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Sunday A Adebusoye
Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, previously isolated on polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures, was found to aerobically utilize a wide spectrum of substituted aromatic compounds including 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro- and 4-bromobenzoic acids as a sole carbon and energy source. Other chlorobenzoic acid (CBA) congeners such as 2-, 3-, 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-CBA were all rapidly transformed to respective chlorocatechols (CCs). Under aerobic conditions, strain SK-3 grew readily on 4-CBA to a maximum concentration of 5 mM above which growth became impaired and yielded no biomass...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
N Fahrenfeld, A Pruden, M Widdowson
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a common groundwater contaminant often present with more toxic compounds of primary interest. Because of this, few studies have been performed to determine the effect of microbial community structure on MEK biodegradation rates in aquifer sediments. Here, microcosms were prepared with aquifer sediments containing MEK following a massive spill event and compared to laboratory-spiked sediments, with MEK biodegradation rates quantified under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Biodegradation was achieved in MEK-contaminated site sediment microcosms at about half of the solubility (356 mg/L) with largely Firmicutes population under iron-reducing conditions...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
Yonglan Tian, Huayong Zhang, Yang Chai, Lijun Wang, Xueyue Mi, Luyi Zhang, Maxwell Adam Ware
The importance of nickel (added as NiCl2) on mesophilic anaerobic fermentation of Phragmites australis straw and cow dung was demonstrated by investigating the biogas properties, pH values, organic matter degradation [chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and enzyme activities (cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase) during the fermentation process. The results showed that Ni(2+) addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by >18 % by improving the efficiency of first peak stage and bringing forward the second peak stage...
October 7, 2016: Biodegradation
Jennifer Z Menzies, Kathleen McDonough, Drew McAvoy, Thomas W Federle
The ultimate disposition of chemicals discarded down the drain can be substantially impacted by their fate in the sewer, but to date limited data have been published on the biodegradability of chemicals in sewer systems. The recently established OECD 314 guideline (Simulation tests to assess the biodegradability of chemicals discharged in wastewater, 2008) contains a simulation method (314A) for evaluating the biodegradation of chemicals in sewage under simulated sewer conditions. This research used the OECD 314A method to evaluate the rates and pathways of primary and ultimate biodegradation of a suite of (14)C-labeled homologues representing four classes of high volume surfactants including nonionic alkyl ethoxylates (AE), and anionic alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES), alkyl sulfate (AS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS)...
September 23, 2016: Biodegradation
Jiang Tian, Chenlei Yu, Yingwen Xue, Ruixue Zhao, Jing Wang, Lanzhou Chen
The novel trichlorfon (TCF)-degrading bacterium PA F-3, identified as Bacillus tequilensis, was isolated from pesticide-polluted soils by using an effective screening and domesticating procedure. The TCF biodegradation pathways of PA F-3 were also systematically elucidated. As revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography, the TCF residues in the mineral salt medium demonstrated that PA F-3 can utilize TCF as its sole carbon source and reach the highest degradation of 71.1 % at an initial TCF concentration of 200 mg/L within 5 days...
November 2016: Biodegradation
Daisuke Inoue, Tsubasa Tsunoda, Kazuko Sawada, Norifumi Yamamoto, Yuji Saito, Kazunari Sei, Michihiko Ike
In recent years, several strains capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane have been isolated from the genera Pseudonocardia and Rhodococcus. This study was conducted to evaluate the 1,4-dioxane degradation potential of phylogenetically diverse strains in these genera. The abilities to degrade 1,4-dioxane as a sole carbon and energy source and co-metabolically with tetrahydrofuran (THF) were evaluated for 13 Pseudonocardia and 12 Rhodococcus species. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans JCM 13855(T), which is a 1,4-dioxane degrading bacterium also known as P...
November 2016: Biodegradation
Jinkai Xue, Yanyan Zhang, Yang Liu, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Batch experiments were performed to evaluate biodegradation of raw and ozonated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) under denitrifying anoxic and nitrifying aerobic conditions for 33 days. The results showed both the anoxic and aerobic conditions are effective in degrading OSPW classical and oxidized naphthenic acids (NAs) with the aerobic conditions demonstrating higher removal efficiency. The reactors under nitrifying aerobic condition reduced the total classical NAs of raw OSPW by 69.1 %, with better efficiency for species of higher hydrophobicity...
November 2016: Biodegradation
Yuan Fang, Yao Du, Lifang Hu, Jing Xu, Yuyang Long, Dongsheng Shen
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the major contributors to offensive odors from landfills, and its concentration differs under different operation modes. This study examined the distribution of H2S emission from different landfill depths under different operation modes (anaerobic, semi-aerobic, semi-aerobic transformation, and the three operation modes with additional leachate recirculation). The microbial community (especially the sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community) was investigated using high-throughput sequencing technology...
July 11, 2016: Biodegradation
Shu Zhang, Zhen Hou, Xiao-Ming Du, Dong-Ming Li, Xiao-Xia Lu
Site in a former chemical manufacture plant in China was found contaminated with high level of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The major contaminants chloroform (CF), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and vinyl chloride (VC) in groundwater were up to 4.49 × 10(4), 2.76 × 10(6) and 4.35 × 10(4) μg/L, respectively. Ethene and methane were at concentrations up to 2219.80 and 165.85 μg/L, respectively. To test the hypothesis that the CVOCs in groundwater at this site could be removed via biodegradation, biomarker analyses and microcosm studies were conducted...
June 28, 2016: Biodegradation
Zhaoming Zheng, Jun Li, Jing Ma, Jia Du, Wei Bian, Yun Li, Yanzhuo Zhang, Baihang Zhao
The simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process for treating domestic wastewater was investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR was operated with air flow rate of 500 L h(-1) at 30 °C. Domestic wastewater was used as influent and Kaldnes rings were used as biomass carriers. In the beginning, long aeration condition was implemented to cultivate nitrification biofilm. Afterwards, intermittent aerobic condition was conducted during the cycle operation. The influent organic matter loading rate was improved by reducing the aeration and mixing times...
June 21, 2016: Biodegradation
A M Ferro Orozco, E M Contreras, N E Zaritzky
As a result of its wide usage in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly detected in wastewaters. Recently, BPA became a major concern because its adverse effects as an endocrine disruptor. In this work, the biodegradation kinetics of BPA and its metabolic intermediates 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4HAP), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4HB) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HBA) by BPA-acclimated activated sludge was studied using manometric respirometry (BOD) tests. For all the tested compounds, BOD curves exhibited two phases...
June 9, 2016: Biodegradation
Nidhi Garg, Pushp Lata, Simran Jit, Naseer Sangwan, Amit Kumar Singh, Vatsala Dwivedi, Neha Niharika, Jasvinder Kaur, Anjali Saxena, Ankita Dua, Namita Nayyar, Puneet Kohli, Birgit Geueke, Petra Kunz, Daniel Rentsch, Christof Holliger, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Rup Lal
Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation...
June 2016: Biodegradation
Tianlei Qiu, Lili Liu, Min Gao, Lanhe Zhang, Haireti Tursun, Xuming Wang
A solid-phase denitrification (SPD) reactor packed with poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) as a carbon source was incorporated into a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) to remove accumulated nitrate. Bacterial community structures in different parts of the RAS, including biofilter unit, SPD reactor, and culture water, were analyzed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. The data showed that nitrate levels decreased remarkably in the RAS connected with SPD reactor (RAS-DR). In contrast, nitrate levels increased continuously in the conventional RAS without SPD reactor (RAS-CK)...
June 2016: Biodegradation
Ryotaro Matsui, Kazuhiro Takagi, Futa Sakakibara, Tomoko Abe, Kiwamu Shiiba
To determine the concentration of soluble 1,4-dioxane during biodegradation, a new method using of high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was developed. The developed method enabled easy and rapid determination of 1,4-dioxane, even in saline medium. Microbes capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane were selected from the seawater samples by the seawater-charcoal perfusion apparatus. Among 32 candidate 1,4-dioxane degraders,, strain RM-31 exhibited the strongest 1,4-dioxane degradation ability...
June 2016: Biodegradation
Mohammad Ali, Li-Yuan Chai, Hai-Ying Wang, Chong-Jian Tang, Xiao-Bo Min, Xu Yan, Cong Peng, Yu-Xia Song, Ping Zheng
The short-cut nitrification (SCN) performance of an airlift reactor (ALR) was investigated under increasing bicarbonate condition. The sequential increase of bicarbonate from 2.5 to 7.0 g/L accelerated the nitrite accumulation and improved the NAP to 99 %. With the increase of bicarbonate dose to 11 g/L, the ammonium removal efficiency and the ammonium removal rate (ARR) were improved to 95.1 % and 0.57 kg/m(3)/day, respectively. However, the elevation of bicarbonate concentration from 11.0 to 14.0 g/L gradually depreciated the nitrite accumulation percentage to 62...
June 2016: Biodegradation
Ning Yan, Rongjie Li, Hua Xu, Ling Li, Lihui Yang, Yongming Zhang, Rui Liu, Bruce E Rittmann
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP) is a biologically recalcitrant compound, but its biodegradation via reductive dechlorination can be accelerated by adding an exogenous electron donor. In this work, acetate and formate were evaluated for their ability to accelerate TCP reductive dechlorination, as well to accelerate mono-oxygenation of TCP's reduction product, phenol. Acetate and formate accelerated TCP reductive dechlorination, and the impact was proportional to the number of electron equivalents released by oxidation of the donor: 8 e(-) equivalents per mol for acetate, compared to 2 e(-) eq per mol for formate...
June 2016: Biodegradation
F Valdés, P R Camiloti, R P Rodriguez, T P Delforno, J Carrillo-Reyes, M Zaiat, D Jeison
A novel bioreactor, employing a silicone membrane for microaeration, was studied for partial sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using an internal silicone membrane reactor (ISMR) to treat dissolved sulfide and to characterize its microbial community. The ISMR is an effective system to eliminate sulfide produced in anaerobic reactors. Sulfide removal efficiencies reached 96 % in a combined anaerobic/microaerobic reactor and significant sulfate production did not occur...
June 2016: Biodegradation
E Emilia Rios-Del Toro, Francisco J Cervantes
In the present study, the capacity of enrichments derived from marine sediments collected from different sites of the Mexican littoral to perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) coupled to sulfide-dependent denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide linked to nitrite reduction was evaluated. Sulfide-dependent denitrification out-competed anammox during the simultaneous oxidation of sulfide and ammonium. Significant accumulation of elemental sulfur (ca. 14-30 % of added sulfide) occurred during the coupling between the two respiratory processes, while ammonium was partly oxidized (31-47 %) due to nitrite limitation imposed in sediment incubations...
June 2016: Biodegradation
Zhiyuan Liu, Shuili Yu, Heedeung Park, Guicai Liu, Qingbin Yuan
Given the increasing discoveries related to the eco-toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in different ecosystems and with respect to public health, it is important to understand their potential effects in drinking water treatment (DWT). The effects of TiO2 NPs on ammonia reduction, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters for drinking water were investigated in static and dynamic states. In the static state, both the nitrification potential and AOB were significantly inhibited by 100 μg L(-1) TiO2 NPs after 12 h (p < 0...
June 2016: Biodegradation
Petia Mijaylova Nacheva, Alberto Esquivel Sotelo
The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by membrane bioreactor (MBR) under aerobic conditions had been studied using naphthalene (NAP) and phenanthrene (PHE) as model compounds. Three MBRs with submerged ultra-filtration hollow fiber membranes were operated applying different operational conditions during 6.5 months. Complete NAP and PHE removal was obtained applying loads of 7 gNAP kgTSS(-1) day(-1) and 0.5 gPHE kgTSS(-1) day(-1), while the organic loading rate was adjusted to 0.26 kgCOD kgTSS(-1) day(-1), with the biomass concentration being 6000 mgTSS L(-1), the hydraulic retention time (HRT) 8 h and the solids retention time (SRT) 30 days...
June 2016: Biodegradation
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