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Biodegradation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321595/enhanced-roles-of-biochar-and-organic-fertilizer-in-microalgae-for-soil-carbon-sink
#1
Shiping Zhang, Liang Wang, Wei Wei, Jiajun Hu, Shouhua Mei, Quanyu Zhao, Yiu Fai Tsang
Improved soil carbon sink capability is important for the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions and the enhancement of soil productivity. Biochar and organic fertilizer (OF) showed a significant improving effect on microalgae in soil carbon sink capacity, and the ultimate soil total organic carbons with microalgae-OF, microalgae-biochar, microalgae-OF-biochar were about 16, 67 and 58% higher than that with microalgae alone, respectively, indicating that carbon fixation efficiency of microalgae applied in soil was improved with biochar and OF whilst the soil carbon capacity was promoted, the mechanism of which is illustrated through simulative experiments...
March 20, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285343/impact-of-biogenic-substrates-on-sulfamethoxazole-biodegradation-kinetics-by-achromobacter-denitrificans-strain-pr1
#2
P Y Nguyen, Gilda Carvalho, A C Reis, O C Nunes, M A M Reis, A Oehmen
Pure cultures have been found to degrade pharmaceutical compounds. However, these cultures are rarely characterized kinetically at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study investigated the kinetics of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) degradation by Achromobacter denitrificans strain PR1 at a wide range of concentrations, from ng/L to mg/L, to assess the feasibility of using it for bioaugmentation purposes. Complete removal of SMX occurred for all concentrations tested, i.e., 150 mg/L, 500 µg/L, 20 µg/L, and 600 ng/L...
March 11, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265780/the-metabolic-pathway-of-metamifop-degradation-by-consortium-me-1-and-its-bacterial-community-structure
#3
Weiliang Dong, Kuan Liu, Fei Wang, Fengxue Xin, Wenming Zhang, Min Zhang, Hao Wu, Jiangfeng Ma, Min Jiang
Metamifop is universally used in agriculture as a post-emergence aryloxyphenoxy propionate herbicide (AOPP), however its microbial degradation mechanism remains unclear. Consortium ME-1 isolated from AOPP-contaminated soil can degrade metamifop completely after 6 days and utilize it as the carbon source for bacterial growth. Meanwhile, consortium ME-1 possessed the ability to degrade metamifop stably under a wide range of pH (6.0-10.0) or temperature (20-42 °C). HPLC-MS analysis shows that N-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)-N-methyl propionamide, 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)-propionic acid, 6-chloro-2-benzoxazolinone and N-methyl-2-fluoroaniline, were detected and identified as four intermediate metabolites...
March 6, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260134/simultaneous-di-oxygenation-and-denitrification-in-an-internal-circulation-baffled-bioreactor
#4
Ling Jiang, Yingxia Tang, Weihua Sun, Na Yi, Yongming Zhang, Hanchang Shi, Bruce E Rittmann
An internal circulation baffled bioreactor was employed to realize simultaneous di-oxygenation of phthalic acid (PA) and denitrification of nitrate, which require aerobic and anoxic conditions, respectively. Adding a small concentration of succinate as an exogenous electron donor stimulated PA di-oxygenation, which produced readily oxidizable downstream products whose oxidation also enhanced denitrification of nitrate; succinate addition also stimulated denitrification. Depending on the concentration of PA, addition of 0...
March 4, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251436/important-amino-acid-residues-of-hexachlorocyclohexane-dehydrochlorinases-lina-for-enantioselective-transformation-of-hexachlorocyclohexane-isomers
#5
Nidhi Shrivastava, Ankit S Macwan, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Ashwani Kumar
LinA-type1 and LinA-type2 are two well-characterized variants of the enzyme 'hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-dehydrochlorinase'. They differ from each other at ten amino acid positions and exhibit differing enantioselectivity for the transformation of the (-) and (+) enantiomers of α-HCH. Amino acids responsible for this enantioselectivity, however, are not known. An in silico docking analysis identified four amino acids (K20, L96, A131, and T133) in LinA-type1 that could be involved in selective binding of the substrates...
March 1, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185023/nitrogen-removal-performance-of-anaerobic-ammonia-oxidation-anammox-in-presence-of-organic-matter
#6
Weiqiang Zhu, Peiyu Zhang, Deshuang Yu, Huiyu Dong, Jin Li
A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to test the nitrogen removal performance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) in presence of organic matter. Mesophilic operation (30 ± 0.5 °C) was performed with influent pH 7.5. The results showed, independent of organic matter species, ANAMMOX reaction was promoted when COD was lower than 80 mg/L. However, specific ANAMMOX activity decreased with increasing organic matter content. Ammonium removal efficiency decreased to 80% when COD of sodium succinate, sodium potassium tartrate, peptone and lactose were 192...
February 9, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168378/characterization-of-a-novel-micro-pressure-swirl-reactor-for-removal-of-chemical-oxygen-demand-and-total-nitrogen-from-domestic-wastewater-at-low-temperature
#7
Qingkai Ren, Yang Yu, Suiyi Zhu, Dejun Bian, Mingxin Huo, Dandan Zhou, Hongliang Huo
 A novel micro-pressure swirl reactor (MPSR) was designed and applied to treat domestic wastewater at low temperature by acclimating microbial biomass with steadily decreasing temperature from 15 to 3 °C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was constantly removed by 85% and maintained below 50 mg L(-1) in the effluent during the process. When the air flow was controlled at 0.2 m(3) h(-1), a swirl circulation was formed in the reactor, which created a dissolved oxygen (DO) gradient with a low DO zone in the center and a high DO zone in the periphery for denitrification and nitrification...
February 6, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154986/biodegradation-of-5-chloro-2-picolinic-acid-by-novel-identified-co-metabolizing-degrader-achromobacter-sp-f1
#8
Zhi-Guo Wu, Fang Wang, Li-Qun Ning, Robert D Stedtfeld, Zong-Zheng Yang, Jing-Guo Cao, Hong-Jie Sheng, Xin Jiang
Several bacteria have been isolated to degrade 4-chloronitrobenzene. Degradation of 4-chloronitrobenzene by Cupriavidus sp. D4 produces 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid as a dead-end by-product, a potential pollutant. To date, no bacterium that degrades 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid has been reported. Strain f1, isolated from a soil polluted by 4-chloronitrobenzene, was able to co-metabolize 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid in the presence of ethanol or other appropriate carbon sources. The strain was identified as Achromobacter sp...
February 2, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116618/advanced-oxidation-process-and-biological-treatments-for-table-olive-processing-wastewaters-constraints-and-a-novel-approach-to-integrated-recycling-process-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Lamia Ayed, Nedra Asses, Nadia Chammem, Nada Ben Othman, Moktar Hamdi
Table olive processing wastewaters constitute a dangerous environmental problem in the Mediterranean countries because of their large volumes, high organic matter and salt concentration. The quantity and the characteristics of wastewaters produced, and thus, their environmental impact, varied depending on the season, varieties, soil and process employed. Several chemicals, biological and combined technologies have proven effective at bringing down organic pollution and toxicity of these effluents. Advanced oxidation processes have recognized as highly efficient treatments for the degradation of organic matter...
January 23, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913891/biotransformation-of-2-4-dinitroanisole-by-a-fungal-penicillium-sp
#10
Hunter W Schroer, Kathryn L Langenfeld, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Craig L Just
Insensitive munitions explosives are new formulations that are less prone to unintended detonation compared to traditional explosives. While these formulations have safety benefits, the individual constituents, such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), have an unknown ecosystem fate with potentially toxic impacts to flora and fauna exposed to DNAN and/or its metabolites. Fungi may be useful in remediation and have been shown to degrade traditional nitroaromatic explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene, that are structurally similar to DNAN...
December 2, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913890/performance-improvement-of-raw-water-pretreatment-process-with-pre-inoculation-biofilm-feasibility-and-limiting-factors
#11
Guang-Feng Yang, Li-Juan Feng, Cai-Rong Guo, Tian Xia, Xiang-Yang Xu, Liang Zhu
The initial formation of biofilm and the removal performance of pollutants in biological pretreatment process for polluted raw water were limited due to the oligotrophic niche in raw water. In this study, the feasibility of using pre-inoculation biofilm formed under nutrients enhanced condition for polluted raw water treatment was analyzed in nine batch reactors. Results showed that the pollutants removal performance of biofilm was improved under nutrients enhanced conditions. Ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) was exponentially increased with the increasing in NH4(+)-N levels, and organic matter removal rate (ORR) was positively related to the initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration...
December 2, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904989/respirometric-response-and-microbial-succession-of-nitrifying-sludge-to-m-cresol-pulses-in-a-sequencing-batch-reactor
#12
Alberto Ordaz, Mariana Sánchez, Rodrigo Rivera, Rafael Rojas, Alejandro Zepeda
A nitrifying consortium was kinetically, stoichiometrically and molecularly characterized via the in situ pulse respirometric method and pyrosequencing analysis before and after the addition of m-cresol (25 mg C L(-1)) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Five important kinetic and stoichiometric parameters were determined: the maximum oxygen uptake rate, the maximum nitrification rate, the oxidation yield, the biomass growth yield, and the substrate affinity constant. An inhibitory effect was observed in the nitrification process with a recovery of this by up to eight SBR cycles after m-cresol was added to the system...
November 30, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807679/anammox-zeolite-system-acting-as-buffer-to-achieve-stable-effluent-nitrogen-values
#13
Kozet Yapsakli, Cigdem Kalkan Aktan, Bulent Mertoglu
For a successful nitrogen removal, Anammox process needs to be established in line with a stable partial nitritation pretreatment unit since wastewater influent is mostly unsuitable for direct treatment by Anammox. Partial nitritation is, however, a critical bottleneck for the nitrogen removal since it is often difficult to maintain the right proportions of NO2-N and NH4-N during long periods of time for Anammox process. This study investigated the potential of Anammox-zeolite biofilter to buffer inequalities in nitrite and ammonium nitrogen in the influent feed...
November 2, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632165/performance-of-trichlorfon-degradation-by-a-novel-bacillus-tequilensis-strain-pa-f-3-and-its-proposed-biodegradation-pathway
#14
Jiang Tian, Chenlei Yu, Yingwen Xue, Ruixue Zhao, Jing Wang, Lanzhou Chen
The novel trichlorfon (TCF)-degrading bacterium PA F-3, identified as Bacillus tequilensis, was isolated from pesticide-polluted soils by using an effective screening and domesticating procedure. The TCF biodegradation pathways of PA F-3 were also systematically elucidated. As revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography, the TCF residues in the mineral salt medium demonstrated that PA F-3 can utilize TCF as its sole carbon source and reach the highest degradation of 71.1 % at an initial TCF concentration of 200 mg/L within 5 days...
November 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623820/1-4-dioxane-degradation-potential-of-members-of-the-genera-pseudonocardia-and-rhodococcus
#15
Daisuke Inoue, Tsubasa Tsunoda, Kazuko Sawada, Norifumi Yamamoto, Yuji Saito, Kazunari Sei, Michihiko Ike
In recent years, several strains capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane have been isolated from the genera Pseudonocardia and Rhodococcus. This study was conducted to evaluate the 1,4-dioxane degradation potential of phylogenetically diverse strains in these genera. The abilities to degrade 1,4-dioxane as a sole carbon and energy source and co-metabolically with tetrahydrofuran (THF) were evaluated for 13 Pseudonocardia and 12 Rhodococcus species. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans JCM 13855(T), which is a 1,4-dioxane degrading bacterium also known as P...
November 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558502/treatment-of-raw-and-ozonated-oil-sands-process-affected-water-under-decoupled-denitrifying-anoxic-and-nitrifying-aerobic-conditions-a-comparative-study
#16
Jinkai Xue, Yanyan Zhang, Yang Liu, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Batch experiments were performed to evaluate biodegradation of raw and ozonated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) under denitrifying anoxic and nitrifying aerobic conditions for 33 days. The results showed both the anoxic and aerobic conditions are effective in degrading OSPW classical and oxidized naphthenic acids (NAs) with the aerobic conditions demonstrating higher removal efficiency. The reactors under nitrifying aerobic condition reduced the total classical NAs of raw OSPW by 69.1 %, with better efficiency for species of higher hydrophobicity...
November 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770299/effect-of-iron-ions-fe-2-fe-3-on-the-formation-and-structure-of-aerobic-granular-sludge
#17
Gulsum Yilmaz, Umit Bozkurt, Karin Aleksanyan Magden
Aerobic granulation is a promising technology for wastewater treatment, but problems regarding its formation and stability need to be solved. Divalent metal ions, especially Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), have been demonstrated to play an important role in the process of aerobic granulation. Here, we studied whether iron ions can affect aerobic granulation. Granular sludge formed without iron ion addition (<0.02 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)) was fluffy and had a finger-type structure and filamentous out-growth. The addition of iron ions to concentrations of 1 and 10 mg Fe(2+) L(-1) repressed the finger-type structure and filamentous out-growth...
October 21, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766437/biological-degradation-of-4-chlorobenzoic-acid-by-a-pcb-metabolizing-bacterium-through-a-pathway-not-involving-chloro-catechol
#18
Sunday A Adebusoye
Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, previously isolated on polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures, was found to aerobically utilize a wide spectrum of substituted aromatic compounds including 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro- and 4-bromobenzoic acids as a sole carbon and energy source. Other chlorobenzoic acid (CBA) congeners such as 2-, 3-, 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-CBA were all rapidly transformed to respective chlorocatechols (CCs). Under aerobic conditions, strain SK-3 grew readily on 4-CBA to a maximum concentration of 5 mM above which growth became impaired and yielded no biomass...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766436/kinetic-and-microbial-community-analysis-of-methyl-ethyl-ketone-biodegradation-in-aquifer-sediments
#19
N Fahrenfeld, A Pruden, M Widdowson
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a common groundwater contaminant often present with more toxic compounds of primary interest. Because of this, few studies have been performed to determine the effect of microbial community structure on MEK biodegradation rates in aquifer sediments. Here, microcosms were prepared with aquifer sediments containing MEK following a massive spill event and compared to laboratory-spiked sediments, with MEK biodegradation rates quantified under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Biodegradation was achieved in MEK-contaminated site sediment microcosms at about half of the solubility (356 mg/L) with largely Firmicutes population under iron-reducing conditions...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718040/biogas-properties-and-enzymatic-analysis-during-anaerobic-fermentation-of-phragmites-australis-straw-and-cow-dung-influence-of-nickel-chloride-supplement
#20
Yonglan Tian, Huayong Zhang, Yang Chai, Lijun Wang, Xueyue Mi, Luyi Zhang, Maxwell Adam Ware
The importance of nickel (added as NiCl2) on mesophilic anaerobic fermentation of Phragmites australis straw and cow dung was demonstrated by investigating the biogas properties, pH values, organic matter degradation [chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and enzyme activities (cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase) during the fermentation process. The results showed that Ni(2+) addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by >18 % by improving the efficiency of first peak stage and bringing forward the second peak stage...
October 7, 2016: Biodegradation
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