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Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences

Marc-Antoine Lauzon, Nathalie Faucheux
The current aging of the world population will increase the number of people suffering from brain degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are evidence showing that the use of growth factors such as BMP-9 could restored cognitive function as it acts on many AD hallmarks at the same time. However, BMP-9 is a big protein expensive to produce that can hardly access the central nervous system. We have therefore developed a small peptide, SpBMP-9, derived from the knuckle epitope of BMP-9 and showed its therapeutic potential in a previous study...
January 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Johana Tello Velasquez, James A St John, Lynn Nazareth, Jenny A K Ekberg
Lamellipodia in Schwann cells (SCs) are crucial for myelination, but their other biological functions remain largely uncharacterised. Two types of lamellipodia exist in SCs: axial lamellipodia at the outermost edge of the cell processes, and radial lamellipodia appearing peripherally along the entire cell. We have previously shown that radial lamellipodia on olfactory glia (olfactory ensheathing cells; OECs) promote cell-cell adhesion, contact-mediated migration and phagocytosis. Here we have investigated whether lamellipodia in SCs have similar roles...
January 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Regina Hertfelder Reynolds, Maria Hvidberg Petersen, Cecilie Wennemoes Willert, Marie Heinrich, Nynne Nymann, Morten Dall, Jonas T Treebak, Maria Björkqvist, Asli Silahtaroglu, Lis Hasholt, Anne Nørremølle
The three factors, p53, the microRNA-34 family and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), interact in a positive feedback loop involved in cell cycle progression, cellular senescence and apoptosis. Each factor in this triad has roles in metabolic regulation, maintenance of mitochondrial function, and regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, this regulatory network holds potential importance for the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder in which both mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired neurotrophic signalling are observed...
December 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Elizabeth F Quon, Caitlin A Wotton, Lane K Bekar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
M Zagaar, A Dao, I Alhaider, K Alkadhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Jiaqing Yi, Jiang Wu
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. The heterogeneous tumors are classified into four subgroups based on transcription profiles. Recent developments in genome-wide sequencing techniques have rapidly advanced the understanding of these tumors. The high percentages of somatic alterations of genes encoding chromatin regulators in all subgroups suggest that epigenetic deregulation is a major driver of medulloblastoma. In this report, we review the current understanding of epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma with a focus on the functional studies of chromatin regulators in the initiation and progression of specific subgroups of medulloblastoma...
December 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Elijah Koreman, Xiaowei Sun, Q Richard Lu
Oligodendrocytes are essential for the development, function, and health of the vertebrate central nervous system. These cells maintain axon myelination to ensure saltatory propagation of action potentials. Oligodendrocyte develops from neural progenitor cells, in a step-wise process that involves oligodendrocyte precursor specification, proliferation, and differentiation. The lineage progression requires coordination of transcriptional and epigenetic circuits to mediate the stage-specific intricacies of oligodendrocyte development...
December 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Robert S Porter, Farris Jaamour, Shigeki Iwase
The brain has long been known to display the most complex pattern of alternative splicing, thereby producing diverse protein isoforms compared to other tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many alternative exons are neuron-specific, evolutionarily conserved, and found in regulators of transcription including DNA-binding protein and histone modifying enzymes. This raises a possibility that neurons adopt unique mechanisms of transcription. Given that transcriptional machineries are frequently mutated in neurodevelopmental disorders with cognitive dysfunction, it is important to understand how neuron-specific alternative splicing contributes to proper transcriptional regulation in the brain...
December 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Ranjula Wijayatunge, Fang Liu, Karl B Shpargel, Nicole J Wayne, Urann Chan, Jane-Valeriane Boua, Terry Magnuson, Anne E West
The histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase Kdm6b (Jmjd3) can promote cellular differentiation, however its physiological functions in neurons remain to be fully determined. We studied the expression and function of Kdm6b in differentiating granule neurons of the developing postnatal mouse cerebellum. At postnatal day 7, Kdm6b is expressed throughout the layers of the developing cerebellar cortex, but its expression is upregulated in newborn cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Atoh1-Cre mediated conditional knockout of Kdm6b in CGN precursors either alone or in combination with Kdm6a did not disturb the gross morphological development of the cerebellum...
December 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Ram Madabhushi, Tae-Kyung Kim
In this review, we attempt to discuss emerging themes in the regulation of neuronal activity-regulated genes, focusing primarily on an important subset of immediate-early genes. We first discuss earlier studies that have illuminated the role of cis-acting elements within the promoters of immediate-early genes, the corresponding transcription factors that bind these elements, and the roles of major activity-regulated signaling pathways. However, our emphasis is on new studies that have revealed an important role for epigenetic and topological mechanisms, including enhancer-promoter interactions, enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), and activity-induced DNA breaks, that have emerged as important factors that govern the temporal dynamics of activity-induced gene transcription...
December 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Nina K Latcheva, Jennifer M Viveiros, Edward A Waddell, Phuong T T Nguyen, Faith L W Liebl, Daniel R Marenda
We are beginning to appreciate the complex mechanisms by which epigenetic proteins control chromatin dynamics to tightly regulate normal development. However, the interaction between these proteins, particularly in the context of neuronal function, remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) opposes that of a chromatin remodeling enzyme at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC function reverses loss of function phenotypes associated with Kismet, a chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) protein...
December 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Laura R Goodwin, David J Picketts
The mammalian ISWI (Imitation Switch) genes SMARCA1 and SMARCA5 encode the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins SNF2L and SNF2H. The ISWI proteins interact with BAZ (bromodomain adjacent to PHD zinc finger) domain containing proteins to generate eight distinct remodeling complexes. ISWI complex-mediated nucleosome positioning within genes and gene regulatory elements is proving important for the transition from a committed progenitor state to a differentiated cell state. Genetic studies have implicated the involvement of many ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including SMARCA1...
December 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Shigeki Iwase, Donna M Martin
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is critical during development of the central nervous system. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding epigenetic factors have been found to cause a wide variety of neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Cancers affecting neuronal and glial cells in the brain have also been shown to exhibit somatic mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting chromatin-based links between regulated and dysregulated cellular proliferation and differentiation...
December 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Ningjing Huang, Christine Erie, Michael L Lu, Jianning Wei
Proteotoxic stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). Autophagy is proposed as a compensatory mechanism to remove protein aggregates under proteotoxic stress by up-regulating p62 expression. In the present study, we investigated the molecular action of p62 to proteotoxic stress in HD cells. Using two different HD cellular models, STHdhQ7 and STHdhQ111 cells derived from wild type and HD knock-in mice and human fibroblasts from healthy and HD patients, we found that HD cells are more vulnerable to cell death under proteotoxic stress and during stress recovery...
December 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Andrey Khaitin, Mikhail Rudkovskii, Anatoly Uzdensky
Severe nerve injury such as axotomy induces neuron degeneration and death of surrounding glial cells. Using a crayfish stretch receptor that consists of a single mechanoreceptor neuron enveloped by satellite glia, we showed that axotomy not only mechanically injures glial cells at the transection location, but also induces necrosis or apoptosis of satellite glial cells remote from the transection site. We studied Ca2+role in spontaneous or axotomy-induced death of remote glial cells. Stretch receptors were isolated using the original technique that kept the neuron connected to the ventral cord ganglion (control preparations)...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Elodie Vion, Guylène Page, Eric Bourdeaud, Marc Paccalin, Jérôme Guillard, Agnès Rioux Bilan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by several cellular and molecular damage. Therefore, the therapeutic interest of multi-target molecules is increasingly justified. Polyphenols presenting multiple pharmacological effects would be more efficient. In this study, beneficial effects of trans ε-viniferin, a natural polyphenol were thus evaluated. This study reported that this stilbenoid (1) induced the disaggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide and (2) rescued inflammation in murine primary neuronal cultures. These both effects are higher than those of resveratrol, and so, trans ε-viniferin could be a good therapeutic multi-target candidate...
December 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Albert Orock, Sreemathi Logan, Ferenc Deak
Ohtahara syndrome, also known as type 4 of Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy with suppression bursts (EIEE-4) is currently an untreatable disorder that presents with seizures and impaired cognition. EIEE-4 patients have mutations most frequently in the STXBP1 gene encoding a Sec protein, munc18-1. The exact molecular mechanism of how these munc18-1 mutations cause impaired cognition, remains elusive. The leading haploinsufficiency hypothesis posits that mutations in munc18-1 render the protein unstable leading to its degradation...
December 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Frankie R Gonzales, Kristin K Howell, Lara E Dozier, Stephan G Anagnostaras, Gentry N Patrick
Repeated exposure to cocaine produces structural and functional modifications at synapses from neurons in several brain regions including the nucleus accumbens. These changes are thought to underlie cocaine-induced sensitization. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a crucial role in the remodeling of synapses and has recently been implicated in addiction-related behavior. The ATPase Rpt6 subunit of the 26S proteasome is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II alpha at ser120 which is thought to regulate proteasome activity and distribution in neurons...
December 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Laura Yunes-Medina, Alex Paciorkowski, Yan Nuzbrokh, Gail V W Johnson
The protein transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been implicated as a modulator of neuronal viability. TG2's role in mediating cell survival processes has been suggested to involve its ability to alter transcriptional events. The goal of this study was to examine the role of TG2 in neuronal survival and to begin to delineate the pathways it regulates. We show that depletion of TG2 significantly compromises the viability of neurons in the absence of any stressors. RNA sequencing revealed that depletion of TG2 dysregulated the expression of 86 genes with 59 of these being upregulated...
November 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Amanda Moccia, Donna M Martin
The nervous system comprises many different cell types including neurons, glia, macrophages, and immune cells, each of which is defined by specific patterns of gene expression, morphology, function, and anatomical location. Establishment of these complex and highly regulated cell fates requires spatial and temporal coordination of gene transcription. Open chromatin (euchromatin) allows transcription factors to interact with gene promoters and activate lineage specific genes, whereas closed chromatin (heterochromatin) remains inaccessible to transcriptional activation...
November 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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