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Annals of Epidemiology

Timothy O Ihongbe, Jordyn T Wallenborn, Sylvia Rozario, Saba W Masho
PURPOSE: Short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been linked with adverse birth outcomes. However, the association in advanced age women needs further investigation. This study aims to examine the association between short IPI and adverse birth outcomes including preterm birth, post-term birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia, in a population of advanced age U.S. women. METHODS: The 2016 U.S. public-use natality data was analyzed. Analysis was restricted to women with second-order singleton live births who were ≥35 years at first live birth (n = 46,684)...
June 22, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Aaron J Siegler, Farah Mouhanna, Robertino Mera Giler, Kevin Weiss, Elizabeth Pembleton, Jodie Guest, Jeb Jones PhD, Amanda Castel, Howa Yeung, Michael Kramer, Scott McCallister, Patrick S Sullivan
PURPOSE: The number of individuals who have started a regimen for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the United States is not well characterized but has been on the rise since 2012. This analysis assesses the distribution of PrEP use nationally and among subgroups. METHODS: A validated algorithm quantifying tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine for PrEP in the United States was applied to a national prescription database to determine the quarterly prevalence of PrEP use...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Shiori Otsuki, Eiko Saito, Norie Sawada, Sarah K Abe, Akihisa Hidaka, Taiki Yamaji, Taichi Shimazu, Atsushi Goto, Motoki Iwasaki, Hiroyasu Iso, Tetsuya Mizoue, Kenji Shibuya, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane
PURPOSE: We investigated the association between reproductive history and mortality from all and major causes among Japanese women. METHODS: A large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan included 40,149 eligible women aged 40-69 years in 1990-1994. A total of 4788 deaths were reported during follow-up (average 20.9 years). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for all-cause and major causes of mortality, adjusting for potential confounders...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Andrew D Ablett, Adrian D Wood, Rebecca Barr, Jordan Guillot, Alison J Black, Helen M Macdonald, David M Reid, Phyo K Myint
PURPOSE: To examine the cross-sectional association between anticholinergic medication burden (ACB) and a history of falls, bone mineral density, and low trauma fractures in middle-aged women aged under 65 years from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study. METHODS: ACB (0 = none, 1 = possible, ≥2 = definite) was calculated from medication use for 3883 Caucasian women [mean age (SD) = 54.3 (2.3) years] attending the second Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study visit (1997-2000)...
June 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Candice Y Johnson, Penelope P Howards, Matthew J Strickland, D Kim Waller, W Dana Flanders
PURPOSE: Exposure misclassification, selection bias, and confounding are important biases in epidemiologic studies, yet only confounding is routinely addressed quantitatively. We describe how to combine two previously described methods and adjust for multiple biases using logistic regression. METHODS: Weights were created from selection probabilities and predictive values for exposure classification and applied to multivariable logistic regression models in a case-control study of prepregnancy obesity (body mass index ≥30 vs...
June 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Laura C Palombi, Catherine A St Hill, Martin S Lipsky, Michael T Swanoski, M Nawal Lutfiyya
INTRODUCTION: This study is a scoping review of the original research literature onthe misuse of opioids in the rural United States (US) and maps theliterature of interest to address the question: What does theoriginal research evidence reveal about the misuse of opioids inrural US communities? METHODS: This study used a modified preferred reporting items for systematicreviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach which is organized byfive distinct elements or steps: beginning with a clearly formulatedquestion, using the question to develop clear inclusion criteria toidentify relevant studies, using an approach to appraise the studiesor a subset of the studies, summarizing the evidence using anexplicit methodology, and interpreting the findings of the review...
June 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Belén Sanz-Barbero, Cristina Linares, Carmen Vives-Cases, José Luis González, Juan José López-Ossorio, Julio Díaz
PURPOSE: This study analyzes whether there are time patterns in different intimate partner violence (IPV) indicators and aims to obtain models that can predict the behavior of these time series. METHODS: Univariate autoregressive moving average models were used to analyze the time series corresponding to the number of daily calls to the 016 telephone IPV helpline and the number of daily police reports filed in the Community of Madrid during the period 2008-2015...
June 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Matthieu Marbac, Mohammed Sedki, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Orianne Dumas
PURPOSE: Clustering methods may be useful in epidemiology to better characterize exposures and account for their multidimensional aspects. In this context, application of clustering models allowing for highly dependent variables is of particular interest. We aimed to characterize patterns of domestic exposure to cleaning products using a novel clustering model allowing for highly dependent variables. METHODS: To identify domestic cleaning patterns in a large population of French women, we used a mixture model of dependency blocks...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Gabriel D Shapiro, Tracey Bushnik, Russell Wilkins, Michael S Kramer, Jay S Kaufman, Amanda J Sheppard, Seungmi Yang
PURPOSE: An increasing percentage of children are born to couples who cohabit but are not legally married. Using data from a nationally representative Canadian sample, we estimated associations of maternal marital and cohabitation status with stillbirth, infant mortality, preterm birth (PTB), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA and LGA) birth. METHODS: The 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort was created by linking birth registration data with the 2006 long-form census...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Brandon Peplinski, Robyn McClelland, Moyses Szklo
PURPOSE: Depression poses a significant public health burden, with varying prevalence by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). It is unclear whether race/ethnicity and gender modify relationships between SES and depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate such effect modification. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed on Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants at the baseline (n = 5559). Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed to evaluate associations between income, education, occupation, and neighborhood SES with depressive symptoms, defined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale values of 16 or greater...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Dawn K Smith, Michelle Van Handel, Jeremy Grey
PURPOSE: Effectively measuring progress in delivering HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires subnational estimates of the number of adults with indications for its use that account for differences in HIV infection rates by transmission risk (risk) group and race/ethnicity. METHODS: We applied a multiplier method with 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance data on proportions of HIV diagnoses by race/ethnicity and risk group and population-based estimates of risk group sizes to derive estimated numbers of adults with indications by risk group (men who have sex with men [MSM], heterosexually active adults [HET], and persons who inject drugs [PWID]) by race/ethnicity in each jurisdiction...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Derek K Ng, Anthony A Portale, Susan L Furth, Bradley A Warady, Alvaro Muñoz
PURPOSE: Coefficients of determination (R2 ) for continuous longitudinal data are typically reported as time constant, if they are reported at all. The widely used mixed model with random intercepts and slopes yields the total outcome variance as a time-varying function. We propose a generalized and intuitive approach based on this variance function to estimate the time-varying predictive power (R2 ) of a variable on outcome levels and changes. METHODS: Using longitudinal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Study, linear mixed models characterized the R2 for two chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk factors measured at baseline: a traditional marker (proteinuria) and a novel marker (fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF23])...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Phuong T Tran, Alan K Meeker, Elizabeth A Platz
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between statin drug use and peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in a U.S. nationally representative sample of adults. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002, representative of the noninstitutionalized U.S. POPULATION: The analytic study population included 3496 men and women aged 40-84 years without a history of cancer and who had information of telomere length and statin use...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
PURPOSE: In large-scale surveys, it is often necessary to distribute a preset sample size among a number of strata. Researchers must make a decision between prioritizing overall representativeness or precision of stratum estimates. Hence, I evaluated different sample allocation strategies based on stratum size. METHODS: The strategies evaluated herein included allocation proportional to stratum population; equal sample for all strata; and proportional to the natural logarithm, cubic root, and square root of the stratum population...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Lisa D Gardner, Christopher A Loffredo PhD, Patricia Langenberg, Diane Marie St George, Janaki Deepak, Curtis C Harris, Sania Amr
PURPOSE: Lung cancer is a multifactorial malignancy for which some risk factors, such as chronic lung diseases, their interactions with smoking, and how they differ by race and sex, are not fully understood. We investigated the associations between chronic inflammatory lung disease and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and how sex and race may affect such associations. METHODS: Using logistic regression, we analyzed 1660 lung cancer cases and 1959 population controls and estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Eli S Rosenberg, David W Purcell, Jeremy A Grey, Abigail Hankin-Wei, Eric Hall, Patrick S Sullivan
PURPOSE: Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of new and existing HIV infections in the United States, with black and Hispanic MSM facing the highest rates. A lack of data on MSM population sizes has precluded the understanding of state-level variations in these rates. METHODS: Using a recently developed model for estimating state-level population sizes of MSM by race that synthesizes data from the American Community Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in conjunction with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based HIV diagnosis data, we estimated rates of living with an HIV diagnosis (2013) and new diagnosis among MSM (2014) by state and race...
April 30, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Ann Von Holle, Kari E North, Ran Tao, Sheila Gahagan
PURPOSE: When conducting analyses of child weight growth trajectories, researchers commonly use Z-scores from a standard instead of the observed weights. However, these Z-scores, calculated from cross-sectional data, may introduce methodological limitations when used in the context of longitudinal analyses. We assessed analytic limitations when analyzing infant growth data with three anthropometric measures: weight and the corresponding Z-scores and percentiles from a standard. METHODS: We undertook a series of Monte Carlo simulations and compared tests of differences in postnatal weight change across time (growth velocity) between two exposure groups...
April 25, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Emily M D'Agostino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Bret T Howrey, Soham Al Snih, Kyriakos S Markides, Kenneth J Ottenbacher
PURPOSE: Progressive physical frailty in older adults is associated with increased risk of falls, disability, institutionalization, and mortality. Although associations between diabetes and frailty have been observed, the impact of diabetes on frailty in older Hispanics is largely unexplored. We examine the association of diabetes on the odds of frailty among older Mexican Americans. METHODS: Using data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly from 1995 until 2012, frailty was assessed by slow gait, weak hand grip strength, exhaustion, and unexplained weight loss (n = 1327)...
July 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Sarah E Messiah, Emily M D'Agostino, Hersila H Patel, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Kristopher L Arheart
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe sex differences in fitness outcomes after participation in Fit2Play, a park-based after-school health and wellness program. METHODS: Youth who participated in Fit2Play for either 1, 2, or 3 school years between 2010 and 2016 (n = 2129, mean age 9.1 years, 52% Hispanic, 48% non-Hispanic black, 54% male) were tested via a comprehensive fitness battery at the beginning/end of the school year(s). Effects of length of Fit2Play participation on fitness outcomes were assessed via three-level repeated measures analysis stratified by sex and adjusted for child sociodemographics, weight category, area poverty, and year...
July 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
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