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Accountability in Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128975/best-practice-to-order-authors-in-multi-interdisciplinary-health-sciences-research-publications
#1
Elise Smith, Zubin Master
Misunderstanding and disputes about authorship are commonplace among members of multi/interdisciplinary health research teams. If left unmanaged and unresolved, these conflicts can undermine knowledge sharing and collaboration, obscure accountability for research, and contribute to the incorrect attribution of credit. To mitigate these issues, certain researchers suggest quantitative authorship distributions schemes (e.g., point systems) while other wish to replace or minimize the importance of authorship by using "contributorship"-a system based on authors' self-reporting contributions...
January 27, 2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045558/curricular-approaches-in-research-ethics-education-reflecting-on-more-and-less-effective-practices-in-instructional-content
#2
Brett S Torrence, Logan L Watts, Tyler J Mulhearn, Megan R Turner, E Michelle Todd, Michael D Mumford, Shane Connelly
Over the past decade, the effectiveness of ethics education programs has increased with regard to trainee outcomes, such as knowledge, awareness, and ethical decision making. However, despite the overall improvement in training effectiveness, considerable variability still exists across programs. One potential source of variability arises from the substantial range in instructional training content utilized across ethics training courses. The goal of the present effort was to clarify which approaches in ethics education result in positive training outcomes through the identification of instructional content themes...
January 3, 2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005407/validation-and-use-of-a-predictive-modeling-tool-employing-scientific-findings-to-improve-responsible-conduct-of-research-education
#3
Tyler J Mulhearn, Logan L Watts, E Michelle Todd, Kelsey E Medeiros, Shane Connelly, Michael D Mumford
Although recent evidence suggests ethics education can be effective, the nature of specific training programs, and their effectiveness, varies considerably. Building on a recent path modeling effort, the present study developed and validated a predictive modeling tool for responsible conduct of research (RCR) education. The predictive modeling tool allows users to enter ratings in relation to a given ethics training program and receive instantaneous evaluative information for course refinement. Validation work suggests the tool's predicted outcomes correlate strongly (r = 0...
December 22, 2016: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005402/qualitative-evaluation-methods-in-ethics-education-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-best-practices
#4
Logan L Watts, E Michelle Todd, Tyler J Mulhearn, Kelsey E Medeiros, Michael D Mumford, Shane Connelly
Although qualitative research offers some unique advantages over quantitative research, qualitative methods are rarely employed in the evaluation of ethics education programs and are often criticized for a lack of rigor. This systematic review investigated the use of qualitative methods in studies of ethics education. Following a review of the literature in which 24 studies were identified, each study was coded based on 16 best practices characteristics in qualitative research. General thematic analysis and grounded theory were found to be the dominant approaches used...
December 22, 2016: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005391/cross-field-comparison-of-ethics-education-golden-rules-and-particulars
#5
Tyler J Mulhearn, Logan L Watts, Brett S Torrence, E Michelle Todd, Megan R Turner, Shane Connelly, Michael D Mumford
Research misconduct negatively impacts the scientific community and society in general. Providing training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) to researchers is one viable approach to minimizing research misconduct. Although recent evidence suggests ethics training can indeed be effective, little empirical work has examined the similarities and differences across fields. In the present study, we analyzed 62 empirical studies in engineering, biomedical science, social science, and mixed fields. The findings suggest certain instructional principles, or "golden rules," apply generally to all fields...
December 22, 2016: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207299/the-5th-world-conference-on-research-integrity
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029799/on-the-nature-and-role-of-peer-review-in-mathematics
#7
Line Edslev Andersen
For the past three decades, peer review practices have received much attention in the literature. But although this literature covers many research fields, only one previous systematic study has been devoted to the practice of peer review in mathematics, namely a study by Geist, Löwe, and Van Kerkhove from 2010. This lack of attention may be due to a view that peer review in mathematics is more reliable, and therefore less interesting as an object of study, than peer review in other fields. In fact, Geist, Löwe, and Van Kerkhove argue that peer review in mathematics is relatively reliable...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005408/evaluation-of-research-ethics-committees-criteria-for-the-ethical-quality-of-the-review-process
#8
Gregor Scherzinger, Monika Bobbert
Repeatedly, adequacy, performance and quality of Ethics Committees that oversee medical research trials are being discussed. Although they play a crucial role in reviewing medical research and protecting human subjects, it is far from clear to what degree they fulfill the task they have been assigned to. This eventuates in the call for an evaluation of their activity and, in some places, led to the establishment of accreditation schemes. At the same time, IRBs have become subject of detailed legislation in the process of the ongoing global juridification of medical research...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001440/who-believes-in-the-storybook-image-of-the-scientist
#9
Coosje L S Veldkamp, Chris H J Hartgerink, Marcel A L M van Assen, Jelte M Wicherts
Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the "storybook image of the scientist" is pervasive: American lay people and scientists from over 60 countries attributed considerably more objectivity, rationality, open-mindedness, intelligence, integrity, and communality to scientists than to other highly-educated people...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901595/conflict-of-interest-policies-and-industry-relationships-of-guideline-development-group-members-a-cross-sectional-study-of-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-depression
#10
Lisa Cosgrove, Sheldon Krimsky, Emily E Wheeler, Shannon M Peters, Madeline Brodt, Allen F Shaughnessy
Because of increased attention to the issue of trustworthiness of clinical practice guidelines, it may be that both transparency and management of industry associations of guideline development groups (GDGs) have improved. The purpose of the present study was to assess a) the disclosure requirements of GDGs in a cross-section of guidelines for major depression; and, b) the extent and type of conflicts of panel members. Treatment guidelines for major depression were identified and searched for conflict of interest policies and disclosure statements...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820655/reproducibility-and-research-integrity
#11
David B Resnik, Adil E Shamoo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797590/honorary-authorship-practices-in-environmental-science-teams-structural-and-cultural-factors-and-solutions
#12
Kevin C Elliott, Isis H Settles, Georgina M Montgomery, Sheila T Brassel, Kendra Spence Cheruvelil, Patricia A Soranno
Overinclusive authorship practices such as honorary or guest authorship have been widely reported, and they appear to be exacerbated by the rise of large interdisciplinary collaborations that make authorship decisions particularly complex. Although many studies have reported on the frequency of honorary authorship and potential solutions to it, few have probed how the underlying dynamics of large interdisciplinary teams contribute to the problem. This article reports on a qualitative study of the authorship standards and practices of six National Science Foundation-funded interdisciplinary environmental science teams...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753509/institutional-pathology-and-the-death-of-dan-markingson
#13
Carl Elliott
In the spring of 2015, 11 years after a mentally ill young man named Dan Markingson stabbed himself to death in an industry-sponsored drug study, officials at the University of Minnesota suspended recruitment of subjects into drug trials in its Department of Psychiatry. University officials agreed to act only after a scathing investigation by Minnesota Office of the Legislative Auditor found damning evidence of coerced recruitment, inadequate clinical care, superficial research oversight, a web of serious, disturbing conflicts of interest, and a pattern of misleading public statements by university officials aimed at deflecting scrutiny...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715189/sugar-industry-science-and-heart-disease
#14
COMMENT
Sheldon Krimsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438533/a-mentoring-opportunity-a-joint-effort-in-writing-letters-of-recommendation
#15
COMMENT
Zubin Master
Integrity in writing letters of recommendation is important to academic research because it is an influential criterion used pervasively in peer review. While research in the integrity of recommendation letters has concentrated on contents of the letter, bias, and reliability, few have questioned the process of letter writing. Here, I argue that letter writing should be a joint opportunity between mentor/supervisor/advisor and trainee. It results in more compelling letters, may prevent errors and the use of biased language, and serves as an excellent mentoring opportunity promoting self-reflection...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294429/the-role-of-intuition-in-risk-benefit-decision-making-in-human-subjects-research
#16
David B Resnik
One of the key principles of ethical research involving human subjects is that the risks of research to should be acceptable in relation to expected benefits. Institutional review board (IRB) members often rely on intuition to make risk/benefit decisions concerning proposed human studies. Some have objected to using intuition to make these decisions because intuition is unreliable and biased and lacks transparency. In this article, I examine the role of intuition in IRB risk/benefit decision-making and argue that there are practical and philosophical limits to our ability to reduce our reliance on intuition in this process...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538121/machiavelli-in-the-labpublish-and-perish-research-on-research-and-researchers-by-joeri-k-tijdink-amsterdam-free-university-of-amsterdam-2016
#17
Bart Penders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2016: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359378/the-ghost-collaborator
#18
David Shaw, Bernice Elger
Collaboration is increasingly important for researchers in all disciplines. Universities and funding bodies tend to prefer projects that involve interdisciplinarity, collaboration between different institutions, and international consortiums. Such projects can yield great benefits, but they also pose particular challenges for certain aspects of research integrity, and particularly for awarding credit and authorship. In this article, we describe and analyze the phenomenon of the ghost collaborator, who is initially fully involved and makes a full contribution to a project's design, but then finds him- or herself excluded from meetings and publications...
June 30, 2016: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348618/pesticides-neurodevelopmental-disagreement-and-bradford-hill-s-guidelines
#19
Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Christopher ChoGlueck
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism affect one-eighth of all U.S. newborns. Yet scientists, accessing the same data and using Bradford-Hill guidelines, draw different conclusions about the causes of these disorders. They disagree about the pesticide-harm hypothesis, that typical U.S. prenatal pesticide exposure can cause neurodevelopmental damage. This article aims to discover whether apparent scientific disagreement about this hypothesis might be partly attributable to questionable interpretations of the Bradford-Hill causal guidelines...
June 27, 2016: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283736/research-as-profession-and-practice-frameworks-for-guiding-the-responsible-conduct-of-research
#20
Jiin-Yu Chen
Programs in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) vary between institutions, demonstrated by disparate structures and goals. These variations may be attributed to the absence of grounding frameworks within which to examine research and RCR education programs. This article examines research as a practice and a profession, using these frames to draw out defining features of research and the moral obligations entailed. Situating research within virtue ethics can clarify how researchers might cultivate the virtues necessary for meeting its obligations and aims...
2016: Accountability in Research
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