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Annals of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625812/did-the-great-recession-increase-suicides-in-the-usa-evidence-from-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#1
Sam Harper, Tim A Bruckner
PURPOSE: Research suggests that the Great Recession of 2007-2009 led to nearly 5000 excess suicides in the United States. However, prior work has not accounted for seasonal patterning and unique suicide trends by age and gender. METHODS: We calculated monthly suicide rates from 1999 to 2013 for men and women aged 15 and above. Suicide rates before the Great Recession were used to predict the rate during and after the Great Recession. Death rates for each age-gender group were modeled using Poisson regression with robust variance, accounting for seasonal and nonlinear suicide trajectories...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623074/geographic-variability-in-gestational-weight-gain-a-multilevel-population-based-study-of-women-having-term-births-in-florida-2005-2012
#2
Maya Tabet, Erik Nelson, Mario Schootman, Lung-Chang Chien, Jen Jen Chang
PURPOSE: We examined the extent of geographic variability in gestational weight gain (GWG), identified areas where women have suboptimal GWG, and evaluated whether individual- and area-level factors account for such variability. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study including 1,385,574 women delivering term, singleton, and live births in Florida. We used a Bayesian, structured additive regression with a spatial function to analyze data from Florida's birth certificates (2005-2012) and ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs; 2010 Census)...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558917/urinary-f2-isoprostanes-and-the-risk-of-hypertension
#3
Charles David Melton, Ruiyan Luo, Brett J Wong, Ivan Spasojevic, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Ralph B D'Agostino, Dora Il'yasova
PURPOSE: There is strong biological plausibility for a causal role of reactive oxygen species in vascular pathology but no direct epidemiological evidence linking elevated reactive oxygen species levels to hypertension development. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between oxidative status (urinary F2-isoprostanes) and hypertension in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort (n = 831). METHODS: The cohort included non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black individuals, with 252 (30%) having prevalent hypertension and 579 participants normotensive at baseline, 122 (21%) of whom developed hypertension during the 5-year follow-up...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571914/individual-and-neighborhood-level-contextual-factors-are-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transmission-genotypic-clustering-of-cases-in-michigan-2004-2012
#4
Grace A Noppert, Zhenhua Yang, Philippa Clarke, Wen Ye, Peter Davidson, Mark L Wilson
PURPOSE: Using genotyping data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from new cases reported to the tuberculosis (TB) surveillance program, we evaluated risk factors for recent TB transmission at both the individual- and neighborhood- levels among U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. METHODS: TB cases (N = 1236) reported in Michigan during 2004 to 2012 were analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression models to examine risk factors for recent transmission cross-sectionally for U...
May 15, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571913/multidisciplinary-design-and-analytic-approaches-to-advance-prospective-research-on-the-multilevel-determinants-of-child-health
#5
Sara B Johnson, Todd D Little, Katherine Masyn, Paras D Mehta, Sharon R Ghazarian
PURPOSE: Characterizing the determinants of child health and development over time, and identifying the mechanisms by which these determinants operate, is a research priority. The growth of precision medicine has increased awareness and refinement of conceptual frameworks, data management systems, and analytic methods for multilevel data. This article reviews key methodological challenges in cohort studies designed to investigate multilevel influences on child health and strategies to address them...
May 15, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552467/hidden-figures
#6
EDITORIAL
Carol J Burns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554498/addressing-refugee-health-through-evidence-based-policies-a%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-study
#7
Heike Thiel de Bocanegra, Olivia Carter-Pokras, J David Ingleby, Kevin Pottie, Nedelina Tchangalova, Sophia I Allen, Julie Smith-Gagen, Bertha Hidalgo
The cumulative total of persons forced to leave their country for fear of persecution or organized violence reached an unprecedented 24.5 million by the end of 2015. Providing equitable access to appropriate health services for these highly diverse newcomers poses challenges for receiving countries. In this case study, we illustrate the importance of translating epidemiology into policy to address the health needs of refugees by highlighting examples of what works as well as identifying important policy-relevant gaps in knowledge...
May 12, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552469/asthma-and-tobacco-dangerous-liaisons
#8
LETTER
José Ignacio de Granda-Orive, Segismundo Solano-Reina, Ana María de Granda-Beltrán, Carlos Jiménez-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552468/air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-events-at-labor-and-delivery-a-case-crossover-analysis
#9
Sandie Ha, Tuija Männistö, Danping Liu, Seth Sherman, Qi Ying, Pauline Mendola
PURPOSE: In this case-crossover study, we investigated the odds of having a labor/delivery with cardiovascular event (i.e., ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, cardiac arrest/failure, and other or unspecified cardiovascular events) associated with acute exposure to common air pollutants. METHODS: We selected 680 women with singleton pregnancy and cardiovascular events at labor/delivery from 12 U.S. clinical sites (2002-2008). Exposures to six criteria air pollutants, six particulate constituents, and 26 air toxics were obtained using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models...
May 12, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528742/patterns-of-gun-deaths-across-us-counties-1999-2013
#10
Bindu Kalesan, Sandro Galea
PURPOSE: We examined the socio-demographic distribution of gun deaths across 3143 counties in 50 United States' states to understand the spatial patterns and correlates of high and low gun deaths. METHODS: We used aggregate counts of gun deaths and population in all counties from 1999 to 2013 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER). We characterized four levels of gun violence, as distinct levels of gun death rates of relatively safe, unsafe, violent, and extremely violent counties, based on quartiles of 15-year county-specific gun death rates per 100,000 and used negative binomial regression models allowing clustering by state to calculate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)...
April 27, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511865/racial-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-viral-suppression-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-new-york-city
#11
Qiang Xia, Rebekkah S Robbins, Rachael Lazar, Lucia V Torian, Sarah L Braunstein
PURPOSE: To examine differences in racial disparities across levels of neighborhood poverty and differences in socioeconomic disparities by race/ethnicity in viral suppression among persons living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: Using HIV surveillance data, we categorized and geocoded PLWH who were in care in New York City (NYC). Multilevel binomial regression techniques were used to model viral suppression with a two-level hierarchical structure, by including age, transmission risk, year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, and an interaction term of race/ethnicity and census tract poverty in the model...
April 27, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506566/trends-in-racial-ethnic-disparities-of-new-aids-diagnoses-in-the-united-states-1984-2013
#12
Johanna Chapin-Bardales, Eli Samuel Rosenberg, Patrick Sean Sullivan
PURPOSE: In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. We describe and evaluate trends in the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities of new AIDS diagnoses from 1984 to 2013 in the United States. METHODS: AIDS diagnosis rates by race/ethnicity for people ≥13 years were calculated using national HIV surveillance and Census data. Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities were measured as rate ratios...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527639/epidemiology-of-mesothelioma-of-the-pericardium-and-tunica-vaginalis-testis
#13
REVIEW
Gabor Mezei, Ellen T Chang, Fionna S Mowat, Suresh H Moolgavkar
PURPOSE: Malignant mesothelioma most commonly arises in the pleura and peritoneum but also occurs rarely at other anatomical sites with mesothelial tissue, namely, the pericardium and tunica vaginalis testis (TVT). This review provides a better understanding of the epidemiology of mesothelioma of these extrapleural sites. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiologic and clinical literature on pericardial mesothelioma and mesothelioma of the TVT...
April 14, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434545/opportunities-and-obstacles-in-translating-evidence-to-policy-in-occupational-asthma
#14
Susan M Tarlo, Ahmed A Arif, George L Delclos, Paul Henneberger, Jenil Patel
PURPOSE: Occupational asthma (OA), a common respiratory disorder in Western countries, is caused by exposures at the workplace. It is part of a broader definition of work-related asthma (WRA) that also includes pre-existing asthma aggravated by substances present in the workplace environment, and it is potentially preventable. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate preventive measures for occupational asthma by case studies. METHODS: In three case studies we discuss preventive measures that have been associated with reductions in incidence of occupational asthma from natural rubber latex and from diisocyanates as supported by published literature...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431904/self-rated-health-and-mortality-with-special-reference-to-black-white-difference
#15
LETTER
Tomoyuki Kawada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641760/heeding-the-call-for-less-casual-causal-inferences-the-utility-of-realized-quantitative-causal-effects
#16
Sharon Schwartz, Nicolle M Gatto, Ulka B Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641759/evaluation-of-a-methodology-to-validate-national-death-index-retrieval-results-among-a-cohort-of-u-s-service-members
#17
Nancy A Skopp, Derek J Smolenski, Daniel A Schwesinger, Christopher J Johnson, Melinda J Metzger-Abamukong, Mark A Reger
PURPOSE: Accurate knowledge of the vital status of individuals is critical to the validity of mortality research. National Death Index (NDI) and NDI-Plus are comprehensive epidemiological resources for mortality ascertainment and cause of death data that require additional user validation. Currently, there is a gap in methods to guide validation of NDI search results rendered for active duty service members. The purpose of this research was to adapt and evaluate the CDC National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) algorithm for mortality ascertainment in a large military cohort...
June 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641758/maternal-intake-of-fried-foods-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez, Bizu Gelaye, Chunfang Qiu, Wei Bao, Andres Cardenas, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Michelle A Williams
PURPOSE: We examined the relationship of maternal periconceptional (i.e., before conception and early pregnancy) intake of fried foods with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington State, USA, we assessed maternal periconceptional fried food intake using a food frequency questionnaire among 3414 participants. We used multivariable generalized linear regression models to derive estimates of relative risks (RRs; and 95% confidence intervals, 95% CIs) of GDM in relation to the intake of different types of fried foods (i...
June 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595738/role-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-in-the-initiation-of-fatal-two-vehicle-crashes
#19
Guohua Li, Stanford Chihuri, Joanne E Brady
PURPOSE: To assess individual and joint effects of alcohol and marijuana on the initiation of fatal two-vehicle crashes. METHODS: Data on 14,742 culpable drivers (initiators) and 14,742 nonculpable drivers (noninitiators) involved in the same fatal two-vehicle crashes between 1993 and 2014 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association of driver use of alcohol, marijuana, or both with fatal crash initiation with adjustment for demographic variables...
May 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595737/weight-gain-during-pregnancy-and-the-black-white-disparity-in-preterm-birth
#20
Stephanie A Leonard, Lucia C Petito, Olof Stephansson, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Lisa M Bodnar, Mahasin S Mujahid, Yvonne Cheng, Barbara Abrams
PURPOSE: To quantify the relationship between pregnancy weight gain with early and late preterm birth and evaluate whether associations differed between non-Hispanic (NH) black and NH white women. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all live births to NH black and NH white women in the United States 2011-2015 (n = 10,714,983). We used weight gain z-scores in multiple logistic regression models stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and race to calculate population attributable risk (PAR) percentages for the contribution of high and low pregnancy weight gain to early and late preterm birth...
May 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
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