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Annals of Epidemiology

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October 14, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Michele L Shaffer, Erika M C D'Agata, Daniel Habtemariam, Susan L Mitchell
PURPOSE: Methodological approaches to examine the association between antimicrobial exposure and multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) acquisition are complex. This report's objectives are to review approaches used in and findings of prior studies in the long-term care setting, illustrate how these challenges were addressed in a recently completed large prospective study, and discuss strategies for future studies. METHODS: Key design and analytic approaches used in studies conducted since 2000 examining the association between antimicrobial exposure and MDRO acquisition in the long-term care setting were reviewed...
September 23, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Satoru Kodama, Kazuya Fujihara, Hajime Ishiguro, Chika Horikawa, Nobumasa Ohara, Yoko Yachi, Shiro Tanaka, Hitoshi Shimano, Kiminori Kato, Osamu Hanyu, Hirohito Sone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Romain Pasquet, Igor Karp, Jack Siemiatycki, Anita Koushik
PURPOSE: Coffee and black tea are among the most consumed beverages worldwide. Although their potential role in lung cancer occurrence has been investigated in several studies, results have been inconclusive. We investigated the associations between intake of coffee and black tea with lung cancer in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada. METHODS: These analyses included 1130 cases and 1483 controls. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated between four metrics of coffee and black tea consumption (frequency, average daily amount, duration, and cumulative amount) and lung cancer, using unconditional logistic regression...
September 17, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Leepao Khang, Swann Arp Adams, Susan E Steck, Jiajia Zhang, Sudha Xirasagar, Virginie G Daguise
PURPOSE: Although many studies have examined factors in predicting incomplete and delay in abnormal mammogram follow-up, few have used geospatial methods to examine these factors. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between travel distance to health facilities and completion of abnormal mammogram follow-up among disadvantaged women in South Carolina. METHODS: Women participating in South Carolina's Best Chance Network between 1996 and 2009 with abnormal mammogram were included in the study...
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Jacob J E Koopman, Anneke Kramer, Diana van Heemst, Anders Åsberg, Jean-Baptiste Beuscart, Jadranka Buturović-Ponikvar, Frederic Collart, Cécile G Couchoud, Patrik Finne, James G Heaf, Ziad A Massy, Johan M J De Meester, Runolfur Palsson, Retha Steenkamp, Jamie P Traynor, Kitty J Jager, Hein Putter
PURPOSE: Although a population's senescence rate is classically measured as the increase in mortality rate with age on a logarithmic scale, it may be more accurately measured as the increase on a linear scale. Patients on dialysis, who suffer from accelerated senescence, exhibit a smaller increase in their mortality rate on a logarithmic scale, but a larger increase on a linear scale than patients with a functioning kidney transplant. However, this comparison may be biased by population heterogeneity...
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Simone P Pinheiro, Donna R Rivera, David J Graham, Andrew N Freedman, Jacqueline M Major, Lynne Penberthy, Mark Levenson, Marie C Bradley, Hui-Lee Wong, Rita Ouellet-Hellstrom
Pharmaceuticals approved in the United States are largely not known human carcinogens. However, cancer signals associated with pharmaceuticals may be hypothesized or arise after product approval. There are many study designs that can be used to evaluate cancer as an outcome in the postapproval setting. Because prospective systematic collection of cancer outcomes from a large number of individuals may be lengthy, expensive, and challenging, leveraging data from large existing databases are an integral approach...
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Elizabeth T Rogawski, Christine L Gray, Charles Poole
PURPOSE: Although epidemiology has an indispensable role in serving public health, the relative emphasis of applications of epidemiology often tend toward individual-level medicine over public health in terms of resources and impact. METHODS: We make distinctions between public health and medical applications of epidemiology to raise awareness among epidemiologists, many of whom came to the field with public health in mind. We discuss reasons for the overemphasis on medical epidemiology and suggest ways to counteract these incentives...
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Rachel Carroll, Andrew B Lawson, Russell S Kirby, Christel Faes, Mehreteab Aregay, Kevin Watjou
PURPOSE: Many types of cancer have an underlying spatiotemporal distribution. Spatiotemporal mixture modeling can offer a flexible approach to risk estimation via the inclusion of latent variables. METHODS: In this article, we examine the application and benefits of using four different spatiotemporal mixture modeling methods in the modeling of cancer of the lung and bronchus as well as "other" respiratory cancer incidences in the state of South Carolina. RESULTS: Of the methods tested, no single method outperforms the other methods; which method is best depends on the cancer under consideration...
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Elizabeth B Andrews, Alicia Gilsenan, Kirk Midkiff, David Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
George Maldonado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Miguel A Hernán
"Can this number be interpreted as a causal effect?" is a key question for scientists and decision makers. The potential outcomes approach, a quantitative counterfactual theory, describes conditions under which the question can be answered affirmatively. This article reviews one of those conditions, known as consistency, and its implications for real world decisions.
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Jacqueline M Major, Lynne Penberthy, Katherine A McGlynn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Alexander M Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Ming Ding, Yang Hu, Joel Schwartz, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, Howard D Sesso, Jing Ma, Jorge Chavarro, Frank B Hu, An Pan
PURPOSE: Few studies have delineated body mass index (BMI) trajectories that associate with premature mortality, which is defined as death occurring before age 75 years. METHODS: We used generalized additive mixed model to identify BMI trajectories of individuals dying before or after age 75 years among 14,172 U.S. men. We used logistic regression to validate whether the BMI trajectory developed predicted mortality in an independent cohort of 7000 participants...
August 30, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Leif Aage Strand, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Einar Kristian Borud
PURPOSE: Our study assessed disease-related mortality among Norwegian male military peacekeepers deployed to Lebanon during 1978-1998. METHODS: A total of 21,609 peacekeepers were followed from start of deployment through 2013. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on national rates for the overall cohort, by length of time since first deployment to Lebanon, and for service during high- and low-conflict periods. Poisson regression was used to determine the effect of conflict exposure...
August 30, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Ja K Gu, Luenda E Charles, Claudia C Ma, Michael E Andrew, Desta Fekedulegn, Tara A Hartley, John M Violanti, Cecil M Burchfiel
PURPOSE: Studies describing prevalence and trends of physical activity among workers in the United States are scarce. We aimed to estimate prevalence and trends of "sufficient" leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during the 2004-2014 time period among U.S. workers. METHODS: Data were collected for U.S. workers in the National Health Interview Survey. LTPA was categorized as sufficiently active (moderate intensity, ≥150 minutes per week), insufficiently active (10-149 minutes per week), and inactive (<10 minutes per week)...
August 28, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Amy E Hughes, Sandi L Pruitt
PURPOSE: Electronic medical records (EMRs) include residential address histories, which may alleviate exposure misclassification caused by exclusion of patient spatiotemporal location. EMR data are increasingly available but rarely leveraged as a measure of cumulative environmental exposure, in part due to limited understanding of the validity of EMR-derived address histories. METHODS: We compared EMR address histories to self-reported histories among 100 patients of a safety-net health care system completing a telephone survey...
August 20, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Shekufe Akhter, Michele Marcus, Rich A Kerber, Maiying Kong, Kira C Taylor
PURPOSE: To examine the association between periconceptional self-reported stress levels and fecundability in women. METHODS: Daily stress was reported on a scale from 1 to 4 (lowest to highest) among 400 women who completed daily diaries including data on lifestyle and behavioral factors, menstrual characteristics, contraceptive use, and intercourse for up to 20 cycles or until pregnancy. Discrete survival analysis was used to estimate the associations between self-reported stress during specific windows of the menstrual cycle and fecundability (cycles at risk until pregnancy), adjusting for potential confounders...
August 20, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
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