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Cancer Causes & Control: CCC

Nancy Breen, Denise Riedel Lewis, James Todd Gibson, Mandi Yu, Sam Harper
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer mortality rates dropped by half in the past three decades, but these gains were accompanied by striking differences in colorectal cancer mortality by socioeconomic status (SES). Our research objective is to examine disparities in colorectal cancer mortality by SES, using a scientifically rigorous and reproducible approach with publicly available online tools, HD*Calc and NCI SES Quintiles. METHODS: All reported colorectal cancer deaths in the United States from 1980 to 2010 were categorized into NCI SES quintiles and assessed at the county level...
January 12, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Ana Babic, Daniel W Cramer, Linda E Kelemen, Martin Köbel, Helen Steed, Penelope M Webb, Sharon E Johnatty, Anna deFazio, Diether Lambrechts, Marc T Goodman, Florian Heitz, Keitaro Matsuo, Satoyo Hosono, Beth Y Karlan, Allan Jensen, Susanne K Kjær, Ellen L Goode, Tanja Pejovic, Melissa Moffitt, Estrid Høgdall, Claus Høgdall, Iain McNeish, Kathryn L Terry
PURPOSE: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals...
January 3, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Martin Lehnert, Klaus Kraywinkel, Evelyn Heinze, Thorsten Wiethege, Georg Johnen, Julia Fiebig, Thomas Brüning, Dirk Taeger
PURPOSE: The malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy and mainly caused by occupational exposure to asbestos. German cancer registries are providing a national database to investigate temporal and regional patterns of mesothelioma incidence. These may be of interest for healthcare planning and for surveillance programs aiming at the formerly exposed workforce. METHODS: We analyzed population-based incidence data of malignant mesothelioma by site, type, sex, age, as well as district and state of patient's residence...
December 27, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Traci N Bethea, Julie R Palmer, Lucile L Adams-Campbell, Lynn Rosenberg
PURPOSE: Extensive data in White women have linked oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, and parity to reduced risk of ovarian cancer; results on postmenopausal female hormone use are mixed. Few studies, all of which are case-control studies, have been undertaken among Black women. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess associations of reproductive factors and exogenous hormones with ovarian cancer among Black women. METHODS: During follow-up from 1995 to 2013 in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study, 115 incident cases of ovarian cancer were identified...
December 27, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Ji Hyung Nam, Chang Won Hong, Byung Chang Kim, Aesun Shin, Kum Hei Ryu, Bum Joon Park, Bun Kim, Dae Kyung Sohn, Kyung Su Han, Jeongseon Kim, Chan Wha Lee
PURPOSE: Helicobacter pylori infection is considered to have a positive association with colorectal neoplasms. In this study, we evaluated the association between H. pylori infection and colorectal adenomas, based on the characteristics of these adenomas in Korea, where the prevalence of H. pylori infection is high and the incidence of colorectal cancer continues to increase. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 4,466 subjects who underwent colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy during screening (1,245 colorectal adenomas vs...
December 27, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Pik Fang Kho, Jonathan Fawcett, Lin Fritschi, Harvey Risch, Penelope M Webb, David C Whiteman, Rachel E Neale
PURPOSE: Studies suggest that aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and statins may reduce risk of some cancers. However, findings have been conflicting as to whether these agents reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We used data from the Queensland Pancreatic Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. In total, 704 cases and 711 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Participants completed an interview in which they were asked about history of NSAID and statin use...
November 5, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Sarah J Lowry, Noel S Weiss
PURPOSE: Exposure to asbestos is thought to cause the large majority of pleural mesotheliomas in the USA. It is unknown whether asbestos exposure plays a role in the etiology of rarer forms of mesothelioma, e.g., those located in the pericardium or in the tunica vaginalis of the testis. In order to address this question, we sought to determine whether geographic patterns of incidence of these mesotheliomas have paralleled those of pleural mesotheliomas. METHODS: We used age-adjusted incidence data from the nine populations served by the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program during 1973-2011...
November 3, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Leo J Kinlen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Xuanzi Qin, Florence K L Tangka, Gery P Guy, David H Howard
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against routine mammography screening for women aged 40-49 years. This revised recommendation was widely criticized and has sparked off intense debate. The objectives of this study are to examine the impact of the revised recommendation on the proportion of women receiving mammograms and how the effect varied by age. METHODS: We identified women who had continuous health insurance coverage and who did not have breast cancer between 2008 and 2011 in the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims Databases using mammogram procedure codes...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Marjory Charlot, Nelsy Castro-Webb, Traci N Bethea, Kimberly Bertrand, Deborah A Boggs, Gerald V Denis, Lucile L Adams-Campbell, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R Palmer
PURPOSE: Breast cancer mortality is higher in Black women than in White women. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is also higher, yet data on whether diabetes affects breast cancer mortality in this population are lacking. We investigated the relation of diabetes at the time of breast cancer diagnosis to breast cancer mortality in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. METHODS: 1,621 Black women with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 1995-2013 were followed by mailed questionnaires and searches of the National Death Index...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Solenne Delacour-Billon, Anne Laure Mathieu-Wacquant, Mario Campone, Nathalie Auffret, Sophie Amossé, Corinne Allioux, Anne Cowppli-Bony, Florence Molinié
PURPOSE: The aim of this population-based study was to estimate short-term and long-term survival of interval breast cancers and to compare them to clinically detected cancers, taking into account prognostic features. METHODS: This study included all interval cancers and clinically detected cancers diagnosed in the Loire-Atlantique population-based cancer registry from 2000 to 2010 in women aged 50-76 years. We used the Pohar-Perme method to estimate 5- and 10 year net survival rates and a flexible parametric model to compare interval cancer and clinically detected cancer prognosis with and without adjustment for the main prognostic factors (age, stage, histological grade, and phenotype)...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Nancy Krieger, Jaquelyn L Jahn, Pamela D Waterman
PURPOSE: It is unknown whether Jim Crow-i.e., legal racial discrimination practiced by 21 US states and the District of Columbia and outlawed by the US Civil Rights Act in 1964-affects US cancer outcomes. We hypothesized that Jim Crow birthplace would be associated with higher risk of estrogen-receptor-negative (ER-) breast tumors among US black, but not white, women and also a higher black versus white risk for ER- tumors. METHODS: We analyzed data from the SEER 13 registry group (excluding Alaska) for 47,157 US-born black non-Hispanic and 348,514 US-born white non-Hispanic women, aged 25-84 inclusive, diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1 January 1992 and 31 December 2012...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Ann L Coker, Diane R Follingstad, Lisandra S Garcia, Heather M Bush
PURPOSE: Because intimate partner violence (IPV) may disproportionately impact women's quality of life (QOL) when undergoing cancer treatment, women experiencing IPV were hypothesized to have (a) more symptoms of depression or stress and (b) lower QOL as measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-B) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-SP) Scales relative to those never experiencing IPV. METHODS: Women, aged 18-79, who were included in one of two state cancer registries from 2009 to 2015 with a recent incident, primary, invasive biopsy-confirmed cancer diagnosis were recruited and asked to complete a phone interview, within 12 months of diagnosis...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Ximena V Qadir, Mindy Clyne, Tram Kim Lam, Muin J Khoury, Sheri D Schully
In order to capture trends in the contribution of epidemiology to cancer research, we describe an online meta-analysis database resource for cancer clinical and population research and illustrate trends and descriptive detail of cancer meta-analyses from 2008 through 2013. A total of 4,686 cancer meta-analyses met our inclusion criteria. During this 6-year period, a fivefold increase was observed in the yearly number of meta-analyses. Fifty-six percent of meta-analyses concerned observational studies, mostly of cancer risk, more than half of which were genetic studies...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Hanseul Kim, Edward L Giovannucci
Epidemiological research has convincingly shown that obesity increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, with generally stronger associations observed in men than in women. Evidence from the past several years has demonstrated a divergent pattern between men and women regarding the weight changes throughout life or timing of obesity for CRC risk. For men, weight gain later in life appears to be an important risk factor for CRC that mostly accounts for their generally strong association between adult body mass index and CRC risk...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Mathilde His, Laureen Dartois, Guy Fagherazzi, Anne Boutten, Thierry Dupré, Sylvie Mesrine, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Laure Dossus
PURPOSE: Several mechanistic studies support a role of cholesterol or its metabolites in breast cancer etiology, but associations have been inconsistent in epidemiological studies. In observational studies, possible reverse causation must be accounted for using a prospective design. We investigated prospective associations between pre-diagnostic serum lipid concentrations [total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides], and both breast cancer risk and survival in the E3N cohort study...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Karsten Buschard, Katrin Thomassen, Elsebeth Lynge, Ilse Vejborg, Anne Tjønneland, My von Euler-Chelpin, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen
PURPOSE: We examined whether diabetes and diabetes treatment are associated with MD in a cohort study of Danish women above age of 50 years. METHODS: Study cohort consisted of 5,644 women (4,500 postmenopausal) who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort (1993-1997) and subsequently attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001). We used MD assessed at the first screening after the cohort entry, defined as mixed/dense or fatty. Diabetes diagnoses and diabetes treatments (diet, insulin, or oral antidiabetic agents) were self-reported at the time of recruitment (1993-1997)...
January 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Noel S Weiss
Acetaminophen has several pharmacologic properties that suggest it could be carcinogenic in human beings. A number of epidemiologic studies have been conducted to examine whether use of acetaminophen actually predisposes to the occurrence of one or more forms of cancer. There are inherent limitations to many of these studies, including the inaccurate identification of users and nonusers of acetaminophen, relatively short follow-up for cancer incidence, and the potential for confounding by indication. The present manuscript reviews the results of epidemiologic studies of acetaminophen use in relation to cancer incidence published through the end of 2015...
December 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Sean Harrison, Kate Tilling, Emma L Turner, J Athene Lane, Andrew Simpkin, Michael Davis, Jenny Donovan, Freddie C Hamdy, David E Neal, Richard M Martin
PURPOSE: Previous studies indicate a possible inverse relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and body mass index (BMI), and a positive relationship between PSA and age. We investigated the associations between age, BMI, PSA, and screen-detected prostate cancer to determine whether an age-BMI-adjusted PSA model would be clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis nested within the UK ProtecT trial of treatments for localized cancer...
December 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Joyce Y Huang, Lesley M Butler, Øivind Midttun, Woon-Puay Koh, Per M Ueland, Renwei Wang, Aizhen Jin, Yu-Tang Gao, Jian-Min Yuan
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B6 is an important enzymatic cofactor in pathways relevant for the development of pancreatic cancer. In order to evaluate vitamin B6 as a preventive factor for pancreatic cancer, a biomarker approach is needed to overcome the limitations inherent in self-reported dietary information. METHODS: To determine whether levels of serum B6 vitamers, including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), 4-pyridoxic acid (PA), and the PA/(PLP + PL) ratio (PAr), were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, two nested case-control studies of 187 incident pancreatic cancer cases and 258 individually matched controls were conducted within two prospective cohorts of 81,501 participants in Shanghai, China, and Singapore...
December 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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