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Annals of Epidemiology

Stefanos Tyrovolas, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Marianthi Morena, Anargiros Mariolis, Suzanne Piscopo, Giuseppe Valacchi, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Foteini Anastasiou, Akis Zeimbekis, Dimitra Tyrovola, Alexandra Foscolou, Efthimios Gotsis, George Metallinos, George Soulis, Josep-Antoni Tur, Antonia Matalas, Christos Lionis, Labros S Sidossis, Demosthenes Panagiotakos
PURPOSE: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relation between car use and the level of successful aging of a random sample of older adults living in the Mediterranean basin. METHODS: During 2005-2011, 2749 older (aged 65-100 years) from 22 islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled in the Mediterranean islands cross-sectional study. Sociodemographics, medical conditions, and dietary and lifestyle habits were derived throughout standard procedures...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Jennifer Guida, Ami Fukunaga, Hongjie Liu
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine information bias arising from self-reported sexual activity and its association with syphilitic infections among female sex workers (FSWs) aged 35 years and older in China. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 1245 middle-aged FSWs. Respondents self-reported sexual intercourse in the past 48 hours. The prostate-specific antigen test was used to verify self-reported sexual activity. FSWs were considered discordant if they indicated no sexual intercourse in the past 48 hours on the questionnaire and had a positive prostate-specific antigen test...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Walter A Orenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Raj Bhopal
Rigorous evaluation of associations in epidemiology is essential, especially given big data, data mining, and hypothesis-free analyses. There is a precedent in making judgments on associations in the monographs of the International Agency for Research on Cancer; however, only the carcinogenic effects of exposures are examined. The idea of a World Council of Epidemiology and Causality to undertake rigorous, independent, comprehensive examination of associations has been debated, including in a workshop at the International Epidemiology Association's 20(th) World Congress of Epidemiology, 2014...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Leyla F Stambaugh, Valerie Forman-Hoffman, Jason Williams, Michael R Pemberton, Heather Ringeisen, Sarra L Hedden, Jonaki Bose
PURPOSE: This brief research report presents findings from a US national household survey on the number and percentage of parents with mental illness. METHODS: Using combined annual data from the 2008-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, parents were defined as having children in the household from birth to 18 years. Prediction models developed in an earlier clinical study using a National Survey on Drug Use and Health subsample were used to estimate serious mental illness (SMI)...
December 22, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Shawnita Sealy-Jefferson, Lynne Messer, Jaime Slaughter-Acey, Dawn P Misra
PURPOSE: The inter-relationships between objective (census based) and subjective (resident reported) measures of the residential environment is understudied in African American (AA) populations. METHODS: Using data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (2009-2011; n = 1387) of AA women, we quantified the area-level variation in subjective reports of residential healthy food availability, walkability, safety, and disorder that can be accounted for with an objective neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI)...
December 14, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Gregory H Cohen, David S Fink, Laura Sampson, Marijo Tamburrino, Israel Liberzon, Joseph R Calabrese, Sandro Galea
PURPOSE: Suicide rates among military service members have risen dramatically, while drivers remain poorly understood. We examined the relationship between coincident alcohol dependence and depression in shaping risk of suicidal ideation among National Guard forces. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal analysis using a randomly selected, population-based sample of Ohio Army National Guard soldiers. Telephone-based surveys of 1582 soldiers who participated in both wave 1 (2008-2009) and wave 2 (2009-2010) were analyzed...
December 14, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Debbie S Barrington, Sherman A James
PURPOSE: We examined if receipt of public assistance during childhood lowered risk for hypertension by mid-life in a cohort of African Americans in the Southeastern United States. METHODS: We used multiple logistic regression models to assess the relationship between receipt of public assistance during childhood and adult hypertension among 405 male and 737 female adult participants enrolled between 1988 and 2001 in the Pitt County Study, a community-based prospective cohort study of African Americans in North Carolina...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Yubo B Zhou, Hongtian T Li, Rongwei W Ye, Zhiwen W Li, Yali L Zhang, Le Zhang, Aiguo G Ren, JianMeng M Liu
PURPOSE: To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and cesarean delivery including cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) among low-risk women. METHODS: A total of 1,009,987 Chinese nulliparous women who delivered live term singletons during 1993-2010 were included. GWG, according to maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index-specified z-scores, was categorized into five groups: less than -1.2, -1.2 to less than -0.6, -0.6 to 0.6 (reference), more than 0...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Ross C Brownson, Jonathan M Samet, Diana M Bensyl
To extend the reach and relevance of epidemiology for public health practice, the science needs be broadened beyond etiologic research, to link more strongly with emerging technologies and to acknowledge key societal transformations. This new focus for epidemiology and its implications for epidemiologic training can be considered in the context of macro trends affecting society, including a greater focus on upstream causes of disease, shifting demographics, the Affordable Care Act and health care system reform, globalization, changing health communication environment, growing centrality of team and transdisciplinary science, emergence of translational sciences, greater focus on accountability, big data, informatics, high-throughput technologies ("omics"), privacy changes, and the evolving funding environment...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Stephanie Child, Steven Stewart, Spencer Moore
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional research suggests social capital has negative consequences for problem drinking behaviors. Previous studies have suggested psychosocial resources, including perceived control, may buffer this association. Little research has examined whether such relationships persist longitudinally. METHODS: Random effects models examined between-person relationships among problem drinking, social capital, and perceived control, and whether perceived control moderated the relationship between social capital and drinking...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt, Lisbeth Aagaard Larsen, Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen, Axel Skytthe, Jacob V B Hjelmborg, Sören Möller, Kaare Christensen
PURPOSE: To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Alexandra C Sundermann, Katherine E Hartmann, Sarah H Jones, Eric S Torstenson, Digna R Velez Edwards
PURPOSE: Data about maternal recall accuracy for classifying early pregnancy medication exposure are meager. Nonetheless, studies often rely on recall to evaluate potential impact of pharmaceuticals on the developing fetus. METHODS: Right from the Start is a community-based pregnancy cohort that enrolled women from North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. A subset of 318 women participated in daily medication diaries initiated before conception (2006-2012). We examined nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as an example of a drug type that is difficult to study due to its intermittent and primarily over-the-counter use as well as its incomplete documentation in medical and pharmaceutical records...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Aditya S Khanna, Phil Schumm, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND: Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are the only population in the United States who have experienced rising human immunodeficiency virus incidence over the past decade. Consistent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use can substantially reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. What differentiates those who become aware of PrEP, and those who do not, remains largely unknown. METHODS: The social networks of YBMSM can impact their awareness of PrEP; to examine this impact, we used two waves of Facebook data from "uConnect"-a longitudinal cohort study of YBMSM in Chicago (n = 266)...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Theresa Chapple-McGruder, Jonathon P Leider, Angela J Beck, Brian C Castrucci, Elizabeth Harper, Katie Sellers, Jessica Arrazola, Jeff Engel
PURPOSE: Despite increases in formal education, changing trends affecting epidemiologic practice prompted concerns over whether epidemiologists had sufficient training. METHODS: This study sought to explain factors that predicted low self-reported proficiency levels among daily important work tasks of state health agencies' epidemiologists. The number of knowledge gaps, instances where epidemiologists identified a work-related task both as 'very' important in their daily work and felt they were "unable to perform" or performed at a "beginner" level, was studied, and predictor variables were assessed...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Yingsong Lin, Yukari Totsuka, Baoen Shan, Chaochen Wang, Wenqiang Wei, Youlin Qiao, Shogo Kikuchi, Manami Inoue, Hideo Tanaka, Yutong He
PURPOSE: The extremely high incidence of esophageal cancer in certain rural areas of China has prompted significant intellectual curiosity and research efforts both in China and abroad. METHODS: We summarize the research progress over the past several decades in high-risk areas (Linxian, Cixian, Shexian, and Yanting) based on literature research and our field trip (2012-2013). RESULTS: Considerable progress in clarifying the environmental risk factors and pathogenesis of esophageal cancer in high-risk areas has been achieved over the past several decades...
November 25, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Humberto Parada, Susan E Steck, Rebecca J Cleveland, Susan L Teitelbaum, Alfred I Neugut, Regina M Santella, Marilie D Gammon
PURPOSE: To examine associations between 22 CYP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer incidence and their interactions with grilled-smoked meat intake, a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. METHODS: White women with first primary in situ or invasive breast cancer (n = 988) and frequency-matched controls (n = 1021) from a population-based study were interviewed to assess lifetime grilled-smoked meat intake. SNPs with minor allele frequencies of greater than 0...
November 25, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
George L Wehby, Lina M Moreno Uribe, Allen J Wilcox, Kaare Christensen, Paul A Romitti, Ronald G Munger, Rolv T Lie
PURPOSE: To examine maternal smoking and body mass index (BMI) interactions in contributing to risk of oral clefts. METHODS: We studied 4935 cases and 10,557 controls from six population-based studies and estimated a pooled logistic regression of individual-level data, controlling for study fixed effects and individual-level risk factors. RESULTS: We found a significant negative smoking-BMI interaction, with cleft risk with smoking generally declining with higher BMI...
February 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Todd P Whitehead, Praphopphat Adhatamsoontra, Yang Wang, Elisa Arcolin, Leonard Sender, Steve Selvin, Catherine Metayer
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationship between the risk of childhood leukemia and home remodeling, a surrogate for indoor chemical exposures. METHODS: We collected information on remodeling activities carried out between birth and diagnosis in homes of 609 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases, 89 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, and 893 matched controls participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study (1995-2008). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the risk of ALL and AML associated with six remodeling activities: construction, painting, recarpeting, reflooring, roofing, and weatherproofing...
February 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Angel D Davalos, Thomas J Luben, Amy H Herring, Jason D Sacks
PURPOSE: Air pollution epidemiology traditionally focuses on the relationship between individual air pollutants and health outcomes (e.g., mortality). To account for potential copollutant confounding, individual pollutant associations are often estimated by adjusting or controlling for other pollutants in the mixture. Recently, the need to characterize the relationship between health outcomes and the larger multipollutant mixture has been emphasized in an attempt to better protect public health and inform more sustainable air quality management decisions...
February 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
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