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Annals of Epidemiology

Eli S Rosenberg, Julia L Marcus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Hallvard Gjerde, Giovanni Romeo, Jørg Mørland
PURPOSE: To determine and discuss common weaknesses and errors in case-control studies on the association between drug use and road traffic crash injury among drivers and recommend improvements for future studies. METHODS: A search for case-control studies published between 2000 and 2016 was performed using PubMed and other databases in addition to manual search. The used methodologies were compared with requirements and recommendations for case-control studies as well as current knowledge on the interpretation of drug concentrations in biological samples...
August 24, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Julia B Ward, Sandra S Albrecht, Whitney R Robinson, Brian W Pence, Joanna Maselko, Mary N Haan, Allison E Aiello
PURPOSE: Neighborhood segregation related to cultural factors, such as language use, may influence elderly Latino depression. We examined the association between neighborhood-level Spanish language segregation and individual depressive symptoms among elderly Latinos. METHODS: We linked U.S. Census language use data with geocoded population-based data from 1789 elderly Latinos (mean age = 70.6 years) participating in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008)...
August 24, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Christopher T Rentsch, Emily J Cartwright, Neel R Gandhi, Sheldon T Brown, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Vincent C Marconi, Cynthia L Gibert, Vincent Lo Re, David A Fiellin, Amy C Justice, Janet P Tate
PURPOSE: Pharmacoepidemiologic studies using electronic health record data could serve an important role in assessing safety and effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the validity of these data needs to be determined. We evaluated the accuracy of pharmacy fill records in the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) as compared to facility-level electronic health record. METHODS: Patients prescribed a direct-acting antiviral regimen at five VA sites between 2014 and 2016 were randomly selected and reviewed...
August 23, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Yukie Ozeki, Fumiya Yamada, Akinobu Saito, Tsuyoshi Kishimoto, Mayumi Yashiro, Nobuko Makino, Yosikazu Nakamura
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the seasonal variation of Kawasaki disease (KD) by an age-specific analysis to clarify the distribution of infectious agents. METHODS: Data obtained from nationwide surveys of KD in Japan, which targeted patients for 12 years (2003-2014), were analyzed. The monthly numbers of patients were classified into the following age groups: 0-11 months, 1 year, 2-3 years 5 months, and 3 years 6 months-4 years. Factors associated with disease onset were analyzed using a 12-month moving average method...
August 18, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Shweta Athilat, Cynthia Joe, Carmen B Rodriguez, Mary Beth Terry, Parisa Tehranifar
PURPOSE: We investigated whether childhood body size is associated with midlife mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. METHODS: We collected interview data, including body size at age 10 years using a pictogram, and measured height and weight from 518 women, recruited at the time of screening mammography in New York City (ages 40-64 years, 71% Hispanic, 68% foreign-born). We used linear regression models to examine childhood body size in relation to percent density and areas of dense and nondense tissue, measured using a computer-assisted method from digital mammograms...
August 18, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Taban Baghfalaki, Haidar Nadrian, Paul Gustafson, Lawrence C McCandless
PURPOSE: We sought to examine the association between childhood asthma and self-reported maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) after adjusting for a range of exposure misclassification scenarios using a Bayesian approach that incorporated exposure misclassification probability estimates from the literature. METHODS: Self-reported MSDP and asthma data were extracted from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. The association between self-reported MSDP and asthma was adjusted for exposure misclassification using a Bayesian bias model approach...
August 16, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Kate H Choi, Melissa L Martinson
PURPOSE: Racial/ethnic disparities in rates of low birthweight (LBW) are well established, as are racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes over the life course. Yet, there is little empirical work examining whether the consequences of LBW for subsequent child health vary by race, ethnicity, and national origin. METHODS: Using data from the 1998-2016 National Health Interview Survey, we examined whether racial, ethnic, and national differences existed in the association between LBW and subsequent health outcomes, namely being diagnosed with a developmental disability, asthma diagnosis, and poorer general health...
August 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Hee-Choon Shin
The most common approach for a scale construction is to create a scale as a sum of manifest variables (a "sum scale"). When we use the sum scale for analysis, we implicitly assume that there is a one-dimensional latent structure representing the manifest data on a multidimensional space. In this commentary, we review basics of identifying a latent structure using measured variables with a minimum linear algebra. We demonstrate the technique using Fisher's iris data as an illustration. We examine the relationships between resulting latent variables and the sum scale to evaluate goodness of the sum scale...
August 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Toni M Rudisill, Haitao Chu, Motao Zhu
PURPOSE: Research suggests that cell phone use while driving laws are associated with lower driver fatalities. This study seeks to determine whether this relationship is modified by driver age (16-24, 25-39, 40-59, ≥60), sex (male, female), race/ethnicity (white non-Hispanic, white Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, other), or rurality (rural, urban). METHODS: Fatality Analysis Reporting System data were merged with state legislation (2000-2014). The exposure was the type of legislation in effect...
July 31, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Emily A Knapp, Lorraine T Dean
PURPOSE: Credit scores may operate as a socioeconomic indicator of health: they represent cumulative financial history that directly influences ability to access financial and nonfinancial resources related to health. Yet, little is known about the relationship of credit score and health or to traditional measures of socioeconomic position (SEP). Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the association between area-level credit score and individual self-rated health and (2) compare credit score to traditional markers of area-level SEP in predicting self-rated health...
July 31, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Andy Menke, Sarah Casagrande, Catherine C Cowie
PURPOSE: Our goal was to characterize the contributions of A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour plasma glucose to prediabetes prevalence and to characterize how those contributions differ among U.S. population subgroups. METHODS: In the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population, among participants without diabetes (N = 3387), we created area-proportional three-Venn diagrams showing the proportion above the prediabetes cutpoint for each of the three markers in the overall population and in subgroups defined by age, race/ethnicity, sex, and body mass index...
July 30, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Paul Gustafson, Zafar Zafari, Don D Sin
PURPOSE: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is a popular method for evaluating the performance of (bio)markers. However, the standard ROC curve does not directly connect marker performance to patient-related outcomes. Our aim was to fill this gap by proposing a conceptually similar graphical tool that carries information about the clinical uitility of markers. METHODS: We propose a novel graphical tool, the relative impact characteristic (RIC) curve, that depicts the trade-off between the population-level impact of treatment as a function of the size of the treated population for a given marker positivity rule (e...
July 30, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Tiara C Willie, Jamila K Stockman, Rachel Perler, Trace S Kershaw
PURPOSE: To assess the association between state-level intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence and HIV diagnosis rates among women in the United States and investigate the modifying effect of state IPV health care policies. METHODS: Data on HIV diagnosis rates were collected from HIV surveillance data from 2010 to 2015, and IPV prevalence data were collected from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey from 2010 to 2012. States were coded for IPV health care policies on training, screening, reporting, and insurance discrimination...
July 25, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Chengwei Li, Jonggyu Baek, Brisa N Sanchez, Lewis B Morgenstern, Lynda D Lisabeth
PURPOSE: To explore temporal trends in age at first-ever ischemic stroke onset in a bi-ethnic, population-based study. METHODS: Cases of first-ever ischemic stroke (n = 3252) were identified in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project (2000-2012). Demographics and risk factors were abstracted from medical records. Trends in age at stroke onset were assessed overall and by ethnicity (Mexican American [MA] and non-Hispanic white [NHW]) using generalized additive models...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Bo Mi Song, Hyeon Chang Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Kyoung Min Kim, Ju-Mi Lee, Sang-Baek Koh, Il Suh
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and incident diabetes is modified by different alanine or aspartate aminotransferases (ALT or AST) levels. METHODS: We carried out an analysis of 6484 participants aged 40 years or older using data from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study. The serum aminotransferase levels were stratified into low and high groups according to the median values and classified into three groups: both low, either high, and both high...
July 19, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Eric J Jacobs, Christina C Newton, Ying Wang, Peter T Campbell, W Dana Flanders, Susan M Gapstur
PURPOSE: Many cohort studies in the United States link with the National Death Index to detect deaths. Although linkage with National Death Index is relatively sensitive, some participant deaths will be missed. These participants continue to contribute person-time to the data set after their death, resulting in bias, which we refer to as ghost-time bias. We sought to evaluate the influence of ghost-time bias on mortality relative risk (RR) estimates. METHODS: Simulations were performed to determine the magnitude of ghost-time bias under a variety of plausible conditions...
July 19, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Jessica S Citronberg, Sheetal Hardikar, Amanda Phipps, Jane C Figueiredo, Polly Newcomb
PURPOSE: Existing studies on laxatives, used by roughly 40% of the U.S. population experiencing constipation and colorectal cancer (CRC) have yielded inconsistent results, which may be due to a failure to account for differential risks by major laxative types: bulk (fiber-based), and nonbulk (or nonfiber-based). METHODS: We examined the association of nonfiber-based laxative use and fiber-based laxative use with the risk of CRC in a subset of the multisite, International Colon Cancer Family Registry cohort comprising 4930 primary invasive CRC cases and 4025 controls selected from the general population...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Indulaxmi Seeni, Sandie Ha, Carrie Nobles, Danping Liu, Seth Sherman, Pauline Mendola
PURPOSE: Maternal asthma increases adverse neonatal respiratory outcomes, and pollution may further increase risk. Air quality in relation to neonatal respiratory health has not been studied. METHODS: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), asphyxia, and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were identified using medical records among 223,375 singletons from the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002-2008). Community Multiscale Air Quality models estimated pollutant exposures...
September 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Susan M Mason, Patricia G Schnitzer, Valery A Danilack, Beth Elston, David A Savitz
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is a major public health problem, but population-based surveillance and research is hindered by limitations of official child welfare data. The present study used a promising complementary data source, hospital discharge data, to investigate risk factors for infant injuries suggestive of maltreatment. METHODS: Discharge data from all hospital births to New York City residents from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificates and to subsequent infant hospitalizations within 12 months after delivery...
September 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
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