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Annals of Epidemiology

Stephen M Kerr, Samantha E Parker, Allen A Mitchell, Sarah C Tinker, Martha M Werler
PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown an association between maternal fever in early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to reduce the risk of these outcomes. METHODS: Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1998-2015), we examined the impact of folic acid on the relationship between maternal fever in the periconceptional period (28 days before and after the last menstrual period) and NTDs...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Chia Wei, Susan G Gerberich, Andrew D Ryan, Bruce H Alexander, Timothy R Church, Michael Manser
PURPOSE: Although many studies have focused on bus operators' occupational diseases, work-related injury and associated risk factor data are limited. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate unintentional injury and exposures that may affect injury risk among metropolitan bus operators. METHODS: Demographic, work-related, and injury data obtained from a metropolitan transit company for a 5-year period, enabled estimates of rates per 100 full time equivalents (FTEs) and adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using Generalized Estimating Equations and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Adam S Vaughan, Matthew D Ritchey, Judy Hannan, Michael R Kramer, Michele Casper
PURPOSE: Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. METHODS: Using a Bayesian statistical model and National Vital Statistics Systems data, we estimated overall rates and percent change in heart disease mortality from 2010 through 2015 for four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years) in 3098 US counties...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Gareth Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Ruopeng An
PURPOSE: Over the past decade, the media, politicians, practitioners, and researchers paid increasing attention to the risks involved in hospital admission at weekends. This study examined the impact of weekend admission on in-hospital mortality among U.S. adults and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and disease category and tracked changes from 2003 to 2013. METHODS: Over 50 million hospital discharge data came from 2003 to 2013 National Inpatient Sample. Cox regressions were performed to estimate the hazard ratios of in-hospital mortality associated with weekend admission, adjusting for individual and hospital characteristics and National Inpatient Sample sampling design...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Ronald C Eldridge, Michael Pawlita, Lauren Wilson, Philip E Castle, Tim Waterboer, Patti E Gravitt, Mark Schiffman, Nicolas Wentzensen
PURPOSE: Smoking is an established risk factor for a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection advancing to cervical precancer and cancer, but its role earlier in the natural history is less clear. Smoking is inversely associated with possessing HPV antibodies from a past infection suggesting that smoking may influence acquiring subsequent infections. METHODS: In a cohort of 1976 U.S. women, we evaluate whether reduced antibodies to HPV-16 is a mechanism for smoking's role on acquiring a subsequent HPV-16 infection, through the analytic technique of causal mediation analysis...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Karen A Ertel, Tianyi Huang, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Ken Kleinman, Janet Rich-Edwards, Emily Oken, Tamarra James-Todd
PURPOSE: Prepregnancy obesity and weight changes accompanying pregnancy (gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention) may be associated with risk of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and in the postpartum. The few studies that have examined these relationships report conflicting findings. METHODS: We studied pregnant (n = 2112) and postpartum (n = 1686) women enrolled in Project Viva. We used self-reported prepregnancy and postpartum weight and measured prenatal weight to calculate prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and postpartum weight retention at 6 months after birth...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Sylvia E Badon, Alyson J Littman, Kwun Chuen Gary Chan, Michelle A Williams, Daniel A Enquobahrie
PURPOSE: The objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which trajectories of maternal preconception leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB) during adolescence and young adulthood are associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and to test if these associations differ by offspring sex or maternal pre-pregnancy overweight-obese status. METHODS: Participants with one or more birth (n = 1408) were identified from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Sixto E Sanchez, Omar Pineda, Diana Z Chaves, Qiu-Yue Zhong, Bizu Gelaye, Gregory E Simon, Marta B Rondon, Michelle A Williams
PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Kristen R Moore, Donna D Baird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Lisa J Molnar, David W Eby, Lidia P Kostyniuk, Renée M St Louis, Nicole Zanier
PURPOSE: This study sought to better understand the past change in the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) standard from 0.10% to 0.08% in the United States, as well as explore stakeholder perceptions about potential health and other impacts of further lowering the standard below 0.08%. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 20 organizations considered to have an interest and investment in the potential impacts of strategies to decrease alcohol-impaired related crashes and injuries...
September 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Catherine R Lesko, Jonathan V Todd, Stephen R Cole, Andrew Edmonds, Brian W Pence, Jessie K Edwards, Wendy J Mack, Peter Bacchetti, Anna Rubtsova, Stephen J Gange, Adaora A Adimora
PURPOSE: Among HIV-infected persons, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and depression are strongly associated with mortality. We estimated reductions in 5-year mortality in Women's Interagency HIV Study participants under plausible hypothetical increases in ART initiation and reductions in depression (CES-D score≥16). METHODS: We followed 885 ART-naïve Women's Interagency HIV Study participants for 5 years from their first study visit after April 1998 to death or censoring...
September 5, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Candice Y Johnson, Carissa M Rocheleau, Christina C Lawson, Barbara Grajewski, Penelope P Howards
PURPOSE: To investigate potential attenuation of healthy worker biases in populations in which healthy women of reproductive age opt out of the workforce to provide childcare. METHODS: We used 2013-2015 data from 120,928 U.S. women and men aged 22-44 years participating in the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between health and workforce nonparticipation...
August 25, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Sarah B Andrea, Elizabeth R Hooker, Lynne C Messer, Thomas Tandy, Janne Boone-Heinonen
PURPOSE: Rapid growth during infancy predicts higher risk of obesity later in childhood. The association between patterns of early life growth and later obesity may differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status (SES), but prior evidence syntheses do not consider vulnerable subpopulations. METHODS: We systemically reviewed published studies that explored patterns of early life growth (0-24 months of age) as predictors of later obesity (>24 months) that were either conducted in racial/ethnic minority or low-SES study populations or assessed effect modification of this association by race/ethnicity or SES...
August 24, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Casey N Pinto, Lorah D Dorn, Vernon M Chinchilli, Ping Du, Guangqing Chi
BACKGROUND: American adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 24 account for 50% of all sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) annually. Rural populations in this age group are often understudied, despite having factors that place them at higher risk for STDs. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of time series analysis in the assessment of rural Pennsylvania county-level chlamydia and gonorrhea rates overtime (2004-2014) for 15- to 19- and 20- to 24-year-old age groups by gender...
August 24, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Martha S Wingate, Ruben A Smith, Joann R Petrini, Wanda D Barfield
PURPOSE: Although studies have examined overall temporal changes in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates, there is little information on the current status of racial/ethnic differences. We hypothesize that differences exist between racial/ethnic groups across gestational age and that these differences are not equally distributed. METHODS: Using the 2009-2013 data from US fetal death and live birth files for non-Hispanic white (NHW); non-Hispanic black (NHB); Hispanic; and American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) women, we conducted analyses to examine fetal mortality rates and estimate adjusted prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 24, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Marios K Georgakis, Erato Ntinopoulou, Despoina Chatzopoulou, Eleni Th Petridou
PURPOSE: Season of birth has been considered a proxy of seasonally varying exposures around perinatal period, potentially implicated in the etiology of several health outcomes, including malignancies. METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we have systematically reviewed published literature on the association of birth seasonality with risk of central nervous system tumors in children and adults. RESULTS: Seventeen eligible studies using various methodologies were identified, encompassing 20,523 cases...
August 24, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Carolina Espina, Fiona McKenzie, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva
PURPOSE: Africa has low breast cancer incidence rates but high mortality rates from this disease due to poor survival. Delays in presentation and diagnosis are major determinants of breast cancer survival, but these have not been comprehensively investigated in Africa. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health were searched to identify studies reporting on delays in presentation and/or diagnosis of breast cancer published between January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2016...
October 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Yasuhiko Kubota, Lin Y Chen, Eric A Whitsel, Aaron R Folsom
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the heart rate variability (HRV)-related lifetime cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We followed 9744 participants without baseline CVD and used a life-table approach to estimate lifetime CVD risk (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) from 45 through 85 years according to several HRV measures (the SD of RR intervals [SDNN], the root mean square of successive differences of successive RR intervals, the mean of all normal RR intervals [meanNN], low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] power, and the LF/HF ratio)...
October 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Chelsea Lynes, Alexander C McLain, Edwina H Yeung, Paul Albert, Jihong Liu, Nansi S Boghossian
PURPOSE: Examine associations between interpregnancy body mass index (BMI) change (difference in the pre-pregnancy BMIs of two consecutive pregnancies) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia (PE), gestational hypertension (GHtn), primary cesarean delivery, and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). METHODS: Modified Poisson regression models estimated adjusted associations. RESULTS: Every 1-unit increase in interpregnancy BMI increased risks of GDM (relative risk [RR]: 1...
October 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
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