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Current Opinion in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223022/next-generation-industrial-biotechnology-based-on-extremophilic-bacteria
#1
REVIEW
Guo-Qiang Chen, Xiao-Ran Jiang
Industrial biotechnology aims to produce bulk chemicals including polymeric materials and biofuels based on bioprocessing sustainable agriculture products such as starch, fatty acids and/or cellulose. However, traditional bioprocesses require bioreactors made of stainless steel, complicated sterilization, difficult and expensive separation procedures as well as well-trained engineers that are able to conduct bioprocessing under sterile conditions, reducing the competitiveness of the bio-products. Amid the continuous low petroleum price, next generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB) allows bioprocessing to be conducted under unsterile (open) conditions using ceramic, cement or plastic bioreactors in a continuous way, it should be an energy, water and substrate saving technology with convenient operation procedure...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223005/the-emerging-role-of-systems-biology-for-engineering-protein-production-in-cho-cells
#2
REVIEW
Chih-Chung Kuo, Austin Wt Chiang, Isaac Shamie, Mojtaba Samoudi, Jahir M Gutierrez, Nathan E Lewis
To meet the ever-growing demand for effective, safe, and affordable protein therapeutics, decades of intense efforts have aimed to maximize the quantity and quality of recombinant proteins produced in CHO cells. Bioprocessing innovations and cell engineering efforts have improved product titer; however, uncharacterized cellular processes and gene regulatory mechanisms still hinder cell growth, specific productivity, and protein quality. Herein, we summarize recent advances in systems biology and data-driven approaches aiming to unravel how molecular pathways, cellular processes, and extrinsic factors (e...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223004/towards-utilization-of-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-for-personalized-nutrition
#3
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Anastasia Godneva, Eran Elinav, Eran Segal
Generalized dietary and lifestyle guidelines have been formulated and published for decades now from a variety of relevant agencies in an attempt to guide people towards healthy choices. As the pandemic rise in metabolic diseases continues to increase, it has become clear that the one-fit-for-all diet approach does not work and that there is a significant variation in inter-individual responses to diet and lifestyle interventions. Recent technological advances have given an unprecedented insight into the sources of this variation, pointing towards our genome and microbiome as potentially and previously under-explored culprits contributing to individually unique dietary responses...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221900/editorial-overview-food-biotechnology-exploration-and-exploitation-of-microbial-resources-to-address-the-need-for-sustainable-production-of-safe-healthy-and-nutritious-food
#4
EDITORIAL
Maria L Marco, Eddy J Smid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216497/engineering-the-bioconversion-of-methane-and-methanol-to-fuels-and-chemicals-in-native-and-synthetic-methylotrophs
#5
REVIEW
R Kyle Bennett, Lisa M Steinberg, Wilfred Chen, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to utilize reduced one-carbon compounds, notably methane and methanol, as growth and energy sources. Abundant natural gas supplies, composed primarily of methane, have prompted interest in using these compounds, which are more reduced than sugars, as substrates to improve product titers and yields of bioprocesses. Engineering native methylotophs or developing synthetic methylotrophs are emerging fields to convert methane and methanol into fuels and chemicals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207331/use-of-bacterial-co-cultures-for-the-efficient-production-of-chemicals
#6
REVIEW
J Andrew Jones, Xin Wang
The microbial production of chemicals has traditionally relied on a single engineered microbe to enable the complete bioconversion of substrate to final product. Recently, a growing fraction of research has transitioned towards employing a modular co-culture engineering strategy using multiple microbes growing together to facilitate a divide-and-conquer approach for chemical biosynthesis. Here, we review key success stories that leverage the unique advantages of co-culture engineering, while also addressing the critical concerns that will limit the wide-spread implementation of this technology...
December 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207330/steps-towards-drop-in-biofuels-focusing-on-metabolic-pathways
#7
REVIEW
Wen Jiang, Pengfei Gu, Fuzhong Zhang
The past decade has witnessed rapid advance in microbial production of 'drop-in' biofuels from renewable resources. Various biosynthetic pathways have been constructed to produce biofuels with diverse structures, and multiple metabolic engineering strategies have been developed to increase biofuel titers, yields, productivities and system robustness. In this review, we intend to give a brief but comprehensive overview of the most recent progresses on four essential pathways leading to 'drop-in' biofuel production, with an emphasis on the metabolic pathway efficiencies and biofuel structures...
December 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195120/advances-in-cellulosic-conversion-to-fuels-engineering-yeasts-for-cellulosic-bioethanol-and-biodiesel-production
#8
REVIEW
Ja Kyong Ko, Sun-Mi Lee
Cellulosic fuels are expected to have great potential industrial applications in the near future, but they still face technical challenges to become cost-competitive fuels, thus presenting many opportunities for improvement. The economical production of viable biofuels requires metabolic engineering of microbial platforms to convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels with high titers and yields. Fortunately, integrating traditional and novel engineering strategies with advanced engineering toolboxes has allowed the development of more robust microbial platforms, thus expanding substrate ranges...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183001/tailoring-the-appearance-what-will-synthetic-cells-look-like
#9
REVIEW
Willem Kasper Spoelstra, Siddharth Deshpande, Cees Dekker
Recently, the bottom-up assembly of a synthetic cell has emerged as a daring novel approach that can be expected to have major impact in generating fundamental insight in the organization and function of actual biological cells, as well as in stimulating a broad range of applications from drug delivery systems to chemical nanofactories. A crucial feature of any such synthetic cell is the architectural scaffold that defines its identity, compartmentalizes its inner content, and serves as a protective and selective barrier against its environment...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179151/photomixotrophic-chemical-production-in-cyanobacteria
#10
REVIEW
Morgan M Matson, Shota Atsumi
The current global dependence on fossil fuels for both energy and chemical production has spurred concerns regarding long-term resource security and environmental detriments resulting from increased CO2 levels. Through the installation of exogenous metabolic pathways, engineered cyanobacteria strains can directly fix CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals currently produced from petroleum. This review highlights some of the studies that have successfully implemented photomixotrophic conditions to increase cyanobacterial chemical production...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179022/re-engineering-of-protein-motors-to-understand-mechanisms-biasing-random-motion-and-generating-collective-dynamics
#11
REVIEW
Ken'ya Furuta, Akane Furuta
A considerable amount of insight into the mechanisms of protein-based biomolecular motors has been accumulated over decades of research. However, our knowledge about the design principles of these motors is still limited. Even less is known about the design of multi-motor systems that perform various functions within the cell. Here we focus on constructive (or synthetic) approaches to biomolecular motors that could make a breakthrough in our understanding. Recent achievements include studies at different hierarchical levels of complexity: re-engineering of individual motors, construction of multi-motor systems, and generation of large-scale complex behaviour...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175708/engineering-of-biomolecules-by-bacteriophage-directed-evolution
#12
REVIEW
Andreas K Brödel, Mark Isalan, Alfonso Jaramillo
Conventional in vivo directed evolution methods have primarily linked the biomolecule's activity to bacterial cell growth. Recent developments instead rely on the conditional growth of bacteriophages (phages), viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. Here we review recent phage-based selection systems for in vivo directed evolution. These approaches have been applied to evolve a wide range of proteins including transcription factors, polymerases, proteases, DNA-binding proteins, and protein-protein interactions...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175707/using-the-glycan-toolbox-for-pathogenic-interventions-and-glycan-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Rj Eveline Li, Sandra J van Vliet, Y van Kooyk
Glycans play a crucial role to discern between self and foreign entities by providing key recognition elements for C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and Siglec receptors expressed on immune cells. The glycan recognition of CLRs has illustrated a potent immune modulatory role affecting not only innate pathogen binding and immune signalling, but also Thelper differentiation, cytokine production and antigen presentation. This broad range of influence has implicated glycans in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases but also revealed their extraordinary properties in cancer...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172131/nanoteamwork-covalent-protein-assembly-beyond-duets-towards-protein-ensembles-and-orchestras
#14
REVIEW
Anusuya Banerjee, Mark Howarth
Biological processes often depend on the harmonious interplay of multiple macromolecules. Biotechnology has had great success in applying and modifying individual components, but the building of multi-component teams is at an early stage. Cells are intelligent in sensing their environment, so manipulating just one signal can limit potency and promote side-effects for therapeutics. Here we critically assess the latest advances in irreversibly connecting individual protein units, through different spontaneous or catalysed reactions...
November 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172108/how-lipase-technology-contributes-to-evolution-of-biodiesel-production-using-multiple-feedstocks
#15
REVIEW
Shinji Hama, Hideo Noda, Akihiko Kondo
Given the increasing interest in alternative processes for producing biodiesel, we focused on the latest screening of lipases and bioprocess design using multiple feedstocks. The implementation of lipase technology to the biodiesel industry is in the early stages. However, current research has made phenomenal advances in generating lipase variants and in engineering biodiesel production. The structural insights into lipase stability, together with primary screening, have opened up opportunities for acquiring lipase variants that are highly tolerant under industrially relevant conditions...
November 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169072/genomics-of-foodborne-pathogens-for-microbial-food-safety
#16
REVIEW
Marc W Allard, Rebecca Bell, Christina M Ferreira, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona, Maria Hoffmann, Tim Muruvanda, Andrea Ottesen, Padmini Ramachandran, Elizabeth Reed, Shashi Sharma, Eric Stevens, Ruth Timme, Jie Zheng, Eric W Brown
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been broadly used to provide detailed characterization of foodborne pathogens. These genomes for diverse species including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Campylobacter and Vibrio have provided great insight into the genetic make-up of these pathogens. Numerous government agencies, industry and academia have developed new applications in food safety using WGS approaches such as outbreak detection and characterization, source tracking, determining the root cause of a contamination event, profiling of virulence and pathogenicity attributes, antimicrobial resistance monitoring, quality assurance for microbiology testing, as well as many others...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169056/engineering-microorganisms-for-improving-polyhydroxyalkanoate-biosynthesis
#17
REVIEW
Guo-Qiang Chen, Xiao-Ran Jiang
Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) has been studied since the 1920s. The biosynthesis pathways have been well understood and various attempts have been made to improve the PHA biosynthesis efficiency. Recent progresses have been focused on systematic improvements on PHA biosynthesis including changing growth pattern for rapid proliferation, engineering to enlarge cell sizes for more PHA accumulation space, reprogramming the PHA synthesis pathways using optimized RBS and promoter, redirecting metabolic flux to PHA synthesis using CRISPR/Cas9 tools, and very importantly, the employment of non-traditional host such as halophiles for reduced complexity on PHA production...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156423/under-pressure-evolutionary-engineering-of-yeast-strains-for-improved-performance-in-fuels-and-chemicals-production
#18
REVIEW
Robert Mans, Jean-Marc G Daran, Jack T Pronk
Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical genetics and genome-editing techniques, evolutionary engineering has also become a powerful approach for identification and reverse engineering of molecular mechanisms that underlie industrially relevant traits. New techniques enable acceleration of in vivo mutation rates, both across yeast genomes and at specific loci...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153882/identification-of-probiotic-effector-molecules-present-state-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Sarah Lebeer, Peter A Bron, Maria L Marco, Jan-Peter Van Pijkeren, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Colin Hill, Bruno Pot, Stefan Roos, Todd Klaenhammer
Comprehension of underlying mechanisms of probiotic action will support rationale selection of probiotic strains and targeted clinical study design with a higher likelihood of success. This will consequently contribute to better substantiation of health claims. Here, we aim to provide a perspective from a microbiology point of view that such comprehensive understanding is not straightforward. We show examples of well-documented probiotic effector molecules in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, including surface-located molecules such as specific pili, S-layer proteins, exopolysaccharides, muropeptides, as well as more widely produced metabolites such as tryptophan-related and histamine-related metabolites, CpG-rich DNA, and various enzymes such as lactase and bile salt hydrolases...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145021/production-of-chemicals-using-dynamic-control-of-metabolic-fluxes
#20
REVIEW
Peng Xu
Engineered microbial cell factories are constantly experiencing metabolic imbalance due to nutrients depletion, metabolites buildup, evolutionary pressure or genetic instability. It is important to equip the engineered cell factory with sensor-regulator system to enable cell adjust metabolism and respond to the changing environment. Dynamically allocating cellular resources and optimally controlling pathway expression have proved as promising strategies to manage the tradeoff between cell growth and product formation as well as improve the cost-competitiveness of industrial fermentation...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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