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Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871939/cell-cell-communication-mediated-by-the-car-subgroup-of-immunoglobulin-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Matthäus, Hanna Langhorst, Laura Schütz, René Jüttner, Fritz G Rathjen
The immunoglobulin superfamily represents a diverse set of cell-cell contact proteins and includes well-studied members such as NCAM1, DSCAM, L1 or the contactins which are strongly expressed in the nervous system. In this review we put our focus on the biological function of a less understood subgroup of Ig-like proteins composed of CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor), CLMP (CAR-like membrane protein) and BT-IgSF (brain and testis specific immunoglobulin superfamily). The CAR-related proteins are type I transmembrane proteins containing an N-terminal variable (V-type) and a membrane proximal constant (C2-type) Ig domain in their extracellular region which are implicated in homotypic adhesion...
November 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871938/the-role-of-gpi-anchored-axonal-glycoproteins-in-neural-development-and-neurological-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Gianfranco Gennarini, Antonella Bizzoca, Sabrina Picocci, Daniela Puzzo, Patrizia Corsi, Andrew J W Furley
This review article focuses on the Contactin (CNTN) subset of the Immunoglobulin supergene family (IgC2/FNIII molecules), whose components share structural properties (the association of Immunoglobulin type C2 with Fibronectin type III domains), as well as a general role in cell contact formation and axonal growth control. IgC2/FNIII molecules include 6 highly related components (CNTN 1-6), associated with the cell membrane via a Glycosyl Phosphatidyl Inositol (GPI)-containing lipid tail. Contactin 1 and Contactin 2 share ~50 (49...
November 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865768/regulation-of-extrasynaptic-signaling-by-polysialylated-ncam-impact-for-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognitive-functions
#3
REVIEW
Hristo Varbanov, Alexander Dityatev
The activation of synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors (NMDARs) is crucial for induction of synaptic plasticity and supports cell survival, whereas activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs inhibits long-term potentiation and triggers neurodegeneration. A soluble polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (polySia-NCAM) suppresses signaling through peri-/extrasynaptic GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Genetic or enzymatic manipulations blocking this mechanism result in impaired synaptic plasticity and learning, which could be repaired by reintroduction of polySia, or inhibition of either GluN1/GluN2B receptors or downstream signaling through RasGRF1 and p38 MAP kinase...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865767/neural-stem-cells-promote-nerve-regeneration-through-il12-induced-schwann-cell-differentiation
#4
Don-Ching Lee, Jong-Hang Chen, Tai-Yu Hsu, Li-Hsun Chang, Hsu Chang, Ya-Hui Chi, Ing-Ming Chiu
Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is a slow, complicated process that could be improved by implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or nerve conduit. Implantation of NSCs along with conduits promotes the regeneration of damaged nerve, likely because (i) conduit supports and guides axonal growth from one nerve stump to the other, while preventing fibrous tissue ingrowth and retaining neurotrophic factors; and (ii) implanted NSCs differentiate into Schwann cells and maintain a growth factor enriched microenvironment, which promotes nerve regeneration...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864037/early-monitoring-and-quantitative-evaluation-of-macrophage-infiltration-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-flow-cytometric-analysis
#5
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, B S Hemanth Kumar, Subash Khushu, Ajay K Singh, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
The inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is regulated by phagocytic cells. These cells comprising resident microglia and infiltrating macrophages play a pivotal role in the interface between early detrimental and delayed beneficial effects of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to monitor the early effect of monocyte/phagocytic accumulation and further to explore its kinetics in TBI mice. Localized macrophage population was monitored using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle enhanced in vivo serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838296/neurexin-neuroligin-and-wishful-thinking-coordinate-synaptic-cytoarchitecture-and-growth-at-neuromuscular-junctions
#6
Swati Banerjee, Anandakrishnan Venkatesan, Manzoor A Bhat
Trans-synaptic interactions involving Neurexins and Neuroligins are thought to promote adhesive interactions for precise alignment of the pre- and postsynaptic compartments and organize synaptic macromolecular complexes across species. In Drosophila, while Neurexin (Dnrx) and Neuroligins (Dnlg) are emerging as central organizing molecules at synapses, very little is known of the spectrum of proteins that might be recruited to the Dnrx/Dnlg trans-synaptic interface for organization and growth of the synapses...
November 10, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836730/tenascin-c-in-the-matrisome-of-neural-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#7
REVIEW
Andreas Faissner, Lars Roll, Ursula Theocharidis
The extracellular matrix consists of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and complex glycan structures that form the matrisome. Increasing evidence points to important functional roles of the ECM during development, plasticity and regeneration of the CNS. In particular, the ECM is an important constituent of the molecular microenvironment of the neural stem cell niches. While substantial evidence suggests that growth factors, cytokines and morphogens play important regulatory roles in the niche, the biological significance of the ECM has been less well studied...
November 8, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825984/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-%C3%AE-ties-chemoattractant-and-adrenergic-control-of-microglial-motility
#8
Nadine Schneble, Caroline Schmidt, Reinhard Bauer, Jörg P Müller, Shamci Monajembashi, Reinhard Wetzker
Microglial motility is tightly controlled by multitude of agonistic and antagonistic factors. Chemoattractants, released after infection or damage of the brain, provoke directed migration of microglia to the pathogenic incident. In contrast, noradrenaline and other stress hormones have been shown to suppress microglial movement. Here we asked for the signaling reactions involved in the positive and negative control of microglial motility. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches we identified the lipid kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase species γ (PI3Kγ) as an essential mediator of microglial migration provoked by the complement component C5a and other chemoattractants...
November 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825983/accelerating-glioblastoma-drug-discovery-convergence-of-patient-derived-models-genome-editing-and-phenotypic-screening
#9
Eoghan O'Duibhir, Neil Carragher, Steven M Pollard
Patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM) continue to face a bleak prognosis. It is critical that new effective therapeutic strategies are developed. GBM stem cells have molecular hallmarks of neural stem and progenitor cells and it is possible to propagate both non-transformed normal neural stem cells and GBM stem cells, in defined, feeder-free, adherent culture. These primary stem cell lines provide an experimental model that is ideally suited to cell-based drug discovery or genetic screens in order to identify tumour-specific vulnerabilities...
November 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793698/evidence-for-a-role-of-glycoprotein-m6a-in-dendritic-spine-formation-and-synaptogenesis
#10
Karina Formoso, Micaela D Garcia, Alberto C Frasch, Camila Scorticati
Neuronal glycoprotein M6a belongs to the tetraspan proteolipid protein (PLP) family. Mutations in GPM6A gene have been related to mental disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and claustrophobia. M6a is expressed mainly in neuronal cells of the central nervous system and it has been extensively related to neuronal plasticity. M6a induces neuritogenesis and axon/filopodium outgrowth; however its mechanism of action is still unresolved. We recently reported that the integrity of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) 2 and 4 are critical for M6a filopodia induction...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793697/development-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-dorsomedial-habenula
#11
Peter Koppensteiner, Christopher Galvin, Ipe Ninan
Of the two major subdivisions of the habenula, the medial and lateral nuclei, the medial habenula is the least understood in terms of synaptic transmission, intrinsic properties and plasticity. The medial habenula (MHb) is composed of glutamatergic neurons which receive the majority of their inputs from the septal region and project predominantly to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). To understand the synaptic transmission, we studied both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission in the dorsal region of the medial habenula (dMHb)...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756615/cytoskeletal-dynamics-during-in-vitro-neurogenesis-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs
#12
Claudia Compagnucci, Emanuela Piermarini, Antonella Sferra, Rossella Borghi, Alessia Niceforo, Stefania Petrini, Fiorella Piemonte, Enrico Bertini
Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a novel tool to investigate the pathophysiology of poorly known diseases, in particular those affecting the nervous system, which has been difficult to study for its lack of accessibility. In this emerging and promising field, recent iPSCs studies are mostly used as "proof-of-principle" experiments that are confirmatory of previous findings obtained from animal models and postmortem human studies; its promise as a discovery tool is just beginning to be realized...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751903/removal-of-aquaporin-4-from-glial-and-ependymal-membranes-causes-brain-water-accumulation
#13
Gry Fluge Vindedal, Anna E Thoren, Vidar Jensen, Arne Klungland, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Ole Petter Ottersen, Erlend A Nagelhus
There is a constitutive production of water in brain. The efflux routes of this excess water remain to be identified. We used basal brain water content as a proxy for the capacity of water exit routes. Basal brain water content was increased in mice with a complete loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels (global Aqp4(-/-) mice), but not in mice with a selective removal of perivascular AQP4 or in a novel mouse line with a selective deletion of ependymal AQP4 (Foxj1-Cre:Aqp4(flox/flox) mice). Unique for the global Aqp4(-/-) mice is the loss of the AQP4 pool subjacent to the pial membrane...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746320/alpha-synuclein-aggregates-are-excluded-from-calbindin-d28k-positive-neurons-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-a-unilateral-rotenone-mouse-model
#14
Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Amelia Davis, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Dean L Pountney
α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates (Lewy bodies) in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) may be associated with disturbed calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. We investigated the interplay between α-syn aggregation, expression of the calbindin-D28k (CB) neuronal calcium-buffering protein and oxidative stress, combining immunofluorescence double labelling and Western analysis, and examining DLB and normal human cases and a unilateral oxidative stress lesion model of α-syn disease (rotenone mouse). DLB cases showed a greater proportion of CB+ cells in affected brain regions compared to normal cases with Lewy bodies largely present in CB- neurons and virtually undetected in CB+ neurons...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729244/nadph-oxidase-isoform-expression-is-temporally-regulated-and-may-contribute-to-microglial-macrophage-polarization-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Sara Bermudez, Guzal Khayrullina, Yujia Zhao, Kimberly R Byrnes
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in both acute and chronic inflammation, as a result of activation of microglia, invasion of macrophages and activation of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme. The NOX enzyme is a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is expressed by microglia and macrophages after SCI. These cells can assume either a pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) polarization phenotype and contribute to tissue response to SCI. However, the contribution of NOX expression and ROS production to this polarization and vice versa is currently undefined...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693537/resveratrol-treatment-attenuates-chemokine-receptor-expression-in-the-btbr-t-tf-j-mouse-model-of-autism
#16
Saleh A Bakheet, Mohammad Zeed Alzahrani, Ahmed Nadeem, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Khairy M A Zoheir, Sabry M Attia, Laila Yousef Al-Ayadhi, Sheikh Fayaz Ahmad
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder categorized by qualitative impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive stereotypic behavior. Emerging evidence increasingly suggests that chemokine receptors have a pivotal role in the central nervous system and are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous neuroinflammatory diseases. Resveratrol is widely used to treat neurodegenerative diseases, but its effect on autism has not been investigated. We investigated the effect of resveratrol (20 and 40mg/kg) in the spleen and brain tissues of BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice as well as on the C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor (CXCR) (CCR3(+), CCR5(+), CCR7(+) and CCR9(+), CXCR3(+) and CXCR5(+)) in cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4(+)) T cells in the spleen...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678157/mechanism-for-neurotropic-action-of-vorinostat-a-pan-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor
#17
Surabhi Shukla, Zia Shariat-Madar, Larry A Walker, Babu L Tekwani
In this study we investigated the neurotrophic actions of vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), a class I and class II HDAC inhibitor, on the differentiation of Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cells. NS-1 cell is a subclone of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC 12). Vorinostat independently induced neurite outgrowth in NS-1 cells. The NS-1 cells were further interrogated for the effects of vorinostat on intracellular neurotrophin signaling pathways, to understand its mechanism of neurotrophic action...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665712/bcl-xl-dependency-coincides-with-the-onset-of-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-mammalian-spinal-cord
#18
Lauren C Fogarty, Beibei Song, Yegappan Suppiah, S M Mahmud Hasan, Hiliary C Martin, Sarah E Hogan, Jieying Xiong, Jacqueline L Vanderluit
The bcl-2 family of survival and death promoting proteins play a key role in regulating cell numbers during nervous system development. Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member is highly expressed in the developing nervous system. However; the early embryonic lethality of the bcl-x germline null mouse precluded an investigation into its role in nervous system development. To identify the role of bcl-x in spinal cord neurogenesis, we generated a central nervous system-specific bcl-x conditional knockout (BKO) mouse...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664851/amyloid-%C3%AE-precursor-protein-regulates-neuron-survival-and-maturation-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#19
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595600/regulated-endosomal-trafficking-of-diacylglycerol-lipase-alpha-dagl%C3%AE-generates-distinct-cellular-pools-implications-for-endocannabinoid-signaling
#20
Ya Zhou, Fiona V Howell, Oleg O Glebov, David Albrecht, Gareth Williams, Patrick Doherty
Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates the endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and serves as a retrograde signaling lipid at synapses. Nothing is known about the dynamics of DAGLα expression in cells and this is important as it will govern where 2-AG can be made and released. We have developed a new construct to label DAGLα at the surface of live cells and follow its trafficking. In hippocampal neurons a cell surface pool of DAGLα co-localizes with Homer, a postsynaptic density marker...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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