAIR and miR-125a on tumor biology and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein expression in cell lines exposed to Sch B were investigated...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926629/the-informativity-of-sound-modulates-crossmodal-facilitation-of-visual-discrimination-a-fmri-study
#12
Qi Li, Hongtao Yu, Xiujun Li, Hongzan Sun, Jingjing Yang, Chunlin Li
Many studies have investigated behavioral crossmodal facilitation when a visual stimulus is accompanied by a concurrent task-irrelevant sound. Lippert and colleagues reported that a concurrent task-irrelevant sound reduced the uncertainty of the timing of the visual display and improved perceptional responses (informative sound). However, the neural mechanism by which the informativity of sound affected crossmodal facilitation of visual discrimination remained unclear. In this study, we used event-related functional MRI to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the role of informativity of sound in crossmodal facilitation of visual discrimination...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926628/variants-of-tph2-interact-with-fast-visual-processing-as-assessed-by-metacontrast
#13
Margus Maksimov, Mariliis Vaht, Carolina Murd, Jaanus Harro, Talis Bachmann
Sensitivity to threatening or otherwise unpleasant visual stimuli has become a widely used measure of potential vulnerability/resilience. Basically, experiments using this strategy present brief stimuli, often followed by a mask, and individuals' sensitivity is measured. However, it has not been asked whether the individual differences in threat detection or adaptive resilience associated with genetic variability-related endophenotypes might be just a function of some basic visual functions involved in processing and reporting brief visual stimuli without any emotional content...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922548/methylcobalamin-prevents-mutant-superoxide-dismutase-1-induced-motor-neuron-death-in-vitro
#14
Shunsuke Ito, Yukina Izumi, Tetsuhiro Niidome, Yuichi Ono
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor dysfunction. Treatments and drugs that slow progression of ALS have garnered great interest. In the present study, we show that the vitamin B12 analog methylcobalamin (MBL) effectively and dose dependently prevented embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron death induced by cocultivation with astrocytes expressing mutant human superoxide dismutase-1 (G93A). Moreover, cotreatment of MBL with a conventional ALS drug, riluzole, further enhanced survival of motor neurons in this in-vitro ALS model...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906773/suppression-of-aimp1-protects-cognition-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-3xtg-ad
#15
Sooah Jang, Jung Ho Lee, Bo Kyung Sohn, Eosu Kim, Sang Gyu Park, Kang Jun Yoon, Minsun Park, Eun Woo Kim, Jihyeon Jeong, Jun-Young Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, Kee Namkoong
Neuroinflammation has been raised as a candidate of unifying pathogenesis and a target of a disease-modifying strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (ARS)-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1) is a cytokine that is known to amplify the actions of tumor necrosis factor-α and to be involved in microglial activation and neuronal death. In this respect, AIMP1 could be a plausible target for the treatment of AD. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether anti-AIMP1 antibody could exert therapeutic effects against cognitive impairment using 3xTg-AD mice...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902527/white-matter-alterations-in-adults-with-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder-an-mri-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#16
Jacqueline Williams, Saman R Kashuk, Peter H Wilson, Graham Thorpe, Gary F Egan
Movement skill difficulties in children [or developmental coordination disorder (DCD)] often persist into adulthood (in up to 70% of cases). The suggestion of white matter microstructure alterations in children with DCD raises the question of whether similar alterations are present in adults with probable DCD (pDCD). Twelve adults with pDCD and 11 adults without pDCD underwent diffusion tensor imaging. The results showed that the pDCD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus and lower mean diffusivity in the internal capsule and inferior longitudinal fasciculus...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893610/slit2-robo1-promotes-synaptogenesis-and-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Yang Li, Yan Gao, Xueqin Xu, Ruoshi Shi, Juying Liu, Wanjun Yao, Changbin Ke
Neuronal network reconstruction is a pivotal determinant for functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), the process of which includes synaptogenesis. Slit2 protein has been identified as a key regulator of axon regeneration and synapse formation in the vertebrate. Meanwhile, RhoA is the converging cascade of inhibitory molecules that interrupt synaptic plasticity in SCI. In the present study, we investigated the interaction among Slit2, Robo1, and RhoA and the potential roles of Slit2 in the pathological process of SCI...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846040/evaluation-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-measurements-of-brain-injury-in-type-2-diabetics-with-retinopathy-by-diffusion-weighted-mri-at-3-0%C3%A2-t
#18
Zhongling Wang, Ziwei Lu, Jing Li, Changjie Pan, Zhongzhi Jia, Hanqi Chen, Xiaomin Ge
Diabetes is often associated with impairments in brain functioning. However, the injury of specific functioning areas of the brain is not clear. To address this problem, the present study was designed to investigate possible brain functioning change in specific brain areas, particularly in areas associated with vision function, in patients with proliferative and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and NPDR) using the diffusion-weighted imaging technology. Conventional MRI was performed in 45 diabetic patients, 30 of whom had diabetic retinopathy (DR) involvement (half PDR, and half NPDR) and 15 of whom were diabetic patients without retinopathy and with normal ophthalmologic examination...
January 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902556/stereological-quantification-of-age-related-changes-in-myelinated-fibers-of-rat-white-matter
#19
Chen Li, Lei Zhang, Fenglei Chao, Qian Xiao, Yanmin Luo, Yong Tang
We investigated changes in myelin sheaths in the myelinated fibers of subcortical white matter in young (6-8 months old), middle-aged (18 months old), and elderly (27-28 months old) female Long-Evans rats using transmission electron microscopy and unbiased stereological techniques. We observed three age-related changes in myelin sheaths in the white matter of elderly rats: local splitting of the major dense line, myelin ballooning, and the formation of abundant myelin sheaths. Stereological analysis showed that the total length of myelinated fibers in white matter was 115±12 km (mean±SD) in young rats, 135±21 km in middle-aged rats, and 62±11 km in elderly rats...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893609/swimming-exercise-reduces-preference-for-a-high-fat-diet-by-increasing-insulin-sensitivity-in-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Hai-Jun Wang, Hong-Tao Yang, Wei Chen
The present study examined the effect of 4-week swimming training on the preference for a high-fat diet and insulin sensitivity in mice. C57BL/6 J mice were placed on either a low-fat diet or a choice diet (with both low-fat and high-fat diets available) for 6 weeks. During this period, a group of mice on the free-choice diet were randomly selected to receive a 4-week swimming exercise intervention. Mice that received the swimming exercise intervention showed a reduced preference for the high-fat diet as well as a slower rate of weight gain...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
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