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Accountability in Research

Alastair Matheson
Much medical journal literature is developed by the pharmaceutical and device industries, sometimes with assistance from marketing agencies, writers and academics. This literature is vulnerable to commercial bias. The publications trade issues self-regulatory ethical guidelines for its production, called "Good Publication Practice" (GPP). I evaluated the most recent iteration, GPP3. The most progressive recommendations in GPP3 call for complete publication of all clinical trials, and full data sharing...
January 4, 2019: Accountability in Research
Mohammad Nurunnabi, Monirul Alam Hossain
In this commentary, we argue that plagiarism is not a new problem in academic publishing and data falsification in recent times has received a great attention globally. Due to lack of literature, the objective of this study is to evaluate data falsification and academic integrity. Accordingly, the study presents the academic misconduct (Falsification/Fabrication of data and Concerns/Issues About Data) case of Professor James E. Hunton, a former top ranked Accounting Professor from Bentley University. The study shows how research fraud/data falsification activity in the academic world lacks honesty and morality...
December 29, 2018: Accountability in Research
M Khemiss, L Berrezouga, M Ben Khelifa, T Masmoudi, H Ben Saad
No previous North-African study has evaluated the university hospital doctors (UHDs) understanding of plagiarism (UP). This descriptive study aimed to assess UP among Tunisian UHDs. UHDs were recruited via electronic mails sent to all the Tunisian UHDs through the national health networks and by convenience sampling via a questionnaire provided directly to some UHDs. The French survey, available from the Laval University website, includes 11 questions related to UP, with three-choice answers (yes/no/may be)...
December 20, 2018: Accountability in Research
Hooi Yan See, Mohd Salim Mohamed, Siti Nurani Mohd Noor, Wah Yun Low
The review of clinical trials with human participants in Malaysia is governed by a decentralized control system. The clinical trial protocols are reviewed by 13 registered research ethics committees (RECs) in Malaysia. A governmental body, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, is responsible for the inspection and oversight of these registered RECs to ensure that they comply with the regulatory requirements. However, this study highlights that each REC in Malaysia has a different standard operating procedure and ethical review process...
December 11, 2018: Accountability in Research
Jarosław Wawer
The career of scientists often depends on the number of their published works. This fact leads to the overproduction of low-quality papers burying the important articles and making the knowledge less accessible. One of the methods to counteract these negative aspects might lie in the promotion of healthy trends in publishing behaviour. In the present work the theoretical analysis of a new bibliometric measure is presented and its potential impact on the publishing strategies is carefully discussed.
December 5, 2018: Accountability in Research
Angelina Patrick Olesen, Latifah Amin, Zurina Mahadi, Maznah Ibrahim
This study found that less than half of the respondents are willing to blow the whistle. The results reveal that a lack of protection with regard to the whistleblower's identity, the tedious investigative process, and the notion of avoiding confrontation, which is more apparent in Asian cultures as compared to the West, are among the reasons why individuals who witnessed misconduct chose to remain silent. Adhering to the Asian cultural upbringing where the young must respect the old, those of lower rank must obey those with higher authority, and subordinates do not question the actions of their superior, has become a norm even in the working environment...
November 29, 2018: Accountability in Research
Anam Fatima, Asad Abbas, Wan Ming, Samira Hosseini, Demi Zhu
AIMS: This study explores the effects of internal and external factors that encourage plagiarism from the perspective of students. METHODS: We collected student data from five public sector universities in Anhui Province, China, by randomly distributing survey questionnaires to 250 students, 176 of which were usable. We analyzed the collected quantitative data through multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Our research results demonstrate that external and internal factors have a great influence on plagiarism...
November 26, 2018: Accountability in Research
Alahí Dana Bianchini, Ignacio Mastroleo
In "An International Study of Research Misconduct Policies", Resnik et al. count Argentina in the list of countries without national research misconduct policies. In this paper, we clarify that Argentina has national policies of research misconduct and present the research misconduct definitions of two official science organisms: the National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET) and the Ethics Committee of the Argentine Ministry of Science (MINCyT).
October 10, 2018: Accountability in Research
Toshio Kuroki
Fabrication, Falsification and Plagiarism (FFP) and Questionable Research Practice (QRP) have been used worldwide in the classification of research misconduct. However, FFP comprises two distinct categories of misconduct: FF is extreme research misconduct that betrays truth, while P undermines trust of science community. Irreproducibility and inadequate practice of research also betray trust. Research misconduct has the potential to cause serious risk of safety in daily life. The proposed classification system is outlined as follows: Class I misconduct: Betrayal of the truth: (1) Fabrication and (2) Falsification...
October 2018: Accountability in Research
Zubin Master
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Accountability in Research
David M Shaw, Bernice S Elger
In this article, we identify and discuss several ethically problematic aspects of open access scientific publishing. We conclude that, despite some positive effects, paid open access has at least three unethical aspects: it discriminates against researchers, creates an editorial conflict of interest, and diverts funding from the actual conduct of research. To be truly open access, all researchers must be able to access its benefits.
October 2018: Accountability in Research
Julie Morton
This article analyzes how a formal text (the Ethics Review Form) available at National Health Service Research Ethics Committees (NHSRECs) in the United Kingdom was used in meetings. Derived from the work of Dorothy Smith on incorporating texts into institutional ethnography (IE), it proposes the concept of "text work" as a way into understanding more about decision-making in ethics review and describes the extent to which this formal text shaped and influenced review work. The research study used observations of committee meetings, field-notes and interviews to produce an ethnographic mapping of Research Ethics Committees' (RECs) work...
October 2018: Accountability in Research
Satish Chandrasekhar Nair, Shamsa AlGhafli, Ayesha AlJaberi
Rising concerns relating to pharmaceutical sponsor bias in the conduct of clinical trials have compelled the need to develop a clinical trial governance framework. This article describes the development of the Conflict of Interest in Research (COIR), a clinical trial governance framework. The COIR, consisting of three process phases (initiation, concurrent, and ongoing), developed following a needs assessment, using a four-stage methodology, and evaluated against the International Conference on Harmonization--Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) guidelines...
October 2018: Accountability in Research
Alain Braillon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Accountability in Research
Dan Li, Gustaaf Cornelis
China has achieved a dramatic development in scientific research over the last few decades. However, just like many other countries, it has also seen a surge of scientific misconducts. With its expansion of international publications, retractions due to suspected research misconduct are also on the rise. A transcultural case study was conducted by investigating the perception of research misbehaviors by Chinese researchers compared to their Belgian Flemish colleagues. The study was designed to find out variation in research practices in different countries and to see how research was shaped and influenced by cultural contexts...
2018: Accountability in Research
Debra M Parrish
Federal agencies can do more to ensure the integrity of the peer-reviewed literature including providing timely notice of misconduct findings or admissions regarding published articles, requiring the individual found guilty of misconduct to provide notice to affected journals, and to work with the journals and co-authors on making appropriate correction. The case of Andrew Cullinane underscores weakness in the current U.S. government administrative processes and the negative impact on journals.
2018: Accountability in Research
David B Resnik, Elise M Smith, Min Shi
One of the most significant changes to the Common Rule is the requirement that institutions use a single Institutional Review Board (IRB) for cooperative research in the United States, unless more than one IRB is required by state, local, or tribal law, or a signatory federal agency decides an exception is warranted. We surveyed Human Research Protection Program (HRPP) officials at the top U.S. research institutions to understand their knowledge and opinion of the mandate, what steps their institutions are taking, and difficulties their institutions are facing...
2018: Accountability in Research
Priya Satalkar, David Shaw
This article describes and discusses the views of researchers on the significance of raising concerns about scientific misconduct in their work environment and the reasons or circumstances that might deter them from doing so. In this exploratory qualitative research study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 33 researchers working in life sciences and medicine. They represent three seniority levels and five universities across Switzerland. A large majority of respondents in this research study argued that failure to raise concerns about scientific misconduct compromises research integrity...
2018: Accountability in Research
Rinche Shaw, Michael Ni, Michal Pillar, Aaron M Tejani
INTRODUCTION: In 2005, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) proposed that all submitted trials in all 11 member journals must be prospectively registered in order to be considered for publication. Registering drug trials was meant to reduce the likelihood of selective reporting. The aim was to determine the proportion of antipsychotic and antidepressant trials that were registered. METHODS: We searched in Pubmed for all randomized controlled trials of any antidepressant or antipsychotic published between July and December 2014...
2018: Accountability in Research
Søren Holm, Bjørn Hofmann
We investigate the relationship between doctoral students' attitudes towards scientific misconduct and their self-reported behavior. 203 questionnaires were distributed to doctoral candidates at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo 2016/2017. The response rate was 74%. The results show a correlation between attitudes towards misconduct and self-reported problematic behaviors among doctoral students in biomedicine. The four most common reported misbehaviors are adding author(s) who did not qualify for authorship (17...
2018: Accountability in Research
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