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Drug and Alcohol Review

Johann Kolstee, Rachel M Deacon, Samar Haidar, James Gray, Julie Mooney-Somers
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women in Australia and internationally are smoking at least twice the rate of women in the general population. An understanding of smoking behaviours in this population is essential in order to develop effective interventions. Our analysis aimed to investigate differences in smoking patterns and contexts of smoking between current smokers and recent quitters (<2 years to 1 month). DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were collected through an online anonymous survey conducted in mid-2015...
November 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Hannah Pierce, Julia Stafford, Simone Pettigrew, Caitlin Kameron, Danica Keric, Iain S Pratt
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Rules concerning the placement of alcohol advertisements (Placement Rules) were added to the industry-managed Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code Scheme in November 2017. This study aimed to critically review the Placement Rules and evaluate their ability to effectively regulate the placement of alcohol marketing and provide safeguards for young people in Australia. DESIGN AND METHODS: An established framework for evaluating the design of an effective self-regulatory system was applied to the substantive content of the Placement Rules and associated regulatory processes...
October 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Alison Ritter, Katinka van de Ven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Hannah C Rettie, Lee M Hogan, W Miles Cox
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The Recovery Strengths Questionnaire (RSQ) is a 15-item self-report questionnaire that assesses an addicted individual's recovery strengths. This study aimed to validate the RSQ as a measure of recovery capital. DESIGN AND METHODS: As part of a larger study, 151 participants in addiction recovery groups from across the UK completed the RSQ. Participants also completed the Assessment of Recovery Capital questionnaire and provided some demographic information...
October 9, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Monica J Barratt, Joseph J Palamar
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Polysubstance users are a high-risk population for negative health-related consequences. Although some studies have described harm reduction strategies adopted by polysubstance users, studies have not examined their effectiveness in minimising health-related consequences. We aimed to identify dosing-related harm reduction strategies in a sample of polysubstance-using dance festival attendees, and explore the relationship between harm reduction strategies and self-reported adverse health consequences...
October 9, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Ashleigh Parnell, Emily Box, Nicole Biagioni, Billie Bonevski, Juli Coffin, Terry Slevin, Julia Anwar-McHenry, Simone Pettigrew
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite substantial reductions in smoking prevalence in many countries, rates remain high among people who are experiencing disadvantage. This study aimed to explore attitudinal and behavioural responses to population-wide tobacco control policies among Australian smokers experiencing disadvantage. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 84 smokers attending community service organisations in the mental health, homelessness, and alcohol and other drug sectors...
October 9, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jürgen Rehm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jennie Connor, Kypros Kypri
We describe allegations that a grocery industry lobbyist secretly paid to smear the reputation of public health advocates, critique the New Zealand government's response to the allegations and outline subsequent legal action. The findings are partly based on an account of illegally obtained emails, written by a respected investigative journalist to whom they were given. The correspondence allegedly reveals that the CEO of the Food and Grocery Council used an intermediary PR company to produce blog posts that denigrated a senior academic psychiatrist advocating for alcohol policy consistent with World Health Organization recommendations...
August 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jodie Grigg, Monica J Barratt, Simon Lenton
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The term 'double dropping' refers to a person consuming two drugs simultaneously, typically two ecstasy pills. This practice has been reported in numerous countries, including Australia; however, the prevalence and correlates of double dropping among ecstasy users is unknown. Double dropping is particularly risky when adulteration of 'ecstasy' with novel substances and higher dosages of MDMA in pure ecstasy pills have both been increasingly reported. This paper investigates the prevalence and correlates of double dropping in a purposive sample of Australian festival-goers who used ecstasy at the last festival they attended...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Monica J Barratt, Julie Latimer, Marianne Jauncey, Emma Tay, Suzanne Nielsen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: North America has witnessed a dramatic rise in fatal opioid overdoses due to the unwitting consumption of non-pharmaceutical fentanyl and its analogues. While some of the drivers of this crisis-including profitability and access to high-potency opioids through internet sources-also apply in Australia, to our knowledge, there have been no ongoing surveillance studies of local populations. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to detect unintentional fentanyl consumption among people who inject heroin through instant urine screening, and determine the feasibility and acceptability of voluntary urinalysis of clients at the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre, Kings Cross, Sydney...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The relationship between cannabis use and diabetes is puzzling. Although cannabis users versus non-users should theoretically have a higher likelihood of diabetes, epidemiological studies suggest otherwise. However, previous epidemiological studies have not considered the potential confounding effects of mental health disorders. As such, the relationship between cannabis use and diabetes was examined while accounting for a range of potential confounders, including mental health disorders...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Suzanne Nielsen, Nicholas Lintzeris, Bridin Murnion, Louisa Degenhardt, Raimondo Bruno, Paul Haber, Jennifer Johnson, Mark Hardy, Stephen Ling, Craig Saddler, Adrian Dunlop, Apo Demirkol, Catherine Silsbury, Nghi Phung, Jennie Houseman, Briony Larance
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite large increases in pharmaceutical opioid dependence and related mortality, few studies have focused on the characteristics and treatment experiences of those with pharmaceutical opioid dependence. We describe the formation of a prospective cohort of people receiving treatment for pharmaceutical opioid dependence and describe their baseline characteristics. DESIGN AND METHODS: People who had entered treatment for pharmaceutical opioid dependence (n = 108) were recruited through drug treatment services in New South Wales, Australia...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Peter Kremer, Nicholas Crooks, Bosco Rowland, Jessica Hall, John W Toumbourou
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Adolescent alcohol consumption and associated harms are significant public health issues in Australia. One strategy to reduce this problem is restricting alcohol supply to adolescents below age 18. To ensure compliance with laws that forbid underage alcohol sales, effective monitoring systems that operate across a range of settings, including sporting clubs, are required. This study investigated compliance with regulations requiring proof of age identification and refusal of underage alcohol sales in community sporting clubs...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jason Payne, Gabriel Wong
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Although there has been significant investment in policies and programs aimed at preventing drug-related crime, there has been comparatively little effort dedicated to the validation the relevant research and evidence gathering tools. In this study, we aim to confirm the internal consistency of UNCOPE, developed by Hoffmann and colleagues, in the Australian context, as well as explore whether time in custody and prior custodial experience results in differential item functioning...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Julie M Croff, Isaac J Washburn, Ronald B Cox, Chao Liu
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Numerous studies have found a linear relationship between an exposure opportunity and age of first drug use. This study further tests this relationship by exploring whether a quadratic exposure opportunity best fits the data on age of first use and whether gender moderates this relationship. That is, is there a peak age in which the transition to use occurs for male compared to female adolescents? DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of 1716 adolescents from 14 public and private schools, representative of two school districts in Caracas, Venezuela, was examined using a zero-inflated Poisson modelling approach to test for quadratic effects...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Natasha Reid
The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is used to describe a wide range of difficulties that individuals who are exposed to alcohol prenatally can face. FASD is a significant public health concern that is currently under-recognised and consequently, under-diagnosed in Australia. A new Commonwealth FASD Strategy (2018-2028) is being developed and the Australian Government has announced significant funding for the expansion of FASD prevention, diagnostic and intervention services around Australia. Therefore, it is timely to consider what the current state of affairs regarding FASD in Australia is and describe areas for future research and service delivery...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Cheneal Puljević, Ross Coomber, Stuart A Kinner, Dominique de Andrade, Courtney Mitchell, Alan White, Sarah L Cresswell, Jasper Bowman
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Following the introduction of smoke-free policies in prisons in several countries, there have been anecdotal reports of prisoners creating cigarettes by mixing nicotine patches or lozenges with tea leaves ('teabacco'). Among a sample of people recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia, the aims of this study were to explore the perceived popularity of teabacco use, motivations for its use and describe the process of creating teabacco to identify potential associated health risks...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Abbas Motevalian, Ahmad Hajebi, Vandad Sharifi, Tim Stockwell, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is a paucity of data on volume of alcohol use from Muslim majority countries. We aimed to present estimation methods for alcohol consumption with the use of survey data for these societies and provide an estimation for age 15+ per capita consumption of pure alcohol for Iran. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Iranian Mental Health Survey was a nationally representative household survey on individuals aged 15-64 years, with a multistage, cluster sampling design...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Andrew Smirnov, Robert Kemp, James Ward, Suzanna Henderson, Sidney Williams, Abhilash Dev, Jake M Najman
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: An understanding of the relationship between hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and contextual factors such as imprisonment may contribute to the development of targeted treatment and prevention programs. We examine the associations of imprisonment and drug dependence with lifetime exposure to HCV, and whether these associations differ for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling was used in major cities and 'peer recruitment' in regional towns of Queensland to obtain a community sample of people who injected drugs, which comprised 243 Indigenous and 227 non-Indigenous participants who had ever been tested for HCV...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Elle Wadsworth, David Hammond
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Cannabis use is the most widely used illicit substance in the USA. Currently, over half of US jurisdictions have legalised medical cannabis and nine US jurisdictions (and Washington DC) have legalised non-medical cannabis. Comparisons across jurisdictions can help to evaluate the impact of these policies. The current study examined patterns of cannabis use among youth in three categories: (i) states that have legalised non-medical cannabis with established markets; (ii) jurisdictions that recently legalised non-medical cannabis without established markets; and (iii) all other jurisdictions where non-medical cannabis is prohibited...
November 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
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