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Annals of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352631/we-could-learn-much-more-from-1918-pandemic-the-mis-fortune-of-research-relying-on-original-death-certificates
#1
Wladimir J Alonso, Francielle C Nascimento, Gerardo Chowell, Cynthia Schuck-Paim
PURPOSE: The analysis of historical death certificates has enormous potential for understanding how the health of populations was shaped by diseases and epidemics and by the implementation of specific interventions. In Brazil, the systematic archiving of mortality records was initiated only in 1944-hence the analysis of death registers before this time requires searching for these documents in public archives, notaries, parishes, and especially ancient cemeteries, which are often the only remaining source of information about these deaths...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336941/age-specific-excess-mortality-patterns-and-transmissibility-during-the-1889-1890-influenza-pandemic-in-madrid-spain
#2
Diego Ramiro, Sara Garcia, Yolanda Casado, Laura Cilek, Gerardo Chowell
PURPOSE: Although the 1889-1890 influenza pandemic was one of the most important epidemic events of the 19th century, little is known about the mortality impact of this pandemic based on detailed respiratory mortality data sets. METHODS: We estimated excess mortality rates for the 1889-1890 pandemic in Madrid from high-resolution respiratory and all-cause individual-level mortality data retrieved from the Gazeta de Madrid, the Official Bulletin of the Spanish government...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339007/suicides-homicides-accidents-and-undetermined-deaths-in-the-u-s-military-comparisons-to-the-u-s-population-and-by-military-separation-status
#3
Mark A Reger, Derek J Smolenski, Nancy A Skopp, Melinda J Metzger-Abamukang, Han K Kang, Tim A Bullman, Gregory A Gahm
PURPOSE: To compare rates of external causes of mortality among individuals who served in the military (before and after separation from the military) to the U.S. POPULATION: HASH(0x4c8a858) METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined all 3.9 million service members who served from 2002 to 2007. External cause mortality data from 2002 to 2009 were used to calculate standardized mortality ratios. Negative binomial regression compared differences in the mortality rates for pre- and post-separation...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317176/race-disparities-in-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-within-socioeconomic-status-strata
#4
Caryn N Bell, Roland J Thorpe, Janice V Bowie, Thomas A LaVeist
PURPOSE: Racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) explain some, but not all, of racial disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To address this, race disparities among higher SES individuals need to be assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether racial disparities in CVD risk factors differ by SES levels. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2007-2014 were used to calculate racial differences in hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310975/influence-of-birth-origin-and-risk-factor-profile-on-hepatitis-b-mortality-philadelphia-pa-2003-2013
#5
Dana C Higgins, Danica E Kuncio, Caroline C Johnson, Kendra M Viner
PURPOSE: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects specific subpopulations in the United States, including individuals born in HBV-endemic countries and persons engaging in high-risk behaviors. METHODS: The 2003-2013 HBV registry data and surveillance investigations for Philadelphia, PA were matched to death certificate data to examine demographic, risk factor, and cause of death characteristics among HBV-infected populations. Bivariate analysis compared investigated foreign-born (FB) and US-born chronic HBV individuals...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277552/no-impact-of-surgery-on-cognitive-function-a-longitudinal-study-of-middle-aged-danish-twins
#6
Unni Dokkedal, Mette Wod, Mikael Thinggaard, Tom Giedsing Hansen, Lars Simon Rasmussen, Jonas Mengel-From, Kaare Christensen
PURPOSE: To examine the association between exposure to surgery and 10-year change in cognitive functioning. METHODS: Among 2351 middle-aged twins, a 10-year change in composite cognitive scores derived from five cognitive tests was compared between 903 (38%) twins exposed to surgery classified as major, minor, knee and hip replacement, and other, and a reference group of 1448 (62%) twins without surgery, using linear regression models adjusted for socioeconomic factors...
December 19, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277551/diabetes-related-factors-and-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-events-the-atherosclerotic-risk-in-communities-study
#7
Yasuhiko Kubota, Aaron R Folsom, James S Pankow, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Weihong Tang
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that diabetes-related factors (metabolic syndrome [MetS], glucose, insulin, and leptin) are inversely associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) risk. METHODS: We followed 13,736 participants, aged 45-64 years, without prior AAA surgery at baseline (1987-1989), for AAA occurrence through 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of AAA were calculated using Cox regression. RESULTS: During 275,054 person-years of follow-up, we identified 518 AAA events...
December 16, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277550/maternal-zika-virus-infection-and-newborn-microcephaly-an-analysis-of-the-epidemiological-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Leonelo E Bautista
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether existing data and evidence support a causal link between maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and newborn microcephaly. METHODS: I quantified and compared the prevalence of all and severe microcephaly in Brazil, during and before 2015-2016, to assess whether an outbreak has occurred, used time series analysis to evaluate if the presumed outbreak was linked to a previous outbreak of ZIKV infections, and quantitatively synthesized published data from observational studies testing this association...
December 14, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275950/sexual-orientation-measurement-and-chronic-disease-disparities-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2009-2014
#9
Joanne G Patterson, Jennifer M Jabson
PURPOSE: To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities. METHODS: We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity. RESULTS: Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3...
December 8, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246500/fever-in-pregnancy-and-offspring-head-circumference
#10
Julie Werenberg Dreier, Katrine Strandberg-Larsen, Peter Vilhelm Uldall, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen
PURPOSE: To examine whether maternal fever during pregnancy is associated with reduced head circumference and risk of microcephaly at birth. METHODS: A prospective study of 86,980 live-born singletons within the Danish National Birth Cohort was carried out. Self-reported maternal fever exposure was ascertained in two interviews during pregnancy and information on head circumference at birth was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. RESULTS: Fever in pregnancy was reported by 27% of the mothers, and we identified 3370 cases of microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to third percentile for sex and gestational age) and 1140 cases of severe microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to first percentile for sex and gestational age)...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246501/multiethnic-study-of-breast-arterial-calcium-gradation-and-cardiovascular-disease-cohort-recruitment-and-baseline-characteristics
#11
Carlos Iribarren, Gabriela Sanchez, Gail Husson, Tory Levine-Hall, Charles Quesenberry, Danny L Sam, Joetta Maier, Rakesh S Chaudhary, Minal Patel, Bahman Sadeghi, Hanna Javan, Hyo-Min Cho, Huanjun Ding, Sabee Molloi
PURPOSE: MultIethNic Study of BrEast ARterial Calcium Gradation and CardioVAscular Disease (MINERVA) was designed to answer the question of whether a novel continuous breast arterial calcification (BAC) mass score improves cardiovascular risk stratification among asymptomatic postmenopausal women. This article describes recruitment and baseline characteristics. METHODS: MINERVA is a multiethnic longitudinal cohort study. The phenotype data include BAC mass by densitometry applied to digital mammograms, sociodemographic factors, self-reported medical history, medications, parental history, reproductive history, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, anthropometry, ankle-brachial index, blood pressure, laboratory panel, breast volumes, cognitive function, bioelectrical impedance, habitual diet, dietary supplements, sleep, psychosocial factors, and sun exposure...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224801/abraham-lillienfeld-award-address-2017-annual-meeting-of-the-american-college-of-epidemiology
#12
Roberta B Ness
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241736/covariate-balance-for-no-confounding-in-the-sufficient-cause-model
#13
Etsuji Suzuki, Toshihide Tsuda, Eiji Yamamoto
PURPOSE: To show conditions of covariate balance for no confounding in the sufficient-cause model and discuss its relationship with exchangeability conditions. METHODS: We consider the link between the sufficient-cause model and the counterfactual model, emphasizing that the target population plays a key role when discussing these conditions. Furthermore, we incorporate sufficient causes within the directed acyclic graph framework. We propose to use each of the background factors in sufficient causes as representing a set of covariates of interest and discuss the presence of covariate balance by comparing joint distributions of the relevant background factors between the exposed and the unexposed groups...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233722/county-level-contextual-factors-associated-with-diabetes-incidence-in-the-united-states
#14
Solveig A Cunningham, Shivani A Patel, Gloria L Beckles, Linda S Geiss, Neil Mehta, Hui Xie, Giuseppina Imperatore
PURPOSE: Health and administrative systems are facing spatial clustering in chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study explores how geographic distribution of diabetes in the United States is associated with socioeconomic and built environment characteristics and health-relevant policies. METHODS: We compiled nationally representative county-level data from multiple data sources. We standardized characteristics to a mean = 0 and a SD = 1 and modeled county-level age-adjusted diagnosed diabetes incidence in 2013 using 2-level hierarchical linear regression...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217211/mediating-effects-of-cancer-risk-factors-on-the-association-between-race-and-cancer-incidence-analysis-of-the-nih-aarp-diet-and-health-study
#15
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Maria Pisu
PURPOSE: Racial disparities exist in the prevalence of cancer-related risk factors and incidence of cancer. The objective of this study is to determine if cancer-related risk factors mediate the association between race and cancer incidence. METHODS: We performed prospective analysis of data from the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, years 1995 through 2011. We compared differences in baseline characteristics between black and white participants using χ2 tests and Wilcoxon tests, as appropriate...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223510/low-grade-systemic-inflammation-a-partial-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-diabetes-and-lung-function
#16
Jonathan Giovannelli, Philippe Trouiller, Sébastien Hulo, Natalie Chérot-Kornobis, Alina Ciuchete, Jean-Louis Edmé, Régis Matran, Philippe Amouyel, Aline Meirhaeghe, Luc Dauchet
PURPOSE: An association has been consistently found between diabetes mellitus and decreased lung function. We evaluated to what extent low-grade inflammation (as measured by the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) could explain this relationship. METHODS: A sample of 1878 middle-aged adults from the cross-sectional Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement survey without self-reported pulmonary and atherosclerosis disease was included...
November 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157735/validation-a-critical-step-in-bringing-biomarkers-to-clinical-fruition
#17
Sudhir Srivastava, Barnett S Kramer
Screening is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer. A primary cause of poor survival is that many cancers are detected late and often after they have metastasized to distant sites. Therapies, therefore, become challenging for late-stage disease and are not successful for nearly all cancer types. The mortality rates from cancers where screening tools are available are lower than from cancers for which no viable screening tools exist. Even for cancers where screening tools currently exist, there is room for improvement, either in the accuracy of the tests or in increasing widespread use of screening by making the tests less invasive...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239842/relative-rates-not-relative-risks-addressing-a-widespread-misinterpretation-of-hazard-ratios
#18
Rinku Sutradhar, Peter C Austin
The use of the Cox proportional hazards model is ubiquitous in modern medical research. Despite the widespread implementation of this model, the terminology and interpretation that is used to describe the estimate hazard ratio (HR) has become loose and, unfortunately, often incorrect. Although some journals offer guidelines that advise against reporting HRs as relative risks, these guidelines are frequently overlooked. Perhaps due to a lack of understanding, authors continue to interpret the resultant HR as a relative risk-such an interpretation is inappropriate and can be misleading...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153492/immigrants-commit-crime-and-violence-at-lower-rates-than-the-us-born-americans
#19
Michael G Vaughn, Christopher P Salas-Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153491/measures-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-community-viral-load-and-hiv-incidence-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#20
Cristie Glasheen, Eric O Johnson, Jennifer Lorvick, Alex H Kral
PURPOSE: To evaluate the measures of community human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL) and the association with HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Data were from 1986 to 1999 Urban Health Study conducted among PWID in the San Francisco Bay Area. Extant measures of community VL use mean VL among HIV + study participants, not accounting for the proportion of HIV- individuals. We compared the strength of the associations between HIV incidence and the traditionally measured mean community VL and a new prevalence-adjusted community VL, calculated by dividing the sum of VL among HIV + participants by the total participants irrespective of HIV status...
November 3, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
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