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Annals of Epidemiology

Lone Simonsen, Gerardo Chowell, Viggo Andreasen, Robert Gaffey, John Barry, Don Olson, Cécile Viboud
Mounting epidemiological evidence supports the occurrence of a mild herald pandemic wave in the spring and summer of 1918 in North America and Europe, several months before the devastating autumn outbreak that killed an estimated 2% of the global population. These epidemiological findings corroborate the anecdotal observations of contemporary clinicians who reported widespread influenza outbreaks in spring and summer 1918, with sporadic occurrence of unusually severe clinical manifestations in young adults...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Akira Endo, Keisuke Ejima, Hiroshi Nishiura
PURPOSE: To explore the heterogeneous transmission dynamics for influenza and identify the optimal serum antibody titer cutoff values for estimating its cumulative incidence. METHODS: We constructed a mathematical model describing serologically dependent disease transmission. The diagnostic performances of two serum antibody titer tests (single serum test and paired sera test) were evaluated, and cumulative disease incidence estimators were formulated. The model simulated the 2009 Japanese influenza A/H1N1 epidemic and investigated the optimal cutoff values and cumulative incidence estimates for this epidemic...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Keisuke Ejima, Hiroshi Nishiura
PURPOSE: To quantify the age-dependent next-generation matrix (NGM) for the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and forecast the age-stratified cumulative incidence in Japan. METHODS: Using a renewal equation model that describes the time evolution of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we derive the likelihood function to estimate parameters of the NGM and reporting coverage. Comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of models using empirically observed data from the 2009 pandemic in Gifu, Japan, we excluded redundant parameters and identified the three best models that were parameterized in different ways...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Jessica Arrazola, Gulzar Shah, Jeff Jones, Jingjing Yin, Elizabeth Harper
PURPOSE: This study describes factors associated with epidemiologists from state health departments (HDs) who served as preceptors. METHODS: We used the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, a national survey of state health agency workers, and selected those who identify their role in the organization as an epidemiologist and a state HD employee for analysis. Variables related to recruitment and retention were studied, and predictor variables were assessed...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Boris Gass, Emilie Marrer, Simona Bara, Karine Ligier, Florence Molinié, Marc Colonna, Laetitia Daubisse-Marliac, Brigitte Trétarre, Bénédicte Lapôtre-Ledoux, Anne-Sophie Woronoff, Anne-Valérie Guizard, Véronique Bouvier, Xavier Troussard, Christian Gaiddon, Delphine Klein, Michel Velten, Jérémie Jégu
PURPOSE: To analyze trends in second primary cancer (SPC) incidence by using a case-mix approach to standardize on first cancer site distribution. METHODS: Cases registered by 13 French cancer registries between 1989 and 2010 and followed-up until June 2013 were included. The person-year approach was used to compute standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of metachronous SPC. Usual SIRs and cancer site-specific weighted SIRs called "case-mix SIRs" (cmSIRs) were estimated by sex and calendar period of first cancer diagnosis...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Carmen R Isasi, Garrett M Strizich, Robert Kaplan, Martha L Daviglus, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Denise C Vidot, Maria M Llabre, Gregory Talavera, Mercedes R Carnethon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with cardiovascular disease risk factors and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (e-selectin) among Hispanic/Latino youth. METHODS: The study included 1380 Hispanic/Latino youths (8-16 years old) from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth that enrolled from four cities (Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego). CRF was assessed by a 3-minute step test that uses postexercise heart rate to estimate maximal oxygen uptake...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Diana Sarfati, Gail Garvey, Bridget Robson, Suzanne Moore, Ruth Cunningham, Diana Withrow, Kalinda Griffiths, Nadine R Caron, Freddie Bray
It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Teresa Janevic, Jennifer Zeitlin, Natalia Egorova, Amy Balbierz, Elizabeth A Howell
PURPOSE: To examine if the role of obesity in the risk of gestational diabetes differs between immigrant and U.S.-born women. METHODS: We used New York City-linked 2010-2014 birth certificate and hospital data. We created four racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and Asian) and three subgroups (Mexican, Indian, and Chinese). Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was ascertained by the birth certificate checkbox and discharge ICD-9 codes...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Jie V Zhao, C Mary Schooling, Jia Xi Zhao
PURPOSE: Observationally, homocysteine is associated with higher risk of diabetes. Folate, which reduces homocysteine, is promising for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Previous meta-analysis of three trials suggested folate might lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ). METHODS: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials was conducted. We searched PubMed using ("folate" or "folic acid") and trial and ("glucose" or "diabetes" or "insulin" or "hemoglobin A1c " or "HbA1c ") in any field until February 3, 2017...
February 10, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Carla L DeSisto, Ashley H Hirai, James W Collins, Kristin M Rankin
PURPOSE: To determine components of excess preterm birth (PTB) rates for U.S.-born black women relative to both foreign-born black women and U.S.-born white women attributable to differences in observed sociodemographic, behavioral, and medical risk factors. METHODS: Using the 2013 U.S. natality files, we used Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition on the absolute scale to estimate the contribution of the group differences in the prevalence of PTB predictors between U.S...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Matthew L Topel, Heval M Kelli, Tené T Lewis, Sandra B Dunbar, Viola Vaccarino, Herman A Taylor, Arshed A Quyyumi
PURPOSE: To examine the association between residence in neighborhoods with high rates of incarceration and cardiometabolic disease among nonincarcerated individuals. METHODS: We used data from two community cohort studies (n = 1368) in Atlanta, Georgia-META-Health and Predictive Health (2005-2012)-to assess the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and cardiometabolic disease, adjusting for individual-level and neighborhood-level factors. We also examined the interaction between race and neighborhood incarceration rate...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Carla P Bezold, Rachel F Banay, Brent A Coull, Jaime E Hart, Peter James, Laura D Kubzansky, Stacey A Missmer, Francine Laden
PURPOSE: Exposure to nature, particularly vegetation (greenness), may be beneficial for mental health. We investigated whether higher surrounding greenness in early life was associated with subsequent reduced risk of depressive symptoms and whether this association was modified by age, sex, or population density. METHODS: Participants from the Growing Up Today Study were included if they reported on depressive symptoms between 1999 and 2013. Greenness exposure was characterized as the cumulative average normalized difference vegetation index value (1000 m resolution) from 1989 until 2 years before outcome assessment or age 18 based on geocoded addresses...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Hélène Ouellette-Kuntz, Lynn Martin, Katherine McKenzie
PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with the rate of deficit accumulation in a population of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). METHODS: A longitudinal analysis of administratively held clinical data collected at routine home care assessments across Ontario (Canada) using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) was conducted using a cohort comprised of 5074 adults with IDD 18-99 years of age who had at least two home care assessments between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2015...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Rebekah J Walker, Brian Neelon, Melanie Davis, Leonard E Egede
PURPOSE: Evidence consistently shows poor outcomes in racial minorities, but there is limited understanding of differences that are explained by spatial variation. The goal of this analysis was to examine contribution of spatial patterns on disparities in diabetes outcomes in the Southeastern United States. METHODS: Data on 64,022 non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) veterans with diabetes living in Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina were analyzed for 2014...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Joy Shi, Jill Korsiak, Daniel E Roth
PURPOSE: We aimed to demonstrate the use of jackknife residuals to take advantage of the longitudinal nature of available growth data in assessing potential biologically implausible values and outliers. METHODS: Artificial errors were induced in 5% of length, weight, and head circumference measurements, measured on 1211 participants from the Maternal Vitamin D for Infant Growth (MDIG) trial from birth to 24 months of age. Each child's sex- and age-standardized z-score or raw measurements were regressed as a function of age in child-specific models...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Karen Menigoz, Andrea Nathan, Kristiann C Heesch, Gavin Turrell
PURPOSE: Increasing global migration, high obesity in developed countries, and ethnic health inequalities are compelling reasons to monitor immigrant obesity trends. Longitudinal studies of ethnicity, length of residence, and adiposity in contexts outside of the United States are lacking. METHODS: Nine waves (2006-2014) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey were analyzed (n = 20,934; 52% women; 101,717 person-year observations) using random effects modeling to assess average annual change in body mass index (BMI) by ethnic group...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Marcia P Jimenez, Mark A Green, S V Subramanian, Fahad Razak
PURPOSE: Public health reporting, randomized trials, and epidemiologic studies of obesity tend to consider it as a homogeneous entity. However, obesity may represent a heterogeneous condition according to demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors. We assessed the heterogeneity of individuals with obesity in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011-2012 wave of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States with detailed physical examination and clinical data (n = 1380)...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Wladimir J Alonso, Francielle C Nascimento, Gerardo Chowell, Cynthia Schuck-Paim
PURPOSE: The analysis of historical death certificates has enormous potential for understanding how the health of populations was shaped by diseases and epidemics and by the implementation of specific interventions. In Brazil, the systematic archiving of mortality records was initiated only in 1944-hence the analysis of death registers before this time requires searching for these documents in public archives, notaries, parishes, and especially ancient cemeteries, which are often the only remaining source of information about these deaths...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Diego Ramiro, Sara Garcia, Yolanda Casado, Laura Cilek, Gerardo Chowell
PURPOSE: Although the 1889-1890 influenza pandemic was one of the most important epidemic events of the 19th century, little is known about the mortality impact of this pandemic based on detailed respiratory mortality data sets. METHODS: We estimated excess mortality rates for the 1889-1890 pandemic in Madrid from high-resolution respiratory and all-cause individual-level mortality data retrieved from the Gazeta de Madrid, the Official Bulletin of the Spanish government...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
Caryn N Bell, Roland J Thorpe, Janice V Bowie, Thomas A LaVeist
PURPOSE: Racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) explain some, but not all, of racial disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To address this, race disparities among higher SES individuals need to be assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether racial disparities in CVD risk factors differ by SES levels. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2007-2014 were used to calculate racial differences in hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
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