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Current Opinion in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227296/trends-in-the-application-of-bacillus-in-fermented-foods
#1
REVIEW
Keitarou Kimura 木村 啓太郎, Satoshi Yokoyama 横山 智
Bacillus species such as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens are widely used to produce fermented foods from soybeans and locust beans in Asian and West African countries, respectively. Genomic information for B. subtilis strains isolated from Asian Bacillus-fermented foods (BFFs) has been gathered, and the chemical components of fermented products were defined with metabolomic approaches, facilitating the development of new starter strains and the evaluation of health claims. On the other hand, although advanced studies have been performed for some commercially produced BFFs, home-manufactured products still remain to be characterized in rural areas...
September 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224163/editorial-overview-chemical-biotechnology
#2
EDITORIAL
Mattheos Ag Koffas, Patrick C Cirino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195188/engineering-mammalian-cells-for-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Ana P Teixeira, Martin Fussenegger
Synthetic biology aims to repurpose cells to sense a wide range of input signals and respond by conditionally expressing user-defined output genes. In this review, we highlight the latest developments in synthetic-biology-inspired in vitro and in vivo diagnostics and therapeutics employing engineered mammalian cells. Recent work has led to the creation of modular synthetic receptors with adaptable ligand-binding domains whose recognition specificity can be easily tailored to target various diseases. Engineered cells can now sense a great variety of soluble and surface-bound antigens with unprecedented selectivity and sensitivity, and implanted designer cells equipped with appropriate response modules can successfully treat diabetes, cancer and autoimmune diseases in animal models...
September 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195121/using-metabolome-data-for-mathematical-modeling-of-plant-metabolic-systems
#4
REVIEW
Masami Yokota Hirai, Fumihide Shiraishi
Plant metabolism is characterized by a wide diversity of metabolites, with systems far more complicated than those of microorganisms. Mathematical modeling is useful for understanding dynamic behaviors of plant metabolic systems for metabolic engineering. Time-series metabolome data has great potential for estimating kinetic model parameters to construct a genome-wide metabolic network model. However, data obtained by current metabolomics techniques does not meet the requirement for constructing accurate models...
September 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193161/critical-review-on-engineering-deaminases-for-site-directed-rna-editing
#5
REVIEW
Paul Vogel, Thorsten Stafforst
The game-changing role of CRISPR/Cas for genome editing draw interest to programmable RNA-guided tools in general. Currently, we see a wave of papers pioneering the CRISPR/Cas system for RNA targeting, and applying them for site-directed RNA editing. Here, we exemplarily compare three recent RNA editing strategies that rely on three distinct RNA targeting mechanisms. We conclude that the CRISPR/Cas system seems not generally superior to other RNA targeting strategies in solving the most pressing problem in the RNA editing field, which is to obtain high efficiency in combination with high specificity...
September 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189349/tomorrow-today-organ-on-a-chip-advances-towards-clinically-relevant-pharmaceutical-and-medical-in-vitro-models
#6
REVIEW
Mario Rothbauer, Julie M Rosser, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Organ-on-a-chip technology offers the potential to recapitulate human physiology by keeping human cells in a precisely controlled and artificial tissue-like microenvironment. The current and potential advantages of organs-on-chips over conventional cell cultures systems and animal models have captured the attention of scientists, clinicians and policymakers as well as advocacy groups in the past few years. Recent advances in tissue engineering and stem cell research are also aiding the development of clinically relevant chip-based organ and diseases models with organ level physiology for drug screening, biomedical research and personalized medicine...
September 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189348/the-influence-of-eukaryotic-chromatin-state-on-crispr-cas9-editing-efficiencies
#7
REVIEW
Sebald An Verkuijl, Marianne G Rots
CRISPR/Cas technologies have rapidly become in routine use for site-directed genetic or transcriptional manipulation. Despite this, the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 functioning cannot entirely be predicted, and it is not fully understood which factors contribute to this variability. Recent studies indicate that heterochromatin can negatively affect Cas9 binding and functioning. Investigating chromatin factors indicates that DNA cytosine-5 methylation does not directly block Cas9 binding. Nucleosomes, however, can completely block Cas9 access to DNA in cell-free assays and present a substantial hurdle in vivo...
September 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173102/the-raise-of-brettanomyces-yeast-species-for-beer-production
#8
REVIEW
Marc Serra Colomer, Birgitte Funch, Jochen Forster
The adequate application of Brettanomyces species could raise a potential opportunity for the beer industry, generating new products and optimizing production processes. Several valuable properties like high ethanol yield, tolerance to low pH and production of unique flavors have brought this yeast species into the spotlight. Aroma and flavor production of Brettanomyces in beer is currently under discussion, and it can be adjusted if the mechanism insights are understood. This review summarizes the recent findings in physiological, genetic and biochemical traits related to the application of Brettanomyces species for brewing...
August 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172910/recent-developments-of-microfluidics-as-a-tool-for-biotechnology-and-microbiology
#9
REVIEW
Ott Scheler, Witold Postek, Piotr Garstecki
Academic microfluidics has decisively shifted in recent years from the research on phenomenology and proof-of-concept fluidic functionalities to the developments oriented at applications with biology, medicine and biotechnology in prime focus. Significant efforts are made to demonstrate that microfluidics can be used in unspecialized laboratories to perform previously mundane tasks faster and easier, or to venture into new research areas that were unavailable or unattractive when only classical means of microbiology or biotechnology were employed...
August 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153614/advanced-maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-in-pharmaceutical-research-and-drug-development
#10
REVIEW
Sandra Schulz, Michael Becker, M Reid Groseclose, Simone Schadt, Carsten Hopf
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) has emerged as a key technology for label-free bioanalysis of the spatial distribution of biomolecules, pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics in tissue sections. Recent advances in instrumentation, sample preparation, multimodal workflows, quantification, analytical standardization and 'big data' processing have led to widespread utilization of MALDI MSI in pharmaceutical research. These developments have led to applications of the technology in drug discovery beyond drug disposition analysis, most notably in pharmacodynamic biomarker research and in toxicology...
August 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138794/microbial-cell-factories-for-the-sustainable-manufacturing-of-b-vitamins
#11
REVIEW
Carlos G Acevedo-Rocha, Luisa S Gronenberg, Matthias Mack, Fabian M Commichau, Hans J Genee
Vitamins are essential compounds in human and animal diets. Their demand is increasing globally in food, feed, cosmetics, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Most current production methods are unsustainable because they use non-renewable sources and often generate hazardous waste. Many microorganisms produce vitamins naturally, but their corresponding metabolic pathways are tightly regulated since vitamins are needed only in catalytic amounts. Metabolic engineering is accelerating the development of microbial cell factories for vitamins that could compete with chemical methods that have been optimized over decades, but scientific hurdles remain...
August 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138778/challenges-progress-and-promises-of-metabolite-annotation-for-lc-ms-based-metabolomics
#12
REVIEW
Romanas Chaleckis, Isabel Meister, Pei Zhang, Craig E Wheelock
Accurate annotation is vital for data interpretation; however, metabolite identification is a major bottleneck in untargeted metabolomics. Although community guidelines for metabolite identification were published over a decade ago, adaptation of the recommended standards has been limited. The complexity of LC-MS data due to combinations of various chromatographic and mass spectrometric acquisition methods has resulted in the advent of diverse workflows, which often involve non-standardized manual curation...
August 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118968/high-throughput-microfluidic-imaging-flow-cytometry
#13
REVIEW
Stavros Stavrakis, Gregor Holzner, Jaebum Choo, Andrew deMello
Recently, microfluidic-based flow cytometry platforms have been shown to be powerful tools for the manipulation and analysis of single cells and micron-sized particles in flow. That said, current microfluidic flow cytometers are limited in both their analytical throughput and spatial resolution, due to their reliance on single point interrogation schemes. Conversely, high-speed imaging techniques can be applied to a wide variety of problems in which analyte molecules are manipulated at high linear velocities...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114673/targets-for-repair-detecting-and-quantifying-dna-damage-with-fluorescence-based-methodologies
#14
REVIEW
Natalie R Gassman, Nathaniel W Holton
Detection and characterization of DNA damage is essential for evaluating genotoxicity, monitoring DNA repair, developing biomarkers for exposures, and evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapies. These diverse applications for DNA damage measurements have spurred the continual development and refinement of methodologies for detecting, characterizing, and quantifying DNA damage from isolated DNA and in cells and tissues. Current damage detection methods cover a wide range of techniques from radiolabeling to mass spectrometry, and use of these techniques varies widely based on expense, expertise, and knowledge of adduct formation...
August 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114548/production-of-plant-metabolites-with-applications-in-the-food-industry-using-engineered-microorganisms
#15
REVIEW
Nicolai Kallscheuer, Thomas Classen, Thomas Drepper, Jan Marienhagen
Secondary plant metabolites are extensively used in today's food industries, for example, as coloring-agents, flavouring-agents or texturizing agents. In particular, metabolites with antioxidative properties find applications as preservatives or anti-browning agents. Today, extraction from plant material represents the major source of these metabolites, but progress in the field of metabolic engineering also enabled the microbial production of these valuable compounds as a more economic and ecological alternative...
August 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098459/swapping-the-roles-of-bacteriocins-and-bacteriophages-in-food-biotechnology
#16
REVIEW
Beatriz Martínez, Pilar García, Ana Rodríguez
To move towards a safer and more sustainable food production chain, natural antimicrobials have been traditionally applied to enhance safety. This is well exemplified by the use of bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides synthesized by bacteria, as food biopreservatives. However, as knowledge on bacteriocin biology develops, novel functions beyond food preservation emerge and a shift towards health applications is positioning bacteriocins as anti-infectives and modulators of gut microbiota. On the other hand, bacteriophages, viruses infecting bacteria, have been long regarded as a threat for dairy fermentations...
August 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081280/epigenomic-technologies-for-deciphering-circulating-tumor-dna
#17
REVIEW
Kristina Daniūnaitė, Sonata Jarmalaitė, Edita Kriukienė
Tumor-derived DNA, found in body fluids (liquid biopsy) of cancer patients as part of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), lends itself for noninvasive cancer detection and monitoring. Advantages of cfDNA as analytical target have evoked a burst of sophisticated techniques, providing clinically relevant information. Each cell type carries a unique DNA modification profile consisting mainly of patterns of 5-methylcytosine in CpG dinucleotides, which are critical for establishing and maintaining cellular identity and which are frequently disturbed in cancer...
August 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077860/towards-better-understanding-of-industrial-cell-factories-novel-approaches-for-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-in-complex-nutrient-environments
#18
REVIEW
Susanne Katharina Schwechheimer, Judith Becker, Christoph Wittmann
The quantification of intracellular fluxes via 13 C metabolic flux analysis has become one of the major techniques to support systems-based metabolic engineering of industrial production hosts. Commonly, 13 C studies are conducted using minimal media, however, a great variety of industrial processes rely on complex medium compounds. The use of parallel 13 C tracer experiments as well as analytical multi-readout of labeling data together with model-based simulation offer a great starting point to tackle such complex systems...
August 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075375/recent-advances-in-homogenous-immunoassays-based-on-resonance-energy-transfer
#19
REVIEW
Kristiina Takkinen, Aurelija Žvirblienė
Development of homogeneous immunoassays based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) or bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) enables a one-step, rapid and direct detection of analytes as compared to the multistep, time-consuming heterogeneous immunoassays. Antibody fragments such as Fab or F(ab)2 are extensively exploited in both competitive and non-competitive formats to circumvent the size limitations characteristic of full-length antibodies...
July 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031961/uncovering-the-hidden-half-of-plants-using-new-advances-in-root-phenotyping
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan A Atkinson, Michael P Pound, Malcolm J Bennett, Darren M Wells
Major increases in crop yield are required to keep pace with population growth and climate change. Improvements to the architecture of crop roots promise to deliver increases in water and nutrient use efficiency but profiling the root phenome (i.e. its structure and function) represents a major bottleneck. We describe how advances in imaging and sensor technologies are making root phenomic studies possible. However, methodological advances in acquisition, handling and processing of the resulting 'big-data' is becoming increasingly important...
July 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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