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Annals of Epidemiology

Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
PURPOSE: In large-scale surveys, it is often necessary to distribute a preset sample size among a number of strata. Researchers must make a decision between prioritizing overall representativeness or precision of stratum estimates. Hence, I evaluated different sample allocation strategies based on stratum size. METHODS: The strategies evaluated herein included allocation proportional to stratum population; equal sample for all strata; and proportional to the natural logarithm, cubic root, and square root of the stratum population...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Lisa D Gardner, Christopher A Loffredo PhD, Patricia Langenberg, Diane Marie St George, Janaki Deepak, Curtis C Harris, Sania Amr
PURPOSE: Lung cancer is a multifactorial malignancy for which some risk factors, such as chronic lung diseases, their interactions with smoking, and how they differ by race and sex, are not fully understood. We investigated the associations between chronic inflammatory lung disease and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and how sex and race may affect such associations. METHODS: Using logistic regression, we analyzed 1660 lung cancer cases and 1959 population controls and estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Eli S Rosenberg, David W Purcell, Jeremy A Grey, Abigail Hankin-Wei, Eric Hall, Patrick S Sullivan
PURPOSE: Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of new and existing HIV infections in the United States, with black and Hispanic MSM facing the highest rates. A lack of data on MSM population sizes has precluded the understanding of state-level variations in these rates. METHODS: Using a recently developed model for estimating state-level population sizes of MSM by race that synthesizes data from the American Community Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in conjunction with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based HIV diagnosis data, we estimated rates of living with an HIV diagnosis (2013) and new diagnosis among MSM (2014) by state and race...
April 30, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Bret T Howrey, Soham Al Snih, Kyriakos S Markides, Kenneth J Ottenbacher
PURPOSE: Progressive physical frailty in older adults is associated with increased risk of falls, disability, institutionalization, and mortality. Although associations between diabetes and frailty have been observed, the impact of diabetes on frailty in older Hispanics is largely unexplored. We examine the association of diabetes on the odds of frailty among older Mexican Americans. METHODS: Using data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly from 1995 until 2012, frailty was assessed by slow gait, weak hand grip strength, exhaustion, and unexplained weight loss (n = 1327)...
April 26, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Emily M D'Agostino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Kenneth L McClain, Carl E Allen, Michael E Scheurer, Philip J Lupo
PURPOSE: Potential roles of inherited and environmental risk factors in pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), a myeloid neoplastic disorder, are undefined. We therefore evaluated the role of parental and perinatal factors on the risk of this childhood cancer. METHODS: Information on LCH cases (n = 162) for the period 1995-2011 was obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Birth certificate controls were frequency-matched on year of birth at a ratio of 10:1 for the same period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Rongrong Sheng, Shuang Zhong, Adrian G Barnett, Bryan J Weiner, Jiaying Xu, Hui Li, Guozhang Xu, Tianfeng He, Cunrui Huang
PURPOSE: Road safety is a major public health concern in China. However, the effectiveness of traffic laws in China is not known. We investigated the effect of traffic legislation on traffic deaths using data in Ningbo, China. METHODS: We obtained traffic fatality data from 2002 to 2014 from the Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention. An interrupted time series was used to look for change points in fatalities over time. We first used multiple change-point analysis to identify whether change points existed...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Carmen C Cuthbertson, Gerardo Heiss, Jacqueline D Wright, Ricky Camplain, Mehul D Patel, Randi E Foraker, Kunihiro Matsushita, Nicole Puccinelli-Ortega, Amil M Shah, Anna M Kucharska-Newton
PURPOSE: Despite well-documented associations of socioeconomic status with incident heart failure (HF) hospitalization, little information exists on the relationship of socioeconomic status with HF diagnosed in the outpatient (OP) setting. METHODS: We used Poisson models to examine the association of area-level indicators of educational attainment, poverty, living situation, and density of primary care physicians with incident HF diagnosed in the inpatient (IP) and OP settings among a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries (n = 109,756; 2001-2013)...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Jihye Park, Brenna E Blackburn, Kerry Rowe, John Snyder, Yuan Wan, Vikrant Deshmukh, Michael Newman, Alison Fraser, Ken Smith, Kim Herget, Lindsay Burt, Theresa Werner, David K Gaffney, Ana Maria Lopez, Kathi Mooney, Mia Hashibe
PURPOSE: To investigate rural-metropolitan disparities in ovarian cancer survival, we assessed ovarian cancer mortality and differences in prognostic factors by rural-metropolitan residence. METHODS: The Utah Population Database was used to identify ovarian cancer cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2012. Residential location information at the time of cancer diagnosis was used to stratify rural-metropolitan residence. All-cause death and ovarian cancer death risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Sarah E Messiah, Emily M D'Agostino, Hersila H Patel, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Kristopher L Arheart
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe sex differences in fitness outcomes after participation in Fit2Play, a park-based after-school health and wellness program. METHODS: Youth who participated in Fit2Play for either 1, 2, or 3 school years between 2010 and 2016 (n = 2129, mean age 9.1 years, 52% Hispanic, 48% non-Hispanic black, 54% male) were tested via a comprehensive fitness battery at the beginning/end of the school year(s). Effects of length of Fit2Play participation on fitness outcomes were assessed via three-level repeated measures analysis stratified by sex and adjusted for child sociodemographics, weight category, area poverty, and year...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Chih-Ying Li, Soham Al Snih, Amol Karmarkar, Kyriakos S Markides, Kenneth J Ottenbacher
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of early frailty transitions on 15-year mortality risk. METHODS: Longitudinal data analysis of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly involving 1171 community-dwelling Mexican Americans aged ≥67 years and older. Frailty was determined using the modified frailty phenotype, including unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, and slow walking speed. Participants were defined at baseline as nonfrail, prefrail, or frail and divided into nine transition groups, during a 3-year observation period...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Mengting Xu, Lesley Richardson, Sally Campbell, Javier Pintos, Jack Siemiatycki
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe time trends in response rates in case-control studies of cancer and identify study design factors that influence response rate. METHODS: We reviewed 370 case-control studies of cancer published in 12 journals during indicator years in each of the last four decades. We estimated time trends of response rates and reasons for nonresponse in each of the following types of study subjects: cases, medical source controls, and population controls...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Martin Wolkewitz, Micha Mandel, Mercedes Palomar-Martinez, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Pedro Olaechea-Astigarraga, Martin Schumacher
PURPOSE: To explore the impact of length-biased sampling on the evaluation of risk factors of nosocomial infections (NIs) in point-prevalence studies. METHODS: We used cohort data with full information including the exact date of the NI and mimicked an artificial 1-day prevalence study by picking a sample from this cohort study. Based on the cohort data, we studied the underlying multistate model which accounts for NI as an intermediate and discharge/death as competing events...
April 3, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Jan M Eberth, Alexander C McLain, Yuan Hong, Erica Sercy, Abdoulaye Diedhiou, Daniel J Kilpatrick
PURPOSE: Local health statistics are increasingly requested for policy-making and programmatic purposes; however, population-based surveys are often inadequate to support direct estimation for small areas. Model-based estimation techniques can be used to create local estimates for public health outcomes. Using the 2014-2015 South Carolina (SC) Adult Tobacco Survey, we examined tobacco-related outcomes at the county level using a spatial multilevel, poststratification approach. METHODS: To create county-level tobacco estimates, we used a two-level model with a spatially intrinsic conditional autoregressive random intercept...
March 30, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Jessica Gorzelitz, Paul E Peppard, Kristen Malecki, Keith Gennuso, F Javier Nieto, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram
PURPOSE: Accurate measurement of free-living physical activity is challenging in population-based research, whether using device-based or reported methods. Our purpose was to identify demographic predictors of discordance between physical activity assessment methods and to determine how these predictors modify the discordance between device-based and reported physical activity measurement methods. METHODS: Three hundred forty-seven adults from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin wore the ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire...
March 30, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Robert N Buschmann, John D Prochaska, Malcolm P Cutchin, M Kristen Peek
PURPOSE: Neighborhood quality is associated with health. Increasingly, researchers are focusing on the mechanisms underlying that association, including the role of stress, risky health behaviors, and subclinical measures such as allostatic load (AL). METHODS: This study uses mixed-effects regression modeling to examine the association between two objective measures and one subjective measure of neighborhood quality and AL in an ethnically diverse population-based sample (N = 2706) from a medium-sized Texas city...
March 29, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Gillian L Marshall, Reginald Tucker-Seeley
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between four specific forms of hardship (difficulty paying bills, ongoing financial stress, medication reduction due to cost, and food insecurity) and self-rated health among older men and women. METHODS: Cross-sectional logistic regression analysis was conducted using the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Study Leave-Behind Questionnaire (N = 7619) to determine the association between four hardship indicators and self-rated health...
March 29, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Larissa R Brunner Huber, Kenesha Smith, Wei Sha, Liang Zhao, Tara Vick
PURPOSE: One-third of all pregnancies in the United States are conceived within 18 months of a prior live birth. Preventing unintended pregnancies may help to decrease the prevalence of pregnancies with these short interpregnancy intervals. However, data on factors associated with pregnancy intention among women who have had short birth intervals are sparse. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data were used to further evaluate these associations. METHODS: Because only Mississippi and Tennessee Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System include a survey question about birth interval length, this analysis was limited to women from those states who recently had a short birth interval (n = 384)...
March 29, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Yung-Feng Yen, I-An Jen, Pei-Hung Chuang, Marcelo Chen, Yu-Ching Lan, Chun-Yuan Lee, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
PURPOSE: To determine the short-term and long-term effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on incident tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). METHODS: From 2000 to 2012, we identified adult PLWHA from Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System. All PLWHA were followed up until December 31, 2012, and observed for TB occurrence. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the short-term and long-term effects of HAART on incident TB...
March 28, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Sarwat Mahmud, Silva P Kouyoumjian, Zaina Al Kanaani, Hiam Chemaitelly, Laith J Abu-Raddad
PURPOSE: To identify, map, and synthesize the individual-level key associations and modes of exposure for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the most affected region by HCV. METHODS: Source of data was the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project database, populated through systematic literature searches. Risk factors determined to be statistically significant after adjustment for confounders were extracted and categorized into key associations or modes of exposure...
March 21, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
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