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Cancer Causes & Control: CCC

Rhonda Arthur, Henrik Møller, Hans Garmo, Christel Häggström, Lars Holmberg, Pär Stattin, Håkan Malmström, Mats Lambe, Niklas Hammar, Göran Walldius, David Robinson, Ingmar Jungner, Mieke Van Hemelrijck
PURPOSE: Lifestyle-related conditions such as obesity are associated with prostate cancer progression, but the associations with hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are unclear. This study, therefore, aims to examine the association of glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol with prostate cancer death. METHODS: From the Swedish AMORIS cohort, we selected 14,150 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1996 and 2011 who had prediagnostic measurements of serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol...
November 12, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Tracy M Layne, Leah M Ferrucci, Beth A Jones, Tenbroeck Smith, Lou Gonsalves, Brenda Cartmel
PURPOSE: To examine the concordance between cancer registry and self-reported data for race, Hispanic ethnicity, and cancer type in the American Cancer Society's Studies of Cancer Survivors (SCS) I and II. METHODS: We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and Kappa statistics for SCS-I and II. The gold standard for cancer type was registry data and for race and ethnicity was self-reported questionnaire data. RESULTS: Among 6,306 survivors in SCS-I and 9,170 in SCS-II, overall agreement (Kappa) for cancer type was 0...
November 3, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Chien-Ching Li, Alicia K Matthews, Mantle M Rywant, Emily Hallgren, Raj C Shah
PURPOSE: Lung cancer early detection screening has been demonstrated to decrease lung cancer mortality among high-risk smokers. This study aimed to examine whether current screening guidelines may disproportionately exclude African American smokers who are at higher overall risk for lung cancer. METHODS: Data from the 2014 Health and Retirement Study were analyzed. Older African Americans and Whites with a history of smoking were included in the analyses (n = 7,348)...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Behnoosh Momin, Christina McNaughton, Joseph D Galanek, Antonio Neri, M Shayne Gallaway, Mary Puckett
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and radon exposure is the second leading risk factor. Fewer than 25% of existing U.S. homes have been tested for radon, and only 5-10% of new homes use some form of radon prevention. OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study sought to determine radon-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Realtors to inform cancer control activities at local and state levels. METHODS: We conducted focus groups with Realtors in four states to collect information about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding radon...
October 3, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Steven M Springer, Angela McFall, Polly Hager, Antoinette Percy-Laury, Cynthia A Vinson
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States representing about 25% of all cancer deaths. The risk from smoking has increased over time with racial/ethnic minorities and disadvantaged populations having higher smoking rates and experiencing greater burden of lung cancer compared to other populations. Rural populations, in particular, experience higher rates of tobacco usage associated with increased incidence of lung cancer. National efforts to identify lung cancer in its early stage would greatly benefit high-risk populations, consequently reducing advanced cancers and potentially decreasing smoking rates...
September 18, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Mindy C DeRouen, Clayton W Schupp, Juan Yang, Jocelyn Koo, Andrew Hertz, Salma Shariff-Marco, Myles Cockburn, David O Nelson, Sue A Ingles, Iona Cheng, Esther M John, Scarlett L Gomez
PURPOSE: The reasons behind socio-economic disparities in prostate cancer incidence remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that individual-level factors act jointly with neighborhood-level social and built environment factors to influence prostate cancer risk and that specific social and built environment factors contribute to socio-econmic differences in risk. METHODS: We used multi-level data, combining individual-level data (including education and known prostate cancer risk factors) for prostate cancer cases (n = 775) and controls (n = 542) from the San Francisco Bay Area Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study, with contextual-level data on neighborhood socio-economic status (nSES) and specific social and built environment factors from the California Neighborhoods Data System...
August 22, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Leslie E Cofie, Jacqueline M Hirth, Rebeca Wong
PURPOSE: Whereas chronic conditions and foreign-birth have an inverse relationship with cervical cancer screening, the combined effect of these factors on screening is unknown. This study examined the associations between chronic comorbidities and Pap screening recommendations and adherence, and whether these associations vary between foreign- and US-born women. METHODS: In 2017, data from 2013 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey on women aged 21-65 years (N = 20,080) were analyzed...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
Immunological parameters that influence susceptibility to virus-associated cancers in HIV-seronegative individuals are unclear. We conducted a case-control cohort study of immunological parameters associated with development of incident virus-associated cancers among 532 HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) with median (IQR) 21 (8-26) years of follow-up. Thirty-two incident virus-associated cancers (anal cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, liver cancer, other cancers with etiologies linked to human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B virus, or human herpesvirus-8) were identified among 3,408 HIV-seronegative men in the MACS during 1984-2010...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Nina Afshar, Dallas R English, Vicky Thursfield, Paul L Mitchell, Luc Te Marvelde, Helen Farrugia, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne
In the original publication of the article, the concluding paragraph of the Discussion section was inadvertently missed and is provided below.
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
James Yarmolinsky, Katie Berryman, Ryan Langdon, Carolina Bonilla, George Davey Smith, Richard M Martin, Sarah J Lewis
PURPOSE: Observational studies suggest that dietary and serum calcium are risk factors for prostate cancer. However, such studies suffer from residual confounding (due to unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders), undermining causal inference. Mendelian randomization uses randomly assigned (hence unconfounded and pre-disease onset) germline genetic variation to proxy for phenotypes and strengthen causal inference in observational studies. We tested the hypothesis that serum calcium is associated with an increased risk of overall and advanced prostate cancer...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Edward Giovannucci
Recently, Ioannidis questioned whether nutritional epidemiology could be reconciled with good scientific principles, and suggested that the field needs radical reform. One of the reforms he advocated was more randomized trials; though what diet would be tested and how it would be measured were unspecified, how adherence would be monitored was unclear or unimportant, and the length of time vaguely stated as "lifelong". The other reform was reanalysis of shared data, which actually already exists in a large number of cohort consortia of individual pooled data...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Jessica Yasmine Islam, Alexis M Hoyt, Silvina Ramos, Karen Morgan, Chan Joo Kim, Sylvia de Sanjose, Nicole Butera, Virginia Senkomago, Karin L Richter, Mary Anne McDonald, Nadja A Vielot, Jennifer S Smith
PURPOSE: The World Health Organization revised its human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommendations to include a two (2-) dose schedule for girls aged ≤ 15 years. We investigated acceptability of 2- versus 3-dose schedule among adolescent vaccination providers and mothers of adolescent girls in five countries. METHODS: Adolescent vaccination providers (N = 151) and mothers of adolescent girls aged 9-14 years (N = 118) were recruited from Argentina, Malaysia, South Africa, South Korea, and Spain...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Hyo K Park, Joellen M Schildkraut, Anthony J Alberg, Elisa V Bandera, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Melissa Bondy, Sydnee Crankshaw, Ellen Funkhouser, Patricia G Moorman, Edward S Peters, Paul Terry, Frances Wang, Julie J Ruterbusch, Ann G Schwartz, Michele L Cote
BACKGROUND: The association between common benign gynecologic conditions and ovarian cancer remains under-studied in African Americans. Therefore, we examine the association between self-reported history of benign gynecologic conditions and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. METHODS: Data from a large population-based, multi-center case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer in African-American women were analyzed to estimate the association between self-reported history of endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), fibroid, and ovarian cyst with epithelial ovarian cancer...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Saira Khan, Jianwen Cai, Matthew E Nielsen, Melissa A Troester, James L Mohler, Elizabeth T H Fontham, Laura Farnan, Bettina F Drake, Andrew F Olshan, Jeannette T Bensen
PURPOSE: Metformin has been associated with a reduced incidence of prostate cancer and improved prostate cancer outcomes. However, whether race modifies the association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness remains uncertain. The association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness was examined separately in Black Americans (Blacks) and White Americans (Whites). METHODS: The study population consisted of 305 Black and 195 White research participants with incident prostate cancer and self-reported diabetes from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Jessica Chubak, Onchee Yu, Rebecca A Ziebell, Erin J Aiello Bowles, Andrew T Sterrett, Monica M Fujii, Jennifer M Boggs, Andrea N Burnett-Hartman, Denise M Boudreau, Lu Chen, James S Floyd, Debra P Ritzwoller, Rebecca A Hubbard
PURPOSE: To describe the association between diabetes and colon cancer recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study at two integrated health care delivery systems in the United States. Using tumor registry data, we identified patients aged ≥ 18 years when diagnosed with stage I-IIIA adenocarcinomas of the colon during 1995-2014. Pre-existing diabetes was ascertained via diagnosis codes. Medical records were reviewed for eligibility and to abstract recurrence and covariate information...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Nina Afshar, Dallas R English, Vicky Thursfield, Paul L Mitchell, Luc Te Marvelde, Helen Farrugia, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne
PURPOSE: Few large-scale studies have investigated sex differences in cancer survival and little is known about their temporal and age-related patterns. METHODS: We used cancer registry data for first primary cancers diagnosed between 1982 and 2015 in Victoria, Australia. Cases were followed until the end of 2015 through linkage to death registries. Differences in survival were assessed for 25 cancers using the Pohar-Perme estimator of net survival and the excess mortality rate ratio (EMRR) adjusting for age and year of diagnosis...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Shadi Azam, Katja Kemp Jacobsen, Arja R Aro, My von Euler-Chelpin, Anne Tjønneland, Ilse Vejborg, Elsebeth Lynge, Zorana J Andersen
PURPOSE: Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle risk factor in prevention of breast cancer. Mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. We investigate the association of regular physical activity with MD. METHODS: For 5,703 women who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) and attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), MD was assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. MD was defined as a binary measure equivalent to Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) to either mixed/dense or fatty...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Beth A Mueller, David R Doody, Noel S Weiss, Eric J Chow
PURPOSE: We examined serious long-term outcomes among childhood cancer survivors using population-based data. METHODS: We used 1982-2014 Washington State data to compare hospitalization and/or death (including cause-specific) during up to 27 years follow-up among all 5+ year childhood cancer survivors < 20 years at diagnosis (n = 3,152) and a sample of comparison children within birth cohorts, with assessment by cancer type and child/family characteristics...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Sandra Garcia, Sandi L Pruitt, Amit G Singal, Caitlin C Murphy
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has declined over the past two decades; however, these declines have not occurred equally in all populations. To better understand the impact of CRC among Hispanics, we examined incidence trends by age and Hispanic ethnicity. METHODS: Using data from the National Program of Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, we estimated CRC incidence rates during the period 2001-2014, and across all 50 U...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Sushmita Katuwal, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Kristina Kjaerheim, Pär Sparen, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Elsebeth Lynge, Elisabete Weiderpass, Eero Pukkala
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine occupational variations in the incidence of breast cancer in the population-based cohort of Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA). METHODS: The study included long-term follow-up data from almost 7.5 million Nordic women. Participants were assigned to one of the 54 occupational categories based on census records at the ages of 30-64 years. Sixty-two thousand cases of breast cancer were identified through record linkages between nationwide cancer registries in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland, followed up between 1961 and 2005...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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