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Cancer Causes & Control: CCC

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940119/the-relationship-between-physical-activity-obesity-and-lung-cancer-risk-by-smoking-status-in-a-large-prospective-cohort-of-us-adults
#1
Alpa V Patel, Brian D Carter, Victoria L Stevens, Mia M Gaudet, Peter T Campbell, Susan M Gapstur
Physical activity has been associated with lower lung cancer risk in numerous studies with estimates ranging from 20 to 50% lower risk in the most versus the least active study participants. Underweight and obesity have also been associated with lower lung cancer risk, with a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped relationship. However, associations of physical activity and obesity with lung cancer are likely significantly confounded by smoking since individuals who smoke are generally less active and leaner than non-smokers, but few studies have examined these associations stratified by smoking status...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932949/twenty-first-century-cancer-patterns-in-small-island-nations-grenada-and-the-english-speaking-caribbean
#2
Lindsay M Cattin, Paulo S Pinheiro, Karen E Callahan, Robert Hage
PURPOSE: Grenada is a small island nation of 105,000 in the Caribbean with one single general hospital and pathology laboratory. This study assesses cancer incidence on the island based on existing pathology reports, and compares the cancer mortality burden between Grenada and other Caribbean nations. METHODS: Age-adjusted overall and site-specific cancer "incidence" rates (based on pathology reports) and mortality rates were calculated and compared for 2000-2009...
September 20, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929436/endogenous-sex-hormone-exposure-and-repetitive-element-dna-methylation-in-healthy-postmenopausal-women
#3
Devon J Boyne, Christine M Friedenreich, John B McIntyre, Frank Z Stanczyk, Kerry S Courneya, Will D King
PURPOSE: Epigenetic mechanisms may help to explain the complex and heterogeneous relation between sex hormones and cancer. Few studies have investigated the effects of sex hormones on epigenetic markers related to cancer risk such as levels of methylation within repetitive DNA elements. Our objective was to describe the association between endogenous sex hormone exposure and levels of LINE-1 and Alu methylation in healthy postmenopausal women. METHODS: We nested a cross-sectional study within the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (2003-2006)...
September 19, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921401/experience-with-curative-radiotherapy-for-cervix-cancer-in-the-bahamas-for-2006-2016
#4
Glenn Jones, Osama Kellini, Nevein Girgis, Darron Halliday, Raleigh Butler, Thomas McGowan, Conville Brown
BACKGROUND: Cervix cancer is a significant health problem. As access to quality care in Small Island Developing States improves, and cancer centers become established, providers of care can summarize local experience to benchmark system quality and look for ways to further improve value. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all cases of cervix cancer managed 2006-2016 at The Cancer Centre Bahamas, in conjunction with Princess Margaret Hospital, Nassau, affiliated with The University of West Indies...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921374/prostate-cancer-clinical-presentation-incidence-mortality-and-survival-in-guadeloupe-over-the-period-2008-2013-from-a-population-based-cancer-registry
#5
J Deloumeaux, B Bhakkan, R Eyraud, F Braud, N Manip M'Ebobisse, P Blanchet, L Brureau
PURPOSE: The Caribbean population of Guadeloupe has one of the highest incidence rates of prostate cancer worldwide. In 2008, a population-based cancer registry was set up for the monitoring of cancer incidence in the aftermath of the environmental pollution with chlordecone, a persistent organochlorine insecticide formerly used in banana plantations. We describe the clinical presentation, incidence, mortality and survival of prostate cancer for the period 2008-2013. METHODS: The Guadeloupe cancer registry has been routinely collecting all incident cases of cancer since 2008...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918559/prostate-cancer-screening-by-prostate-specific-antigen-psa-a-relevant-approach-for-the-small-population-of-the-cayman-islands
#6
Shravana Kumar Jyoti, Camille Blacke, Pallavi Patil, Vibha P Amblihalli, Amanda Nicholson
INTRODUCTION: The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively...
September 16, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917021/gynecologic-cancer-mortality-in-trinidad-and-tobago-and-comparisons-of-mortality-to-incidence-rate-ratios-across-global-regions
#7
Adana A M Llanos, Wayne A Warner, Silvana Luciani, Tammy Y Lee, Smriti Bajracharya, Simeon Slovacek, Veronica Roach, Marjorie Lamont-Greene
PURPOSE: To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. METHODS: Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries)...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913693/human-papillomavirus-genotype-distribution-in-cervical-samples-among-vaccine-na%C3%A3-ve-barbados-women
#8
Juann M Ward, Kolin Schmalenberg, Nick A Antonishyn, Ian R Hambleton, Elizabeth L Blackman, Paul N Levett, Marquita V Gittens-St Hilaire
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to provide baseline HPV genotype distribution among women in Barbados before HPV immunization was introduced. This information would then be used as a denominator for post-vaccine surveillance and is expected to aid in understanding the effect of vaccination on cervical disease in Barbados. METHODS: Liquid-based cytology specimens were collected from 413 women (age range 18-65 years) attending three clinics, in a pre-vaccination, population-based study...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900786/the-pattern-of-secondary-cancers-in-patients-with-kaposi-sarcoma-in-the-united-states
#9
Vivek Kumar, Mohit Garg, Neha Chaudhary, Parita Soni, Charalampos S Floudas, Chiemeziem Nwanyanwu, Abhinav Chandra
PURPOSE: In the U.S., Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs mostly in HIV-infected patients, who are also at increased risk of developing secondary cancers. The trends in secondary cancer risk are unclear in the HAART era. METHODS: We extracted data from the SEER database on patients diagnosed with KS between 1981 and 2013, stratified into the pre-HAART (1981-1995) and HAART (1996-2013) eras. We compared the risk of secondary cancer in KS patients and the general population, and estimated the absolute risk...
September 12, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900765/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-lung-cancer-risk-in-never-smoking-postmenopausal-women
#10
Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Xiaoling Song, Shirley A A Beresford, Gloria Y F Ho, Karen C Johnson, Mridul Datta, Rowan T Chlebowski, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Lihong Qi, Marian L Neuhouser
PURPOSE: Vitamin D has been implicated in lowering lung cancer risk, but serological data on the association among never-smoking women are limited. We report results examining the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with lung cancer risk among female never smokers. We also examined whether the association was modified by vitamin D supplementation and serum vitamin A concentrations. METHODS: In the Women's Health Initiative, including the calcium/vitamin D (CaD) Trial, we selected 298 incident cases [191 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) including 170 adenocarcinoma] and 298 matched controls of never smokers...
September 12, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900736/residential-magnetic-fields-exposure-and-childhood-leukemia-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-california
#11
Leeka Kheifets, Catherine M Crespi, Chris Hooper, Myles Cockburn, Aryana T Amoon, Ximena P Vergara
PURPOSE: Studies have reported an increased risk of childhood leukemia associated with exposure to magnetic fields. We conducted a large records-based case-control study of childhood leukemia risk and exposure to magnetic fields from power lines in California. METHODS: The study included 5,788 childhood leukemia cases (born in and diagnosed in California 1986-2008) matched to population-based controls on age and sex. We calculated magnetic fields at birth addresses using geographic information systems, aerial imagery, historical information on load and phasing, and site visits...
September 12, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887687/kaiso-is-highly-expressed-in-tnbc-tissues-of-women-of-african-ancestry-compared-to-caucasian-women
#12
Blessing I Bassey-Archibong, Shawn M Hercules, Lyndsay G A Rayner, Desiree H A Skeete, Suzanne P Smith Connell, Ian Brain, Adetola Daramola, Adekunbiola A F Banjo, Jung S Byun, Kevin Gardner, Jonathan Dushoff, Juliet M Daniel
PURPOSE: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is most prevalent in young women of African ancestry (WAA) compared to women of other ethnicities. Recent studies found a correlation between high expression of the transcription factor Kaiso, TNBC aggressiveness, and ethnicity. However, little is known about Kaiso expression and localization patterns in TNBC tissues of WAA. Herein, we analyze Kaiso expression patterns in TNBC tissues of African (Nigerian), Caribbean (Barbados), African American (AA), and Caucasian American (CA) women...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887646/cancer-in-first-nations-people-living-in-british-columbia-canada-an-analysis-of-incidence-and-survival-from-1993-to-2010
#13
Colleen E McGahan, Kevin Linn, Preston Guno, Harmony Johnson, Andrew J Coldman, John J Spinelli, Nadine R Caron
BACKGROUND: For First Nations (FN) peoples living in British Columbia (BC), little is known regarding cancer in the population. The aim of this study was to explore cancer incidence and survival in the FN population of BC and compare it to the non-FN population. METHODS: All new cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2010 were linked to the First Nations Client File (FNCF). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR) and rate ratios, and 1- and 5-year cause-specific survival estimates and hazard ratios were calculated...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871344/tubal-ligation-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-in-african-american-women
#14
Chrissy McNamara, Sarah E Abbott, Elisa V Bandera, Bo Qin, Lauren C Peres, Fabian Camacho, Patricia G Moorman, Anthony J Alberg, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Melissa Bondy, Michele L Cote, Ellen Funkhouser, Edward S Peters, Ann G Schwartz, Joellen M Schildkraut, Paul Terry
PURPOSE: Tubal ligation has been associated with reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in studies of primarily white women, but less is known about the association in African American (AA) women. We sought to evaluate the associations among 597 invasive ovarian cancer cases and 742 controls of AA descent recruited from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, a population-based case-control study in 11 geographical areas in the US. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potentially confounding factors...
September 4, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866818/examining-colorectal-cancer-survivors-surveillance-patterns-and-experiences-of-care-a-seer-cahps-study
#15
Michelle A Mollica, Lindsey R Enewold, Lisa M Lines, Michael T Halpern, Jessica R Schumacher, Ron D Hays, James T Gibson, Nicola Schussler, Erin E Kent
PURPOSE: We examined associations between experiences of care and adherence to surveillance guidelines among Medicare Fee-For-Service beneficiaries with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Using linked data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End results (SEER) cancer registry program and the Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS(®)) patient experience surveys (SEER-CAHPS), we identified local/regional CRC survivors diagnosed in 1999-2009 aged 65+, who underwent surgical resection and completed a CAHPS survey <36 months of diagnosis...
September 2, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866791/comparing-perceived-effectiveness-of-fda-proposed-cigarette-packaging-graphic-health-warnings-between-sexual-and-gender-minorities-and-heterosexual-adults
#16
Andy S L Tan, Cabral A Bigman, Rebekah H Nagler, Sara Minsky, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed nine graphic health warnings (GHWs) on cigarette packaging that were rated equally effective across racial/ethnic, education, or income groups of adult smokers. However, data on GHW effectiveness among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults, who have higher smoking prevalence, are currently lacking. This study analyzed whether perceived effectiveness of GHWs differed by gender and sexual orientation. METHODS: Data came from a randomized experiment among 1,200 adults with an oversample from low socioeconomic status groups, conducted between 2013 and 2014 in three Massachusetts communities...
September 2, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864928/effects-of-cholesterol-c-reactive-protein-and-interleukin-6-on-prostate-cancer-risk-in-a-population-of-african-ancestry
#17
Marshall K Tulloch-Reid, Norma McFarlane-Anderson, Franklyn I Bennett, William D Aiken, Maria D Jackson
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between serum cholesterol and prostate cancer and whether any effect may be mediated through inflammatory markers. METHODS: Data from a case-control study of 40-80 years old Jamaican male patients (229 cases; 252 controls) were used. Cases had incident histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and controls were men with normal digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 4 μg/L or free: total PSA > 0...
September 1, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864924/cardiovascular-disease-mortality-among-women-with-endometrial-cancer-in-the-iowa-women-s-health-study
#18
Ashley S Felix, Cindy K Blair, Amy Lehman, Julie K Bower, Subha V Raman, DeAnn Lazovich, David E Cohn, Anna E Prizment
PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with endometrial cancer (EC) development and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. As the number of obese EC survivors continues to increase, an examination of CVD mortality in this vulnerable population is warranted. METHODS: In the Iowa Women's Health Study (1986-2011), we examined CVD mortality among 552 women with EC compared with 2,352 age- and body mass index-matched women without EC (controls). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD mortality were estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by an indicator for match set...
September 1, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864839/outcomes-of-treatment-in-men-with-prostate-cancer-at-the-cancer-centre-bahamas
#19
Glenn Wayne Jones, Osama Kellini, Robin Roberts, Nevein Girgis, Chelsea Brown, Krista Nottage, Thomas McGowan, Corrine Sin Quee-Brown, Conville Brown
PURPOSE: This is a first report from The Bahamas of management and long-term outcomes in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy, with or without androgen deprivation therapy, from 2004 to 2016. METHODS: Patients were characterized by baseline factors, stratified by risk groups using tumor stage (clinical T-stage), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test result and Gleason grade, and sorted by treatment combinations (by radiation volume and use of androgen deprivation)...
September 1, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861656/an-opportune-and-unique-research-to-evaluate-the-public-health-impact-of-electronic-cigarettes
#20
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
In response to the growing public health concern regarding the risks or benefits of electronic cigarettes (e-cig) use relative to smoking, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has recently introduced the first standardized- and well- characterized e-cig device to the research community (see, https://www.drugabuse.gov/funding/supplemental-information-nida-e-cig ). E-cig are promoted as safe alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes and/or as aides to smoking cessation. E-cig are highly popular among cigarette smokers who are unable/unwilling to quit but are willing to switch to putatively less-harmful tobacco substitutes...
August 31, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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