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Anti-cancer Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650862/the-potential-combinational-effect-of-mir-34a-with-celecoxib-in-osteosarcoma
#1
Xia Chen, Dan Peng, Yi Shen, Bo Liu, Hongkang Zhou, Huai Tao, Jufang Huang
Advanced osteosarcoma (OS) is usually treated by preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy, but there are a very limited number of active agents. Celecoxib (Cel) is a COX-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and its antitumoral effect has been shown widely in a variety of cancers including OS cells in vitro. However, the potential combinational effect of Cel with other biological therapy has not been reported in OS cells. In this study, the effects of Cel, miR-34a mimics, and their combination on cell proliferation (MTT assay), migration (in-vitro scratch assay), invasion (transwell assay), mRNA (real-time PCR), and protein (Western blot) expression of associated signal transductions were investigated in cultured MG63 cells...
June 23, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639950/reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-increase-in-mitochondrial-copy-number-new-insight-into-the-potential-mechanism-of-cytotoxicity-induced-by-aurora-kinase-inhibitor-azd1152-hqpa
#2
Ali Zekri, Yashar Mesbahi, Samad Ghanizadeh-Vesali, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Seyed H Ghaffari
Aurora-B kinase overexpression plays important roles in the malignant progression of prostate cancer (PCa). AZD1152-HQPA, as an inhibitor of Aurora-B, has recently emerged as a promising agent for cancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AZD1152-HQPA on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial function in PCa. We used AZD1152-HQPA (Barasertib), a highly potent and selective inhibitor of Aurora-B kinase. The effects of AZD1152-HQPA on cell viability, DNA content, cell morphology, and ROS production were studied in the androgen-independent PC-3 PCa cell line...
June 21, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628492/complete-remission-of-intrathecal-metastases-with-lorlatinib-therapy-in-a-heavily-pretreated-alk-positive-lung-cancer-patient
#3
Maximilian J Hochmair, Sophia Schwab, Helmut Prosch
Patients with lung cancer who show EML4-ALK translocation are routinely treated with ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors, although in the majority of cases, these patients develop resistance over time. The central nervous system is a common of site of recurrence in this population, which calls for next-generation drugs that can penetrate into the brain and achieve clinically meaningful central nervous system activity. Here, I report the case of a female patient diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung in 2005, at the age of 46 years, who underwent lobectomy and then experienced a series of progression episodes 6 years later...
June 16, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628491/calcein-acetoxymethy-ester-enhances-the-antitumor-effects-of-doxorubicin-in-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-by-regulating-the-topbp1-p53rr-pathway
#4
Yinxiang Lv, Rongrong Liu, Shangzhi Xie, Xiaoxiao Zheng, Jiayan Mao, Ying Cai, Wei Chen
Calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) treatment has been reported to exert antitumor effects in certain cancer cells; however, the detailed mechanism of action of calcein-AM in cancers remains unclear, especially in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study focused on the function and mechanism of action of calcein-AM in NSCLC. We used cell viability assays, western blotting, and EdU proliferation assay combined with calcein-AM treatment or siRNA interference to investigate the role of topoisomerase IIβ binding protein 1 (TopBP1) and p53 in NSCLC chemotherapy...
June 16, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617714/perioperative-chemotherapy-with-and-without-high-dose-methotrexate-in-adult-osteosarcoma
#5
Marcelo Vailati Negrão, Lucila S da Silva Rocha, Daniel da Motta Girardi, Olavo Feher
Treatment of adult osteosarcoma (AOS) includes perioperative chemotherapy and surgery. Standard chemotherapy consists of cisplatin (CP) and doxorubicin (DOX). Although considered the standard of care for pediatric patients, high-dose methotrexate (HDM) remains controversial in adults. We aimed to evaluate the role of HDM in AOS treated with curative intent. This study included patients with AOS who received perioperative chemotherapy with DOX and CP (group 1; N=16) and DOX, CP, and HDM (group 2; N=10). The primary endpoint was grade 3 or superior toxicities...
June 14, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614092/poloxamer-p85-increases-anticancer-activity-of-schiff-base-against-prostate-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Selami Demirci, Ayşegül Doğan, Neşe Başak Türkmen, Dilek Telci, Ahmet B Çağlayan, Mustafa Ç Beker, Ertuğrul Kiliç, Ferda Özkan, Bülent Dede, Fikrettin Şahin
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men and the leading cause of death after lung cancer. Development of hormone-refractory disease is a crucial step for prostate cancer progression for which an effective treatment option is currently unavailable. Therefore, there is a need for new agents that can efficiently target cancer cells, decrease tumor growth, and thereby extend the survival of patients in late-stage castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the current study, a novel heterodinuclear copper(II)Mn(II) Schiff base complex combined with P85 was used to evaluate anticancer activity against prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo...
June 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609310/blockade-of-glut1-by-wzb117-resensitizes-breast-cancer-cells-to-adriamycin
#7
Qing Chen, Ya-Qiu Meng, Xiao-Fan Xu, Jun Gu
The tolerance to adriamycin of cancer as a common and stubborn obstacle occurred during curing breast cancer patients needs to be overcome. In the present study, we explored whether inhibiting the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) could restore the activity of adriamycin in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 resistant to adriamycin and the possible underlying mechanisms. Adriamycin-resistant cell line MCF-7/ADR was selected stepwise from the parental MCF-7 cells and the level of GLUT1 was measured. Then, the MCF-7/ADR cells were incubated with adriamycin, WZB117 (a specific GLUT1 inhibitor), or both...
June 12, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609309/spontaneous-regression-of-malignant-melanoma-is-it-based-on-the-interplay-between-host-immune-system-and-melanoma-antigens
#8
Monika Cervinkova, Petra Kucerova, Jana Cizkova
Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive and uneasily treatable form of skin cancer. Up to 90% of deaths because of skin tumours are estimated to be caused by this malignancy. Spontaneous regression is described as a partial or complete disappearance of cancer. It can be defined if the clinical and histological diagnosis of malignancy is verified and any therapeutic intervention potentially inducing mechanisms leading to regression has not been applied. Regression occurs more frequently in melanoma than in other types of tumours; it is reported to be six times higher than in other malignancies...
June 12, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582279/prevalence-and-influence-on-outcome-of-her2-neu-her3-and-nrg1-expression-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#9
Arndt Stahler, Volker Heinemann, Jens Neumann, Alexander Crispin, Andreas Schalhorn, Sebastian Stintzing, Clemens Giessen-Jung, Ludwig Fischer von Weikersthal, Ursula Vehling-Kaiser, Martina Stauch, Detlef Quietzsch, Julian W Holch, Stephan Kruger, Michael Haas, Marlies Michl, Jobst von Einem, Thomas Kirchner, Andreas Jung, Dominik P Modest
Our aim was to explore the impact of the HER2/neu, HER3 receptor as well as their ligands' neuregulin (NRG1) expression on the outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). NRG1, HER2/neu and HER3 expression was evaluated in 208 patients with mCRC receiving 5-FU/LV plus irinotecan or irinotecan plus oxaliplatin as the first-line treatment. Biomarker expression was correlated with the outcome of patients. NRG1 (low: 192 vs. high: 16), HER2/neu (low: 201 vs. high: 7) and HER3 (low: 69 vs. high: 139) expressions were assessed in 208 patients...
June 2, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574922/severe-complicated-neutropenia-in-two-patients-with-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-nivolumab
#10
Ilit Turgeman, Mira Wollner, Gamal Hassoun, Lilach Bonstein, Gil Bar-Sela
Checkpoint inhibitors effectively enhance the natural immune response against cancer, but they are also known to induce a unique spectrum of immune-related adverse events. Here, we report the first case of isolated neutropenia subsequent to nivolumab therapy. Prominent activated T-cells were found in the patient's serum and bone marrow alongside evidence of maturational defects in neutrophil precursors. Antineutrophil antibodies were not detected despite reliable testing techniques. A T-cell-mediated response is probable, consistent with the established mechanism for the development of other immune-related toxicities...
June 1, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562380/pharmacokinetics-of-venetoclax-in-patients-with-17p-deletion-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#11
Ahmed Hamed Salem, Martin Dunbar, Suresh K Agarwal
Venetoclax is a first-in-class orally available, B-cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) harboring the 17p deletion. We used a novel approach for evaluating venetoclax pharmacokinetics using only sparse sampling in 155 patients enrolled in a phase 2, multicenter, open-label study in CLL patients with the 17p deletion. Patients received venetoclax doses within 30 min after the completion of breakfast or the first meal of the day, with no specific recommendations for the fat content in the meal...
May 30, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562379/dexrazoxane-added-to-doxorubicin-based-adjuvant-chemotherapy-of-breast-cancer-a-retrospective-cohort-study-with-a-comparative-analysis-of-toxicity-and-survival
#12
Esther Tahover, Amiel Segal, Rut Isacson, Ora Rosengarten, Tal Grenader, Maya Gips, Nathan Cherny, Norman I Heching, Lior Mesika, Raphael Catane, Alberto Gabizon
Dexrazoxane is indicated as a cardioprotective agent for patients receiving doxorubicin who are at increased risk for cardiotoxicity. Concerns have been raised on the use of dexrazoxane, particularly in adjuvant therapy, because of the risk of interference with the antitumor effect of doxorubicin. Two meta-analyses in metastatic breast cancer have rejected this hypothesis, but have shown an apparent increase in the severity of myelosuppression when dexrazoxane is used. Here, we analyzed retrospectively a cohort of our institute database to assess whether the addition of dexrazoxane causes more bone marrow suppression in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin-based adjuvant therapy...
May 30, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542039/role-of-the-uridine-cytidine-kinase-2-mutation-in-cellular-sensitiveness-toward-3-ethynylcytidine-treatment-of-human-cancer-cells
#13
Akira Sato, Takeshi Takano, Akiko Hiramoto, Tomoharu Naito, Akira Matsuda, Masakazu Fukushima, Yusuke Wataya, Hye-Sook Kim
A nucleosidic medicine, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-β-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine [3'-ethynylcytidine (ECyd)], is a potent inhibitor of RNA polymerase I and shows anticancer activity to various human solid tumors in vitro and in vivo. ECyd is phosphorylated to 3'-ethyntlcytidine 5'-monophosphate by uridine/cytidine kinase 2 (UCK2) and subsequently further to diphosphate and triphosphate (3'-ethyntlcytidine 5'-diphosphate, 3'-ethyntlcytidine 5'-triphosphate). 3'-Ethyntlcytidine 5'-triphosphate is an active metabolite that can inhibit RNA polymerase I competitively, causing cancer cell death...
May 24, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542038/hypoxia-as-a-target-for-drug-combination-therapy-of-liver-cancer
#14
Cressida Bowyer, Andrew L Lewis, Andrew W Lloyd, Gary J Phillips, Wendy M Macfarlane
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The standard of care for intermediate HCC is transarterial chemoembolization, which combines tumour embolization with locoregional delivery of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin. Embolization therapies induce hypoxia, leading to the escape and proliferation of hypoxia-adapted cancer cells. The transcription factor that orchestrates responses to hypoxia is hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The aim of this work is to show that targeting HIF-1 with combined drug therapy presents an opportunity for improving outcomes for HCC treatment...
May 24, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542037/long-term-use-of-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-to-a-cumulative-dose-of-4600%C3%A2-mg-m2-in-recurrent-ovarian-cancer
#15
Adam Pendlebury, Robert DeBernardo, Peter G Rose
Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is used widely in gynecologic oncology and other oncology disciplines. Native doxorubicin use is associated with the potential for significant toxicity. Cardiac toxicity in particular limits lifetime dose. PLD has not been shown to be associated with clinical cardiac toxicity. We report on the long-term use of PLD in a patient with recurrent high-grade serous ovarian cancer to a lifetime dose of 4600 mg/m. This therapy was associated with long-term stable disease, good performance status, and minimal adverse effects...
May 24, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542036/a-survey-of-renal-impairment-pharmacokinetic-studies-for-new-oncology-drug-approvals-in-the-usa-from-2010-to-early-2015-a-focus-on-development-strategies-and-future-directions
#16
Jim J Xiao, Jiyun S Chen, Bert L Lum, Richard A Graham
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a guidance document in 2010 on pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in renal impairment (RI) on the basis of observations that substances such as uremic toxins might result in altered drug metabolism and excretion. No specific recommendations for oncology drugs were included. We surveyed the publicly available FDA review documents of 29 small molecule oncology drugs approved between 2010 and the first quarter of 2015. The objectives were as follows: (i) summarize the impact of RI on PK at the time of the initial new drug application; (ii) identify limitations of the guidance; and (iii) outline an integrated approach to study the impact of RI on these drugs...
May 24, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538017/feasibility-study-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-with-modified-weekly-nab-paclitaxel-and-carboplatin-for-completely-resected-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-fast-nab
#17
Hisashi Saji, Hideki Marushima, Tomoyuki Miyazawa, Hiroki Sakai, Hiroyuki Kimura, Noriaki Kurimoto, Haruhiko Nakamura
The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of adjuvant administration of nab-paclitaxel (nab-P) plus carboplatin and for completely resected patients with stage IB, II, and IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (FAST-nab study, UMIN000011225). Twenty-nine eligible NSCLC patients received surgical resection for pathological stage IB, II, or IIIA, followed by postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with modified 3-week cycles of either nab-P (100 mg/m) on days 1 and 8, followed by carboplatin area (area under the curve=6) on day 1...
May 19, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520570/long-term-exposure-to-mst-312-leads-to-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-overexpression-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#18
Karollyne S Morais, Ana Flávia R Guimarãesb, Doralina A R Ramos, Fábio P Silva, Diêgo M de Oliveira
Telomerase is an enzyme responsible for telomere maintenance in almost all human cancer cells, but generally not expressed in somatic ones. Therefore, antitelomerase therapy is a potentially revolutionary therapeutic strategy, and the antitumor activity of telomerase inhibitors (TI) has been studied extensively recently, mainly for breast cancer. However, the effects expected from treatment with TI will appear only after many cell divisions, but the effects of this long-term approach are unknown. In this work, the consequences of 3120 h exposure of human breast cancer cells to TI MST-312 were investigated...
May 17, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489616/complete-response-to-anti-pd-1-nivolumab-in-massive-skin-metastasis-from-melanoma-efficacy-and-tolerability-in-an-elderly-patient
#19
Andrea Sponghini, Federica Patrucco, Roberto Giorgione, Pamela Farinelli, Francesca Zottarelli, David Rondonotti, Paola Savoia
The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors anti-PD-1/PD-L1 has delivered new and effective treatment options with proven clinical benefits for patients affected by metastatic melanoma. The 30-40% of treated patients experience an objective tumour regression, with a significantly prolonged survival and an improved quality of life. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old Caucasian woman affected by a massive cutaneous metastasis from a BRAF wild-type melanoma who experienced multiple relapses after surgery and repeated electrochemotherapy treatments...
May 9, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489615/report-of-two-cases-of-acute-cardiac-adverse-events-in-patients-with-colorectal-carcinoma-receiving-oral-capecitabine
#20
Stylianos Lampropoulos, Pavlos Roditis, Efstathios Koulouris, Aristides Zafiris, Mirto Tzimou, Konstantinos Kyratlidis, Konstantinos Pavlidis, Solace A Godwin, Christos Kosmas
Capecitabine is an oral fluoropyrimidine chemotherapeutic agent, which, after oral administration, is metabolized to its active cytotoxic compound: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Cardiotoxicity is a recognized side effect of 5-FU, a closely related fluorinated pyrimidine antagonist. In the present report, we report on two patients who were admitted to our department after being treated with oral capecitabine for colorectal carcinoma and developed symptoms and signs of acute myocardial infarction that resolved after appropriate treatment and monitoring...
May 9, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
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