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Annals of Epidemiology

Leyla F Stambaugh, Valerie Forman-Hoffman, Jason Williams, Michael R Pemberton, Heather Ringeisen, Sarra L Hedden, Jonaki Bose
PURPOSE: This brief research report presents findings from a US national household survey on the number and percentage of parents with mental illness. METHODS: Using combined annual data from the 2008-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, parents were defined as having children in the household from birth to 18 years. Prediction models developed in an earlier clinical study using a National Survey on Drug Use and Health subsample were used to estimate serious mental illness (SMI)...
December 22, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Debbie S Barrington, Sherman A James
PURPOSE: We examined if receipt of public assistance during childhood lowered risk for hypertension by mid-life in a cohort of African Americans in the Southeastern United States. METHODS: We used multiple logistic regression models to assess the relationship between receipt of public assistance during childhood and adult hypertension among 405 male and 737 female adult participants enrolled between 1988 and 2001 in the Pitt County Study, a community-based prospective cohort study of African Americans in North Carolina...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Todd P Whitehead, Praphopphat Adhatamsoontra, Yang Wang, Elisa Arcolin, Leonard Sender, Steve Selvin, Catherine Metayer
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationship between the risk of childhood leukemia and home remodeling, a surrogate for indoor chemical exposures. METHODS: We collected information on remodeling activities carried out between birth and diagnosis in homes of 609 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases, 89 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, and 893 matched controls participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study (1995-2008). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the risk of ALL and AML associated with six remodeling activities: construction, painting, recarpeting, reflooring, roofing, and weatherproofing...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Angel D Davalos, Thomas J Luben, Amy H Herring, Jason D Sacks
PURPOSE: Air pollution epidemiology traditionally focuses on the relationship between individual air pollutants and health outcomes (e.g., mortality). To account for potential copollutant confounding, individual pollutant associations are often estimated by adjusting or controlling for other pollutants in the mixture. Recently, the need to characterize the relationship between health outcomes and the larger multipollutant mixture has been emphasized in an attempt to better protect public health and inform more sustainable air quality management decisions...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Yubo B Zhou, Hongtian T Li, Rongwei W Ye, Zhiwen W Li, Yali L Zhang, Le Zhang, Aiguo G Ren, JianMeng M Liu
PURPOSE: To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and cesarean delivery including cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) among low-risk women. METHODS: A total of 1,009,987 Chinese nulliparous women who delivered live term singletons during 1993-2010 were included. GWG, according to maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index-specified z-scores, was categorized into five groups: less than -1.2, -1.2 to less than -0.6, -0.6 to 0.6 (reference), more than 0...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Ross C Brownson, Jonathan M Samet, Diana M Bensyl
To extend the reach and relevance of epidemiology for public health practice, the science needs be broadened beyond etiologic research, to link more strongly with emerging technologies and to acknowledge key societal transformations. This new focus for epidemiology and its implications for epidemiologic training can be considered in the context of macro trends affecting society, including a greater focus on upstream causes of disease, shifting demographics, the Affordable Care Act and health care system reform, globalization, changing health communication environment, growing centrality of team and transdisciplinary science, emergence of translational sciences, greater focus on accountability, big data, informatics, high-throughput technologies ("omics"), privacy changes, and the evolving funding environment...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Stephanie Child, Steven Stewart, Spencer Moore
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional research suggests social capital has negative consequences for problem drinking behaviors. Previous studies have suggested psychosocial resources, including perceived control, may buffer this association. Little research has examined whether such relationships persist longitudinally. METHODS: Random effects models examined between-person relationships among problem drinking, social capital, and perceived control, and whether perceived control moderated the relationship between social capital and drinking...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt, Lisbeth Aagaard Larsen, Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen, Axel Skytthe, Jacob V B Hjelmborg, Sören Möller, Kaare Christensen
PURPOSE: To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Alexandra C Sundermann, Katherine E Hartmann, Sarah H Jones, Eric S Torstenson, Digna R Velez Edwards
PURPOSE: Data about maternal recall accuracy for classifying early pregnancy medication exposure are meager. Nonetheless, studies often rely on recall to evaluate potential impact of pharmaceuticals on the developing fetus. METHODS: Right from the Start is a community-based pregnancy cohort that enrolled women from North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. A subset of 318 women participated in daily medication diaries initiated before conception (2006-2012). We examined nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as an example of a drug type that is difficult to study due to its intermittent and primarily over-the-counter use as well as its incomplete documentation in medical and pharmaceutical records...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Russell S Kirby, Eric Delmelle, Jan M Eberth
The field of spatial epidemiology has evolved rapidly in the past 2 decades. This study serves as a brief introduction to spatial epidemiology and the use of geographic information systems in applied research in epidemiology. We highlight technical developments and highlight opportunities to apply spatial analytic methods in epidemiologic research, focusing on methodologies involving geocoding, distance estimation, residential mobility, record linkage and data integration, spatial and spatio-temporal clustering, small area estimation, and Bayesian applications to disease mapping...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Aditya S Khanna, Phil Schumm, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND: Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are the only population in the United States who have experienced rising human immunodeficiency virus incidence over the past decade. Consistent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use can substantially reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. What differentiates those who become aware of PrEP, and those who do not, remains largely unknown. METHODS: The social networks of YBMSM can impact their awareness of PrEP; to examine this impact, we used two waves of Facebook data from "uConnect"-a longitudinal cohort study of YBMSM in Chicago (n = 266)...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Theresa Chapple-McGruder, Jonathon P Leider, Angela J Beck, Brian C Castrucci, Elizabeth Harper, Katie Sellers, Jessica Arrazola, Jeff Engel
PURPOSE: Despite increases in formal education, changing trends affecting epidemiologic practice prompted concerns over whether epidemiologists had sufficient training. METHODS: This study sought to explain factors that predicted low self-reported proficiency levels among daily important work tasks of state health agencies' epidemiologists. The number of knowledge gaps, instances where epidemiologists identified a work-related task both as 'very' important in their daily work and felt they were "unable to perform" or performed at a "beginner" level, was studied, and predictor variables were assessed...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Yingsong Lin, Yukari Totsuka, Baoen Shan, Chaochen Wang, Wenqiang Wei, Youlin Qiao, Shogo Kikuchi, Manami Inoue, Hideo Tanaka, Yutong He
PURPOSE: The extremely high incidence of esophageal cancer in certain rural areas of China has prompted significant intellectual curiosity and research efforts both in China and abroad. METHODS: We summarize the research progress over the past several decades in high-risk areas (Linxian, Cixian, Shexian, and Yanting) based on literature research and our field trip (2012-2013). RESULTS: Considerable progress in clarifying the environmental risk factors and pathogenesis of esophageal cancer in high-risk areas has been achieved over the past several decades...
November 25, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Humberto Parada, Susan E Steck, Rebecca J Cleveland, Susan L Teitelbaum, Alfred I Neugut, Regina M Santella, Marilie D Gammon
PURPOSE: To examine associations between 22 CYP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer incidence and their interactions with grilled-smoked meat intake, a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. METHODS: White women with first primary in situ or invasive breast cancer (n = 988) and frequency-matched controls (n = 1021) from a population-based study were interviewed to assess lifetime grilled-smoked meat intake. SNPs with minor allele frequencies of greater than 0...
November 25, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Lee R Mobley, Lia Scott, Yamisha Rutherford, Tzy-Mey Kuo
PURPOSE: Studies have found a variety of evidence regarding the association between residential segregation measures and health outcomes in the United States. Some have focused on any individuals living in residentially segregated places, whereas others have examined whether persons of specific races or ethnicities living in places with high segregation of their own race or ethnicity have differential outcomes. This article compares and contrasts these two approaches in the study of predictors of late-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnoses in a cross-national study...
November 25, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
John Robert Warren, Carolina Milesi, Karen Grigorian, Melissa Humphries, Chandra Muller, Eric Grodsky
PURPOSE: Researchers who study mortality among survey participants have multiple options for obtaining information about which participants died (and when and how they died). Some use public record and commercial databases; others use the National Death Index; some use the Social Security Death Master File; and still others triangulate sources and use Internet searches and genealogic methods. We ask how inferences about mortality rates and disparities depend on the choice of source of mortality information...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Changqing Li, Catherine Mikus, Ali Ahmed, Gang Hu, Kaiyu Xiong, Yimin Zhang, Xuemei Sui
PURPOSE: To determine the association of different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), an objective indicator of habitual physical activity, with gallbladder disease. METHODS: In the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) database, 41,528 men and 13,206 women aged 20-90 years, with body mass index of 18.5 or more and without history of cardiovascular disease and cancer, received a preventive examination at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, between 1970 and 2003...
November 21, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Lin Xu, Chao Qiang Jiang, Catherine Mary Schooling, Wei Sen Zhang, Kar Keung Cheng, Tai Hing Lam
PURPOSE: To assess the proportion of the association between obesity and diabetes mediated by liver enzymes such as gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST). METHODS: Mediation analysis was used with adjustment for age, education, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use. RESULTS: A total of 9748 participants from Phase III of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study were recruited in 2006-2008...
November 20, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Nathalie Auger, Marianne Bilodeau-Bertrand, André Costopoulos
PURPOSE: We introduce a method to partition the difference in total fertility between two groups. METHODS: We computed the total fertility rate for Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, Canada, between 1989-1993 and 2004-2008. We partitioned the difference in excess fertility for one group relative to the other into the number of children contributed by maternal age, origin, material deprivation, education, and offspring birth order. We calculated the change in total fertility over time and the factors that contributed...
November 19, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Thomas Neyens, Andrew B Lawson, Russell S Kirby, Valerie Nuyts, Kevin Watjou, Mehreteab Aregay, Rachel Carroll, Tim S Nawrot, Christel Faes
PURPOSE: To investigate the distribution of mesothelioma in Flanders using Bayesian disease mapping models that account for both an excess of zeros and overdispersion. METHODS: The numbers of newly diagnosed mesothelioma cases within all Flemish municipalities between 1999 and 2008 were obtained from the Belgian Cancer Registry. To deal with overdispersion, zero inflation, and geographical association, the hurdle combined model was proposed, which has three components: a Bernoulli zero-inflation mixture component to account for excess zeros, a gamma random effect to adjust for overdispersion, and a normal conditional autoregressive random effect to attribute spatial association...
November 1, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
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