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Anti-cancer Drugs

Ersin Özaslan, Halit Karaca, Sinan Koca, Alper Sevinç, Bekir Hacioğlu, Metin Özkan, Melike Özçelik, Ayşe O Duran, İlhan Hacibekiroğlu, Yaşar Yildiz, Özgür Tanriverdi, Serkan Menekşe, Asude Aksoy, Oktay Bozkurt, Semiha Urvay, Mükremin Uysal, Hacer Demir, Aydin Çiltaş, Faysal Dane
The objectives of this study were to compare progression-free survival (PFS) with somatostatin analog (SSA) versus chemotherapy (CTx) in first-line therapy and to determine the patient group in which these treatments were more effective in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with a Ki-67 index of 20% or less. Patients who received SSA or CTx and had unresectable locally advanced and metastatic NETs with a Ki-67 index of 20% or less were retrospectively selected from 13 centers in the Turkish database between 2000 and 2015...
October 20, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Silvana Giacinti, Paolo Carlini, Michela Roberto, Maria Bassanelli, Lidia Strigari, Francesco Pavese, Anna M Aschelter, Alessandra Felici, Maurizio Valeriani, Francesco Cognetti, Paolo Marchetti
Abiraterone acetate (AA) demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of patients with metastatic castration resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC) in predocetaxel and postdocetaxel setting. However, we learn from pivotal studies that forms of primary and acquired resistance to this drug exist. Patient selection becomes so crucial to optimize treatment results. Potential predictive biomarkers have been identified but are not yet validated. In this scenario, clinical features and disease characteristics may still be of value in selecting patients for different treatments...
October 19, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Zhengwei Wen, Qunying Jia, Xiaojuan Kang, Yongliang Lou, Lilin Zou, Jifeng Yang, Jimin Gao, Liping Han, Xiang Li
Interferon (IFN) regulates immune responses and antitumor activity. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides can specifically bind to integrin αvβ3, a transmembrane receptor that is highly expressed on the surface of various cancer cells. In this study, we expressed recombinant RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins and assessed their antitumor activity in vitro. Two RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins and a negative control protein were expressed in vitro. These two RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins could bind the tumor cell surface specifically and did not bind to normal cells...
October 18, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Roberto Iacovelli, Elena Verri, Maria Cossu Rocca, Gaetano Aurilio, Daniela Cullurà, Ottavio de Cobelli, Franco Nolè
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related toxicities have been reported to be predictive and/or prognostic factors in patients affected by metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We aim to investigate the incidence of cumulative toxicity and its prognostic role in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib. mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib at the European Institute of Oncology in Milan were reviewed for the incidence of adverse events. Cumulative toxicity was defined as the presence of more than one selected adverse event of any grade...
October 14, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Junqing Wang, Yunyun Zhou, Xiaochun Fei, Xunhua Chen, Zhenggang Zhu
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway dominates numerous cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which play a crucial role in human cancer malignancies. Regulator of G-protein signaling 3 (RGS3) is a pivotal molecule involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is worthy of intensive research as a potential target in cancer treatment. In this study, we found that RGS3 is significantly upregulated in gastric cancer (GC) tumor samples compared with normal samples from the analysis of two independent GC mRNA microarray datasets in the NCBI public database...
October 14, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Mei Hong, Ming-Qiang Ren, Jeane Silva, Ananya Paul, William David Wilson, Carsten Schroeder, Paul Weinberger, John Janik, Zhonglin Hao
YM155 (sepantronium bromide) has been evaluated in clinical trials as a survivin suppressant, but despite positive signals from early work, later studies were negative. Clarification of the mechanism of action of YM155 is important for its further development. YM155 affects cells in a cell cycle-specific manner. When cells are in G1, YM155 prevented their progression through the S phase, leaving the cells at G1/S when exposed to YM155. Passage through mitosis from G2 is also defective following YM155 exposure...
October 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Esther A Guzmán, Dedra Harmody, Tara P Pitts, Brunilda Vera-Diaz, Priscilla L Winder, Yichao Yu, Amy E Wright
Pancreatic cancer presents one of the most negative prognosis of all cancers as it has usually metastasized by the time a patient is diagnosed. The American Cancer Society estimates that 93% of patients will die within 5 years of diagnosis, highlighting the need for new drugs to treat this disease. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) mediates the angiogenesis of tumors arising from Ras mutations, which are present in about 90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Overexpression of IL-8 in pancreatic tumors is believed to promote tumor angiogenesis and to activate survival signaling pathways...
October 5, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Constantinos Miltiadous, Georgios K Dimitriadis, Pavlos Roditis, Christos Kosmas
Salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation represents a curative treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory germ-cell tumors (GCTs). However, an appreciable proportion of these fail to mobilize adequate numbers of hematopoietic progenitors; thus, plerixafor is applied for that purpose. Limited data exist on remobilization of HSCs after previous autografting. Here, we report a unique case that had undergone successful previous tandem HDC for relapsed GCT, and 1 year later required remobilization of HSCs to support two further cycles of HDC after subsequent multiple relapses and refractoriness requiring various salvage regimens...
October 4, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Fausto Petrelli, Gianluca Tomasello, Michele Ghidini, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Sandro Barni
Combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) is an active but not well-tolerated regimen for advanced gastric cancer (GC) with standard 3-weekly doses. Several modified schedules (mDCFs) have been designed to reduce acute toxicities and improve feasibility as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic GC. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and grade (G) greater than or equal to 3 adverse event of mDCF chemotherapy in this setting...
September 30, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Hani M Babiker, Irbaz B Riaz, Syed R Shah, Daniel D Von Hoff, Mitesh J Borad
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with poor survival and high mortality rate with 250 000 deaths per year worldwide. The unique pancreatic cancer microenvironment serves as a major obstacle in the effective treatment of this malignancy. The microenvironment consists not only of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells but also comprises cells of pancreatic cancer stellate, vascular, and immune origin combined with a dense extracellular matrix containing collagen. The aforementioned pathology leads to an increased intratumor pressure combined with an erratic vascular proliferation within the tumor causing hypoxia and decreased drug delivery...
September 28, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Colin P Bergstrom, Brian Ruffell, Christine M T Ho, Celestia S Higano, William J Ellis, Mark Garzotto, Tomasz M Beer, Julie N Graff
The aims of this study were to report the clinical outcomes in a cohort of men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and mitoxantrone 10 years after treatment, identify pretreatment clinical parameters that may be predictors of recurrence, and describe tumor-infiltrating leukocytes present in radical prostatectomy specimens. We conducted a phase I/II study of neoadjuvant docetaxel and mitoxantrone before radical prostatectomy in high-risk localized prostate cancer to determine the feasibility of this combination and predictors of prostate cancer recurrence after cytotoxic chemotherapy...
September 23, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Guillaume Peyraga, Benjamin Linot, Sena Yossi, Pierre Gustin, Dominique Rousseau, Anne-Lise Septans, Renaud Breheret, Laurent Laccourreye, Pauline Rives, Olivier Capitain
Concurrent radiochemotherapy (CRC) is a standard treatment in patients with inoperable locoregionally advanced ear-nose-throat (ENT) cancer. We report the safety and efficacy of CRC with daily fractionated 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin ('F' 5FU-CDDP) in a monocentric retrospective cohort. From January 2006 to August 2012, all patients with unresectable (or inoperable) nonmetastatic locoregionally advanced ENT cancer treated curatively by means of radiotherapy (normal fractionated 70 Gy to the macroscopic tumor and prophylactic 50 Gy) with three courses (week 1-week 4-week 7) of 'F' 5FU-CDDP regimen (800 mg/m/day of 5-fluorouracil and 20 mg/m/day of CDDP from day 1 to day 4) were included...
September 23, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Jie Shi, Shengjun Fu, Li Wang, Yan Tao, Ronald Rodriguez, Zhiping Wang
Our previous work confirmed that the bladder cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A could selectively replicate in bladder cancer cells, thus causing specific tumor cell lysis. The replicative potential is a crucial factor in determining the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses. However, viral replication is attenuated by the low-activity promoter that we used, thus compromising viral cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effect of the cell cycle-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/Waf-1 on an adenovirus...
September 12, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Abdul Mannan Baig, Naveed A Khan, Vardah Effendi, Zohaib Rana, H R Ahmad, Farhat Abbas
Recent reports on acetylcholine muscarinic receptor subtype 3 (CHRM3) have shown its growth-promoting role in prostate cancer. Additional studies report the proliferative effect of the cholinergic agonist carbachol on prostate cancer by its agonistic action on CHRM3. This study shows that the type 1 acetylcholine muscarinic receptor (CHRM1) contributes toward the proliferation and growth of prostate cancer. We used growth and cytotoxic assays, the prostate cancer microarray database and CHRM downstream pathways' homology of CHRM subtypes to uncover multiple signals leading to the growth of prostate cancer...
September 7, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Xiaoqing Guo, Yue Meng, Xiaotong Sheng, Yuan Guan, Fenglei Zhang, Zhen Han, Yuying Kang, Guihua Tai, Yifa Zhou, Hairong Cheng
Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine that selectively induces apoptosis in many tumor cells while leaving normal cells intact and is thus an attractive candidate for antitumor therapies. This paper reports that the combination of tunicamycin plus TRAIL produced a strong synergistic effect in TRAIL-sensitive human colon cancer HCT116 cells and TRAIL-resistant HT-29 cells. On a cellular mechanistic level, tunicamycin-enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by death receptor (DR) 5 upregulation and DR4 deglycosylation...
September 3, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Ni Hou, Na Liu, Jia Han, Yuan Yan, Jie Li
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the polyphenols identified in the human diet. Previous studies have shown that CGA plays a protective role against liver diseases. The colon plays a pivotal role in CGA metabolism. However, little is known about the direct effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of CGA in colon cancer. Here, we investigate these mechanisms of CGA activity in human colon cancer cells. The effects of CGA on the viability of two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, were determined using the MTT assay...
September 3, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Chiara Della Pepa, Carla Cavaliere, Sabrina Rossetti, Marilena Di Napoli, Sabrina C Cecere, Anna Crispo, Carlo De Sangro, Emanuela Rossi, Dino Turitto, Domenico Germano, Gelsomina Iovane, Massimiliano Berretta, Carmine D'Aniello, Salvatore Pisconti, Luigi Maiorino, Bruno Daniele, Cesare Gridelli, Sandro Pignata, Gaetano Facchini
The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) represents the future of the geriatric oncology to reduce toxicities and treatment-related hospitalization in the elderly. Most patients receiving docetaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer are in their seventies or older. We explored the efficacy of the CGA in predicting chemotherapy feasibility and response to docetaxel in a cohort of 24 patients aged at least 70. This was an observational, prospective study involving 24 patients who were 70 years of age or older and about to start chemotherapy with docetaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; we performed a CGA including five domains and divided our patients into 'healthy' and 'frail'; the relations between general condition and (i) early chemotherapy discontinuation and (ii) response to docetaxel were explored...
August 30, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Petr Starostik
Mutation detection in tumors started with classical cytogenetics as the method of choice more than 50 years ago. Karyotyping proved to be sensitive enough to detect deletions or duplications of large chromosome segments, and translocations. Over time, new techniques were developed to detect mutations that are much smaller in scope. The availability of Sanger sequencing and the invention of the PCR improved the discriminatory power of mutation detection to just one base change in the genomic DNA sequence. Techniques derived from PCR (allele-specific PCR, qPCR) and improved or modified sequencing methods (capillary electrophoresis, pyrosequencing) considerably increased the efficiency and sample throughput of mutation detection assays...
August 29, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Kazuyuki Numakura, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Hideaki Kagaya, Makoto Takahashi, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Takamitsu Inoue, Shintaro Narita, Mingguo Huang, Shigeru Satoh, Takenori Niioka, Masatomo Miura, Tomonori Habuchi
Although sunitinib is a well-established chemotherapeutic for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), there are no robust markers that predict efficacy and toxicity. We analyzed the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in sunitinib pharmacokinetics on clinical outcomes in Japanese patients with mRCC. We analyzed the effect of SNPs in genes involved in sunitinib pharmacokinetics on the clinical outcome in mRCC patients in a Japanese population. We evaluated seven SNPs in four candidate genes, the transport proteins ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B1 (rs1045642, rs1128503, rs2032582, and rs7779562) and ABCG2 (rs2231142), and the metabolic proteins cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 (rs35599367) and CYP3A5 (rs776746) in 70 patients...
August 25, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Sumin Qian, Meng Li
Chamaejasmine is one of the major bioactive components of Stellera chamaejasme L, which is a Chinese traditional herbal medicine that has been used widely in the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of chamaejasmine on cervical cancer cells and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We first examined the antitumor activity of chamaejasmine both in vitro and in vivo. In the following experiments with HeLa cells, cell apoptosis and ultrastructure changes were assessed by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively...
August 23, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
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