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Annals of Epidemiology

Johanna Chapin-Bardales, Axel J Schmidt, Rebecca J Guy, John M Kaldor, Skye McGregor, André Sasse, Chris Archibald, Claudia Rank, Jordi Casabona Barbarà, Cinta Folch, Núria Vives, Susan A Cowan, Françoise Cazein, Annie Velter, Matthias An der Heiden, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Ulrich Marcus, Eline L M Op de Coul, Ard van Sighem, Isabel Aldir, Helena Cortes Martins, Torsten Berglund, Inga Velicko, Martin Gebhardt, Valerie Delpech, Gwenda Hughes, Anthony Nardone, H Irene Hall, Anna S Johnson, Patrick S Sullivan
PURPOSE: The aim of the article was to investigate recent trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries in North America, Western Europe, and Australia. METHODS: Data on annual rates of HIV diagnoses among MSM aged 15 to 65 years from 2000 to 2014 were collected from 13 high-income countries. Joinpoint regression software was used to empirically determine country-specific trend periods...
October 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Julia B Ward, Danielle R Gartner, Katherine M Keyes, Mike D Fliss, Elizabeth S McClure, Whitney R Robinson
Identifying the exposures or interventions that exacerbate or ameliorate racial health disparities is one of the fundamental goals of social epidemiology. Introducing an interaction term between race and an exposure into a statistical model is commonly used in the epidemiologic literature to assess racial health disparities and the potential viability of a targeted health intervention. However, researchers may attribute too much authority to the interaction term and inadvertently ignore other salient information regarding the health disparity...
September 29, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Dylan B Jackson, Michael G Vaughn, Kristen P Kremer
PURPOSE: To explore whether children with diagnosable health conditions are at greater risk of bully victimization and whether, among these children, bully victimization further elevates the risk of an array of health difficulties. METHODS: We examined a recent, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years who participated in the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health. Survey data pertaining to the children and adolescents covering bully victimization, health difficulties, and diagnosable health conditions were obtained from primary caregivers...
September 17, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Lara Schneider, L Joseph Su, Lenore Arab, Jeannette T Bensen, Laura Farnan, Elizabeth T H Fontham, Lixin Song, James Hussey, Anwar T Merchant, James L Mohler, Susan E Steck
BACKGROUND: Several foods and nutrients have been linked to the development of prostate cancer, but the association between healthy dietary patterns and prostate cancer aggressiveness is less studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the Mediterranean diet (MED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet scores and prostate cancer aggressiveness by race. METHODS: Data from the population-based, case-only North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) were used to examine the association between diet quality, measured by MED and DASH scores, and prostate cancer aggressiveness in 1899 African American (AA) and European American (EA) research subjects...
September 5, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Deena Goldwater, Arun Karlamangla, Sharon Stein Merkin, Karol Watson, Teresa Seeman
PURPOSE: To understand if baseline levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) are associated with either subclinical atherosclerosis or risk for adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. METHODS: The study included 930 adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) ancillary Stress Study. Participants, age 48-90 years at enrollment, were followed for an average of 10.2 years. IL-10 level was measured at the initial Stress Study visit...
September 5, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Thokozile Rosemary Malaba, Marie-Louise Newell, Hlengiwe Madlala, Alexander Perez, Clive Gray, Landon Myer
PURPOSE: Heterogeneous findings exist on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in pregnancy and preterm delivery (PTD) or infants born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Whether reported differences may be explained by methods used to ascertain gestational age (GA) has not been explored. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive pregnant women attending a large primary care antenatal clinic in South Africa. Public-sector midwives assessed GA by last menstrual period (LMP) and symphysis-fundal height (SFH)...
August 29, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Eli S Rosenberg, Julia L Marcus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Roger Y Chung, Francisco T T Lai, Gary K K Chung, Benjamin H K Yip, Samuel Y S Wong, Eng Kiong Yeoh
PURPOSE: Hong Kong has been one of the fastest growing postwar economies with substantial decline in mortality risks during the past decades. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether there is a socioeconomic disparity in the trends of mortality risks across generations. METHODS: We conducted a series of sex-specific age-period-cohort analyses by neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) using mortality data from 1976 to 2010 to examine the socioeconomic disparity of cohort effects...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Pamela A Shaw, Veronika Deffner, Ruth H Keogh, Janet A Tooze, Kevin W Dodd, Helmut Küchenhoff, Victor Kipnis, Laurence S Freedman
PURPOSE: Variables in observational studies are commonly subject to measurement error, but the impact of such errors is frequently ignored. As part of the STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies Initiative, a task group on measurement error and misclassification seeks to describe the current practice for acknowledging and addressing measurement error. METHODS: Task group on measurement error and misclassification conducted a literature survey of four types of research studies that are typically impacted by exposure measurement error: (1) dietary intake cohort studies, (2) dietary intake population surveys, (3) physical activity cohort studies, and (4) air pollution cohort studies...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Anusha M Vable, Alison K Cohen, Stephanie A Leonard, M Maria Glymour, Catherine D P Duarte, Irene H Yen
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests education is an important life course determinant of health, but few studies examine differential returns to education by sociodemographic subgroup. METHODS: Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 6158) cohort data, we evaluate education attained by age 25 years and physical health (PCS) and mental health component summary scores (MCS) at age 50 years. Race / ethnicity, sex, geography, immigration status, and childhood socioeconomic status (cSES) were evaluated as effect modifiers in birth year adjusted linear regression models...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Gabriella Cifu, Hannah Arem
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Many lifestyle factors have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer incidence and mortality. An index-based approach to analyzing adherence to American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines as a whole may better explain associations between lifestyle variables and breast cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: We created an index based on American Cancer Society-specific guidelines, including body mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol intake, tobacco use, daily time spent watching television, and certain dietary habits...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Jay H Lubin, Michael Hauptmann, Aaron Blair
PURPOSE: With observational epidemiologic studies, there is often concern that an unmeasured variable might confound an observed association. Investigators can assess the impact from such unmeasured variables on an observed relative risk (RR) by utilizing externally sourced information and applying an indirect adjustment procedure, for example, the "Axelson adjustment." Although simple and easy to use, this approach applies to exposure and confounder variables that are binary...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Maria L Alva, Thomas J Hoerger, Ping Zhang, Yiling J Cheng
PURPOSE: To estimate state-level diabetes-attributable deaths and years of life lost (YLL) in the Unites States. METHODS: We estimated diabetes-attributable all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths by age, sex, and state, using the attributable fraction approach. Data on diabetes prevalence were collected from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Relative risks for people with and without diabetes were estimated using the National Health Interview Survey...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Aage Tverdal, Svetlana Skurtveit, Randi Selmer, Ronny Myhre, Dag Thelle
PURPOSE: To study the association between coffee and alcoholic beverage consumption and alcoholic liver disease mortality. METHODS: In total, 219,279 men and women aged 30-67 years attended cardiovascular screening in Norway from 1994 to 2003. Linkage to the Cause of Death Registry identified 93 deaths from alcoholic liver disease. Coffee consumption was categorized into four levels: 0, 1-4, 5-8, and greater than or equal to 9 cups/d and alcohol consumption as 0, greater than 0 to less than 1...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Ann Weber, Gary L Darmstadt, Susan Gruber, Megan E Foeller, Suzan L Carmichael, David K Stevenson, Gary M Shaw
PURPOSE: Spontaneous preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal mortality in the United States, occurring disproportionately among non-Hispanic black women compared to other race-ethnicities. Clinicians lack tools to identify first-time mothers at risk for spontaneous preterm birth. This study assessed prediction of early (<32 weeks) spontaneous preterm birth among non-Hispanic black and white women by applying state-of-the-art machine-learning to multilevel data from a large birth cohort...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Hallvard Gjerde, Giovanni Romeo, Jørg Mørland
PURPOSE: To determine and discuss common weaknesses and errors in case-control studies on the association between drug use and road traffic crash injury among drivers and recommend improvements for future studies. METHODS: A search for case-control studies published between 2000 and 2016 was performed using PubMed and other databases in addition to manual search. The used methodologies were compared with requirements and recommendations for case-control studies as well as current knowledge on the interpretation of drug concentrations in biological samples...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Julia B Ward, Sandra S Albrecht, Whitney R Robinson, Brian W Pence, Joanna Maselko, Mary N Haan, Allison E Aiello
PURPOSE: Neighborhood segregation related to cultural factors, such as language use, may influence elderly Latino depression. We examined the association between neighborhood-level Spanish language segregation and individual depressive symptoms among elderly Latinos. METHODS: We linked U.S. Census language use data with geocoded population-based data from 1789 elderly Latinos (mean age = 70.6 years) participating in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008)...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Christopher T Rentsch, Emily J Cartwright, Neel R Gandhi, Sheldon T Brown, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Vincent C Marconi, Cynthia L Gibert, Vincent Lo Re, David A Fiellin, Amy C Justice, Janet P Tate
PURPOSE: Pharmacoepidemiologic studies using electronic health record data could serve an important role in assessing safety and effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the validity of these data needs to be determined. We evaluated the accuracy of pharmacy fill records in the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) as compared to facility-level electronic health record. METHODS: Patients prescribed a direct-acting antiviral regimen at five VA sites between 2014 and 2016 were randomly selected and reviewed...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Yukie Ozeki, Fumiya Yamada, Akinobu Saito, Tsuyoshi Kishimoto, Mayumi Yashiro, Nobuko Makino, Yosikazu Nakamura
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the seasonal variation of Kawasaki disease (KD) by an age-specific analysis to clarify the distribution of infectious agents. METHODS: Data obtained from nationwide surveys of KD in Japan, which targeted patients for 12 years (2003-2014), were analyzed. The monthly numbers of patients were classified into the following age groups: 0-11 months, 1 year, 2-3 years 5 months, and 3 years 6 months-4 years. Factors associated with disease onset were analyzed using a 12-month moving average method...
November 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Kate H Choi, Melissa L Martinson
PURPOSE: Racial/ethnic disparities in rates of low birthweight (LBW) are well established, as are racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes over the life course. Yet, there is little empirical work examining whether the consequences of LBW for subsequent child health vary by race, ethnicity, and national origin. METHODS: Using data from the 1998-2016 National Health Interview Survey, we examined whether racial, ethnic, and national differences existed in the association between LBW and subsequent health outcomes, namely being diagnosed with a developmental disability, asthma diagnosis, and poorer general health...
October 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
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