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Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213137/foxo1-is-a-downstream-effector-of-isl1-in-direct-pathway-striatal-projection-neuron-development-within-the-embryonic-mouse-telencephalon
#1
R R Waclaw, L A Ehrman, P Merchan-Sala, V Kohli, D Nardini, K Campbell
Recent studies have shown that the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 is required for the survival and differentiation of direct pathway striatonigral neurons during embryonic development. The downstream effectors of Isl1 in these processes are presently unknown. We show here that Foxo1, a transcription factor that has been implicated in cell survival, is expressed in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) that derive from the Isl1 lineage (i.e. direct pathway SPNs). Moreover, Isl1 conditional knockouts (cKOs) show a severe loss of Foxo1 expression at E15...
February 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188885/trpm5-expression-in-the-olfactory-epithelium
#2
Martina Pyrski, Eugenia Eckstein, Andreas Schmid, Bernd Bufe, Jan Weiss, Vladimir Chubanov, Ulrich Boehm, Frank Zufall
The Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel Trpm5 is a key element in chemotransduction of taste receptor cells of the tongue, but the extent to which Trpm5 channels are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of adult mice as part of a specific pheromonal detection system is debated. Here, we used a novel Trpm5-IRES-Cre knockin strain to drive Cre recombinase expression, employed previously validated Trpm5 antibodies, performed in situ hybridization experiments to localize Trpm5 RNA, and searched extensively for Trpm5 splice variants in genetically-labeled, Trpm5-expressing MOE cells...
February 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185854/a-dual-role-for-the-rhogef-ephexin5-in-regulation-of-dendritic-spine-outgrowth
#3
A M Hamilton, J T Lambert, L K Parajuli, O Vivas, D K Park, I S Stein, J N Jahncke, M E Greenberg, S S Margolis, K Zito
The outgrowth of new dendritic spines is closely linked to the formation of new synapses, and is thought to be a vital component of the experience-dependent circuit plasticity that supports learning. Here, we examined the role of the RhoGEF Ephexin5 in driving activity-dependent spine outgrowth. We found that reducing Ephexin5 levels increased spine outgrowth, and increasing Ephexin5 levels decreased spine outgrowth in a GEF-dependent manner, suggesting that Ephexin5 acts as an inhibitor of spine outgrowth...
February 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163190/rho-gtpase-activating-proteins-regulators-of-rho-gtpase-activity-in-neuronal-development-and-cns-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Guo-Hui Huang, Zhao-Liang Sun, Hong-Jiang Li, Dong-Fu Feng
The Rho family of small GTPases was considered as molecular switches in regulating multiple cellular events, including cytoskeleton reorganization. The Rho GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs) are one of the major families of Rho GTPase regulators. RhoGAPs were initially considered negative mediators of Rho signaling pathways via their GAP domain. Recent studies have demonstrated that RhoGAPs also regulate numerous aspects of neuronal development and are related to various neurodegenerative diseases in GAP-dependent and GAP-independent manners...
February 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161362/ngf-dependent-axon-growth-and-regeneration-are-altered-in-sympathetic-neurons-of-dystrophic-mdx-mice
#5
Loredana Lombardi, Irene Persiconi, Alessandra Gallo, Casper C Hoogenraad, Maria Egle De Stefano
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal disease, determined by lack of dystrophin (Dp427), a muscular cytoskeletal protein also expressed by selected neuronal populations. Consequently, besides muscular wasting, both human patients and DMD animal models suffer several neural disorders. In previous studies on the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of wild type and dystrophic mdx mice (Lombardi et al. 2008), we hypothesized that Dp427 could play some role in NGF-dependent axonal growth, both during development and adulthood...
February 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161364/the-role-of-drebrin-in-dendritic-spines
#6
REVIEW
Noriko Koganezawa, Kenji Hanamura, Yuko Sekino, Tomoaki Shirao
Dendritic spines form typical excitatory synapses in the brain and their shapes vary depending on synaptic inputs. It has been suggested that the morphological changes of dendritic spines play an important role in synaptic plasticity. Dendritic spines contain a high concentration of actin, which has a central role in supporting cell motility, and polymerization of actin filaments (F-actin) is most likely involved in spine shape changes. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein that forms stable F-actin and is highly accumulated within dendritic spines...
February 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161363/molecular-determinants-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-iv-mrna-axonal-trafficking
#7
Amar N Kar, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Cai-Yun Chen, Jeffrey A Kowalak, Anthony E Gioio, Barry B Kaplan
In previous studies, we identified a putative 38-nucleotide stem-loop structure (zipcode) in the 3' untranslated region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COXIV) mRNA that was necessary and sufficient for the axonal localization of the message in primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. However, little is known about the proteins that interact with the COXIV-zipcode and regulate the axonal trafficking and local translation of the COXIV message. To identify proteins involved in the axonal transport of the COXIV mRNA, we used the biotinylated 38-nucleotide COXIV RNA zipcode as bait in the affinity purification of COXIV zipcode binding proteins...
February 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126489/the-protein-serine-threonine-phosphatases-pp2a-pp1-and-calcineurin-a-triple-threat-in-the-regulation-of-the-neuronal-cytoskeleton
#8
REVIEW
Alexander Hoffman, Goce Taleski, Estelle Sontag
The microtubule, F-actin and neurofilament networks play a critical role in neuronal cell morphogenesis, polarity and synaptic plasticity. Significantly, the assembly/disassembly and stability of these cytoskeletal networks is crucially modulated by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. Herein, we aim to more closely examine the role played by three major neuronal Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, PP2A, PP1 and calcineurin, in the homeostasis of the neuronal cytoskeleton. There is strong evidence that these enzymes interact with and dephosphorylate a variety of cytoskeletal proteins, resulting in major regulation of neuronal cytoskeletal dynamics...
January 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110021/the-application-of-crispr-technology-to-high-content-screening-in-primary-neurons
#9
Ben L Callif, Brian Maunze, Nick L Krueger, Matthew T Simpson, Murray G Blackmore
Axon growth is coordinated by multiple interacting proteins that remain incompletely characterized. High content screening (HCS), in which manipulation of candidate genes is combined with rapid image analysis of phenotypic effects, has emerged as a powerful technique to identify key regulators of axon outgrowth. Here we explore the utility of a genome editing approach referred to as CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Palindromic Repeats) for knockout screening in primary neurons. In the CRISPR approach a DNA-cleaving Cas enzyme is guided to genomic target sequences by user-created guide RNA (sgRNA), where it initiates a double-stranded break that ultimately results in frameshift mutation and loss of protein production...
January 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088610/the-effects-of-voluntary-wheel-running-on-neuroinflammatory-status-role-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1
#10
Lindsay J Spielman, Mehrbod Estaki, Sanjoy Ghosh, Deanna L Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The health benefits of exercise and physical activity (PA) have been well researched and it is widely accepted that PA is crucial for maintaining health. One of the mechanisms by which exercise and PA exert their beneficial effects is through peripheral immune system adaptations. To date, very few studies have looked at the regulation of neuroimmune reactions in response to PA. We studied the effect of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, patterns of glial cell activation and expression of immune receptors in the brains of female C57BL/6 mice...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088609/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-impairs-structural-and-neurochemical-development-of-rat-visual-cortex-in-vivo
#11
Maren Engelhardt, Graziella di Cristo, Jochen Grabert, Silke Patz, Lamberto Maffei, Nicoletta Berardi, Petra Wahle
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087334/the-short-and-long-term-proteomic-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-the-cortical-and-thalamic-synapses
#12
Attila Simor, Balázs András Györffy, Péter Gulyássy, Katalin Völgyi, Vilmos Tóth, Mihail Ivilinov Todorov, Viktor Kis, Zsolt Borhegyi, Zoltán Szabó, Tamás Janáky, László Drahos, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8h of total SD by gentle handling and 16h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064060/a-current-view-on-contactin-4-5-and-6-implications-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Oguro-Ando Asami, Amila Zuko, Kristel T E Kleijer, J Peter H Burbach
Contactins (Cntns) are a six-member subgroup of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule superfamily (IgCAMs) with pronounced brain expression and function. Recent genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders have pinpointed contactin-4 (CNTN4), contactin-5 (CNTN5) and contactin-6 (CNTN6) as candidate genes in neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but also in intellectual disability, schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and anorexia nervosa (AN)...
January 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064059/par1-activation-affects-the-neurotrophic-properties-of-schwann-cells
#14
Elena Pompili, Cinzia Fabrizi, Francesca Somma, Virginia Correani, Bruno Maras, Maria Eugenia Schininà, Viviana Ciraci, Marco Artico, Francesco Fornai, Lorenzo Fumagalli
Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier...
January 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041939/involvement-of-the-coatomer-protein-complex-i-in-the-intracellular-traffic-of-the-delta-opioid-receptor
#15
Étienne St-Louis, Jade Degrandmaison, Sébastien Grastilleur, Samuel Génier, Véronique Blais, Christine Lavoie, Jean-Luc Parent, Louis Gendron
The delta opioid receptor (DOPr) is known to be mainly expressed in intracellular compartments. It remains unknown why DOPr is barely exported to the cell surface, but it seems that a substantial proportion of the immature receptor is trapped within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi network. In the present study, we performed LC-MS/MS analysis to identify putative protein partners involved in the retention of DOPr. Analysis of the proteins co-immunoprecipitating with Flag-DOPr in transfected HEK293 cells revealed the presence of numerous subunits of the coatomer protein complex I (COPI), a vesicle-coating complex involved in recycling resident proteins from the Golgi back to the ER...
December 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041940/roles-of-afadin-in-the-formation-of-the-cellular-architecture-of-the-mouse-hippocampus-and-dentate-gyrus
#16
Muneaki Miyata, Tomohiko Maruo, Aika Kaito, Shujie Wang, Hideaki Yamamoto, Takeshi Fujiwara, Akira Mizoguchi, Kenji Mandai, Yoshimi Takai
The hippocampal formation with tightly packed neurons, mainly at the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, and CA1 regions, constitutes a one-way neural circuit, which is associated with learning and memory. We previously showed that the cell adhesion molecules nectins and its binding protein afadin play roles in the formation of the mossy fiber synapses which are formed between the mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus granule cells and the dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells. We showed here that in the afadin-deficient hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus granules cells and the CA3, CA2, and CA1 pyramidal cells were abnormally located; the mossy fiber trajectory was abnormally elongated; the CA3 pyramidal cells were abnormally differentiated; and the densities of the presynaptic boutons on the mossy fibers and the apical dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells were decreased...
December 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038945/role-of-the-adhesion-molecule-f3-contactin-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#17
REVIEW
Walter Gulisano, Antonella Bizzoca, Gianfranco Gennarini, Agostino Palmeri, Daniela Puzzo
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuronal migration, as well as myelination. CAMs expression persists in the adult brain particularly in structures undergoing postnatal neurogenesis and involved in synaptic plasticity and memory as the hippocampus. Among the neural CAMs, we have recently focused on F3/Contactin, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in neuronal development, synaptic maintenance and organization of neuronal networks...
December 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965018/high-content-analysis-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Federica Rinaldi, Dario Motti, Laura Ferraiuolo, Brian K Kaspar
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglial cells all undergo pathological modifications in the onset and progression of ALS. A number of genes involved in the etiopathology of the disease have been identified, but a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ALS has yet to be determined. Currently, people affected by ALS have a life expectancy of only two to five years from diagnosis...
December 11, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040512/extracellular-vesicles-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-role-in-the-hiv-1-associated-amyloid-beta-pathology
#19
Ibolya E András, Ana Leda, Marta Garcia Contreras, Luc Bertrand, Minseon Park, Marta Skowronska, Michal Toborek
HIV-infected brains are characterized by increased amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition. It is believed that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for Aβ homeostasis and contributes to Aβ accumulation in the brain. Extracellular vesicles (ECV), like exosomes, recently gained a lot of attention as potentially playing a significant role in Aβ pathology. In addition, HIV-1 hijacks the exosomal pathway for budding and release. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of BBB-derived ECV in the HIV-1-induced Aβ pathology in the brain...
March 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998718/camkii-mediated-phosphorylation-of-glun2b-regulates-recombinant-nmda-receptor-currents-in-a-chloride-dependent-manner
#20
Steven J Tavalin, Roger J Colbran
Some forms of long-term synaptic plasticity require docking of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) to residues 1290-1309 within the intracellular C-terminal tail of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor GluN2B subunit. The phosphorylation of Ser1303 within this region destabilizes CaMKII binding. Interestingly, Ser1303 is a substrate for CaMKII itself, as well as PKC and DAPK1, but these kinases have been reported to have contradictory effects on the activity of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors...
March 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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