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Cancer Causes & Control: CCC

Albina N Minlikeeva, Kirsten B Moysich, Paul C Mayor, John L Etter, Rikki A Cannioto, Roberta B Ness, Kristen Starbuck, Robert P Edwards, Brahm H Segal, Sashikant Lele, Kunle Odunsi, Brenda Diergaarde, Francesmary Modugno
PURPOSE: Multiple studies have examined the role of anthropometric characteristics in ovarian cancer risk and survival; however, their results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between weight change, height and height change and risk and outcome of ovarian cancer using data from a large population-based case-control study. METHODS: Data from 699 ovarian cancer cases and 1,802 controls who participated in the HOPE study were included. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, race, number of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer to examine the associations between self-reported height and weight and height change with ovarian cancer risk...
January 11, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Carolina Ellberg, Håkan Olsson, Helena Jernström
The purpose was to elucidate the interplay between current smoking, anthropometric measurements, and endogenous hormone levels in women ≤ 40 years. Questionnaires on lifestyle and reproductive factors were completed by 269 healthy women from high-risk breast cancer families between 1996 and 2006 in Sweden. Blood samples for analyses of plasma testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin, and body measurements were obtained 5-10 days before predicted onset of the next menstrual period...
January 3, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Whitney E Zahnd, Katherine S Hyon, Paula Diaz-Sylvester, Sonya R Izadi, Graham A Colditz, Laurent Brard
PURPOSE: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecological malignancy and one of few cancers with an increasing US mortality rate. Rural patients may have less access to specialty care affecting their receipt of surgery and adequate lymphadenectomy (AL). We sought to assess rural-urban differences in EC surgery, lymphadenectomy, and survival. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database on EC patients (2004-2013). We performed univariate analyses to compare rural and urban patients on demographic and clinical characteristics and receipt of nodal examination and AL...
December 27, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Daniel Lin, Judith D Goldberg, Tsivia Hochman, Benjamin A Levinson, Maria Khan, Elliot Newman, Lawrence P Leichman, Heather T Gold
PURPOSE: Prior studies of timeliness of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) initiation in stage III colon cancer have suggested longer time to AC at public compared with private hospitals. Few studies have explored differences in AC completion. We investigated whether timely initiation and completion of AC differed between a public and private hospital, affiliated with the same academic institution in a large, urban setting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of stage III colon cancer patients who had surgery and AC at the same medical center between 2008 and 2015, either at its affiliated public hospital (n = 43) or private hospital (n = 79)...
December 18, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Z R Greenwald, J H Fregnani, A Longatto-Filho, A Watanabe, J S C Mattos, F L Vazquez, E L Franco
PURPOSE: In Brazil, access to breast cancer screening outside of urban centers is limited. This study aims to describe the coverage and performance of a breast cancer screening program implemented with Mobile Screening Units (MSU) in northern São Paulo state. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of a population-based mammography program targeting women ages 40-69 in 108 municipalities from 12/2010 to 07/2015. Screening coverage rates were estimated using the Brazil 2010 census data...
December 18, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Yelena P Wu, Wendy Kohlmann, Karen Curtin, Zhe Yu, Heidi A Hanson, Mia Hashibe, Bridget G Parsons, Jathine Wong, Joshua D Schiffman, Douglas Grossman, Sancy A Leachman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine risk for melanoma among individuals who have a first- or second-degree relative with a history of melanoma, based on the unaffected individual's age and age at diagnosis of the relative. METHODS: The study employed a case-control design using a statewide database linked with a Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry. A population-based sample of individuals who received at least one diagnosis of first primary, malignant melanoma (n = 14,281), as well as their first- and second-degree relatives, was included...
December 14, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Shannon M Conroy, Salma Shariff-Marco, Juan Yang, Andrew Hertz, Myles Cockburn, Yurii B Shvetsov, Christina A Clarke, Cheryl L Abright, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Miriam Wanner, Aline Richard, Katarina Matthes, Laura Ortelli, Matthias Lorez, Dimitri Korol, Andrea Bordoni, Sabine Rohrmann
PURPOSE: To investigate differences in prostate cancer incidence between two distinct Swiss regions from 1996 to 2013 stratified by age group, grade, and T-stage. METHODS: The dataset included 17,495 men living in Zurich and 3,505 men living in Ticino, diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1996 and 2013. We computed age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years using the European Standard Population. Trends were assessed using JoinPoint regression analysis Software...
December 4, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
NaNa Keum, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Ying Bao, Moon Jae Chung, Hyeon Chang Kim, Edward L Giovannucci
BACKGROUND: Whether type 2 diabetes is cause or consequence, or both, of pancreatic cancer (PaC) remains unresolved. Leveraging repeated measurements of fasting blood glucose (FBG), we examined the temporal relationship between hyperglycemia and PaC incidence. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 278 cases and 826 matched-controls from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort. Over 11 years before index date (date of PaC diagnosis for cases), all participants had at least one FBG measurement in each of the three time windows: - 11 to - 8, - 7 to - 4, and - 3 to 0 years...
December 2, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Geoffrey C Kabat, Mimi Y Kim, Rowan T Chlebowski, Mara Z Vitolins, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Thomas E Rohan
PURPOSE: Obesity, which is commonly accompanied by dyslipidemia, is associated with an increased risk of certain cancers. However, the association of serum lipids with specific obesity-related cancers is unclear. METHODS: We examined the association of baseline lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides) with risk of developing seven obesity-related cancers in a subcohort of 24,208 participants in the Women's Health Initiative...
December 2, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Chelsea Anderson, Andrew B Smitherman, Stephanie M Engel, Hazel B Nichols
PURPOSE: A cancer diagnosis in adolescence and young adulthood (AYA, ages 15-39) may affect future pregnancy outcomes. Previous studies have reported an increased risk of preterm delivery (< 37 weeks of gestation) after maternal cancer treatment. In this analysis, we evaluated whether non-cancer characteristics modify the association between an AYA cancer history and preterm birth. METHODS: North Carolina Central Cancer Registry records (2000-2013) were linked to state birth certificate files (2000-2014) to identify births to AYA cancer survivors (n = 1,980)...
December 1, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Sharon Hensley Alford, George Divine, Chun Chao, Laurel A Habel, Nalini Janakiraman, Yun Wang, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Delia Scholes, Doug Roblin, Mara M Epstein, Lawrence Engel, Suzanne Havstad, Karen Wells, Marianne Ulcickas Yood, Joan Fortuny, Christine Cole Johnson
PURPOSE: Many studies suggest a role for cholesterol in cancer development. Serum cholesterol levels have been observed to be low in newly diagnosed lymphoma cases. The objective of these analyses was to examine the time-varying relationship of cholesterol with lymphomagenesis in the 10 years prior to diagnosis by lymphoma subtype. METHODS: Participants were selected from the combined membership of six National Cancer Institute-funded Cancer Research Network health plans from 1998 to 2008, excluding members with human immunodeficiency virus, cancer (except lymphoma), or organ transplants...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Jessica S Citronberg, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Unhee Lim, Kristine R Monroe, Meredith A J Hullar, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Johanna W Lampe
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin found on the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, increases inflammatory response signaling and may play a role in the pathogenesis of several adverse outcomes, including inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. While LPS is hypothesized to be associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, there are relatively few human studies which have examined this association. METHODS: We examined the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of LPS, in 1,638 participants (819 CRC cases and 819 controls) matched on multiple factors, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, from the Multiethnic Cohort study...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Sarah E Abbott, Fabian Camacho, Lauren C Peres, Anthony J Alberg, Elisa V Bandera, Melissa Bondy, Michele L Cote, Ellen Funkhouser, Patricia G Moorman, Edward S Peters, Bo Qin, Ann G Schwartz, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Paul Terry, Joellen M Schildkraut
PURPOSE: While recreational physical activity (RPA) has been associated with reduced mortality in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers, evidence for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is limited. Most EOC studies have been in predominantly white populations, although inactivity is more prevalent and survival is poorer among African-American (AA) women. We examined RPA before and after EOC diagnosis and associations with survival among AA women. METHODS: We analyzed data from 264 EOC survivors enrolled in a population-based, case-control study who completed surveys that included questions about pre- and post-diagnosis RPA...
November 29, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Tanja Frey, Elizabeth A Platz, Norma Kanarek, Gary Bradwin, Adrian S Dobs, Sabine Rohrmann
BACKGROUND: By modulating the levels of sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), caffeine could be a factor in the development of several conditions in men, including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate if caffeine consumption is associated with concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG in men. METHODS: 1,410 men aged 20 + years who attended the morning examination session of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1991) were included in the analysis...
November 24, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Llucia Benito, Albert Farre, Gemma Binefa, Carmen Vidal, Angels Cardona, Margarita Pla, Montse García
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of screening in colorectal cancer prevention depends on sustained participation rates. The objective of this study was to explore factors related to the longitudinal adherence of screening behavior in the context of a biennial population-based cancer screening program. METHODS: Eight focus groups were conducted with individuals who were invited two or three consecutive times to a population-based colorectal cancer screening program using a fecal occult blood test and who agreed to participate in the program at least once (n = 45)...
November 23, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Andrew D Frugé, Mallory G Cases, Carrie R Howell, Yuko Tsuruta, Kelley Smith-Johnston, Douglas R Moellering, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
PURPOSE: Cancer survivors are at greater risk of comorbidities and functional decline due to physiological and psychological stress which can be measured by salivary cortisol. If saliva is used, multiple samples must be collected to accurately quantify long-term stress; however, fingernail (FN) and toenail (TN) clippings offer an opportunity to measure retrospective cortisol levels in a non-invasive manner. METHODS: Three sets of FN and TN clippings were collected at 12-month intervals in conjunction with saliva samples from cancer survivors (n = 109) participating in two clinical trials...
November 23, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Piet A van den Brandt, Lisette Nieuwenhuis
PURPOSE: Nut intake has been associated with reduced mortality and risk of cardiovascular diseases, but there is only limited evidence on cancer. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) subtypes. METHODS: In The Netherlands Cohort Study, 62,573 women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 2,321 incident breast cancer cases and 1,665 subcohort members were eligible for multivariate case-cohort analyses...
November 22, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Efthymios Papadopoulos, Daniel Santa Mina
Physical exercise offers numerous health-related benefits to individuals with cancer. Epidemiologic research has primarily been concerned with conventional exercise training that aligns with the recommendations of 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week. These recommendations are safe and effective at improving physical and psychosocial outcomes. Given the extensive evidence for generalized physical activity, researchers have begun to explore novel training regimens that may provide additional health benefits and/or improved adherence...
November 21, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Nathan P Papa, Robert J MacInnis, Dallas R English, Damien Bolton, Ian D Davis, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Jeremy L Millar, Gianluca Severi, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the associations between androgenetic alopecia at a young age and subsequent development of aggressive prostate cancer (PC). METHODS: Using a case-control design with self-administered questionnaire, we evaluated the association between aggressive PC and very early-onset balding at age 20, and early-onset balding at age 40 years in 1,941 men. Cases were men with high-grade and/or advanced stage cancer and controls were clinic based men who had undergone biopsy and were found to be histologically cancer negative...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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