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Anti-cancer Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296649/a-nomogram-to-predict-5-fluorouracil-toxicity-when-pharmacogenomics-meets-the-patient
#1
Andrea Botticelli, Concetta E Onesti, Lidia Strigari, Mario Occhipinti, Francesca R Di Pietro, Bruna Cerbelli, Antonella Petremolo, Elisabetta Anselmi, Serena Macrini, Michela Roberto, Rosa Falcone, Luana Lionetto, Marina Borro, Annalisa Milano, Giovanna Gentile, Maurizio Simmaco, Paolo Marchetti, Federica Mazzuca
Fluoropyrimidines combined with other agents are commonly used for gastrointestinal cancer treatment. Considering that severe toxicities occur in 30% of patients, we aimed to structure a nomogram to predict toxicity, based on metabolic parameter and patients' characteristics. We retrospectively enrolled patients affected by gastrointestinal tract cancers. Pretreatment 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) degradation rate and DPYD, TSER, MTHFR A1298T, and C677T gene polymorphisms were characterized. Data on toxicities were collected according to CTCAE v3...
March 14, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272098/adriamycin-in-combination-with-dexamethasone-and-octreotide-lacks-activity-on-the-treatment-of-a-4t1-metastatic-breast-cancer-model
#2
Panayiotis Dalezis, Dimitrios T Trafalis, George D Geromichalos, Nikos Pissimissis, Dimitra Panagiotopoulou, Grammati Galaktidou, Efi Papageorgiou, Athanassios Papageorgiou, Maria Lymperi, Michael Koutsilieris
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the palliative treatment for metastatic disease with dexamethasone (DEX) plus octreotide (OCT) can improve the anticancer effects of the standard treatment with adriamycin (ADR) on a 4T1 metastatic breast cancer (MBC) model. 4T1 cells were first characterized for the expression of the somatostatin receptors 1-5 and were then inoculated onto the femur of BALB/C mice. Investigation protocols used 4T1 cell proliferation and invasion assays, analysis of radiographic images of the bone metastatic lesions, and overall survival of the diseased animals...
March 7, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263201/a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis-of-retrospective-series-of-eribulin-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#3
Ioannis A Voutsadakis
Eribulin is one of the newer chemotherapeutic agents approved for use in later line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Phase III studies have shown a useful clinical response rate for eribulin as well as equivalence to another commonly used drug in metastatic breast cancer, capecitabine. Nevertheless, whether this clinical value observed in trial patients is maintained in patients seen in clinical oncology practice, outside trials remains a question. Several series published over the last few years sought to answer this question...
March 3, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252533/derived-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-as-a-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-advanced-colorectal-cancer-according-to-ras-and-braf-status-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-mrc-coin-study
#4
Georgina Wood, Tal Grenader, Stephen Nash, Richard Adams, Richard Kaplan, David Fisher, Tim Maughan, John Bridgewater
The phase III Continuous or Intermittent (COIN) trial failed to show a benefit in overall survival (OS) of cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. High derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) has been shown to be prognostic in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate dNLR as a predictive biomarker of the survival according to RAS and BRAF mutations status within the COIN trial. A post-hoc exploratory analysis of the COIN trial arms A and B was carried out...
March 1, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252532/weekly-paclitaxel-after-first-line-failure-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-everyday-clinical-practice-in-a-single-centre
#5
Mariachiara Dipasquale, Viviana Murgia, Antonello Veccia, Sonia Brugnara, Alessia Caldara, Antonella Ferro, Michela Frisinghelli, Francesca Maines, Chiara Trentin, Francesco Valduga, Orazio Caffo
To assess the activity of weekly paclitaxel (wPCT) in pretreated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). In 2005, we included wPCT 80 mg/m for 6 consecutive weeks, followed by a 2-week interval in our department's everyday clinical practice guidelines for the second-line (or subsequent) treatment of patients with nonsquamous histologies who have previously received pemetrexed-based treatments and patients with squamous histology. In the absence of clinical evidence of disease progression, patients repeat the pretreatment staging procedures after 16 weeks (two cycles) and, in the absence of disease progression or severe toxicity, continue treatment for a maximum of four courses...
March 1, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244942/effects-of-natural-phenolic-compound-carvacrol-on-the-human-gastric-adenocarcinoma-ags-cells-in-vitro
#6
Ayse Günes-Bayir, Huriye S Kiziltan, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Eray M Güler, Ersin Karataş, Ali Toprak
Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality because of cancer. Medicinal plants containing polyphenolic compounds have gained importance in anticancer treatment. In this context, carvacrol is a main component of many plants in the family Lamiaceae that are frequently used in folk medicine and a good candidate to investigate for GC treatment. The present study aimed to explore the cytotoxic, genotoxic, apoptotic, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating effects of carvacrol on gastric adenocarcinoma in vitro...
February 27, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240680/inhibition-of-wnt-signaling-reduces-differentiation-and-induces-sensitivity-to-doxorubicin-in-human-malignant-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#7
Junjira Suebsoonthron, Thiranut Jaroonwitchawan, Montarop Yamabhai, Parinya Noisa
Neuroblastoma is one of the most common cancers in infancy, arising from the neuroblasts during embryonic development. This cancer is difficult to treat and resistance to chemotherapy is often found; therefore, clinical trials of novel therapeutic approaches, such as targeted-cancer signaling, could be an alternative for a better treatment. WNT signaling plays significant roles in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human neuroblastoma. In this report, WNT signaling of a malignant human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y cells, was inhibited by XAV939, a specific inhibitor of the Tankyrase enzyme...
February 24, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240679/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-combined-effect-of-arq-092-an-akt-inhibitor-with-arq-087-a-fgfr-inhibitor
#8
Yi Yu, Terence Hall, Sudharshan Eathiraj, Michael J Wick, Brian Schwartz, Giovanni Abbadessa
The PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer, and the drug development efforts targeting this pathway with therapeutic interventions have been advanced by academic and industrial groups. However, the clinical outcome is moderate. Combination of inhibition of PI3K/AKT and other targeted agents became a feasible approach. In this study we assessed the combined effect of ARQ 092, a pan-AKT inhibitor, and ARQ 087, a pan-FGFR inhibitor, in vitro and in vivo. In a panel of 45 cancer cell lines, on 24% (11 out of 45) the compounds showed synergistic effect, on 62% (28 out of 45) additive, and on 13% (6 out of 45) antagonistic...
February 24, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225458/prognostic-factors-and-outcome-of-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-in-phase-i-trials-the-gustave-roussy-scoring-system
#9
Lina Benajiba, Jean-Marie Michot, Capucine Baldini, Laura Faivre, Andrea Varga, Rastilav Balheda, Anas Gazzah, Ecaterina Ileana, Sophie Postel-Vinay, Christophe Massard, Stéphane de Botton, Jean-Charles Soria, Vincent Ribrag
Despite considerable progress in hematological malignancies (HM) biology during the last decades, translation into clinical benefit remains a major challenge. To improve patient selection and identify patients most likely to benefit from phase I trials, we designed and validated, in an independent cohort, a simple prognostic score. Treatment outcome, toxicity, and survival data from 82 consecutive patients enrolled in 14 phase I trials were reviewed (January 2008-February 2012). We validated these results on a prospectively collected cohort (17 phase I trials, February 2012-May 2014, 88 patients)...
February 20, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225457/rhoa-rock-pathway-inhibition-by-fasudil-suppresses-the-vasculogenic-mimicry-of-u2os-osteosarcoma-cells-in-vitro
#10
Yun Xia, Xianyi Cai, Jiquan Fan, Liling Zhang, Zhenyu Li, Jinghua Ren, Gang Wu, Fang Zhu
GTPase RhoA and its downstream Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinases (ROCKs) are frequently overexpressed in human cancers. Inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway blocks angiogenesis mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor, which led us to investigate the role of this pathway in vasculogenic mimicry (VM) - a process by which aggressive cancer cells form vessel-like structures that provide adequate blood supply for tumor growth. We showed that the expression of RhoA and its effector kinases ROCK1/2 was much higher in human osteosarcoma (OS) tissues and the human OS cell line U2OS than in nontumorous tissues and cell line hFOB 1...
February 20, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225456/efficacy-of-bevacizumab-and-erlotinib-combination-for-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-after-failure-of-erlotinib
#11
Ryo Ariyasu, Atsushi Horiike, Junji Koyama, Masafumi Saiki, Tomoaki Sonoda, Yosuke Kawashima, Natsuki Takano, Tomoyo Oguri, Shingo Nishikawa, Satoru Kitazono, Noriko Yanagitani, Fumiyoshi Ohyanagi, Makoto Nishio
In patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harboring an epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) active mutation, central nervous system progression after a response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors is frequent. Central nervous system metastasis, especially leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC), is a serious complication and no standard treatment has been established for LMC. Here, we report two cases in which the addition of bevacizumab to erlotinib enhanced the efficacy against LMC; as a result, radiographic abnormalities decreased markedly and symptoms were well controlled...
February 20, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177944/metformin-depresses-overactivated-notch1-hes1-signaling-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Bin Yang, Can-Ze Huang, Tao Yu, Sheng-Ning Zhou, Qi Liu, Gao-Jie Liu, Shuang Chen, Fang-Hai Han
The function of metformin in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a controversial topic because studies are increasingly focusing on epidemiologic features. We examined Notch1/Hes1 signaling in CRC with DM (DM-CRC) and investigated alterations in signaling caused by metformin treatment. For this purpose, information on pathological characteristics was collected from each patient. The proliferation of epithelium labeled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the differentiation of goblet cells were investigated using immunohistochemistry and periodic acid-Schiff staining, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301380/nitroxoline-shows-antimyeloma-activity-by-targeting-the-trim25-p53-axle
#13
Hongwu Mao, Yanyun Du, Zubin Zhang, Biyin Cao, Jun Zhao, Haibin Zhou, Xinliang Mao
The aim of this study was to identify the most potent quinoline-based anti-infectives for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and to understand the molecular mechanisms. A small-scale screen against a panel of marketed quinoline-based drugs was performed in MM cell lines. Cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. Anti-MM activity was also evaluated in nude mice. Western blotting was performed to investigate mechanisms. Nitroxoline (NXQ) was the most effective in suppressing MM cell proliferation. NXQ induced more than 40% MM cell apoptosis within 24 h and potentiated anti-MM activities of current major drugs including doxorubicin and lenalidomide...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301379/hypothesis-robophera-a-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-targeted-antineoplastic-therapy
#14
Arsalan Azimi, Arian Azimi
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that regulates cellular response to growth/antigrowth signals, cell survival, apoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, and cellular migration. Impairments in these processes are the main hallmarks of cancer, and reduced expression, activity, or stability of PTEN are among the most common etiologies of diverse types of sporadic cancers. Rosiglitazone (RO), bortezomib (BO), phosphatidylserine (PH), ethanol (E), and radiotherapy (RA) (ROBOPHERA) stimulate the expression and increase the activity of PTEN...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181940/stable-disease-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-leiomyosarcoma-treated-with-trabectedin
#15
Ketty Tavella, Alessandro Villanucci, Laura Vannini, Daniele Lavacchi, Silvia Montelatici, Gianni Amunni, Teresita Mazzei
Leiomyosarcomas represent the most common variant of uterine sarcomas, and are also considered to be the least chemosensitive. To date, adriamycin and ifosfamide are believed to be the most effective drugs for its treatment, in addition to docetaxel and gemcitabine. Recently, the introduction of trabectedin has provided clinicians with another treatment option, and the drug may have some benefits for patients as it may allow for long-term treatment. We present the case of a patient who previously failed multiple cycles of chemotherapy and who was subsequently treated with 30 cycles of trabectedin as third-line therapy for multiple metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166090/chemotherapy-for-recurrent-metastatic-head-and-neck-cancers
#16
Andy Karabajakian, Philippe Toussaint, Eve-Marie Neidhardt, Valérie Paulus, Pierre Saintigny, Jérôme Fayette
Chemotherapy is the only option of treatment for most patients presenting with a recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The triple association of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracile, and cetuximab is still the current standard for fit patients. Other schemes are currently being compared with this protocol in ongoing trials and the association of cisplatin, docetaxel, and cetuximab appears to be the most efficient. The human papilloma virus is very likely a favorable prognostic factor. Immunotherapy with nivolumab or pembrolizumab is now a new standard of treatment in second line after yielding an improvement in overall survival, but predictive markers of efficacy are needed to refine the selection of patients...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157137/extracellular-polyamines-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-cancer-cells-by-odc-ssat-and-akt1-mediated-pathway
#17
Fujun Dai, Wubei Yu, Jia Song, Qian Li, Chaojie Wang, Songqiang Xie
High levels of polyamines were observed and were related to a poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, the mechanism is not obvious. The aim of this study is to mimic the extracellular polyamines in a tumor microenviroment and to explore the role of extracellular polyamines in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Three different concentrations of polyamines composed of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were used. Colony formation assay, wound healing assay, and transwell migration assay were performed...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134662/chemotherapy-for-localized-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancers
#18
Andy Karabajakian, Philippe Toussaint, Eve-Marie Neidhardt, Valérie Paulus, Pierre Saintigny, Jérôme Fayette
Concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin (100 mg/m every 3 weeks) improves outcome for high-risk patients in the postoperative setting and for inoperable disease. Toxicity is increased. Other schemes of potentiation are sometimes used to reduce toxicity, but efficiency is diminished. Cetuximab also improves outcome, but there has been no direct comparison with cisplatin. Immunotherapy is currently being evaluated in association with radiation therapy. Trials are ongoing to evaluate the impact of de-escalation for human papillomavirus-positive patients...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125433/pi3k-%C3%AE-inhibition-using-cal-101-exerts-apoptotic-effects-and-increases-doxorubicin-induced-cell-death-in-pre-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#19
Ava Safaroghli-Azar, Davood Bashash, Parisa Sadreazami, Majid Momeny, Seyed H Ghaffari
The frequency of dysregulated PI3K in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) coupled with the critical role of this signaling pathway in the acquisition of chemoresistant phenotype lend compelling weight to the application of PI3K inhibitors for the treatment of ALL. In this study, we found that abrogation of the PI3K pathway using CAL-101, a selective inhibitor of PI3K p110-δ, exerts a cytotoxic effect against Nalm-6 pre-B-ALL cells. Our results showed that the growth-suppressive effect is mediated, at least partially, by G1 arrest as a result of upregulated p21...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125432/apigenin-inhibits-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-akt-in-the-a549-human-lung-cancer-cell-line
#20
Zhongping Zhou, Miaomiao Tang, Yi Liu, Zhuyi Zhang, Rongzhu Lu, Jian Lu
Apigenin (APG), a widely distributed flavonoid in vegetables and fruits, with low toxicity, and a nonmutagenic characteristic, has been reported to have many targets. Evidence indicates that APG can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of some tumor cells, but the mechanism, specifically in lung cancer, is unclear. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway regulates a diverse set of cellular functions relevant to the growth and progression of lung cancer, including proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion...
April 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
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