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Anti-cancer Drugs

Kirti K Chahal, Milind Parle, Ruben Abagyan
The hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays an important role in cancer development and maintenance, as ~25% of all cancers have aberrant Hh pathway activation. Targeted therapy for inhibition of the Hh pathway was thought to be promising for achieving clinical response in the Hh-dependent cancers. However, the results of new clinical trials with smoothened (SMO) antagonists do not show much success in cancers other than basal cell carcinoma. The studies suggest that the Hh pathway involves multiple mechanisms of activation or inhibition in primary cilia and interactions between several related pathways in different types of cells, which makes this pathway extremely complex...
March 13, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Haibin Yan, Bingyun Zhang, Chongbin Fang, Liqiu Chen
Chemoresistance during treatment of osteosarcoma (OS) is attracting more and more attention as the main clinical obstacle. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of miR-340 in chemoresistance of OS. Plasmid construction and transfection, miRNA arrays, PCR analyses, and western blot analysis, as well as MTT, apoptosis, and luciferase assays were carried out in MG-63 cells and MG-63/cisplatin (DDP)-resistant cells. The results showed that miR-340 was downregulated in OS tissues and drug-resistant OS cells...
February 28, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Viviana Blank, Yanina Bellizzi, Elsa Zotta, Patricia G Cornier, Carina M L Delpiccolo, Dora B Boggián, Ernesto G Mata, Leonor P Roguin
In this study, we explored the in-vitro and in-vivo mechanism of antitumor action of a novel synthetic nonantibiotic triazolylpeptidyl penicillin derivative, named TAP7f, on B16-F0 murine melanoma cells. In-vitro assays showed that TAP7f caused an inhibition of S phase progression and a concomitant decrease of the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase. We also found that TAP7f treatment induced an apoptotic response characterized by an increase of the sub-G1 fraction of B16-F0 hypodiploid cells, the occurrence of cells with picnotic nuclei, and the detection of phosphatidylserine exposure on the outer side of the plasma membrane...
February 28, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Renhong Huang, Xiaowei Zhang, Sadia Sophia, Zhijun Min, Xiaojian Liu
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in multiple physical and pathological processes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The prognostic value of HDACs in cHL patients has not been discussed. The aim of the current study is to investigate the HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11 expressions, and to evaluate the correlation of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11 expressions with the survival rate in cHL patients. We retrospectively analyzed clinicopathological data of 28 patients who were diagnosed with cHL between August 2002 and March 2010...
February 23, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Ilit Turgeman, Ezequiel Flechter, Eugene Vlodavsky, Daniela Militianu, Zohar Keidar, Elias Haddad, Gil Bar-Sela
Breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (OGCs) is a rare entity characterized by an admixture of giant cells and malignant epithelial cells within an inflammatory and vascular stroma. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the pathway for osteoclast formation and activation, indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases, as well as for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone. We report a patient who presented with aggressive bone recurrence of breast cancer 12 years after her original diagnosis, showing a transformed histology that included multinucleated OGCs, and that was refractory to traditional therapy...
February 23, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Georg Voelcker
SUM-IAP is an aldo-ifosfamide-perhydrothiazine derivative that, under physiological conditions, spontaneously hydrolyzes to SUM-aldo-ifosfamide. In SUM-IAP, one 2-chloroethyl group of the alkylating function of aldo-ifosfamide-perhydrothiazine is substituted by a mesyl-ethyl group. The compound was synthesized to investigate the influence of the alkylating function of aldo-ifosfamide on the antitumor activity of oxazaphosphorine cytostatics. In chemotherapy experiments in CD2F1 mice with advanced subcutaneously growing P388 mice leukemia cells, the primary tumor was reduced below the detection level with two highly dosed injections on days 7 and 8, but after 14 days, the primary tumor was measurable again...
February 20, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Zhe Liu, Huan Wang, Lingnan Guan, Siyi Chen, Maode Lai
Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) represent a transcription factor that is constitutively activated in various cancers. Numerous studies have shown that STAT3 plays crucial roles in cell proliferation and survival, angiogenesis, tumor-promoting inflammation, and suppression of antitumor host immune response in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated a novel inhibitor, called -6b, to target STAT3 in colorectal cancer cells. The influence of 5Br-6b on the proliferation of colorectal cell lines SW480 and HCT116 was evaluated using an 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2 and 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
February 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Jeanne A Drisko, Oscar K Serrano, Lisa R Spruce, Qi Chen, Mark Levine
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a dismal prognosis and is often discovered at an advanced stage with few therapeutic options. Current conventional regimens for PDA are associated with significant morbidity, decreased quality of life, and a considerable financial burden. As a result, some patients turn to integrative medicine therapies as an alternate option after a diagnosis of PDA. Intravenous pharmacologic ascorbic acid (PAA) is one such treatment. The use of PAA has been passionately debated for many years, but more recent rigorous scientific research has shown that there are significant blood concentration differences when ascorbic acid is given parenterally when compared to oral dosing...
February 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Sanjeeve Balasubramaniam, Christophe E Redon, Cody J Peer, Christine Bryla, Min-Jung Lee, Jane B Trepel, Yusuke Tomita, Arun Rajan, Giuseppe Giaccone, William M Bonner, William D Figg, Tito Fojo, Richard L Piekarz, Susan E Bates
The standard-of-care for advanced small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is chemotherapy with cisplatin+etoposide (C+E). Most patients have chemosensitive disease at the outset, but disease frequently relapses and limits survival. Efforts to improve therapeutic outcomes in SCLC and other neuroendocrine cancers have focused on epigenetic agents, including the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of the combination of belinostat (B) with C+E. Belinostat was administered as a 48-h continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-2; cisplatin was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion on day 2; and etoposide was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion on days 2, 3, and 4...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Maria López Brunsó, Cristina Toro Blanch, Elia Sais Girona, Diana Roa García, Alejandro Hernández Martínez, Angel Izquierdo Font, Silvia Guerra Prió, Huber Gunter Mas Pueyo, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are of great concern in the treatment of cancer, especially when target therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are being used. Here, we report a case of probable DDI between erlotinib and amiodarone leading to severe neurotoxicity. Amiodarone inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp), for which erlotinib is a substrate. P-gp is an important drug transporter that is involved in limiting the blood-brain barrier penetration of erlotinib. Clinicians should be aware of emerging data characterizing the effect of the P-gp transport system on drug exposure and its potential for DDI...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Chunhong Zhang, Yangjie Xu, Haowen Wang, Gang Li, Han Yan, Zhenghua Fei, Yunsheng Xu, Wenfeng Li
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect and the mechanism by which curcumin reverses irinotecan-induced chemotherapy resistance in colon cancer. Construction of irinotecan-resistant colon cancer model LoVo/CPT-11R cells was performed by increasing drug concentration. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to detect inhibition of proliferation; cell morphology was observed by an optical microscope. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to detect molecular marker expressions during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); drug-resistant cells were treated with curcumin at different concentrations and Cell Counting Kit-8 was reperformed to detect cell proliferation after treatments...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Xiangcheng Qing, Zengwu Shao, Xiao Lv, Feifei Pu, Feng Gao, Lei Liu, Deyao Shi
MTH1 has become a new rising star in the field of 'cancer phenotypic lethality' and can be targeted in many kinds of tumors. This study aimed to explore the anticancer effect of MTH1-targeted drug (S)-crizotinib on osteosarcoma (OS) cells. We detected MTH1 expression in OS tissues and cells using immunohistochemistry and western blot. The effects of MTH1 on OS cell viability were explored using the siRNA technique and CCK8. The anticancer effects of the MTH1-targeted drug (S)-crizotinib on OS cells were explored by in-vitro assays...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Claudio Cerchione, Davide Nappi, Anna E Pareto, Alessandra Romano, Vincenzo Martinelli, Marco Picardi, Fabrizio Pane, Lucio Catalano
Renal impairment (RI) is a relevant complication of patients affected by multiple myeloma (MM); it can be present in up to 30-35% of newly diagnosed MM and is linked to a poor outcome. However, early recognition and early treatment with novel agents can overcome the negative impact of RI and even reverse kidney damage in most cases. Lenalidomide, available as an oral compound, is an immunomodulatory drug with both antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activity that is largely used in the management of MM. Dose reduction is mandatory in RI; however, there is no theoretical assumption against the possibility that protracting the time of full standard doses can be equally effective and tolerated by patients requiring reduced doses...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Mickaël Burgy, Julie Leblanc, Christian Borel
The issue of induction chemotherapy (ICT) interest in locoregionally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is a real epic that has been carried out over four phase III studies: PARADIGM, DECIDE, NCT01086826 and lastly the conclusive GORTEC 2007-02. With no significant benefit in overall survival of ICT, followed by concurrent chemoradiation over the standard chemoradiotherapy alone, in three of these studies, and a significant number of treatment-related deaths with the standard regimen docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil, ICT is no longer a hot topic...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Xin Yu, Jingcheng Miao, Wei Xia, Zong-Jiang Gu
Previous studies have shown that interleukin-24 (IL-24) has tumor-suppressing activity by multiple pathways. However, the immunogenicity moderation effect of IL-24 on malignant cells has not been explored extensively. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-24 in immunogenicity modulation of the myelogenous leukemia cells. Data show that myelogenous leukemia cells express low levels of immunogenicity molecules. Treatment with IL-24 could enhance leukemia cell immunogenicity, predominantly regulate leukemia cells to produce immune-associated cytokines, and improve the cytotoxic sensitivity of these cells to immune effector cells...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Kevin J Church, Brett R Vanderwerff, Rachelle R Riggers, Beatriz Mateo-Victoriano, Matthew Fagnan, Phillip H Harris, Jewel C LeValley, Joseph W Harding
Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA and is characterized by an exceptionally poor long-term survival rate compared with other major cancers. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) growth factor systems are frequently over-activated in pancreatic cancer and significantly contribute to cancer progression, metastasis, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Small molecules homologous to the 'hinge' region of HGF, which participates in its dimerization and activation, had been developed and shown to bind HGF with high affinity, antagonize HGF's actions, and possess anticancer activity...
January 31, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Samaneh Bayati, Elham Razani, Davood Bashash, Ava Safaroghli-Azar, Majid Safa, Seyed H Ghaffari
Genetic and laboratory studies have remodeled the conventional understanding of cancer pathogenesis by identifying different molecular alterations. Intrigued by the contribution of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) network in cancer pathogenesis, we investigated the antileukemic effects of aprepitant, a nonpeptide antagonist of NK1R, in a panel of hematological cell lines. In this study, we found that aprepitant decreased the survival of all the tested cells; however, as compared with NB4, viability of the other cell lines was inhibited at higher concentrations...
January 31, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Shu Li, Binbin Cheng, Lixin Hou, Lanwei Huang, Yongkang Cui, Duo Xu, Xiaoping Shen, Shuang Li
Dioscin is a natural steroid saponin derived from several plants that shows potent anticancer effects against a variety of cancer cells. Here, we investigated the antitumor effect of dioscin against human colon cancer cells and evaluated the molecular mechanism involved in this process. The cell cytotoxicity was studied by the MTT assay and BrdU incorporation. The proapoptotic mechanism of dioscin was characterized by flow cytometry analysis. A western blot and an immunofluorescence staining were used to investigate how dioscin induces apoptosis in vitro...
January 31, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Nan Zhang, Jiangnan Zhang, Pei Wang, Xinyang Liu, Pengchao Huo, Yue Xu, Wenjie Chen, Hongying Xu, Qingfeng Tian
Conjugation of a monoclonal antibody with a nanoparticle often improves its specificity and drug loading in cancer therapy. In this study, we prepared a novel targeting nanodrug-delivery system using 2-methoxy-estradiol (2-ME) based on anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) antibody-modified BSA to improve the clinical application and antitumor effect of 2-ME. 2-ME-loaded albumin nanoparticles (2-ME-BSANPs) were prepared using a desolvation method and the anti-HER2 antibodies were conjugated to 2-ME-BSANPs (HER2-2-ME-BSANPs) using the coupling agent, succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate...
January 29, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Michael I Koukourakis, Christos Kakouratos, Dimitra Kalamida, Achilleas Mitrakas, Stamatia Pouliliou, Erasmia Xanthopoulou, Evdokia Papadopoulou, Virginia Fasoulaki, Alexandra Giatromanolaki
Apalutamide (ARN-509) is an antiandrogen that binds selectively to androgen receptors (AR) and does not show antagonist-to-agonist switch like bicalutamide. We compared the activity of ARN versus bicalutamide on prostate cancer cell lines. The 22Rv1, PC3, and DU145 cell lines were used to study the effect of ARN and bicalutamide on the expression cytoplasmic/nuclear kinetics of AR, AR-V7 variant, phosphorylated AR, as well as the levels of the AR downstream proteins prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2, under exposure to testosterone and/or hypoxia...
January 29, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
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