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Anti-cancer Drugs

Wei Cao, Jingwu Sun
The purpose of the present study was to determine the crucial role of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) involved in the proliferation and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to investigate their underlying mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the expression and function of miR-200c in NPC. First, we found the expression level of miR-200c in NPC cells and tissues was upregulated, and it was suggested that the high expression of miR-200c accelerated the proliferation and migration of NPC cells in vitro...
November 13, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Fengling Wang, Jinhui Wang, Zhaozhong Chong, Yanling Mu
The Bcr/Abl kinase is an oncogenic fusion protein that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Some small-molecule kinase inhibitors such as imatinib were developed in the treatment of CML; however, resistant to imatinib is an emerging problem of CML therapy. Hence, additional approaches or compounds targeting leukemogenic cells are required. F-B1 is a new compound obtained by modifying DAW-22, a natural sesquiterpenoid coumarin, which was isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud...
November 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Hu Liang, Ji Ai-Jun, Zhang Ji-Zong, Han Jian-Bo, Zhao Liang, Yi Yong-Xiang, Yu Chen
Using five bioinformatics analysis software, we identified Golgi protein 73 (GP73) as a putative target of microRNA-27b (miR-27b), which is closely related to various biological processes or diseases such as bone metabolism disease, adipose cell and muscle cell development, pulmonary hypertension, cervical cancer, and breast cancer. However, the clinical significance of miR-27b in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. The differential expression of miR-27b in HCC and adjacent normal liver tissues was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR...
November 8, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Tamalika Paul, Anupam Banerjee, S Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, Sanjit K Mahato, Nabendu Biswas
The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of cytokine superfamily, induces apoptosis in a number of tumor cells through the activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway but shows little or no cytotoxicity toward normal cells. However some tumor cells are inherently resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, which needs to be addressed to establish TRAIL as a potential chemotherapeutic drug. In this study, our aim was to manipulate TRAIL-apoptosis pathway by hydroxychavicol (HCH), a polyphenol from Piper betel leaf, for the induction of apoptosis in TRAIL resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cell...
November 8, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Wenkang Ma, Xueyuan Liu, Wei Du
Colorectal cancer occurs throughout the world but is most common in developed countries. Cancer progression is believed to be driven by genetic mutations in this complex condition. Risk factors for developing colorectal cancer include a genetic family history, long-term ulcerative colitis, and colonic polyps. The use of baicalin has been reported to be clinically efficacious against colon tumors in Asian countries despite an unclear mechanism of action. Several cancers have been found to be biologically dependent on the specificity protein 1 (sp1) transcription factor family...
October 22, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Santiago Cabezas-Camarero, María N Cabrera-Martín, Pedro Pérez-Segura
Patients with metastatic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) have a poor prognosis, with most patients surviving less than a year. Immunotherapy (IO) is changing the natural history of the disease and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are showing notable improvements in survival with a more favourable toxicity profile than chemotherapy. To our knowledge, there are no data regarding how checkpoint blockade inhibitors may behave at rechallenge in SCCHN. We present the case of a metastatic hypopharyngeal cancer patient who after progressing clinically and radiologically to PD-L1-based IO and then to second-line cetuximab-based chemotherapy, achieved a partial response to third-line nivolumab...
October 18, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Cong Cao, Ling Zhu, Ye Chen, Cheng-Hui Wang, Jian-Zhong ShenTu, Yun-Liang Zheng
Physalin B (PB) is one of the major constituents of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii, a well-known Chinese traditional herb. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that PB exhibits significant antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in A549 human lung cancer cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that PB-induced G2/M arrest through down-regulation of cyclin B1 and cell division control protein cyclin-dependent kinase 1, and up-regulation of p21...
October 17, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Hongqin Wang, Shuxian Ren, Yongming Xu, Wang Miao, Xintao Huang, Zhizhao Qu, Jinhu Li, Xiaodong Liu, Pengzhou Kong
Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system with poor survival. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line chemotherapy drug for initial and recurrent glioma treatment with a relatively good efficacy, which exerts its antitumor effects mainly through cell death induced by DNA double-strand breaks in the G1 and S phases. However, endogenous or acquired resistance to TMZ limits glioma patients' clinical outcome and is also an important cause of glioma replase. MicroRNA-195 (miR-195) plays an important role in the regulation of G1-phase/S-phase transition, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis of tumor cells...
October 17, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Ling Wang, Fu-Biao Kang, Juan Wang, Chao Yang, Dong-Wei He
Our aim was to study the regulatory molecule networks involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and thus promoting the early onset of metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Forty pairs of human TNBC and their adjacent normal breast tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunochemistry to demonstrate the correlation between the miR-205 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. In vitro, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, cell migration, and invasion assay were used to detect the cell growth and invasive ability of TNBC cells after upregulation or downregulation of miR-205 expression...
October 16, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Gaetano Facchini, Carla Cavaliere, Carmine D'Aniello, Gelsomina Iovane, Sabrina Rossetti
In the pre-chemotherapy (CT) and post-CT settings of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) significantly extended median overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival (PFS) compared with prednisone alone. Yet, few data are available on therapy efficacy in the subgroup with visceral metastases, who represent a small population with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical experience of AAP in patients with mCRPC with liver and/or lung metastases in real-world setting...
October 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Zhu Xiufeng, Zhao Haijun, Bi Silei, Deng Manman, Zhou Yong, Yu Lian, Fang Zhihong, Xu Bing
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with limited therapeutic options available. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the combination of the Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-199 and cytotoxic agent gemcitabine in T-ALL cell lines. Our results showed that the combination of ABT-199 and gemcitabine exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity and induced significant apoptosis in human T-ALL cell lines (Jurkat and Molt4). The augmented apoptosis induced by combination treatment was accompanied by the greater extent of mitochondrial depolarization and enhanced DNA damage...
October 12, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Marcin Zawadzki, Jan Magdalan, Paweł Szpot
The paper describes the case of a 69-year-old man with non-small-cell lung cancer who, owing to a mistake, received intravenously 500 mg of vinorelbine. Within 3 days of intoxication, the bone marrow of the patient was damaged with subsequent pancytopenia that did not respond to treatment. On the fifth day after the poisoning, features of intestinal obstruction appeared. The patient died on the sixth day after the drug overdose. The case presented by us constitutes the first description of a fatal iatrogenic poisoning with this drug...
October 8, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Michael M Song, Monish R Makena, Ashly Hindle, Balakrishna Koneru, Thinh H Nguyen, Dattesh U Verlekar, Hwangeui Cho, Barry J Maurer, Min H Kang, C Patrick Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: All-trans-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide or fenretinide (4-HPR) acts by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and dihydroceramides (DHCers). In early-phase clinical trials 4-HPR has achieved complete responses in T-cell lymphomas (TCL) and neuroblastoma (NB) and signals of activity in ovarian cancer (OV). We defined the activity of 4-HPR metabolites in N-(4-methoxyphenyl)retinamide (MPR), 4-oxo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (oxoHPR), and the 4-HPR isomer 13-cis-fenretinide (cis-HPR) in NB, OV, and TCL cell lines cultured in physiological hypoxia...
September 27, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Jie Li, Liang Zhai, Jiyang Xue, Hai Zhang, Fangyuan Xie, Jie Gao
Although salinomycin sodium (SS) has shown in-vitro potential to inhibit cancer stem cell growth and development, its low water solubility makes it a poor candidate as an oral chemotherapeutic agent. To improve the bioavailability of SS, SS was encapsulated here using D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS)-emulsified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and compared with its parent SS in terms of absorption, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy in suppressing nasopharyngeal carcinomas stem cells...
September 19, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
André H Apostolatos, Christopher A Apostolatos, Wishrawana S Ratnayake, Anthony Neuger, Samer Sansil, Marie Bourgeois, Mildred Acevedo-Duncan
Protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) is an oncogene overexpressed in many cancer cells including prostate, breast, ovarian, melanoma, and glioma. Previous in-vitro studies have shown that 5-amino-1-((1R,2S,3S,4R)-2,3-dihydroxy-4-methylcyclopentyl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (ICA-1s), a PKC-ι specific inhibitor, is effective against some cancer cell lines by decreasing cell growth and inducing apoptosis. To assess ICA-1s as a possible therapeutic, in-vivo studies using a murine model were performed. ICA-1s was tested for stability in blood serum and results demonstrated that ICA-1s was stable in human plasma at 25 and 37°C over a course of 2 h...
September 10, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Hua Yang, Yue Tao, Mengli Zhang, Pengcheng Ma, Lingjun Li, Qingchun Diao
The vitamin A derivative 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) has been used for the treatment and prevention of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, the precise mechanism by which 9-cis-RA treatment ameliorates CTCL remains elusive. Our research shows that 9-cis-RA inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in CTCL cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. 9-Cis-RA also induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. We confirmed that 9-cis-RA significantly decreased phosphorylation of JAK1, STAT3, and STAT5 and downregulated Bcl-xL and cyclin D1, indicating that 9-cis-RA inhibited the activation of JAK/STAT signaling...
September 6, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Fuxing Lin, Jie Yang, Umair Muhammad, Jing Sun, Zhenghua Huang, Wei Li, Fengxia Lv, Zhaoxin Lu
Bacillomycin D can inhibit the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus in food samples. In addition, it can induce apoptosis in and inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, although the details of this mechanism are unknown. In this study, we separated bacillomycin D-C14, D-C15, D-C16 monomers from the Bacillus subtilis strain fmbJ. The bacillomycin D monomers containing longer fatty acid chains better induced apoptosis in Bgc-823, Sgc-7901, and Hgc-27 gastric cancer cells. The Bgc-823 cell line was the most sensitive...
August 30, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Chuanlong Guo, Lijun Wang, Bo Jiang, Dayong Shi
The bromophenol curcumin analog 1,5-bis(3-bromo-4, 5-dimethoxyphenyl) penta-1, 4-dien-3-one (BCA-5) was assayed for antiangiogenic activity. Tandem mass tag labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify the dynamic changes in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proteome. Functional annotation showed that BCA-5 might inhibit compounds related to the extracellular matrix, compounds that possess cytoskeletal protein-binding activity, and compounds that interact with cell motility-related enzymes, indicating antiangiogenic potential...
November 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Rashek Kazi, Yuri L Bunimovich
During cancer progression, tumor cells interact with the neighboring environment, including neuronal tissue. The important influence of the nervous system on growth and metastasis of cancer is now widely accepted. As such, using medications that traditionally target the nervous system may be an avenue toward treating cancer. The focus of this review is to detail how several classes of medications, traditionally used to treat nervous system disorders, impact cancer. Specifically, we review the preclinical and clinical evidence that support the use of anti-β-adrenergic, anticholinergic, antipsychotic, and antidepressant medications to treat some cancers...
November 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Ilya D Ionov, Nicholas P Gorev, Larissa A Roslavtseva, David D Frenkel
OBJECTIVE: Cetirizine (CET) and thalidomide (THA) have been previously found to influence angiogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the ability of these drugs to influence mammary carcinogenesis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley female rats, aged 8 weeks, received 15 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) intragastrically. CET and THA (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively) were administered orally for 118 days after DMBA administration...
November 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
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