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Drug and Alcohol Review

Peter Kremer, Nicholas Crooks, Bosco Rowland, Jessica Hall, John W Toumbourou
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Adolescent alcohol consumption and associated harms are significant public health issues in Australia. One strategy to reduce this problem is restricting alcohol supply to adolescents below age 18. To ensure compliance with laws that forbid underage alcohol sales, effective monitoring systems that operate across a range of settings, including sporting clubs, are required. This study investigated compliance with regulations requiring proof of age identification and refusal of underage alcohol sales in community sporting clubs...
September 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jason Payne, Gabriel Wong
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Although there has been significant investment in policies and programs aimed at preventing drug-related crime, there has been comparatively little effort dedicated to the validation the relevant research and evidence gathering tools. In this study, we aim to confirm the internal consistency of UNCOPE, developed by Hoffmann and colleagues, in the Australian context, as well as explore whether time in custody and prior custodial experience results in differential item functioning...
August 29, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jennie Connor, Kypros Kypri
We describe allegations that an alcohol industry executive secretly paid to smear the reputation of public health advocates, critique the New Zealand government's response to the allegations and outline subsequent legal action. The findings are partly based on an account of illegally obtained emails, written by a respected investigative journalist to whom they were given. The correspondence allegedly reveals that the CEO of the Food and Grocery Council used an intermediary PR company to produce blog posts that denigrated a senior academic psychiatrist advocating for alcohol policy consistent with World Health Organization recommendations...
August 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Julie M Croff, Isaac J Washburn, Ronald B Cox, Chao Liu
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Numerous studies have found a linear relationship between an exposure opportunity and age of first drug use. This study further tests this relationship by exploring whether a quadratic exposure opportunity best fits the data on age of first use and whether gender moderates this relationship. That is, is there a peak age in which the transition to use occurs for male compared to female adolescents? DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of 1716 adolescents from 14 public and private schools, representative of two school districts in Caracas, Venezuela, was examined using a zero-inflated Poisson modelling approach to test for quadratic effects...
August 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Natasha Reid
The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is used to describe a wide range of difficulties that individuals who are exposed to alcohol prenatally can face. FASD is a significant public health concern that is currently under-recognised and consequently, under-diagnosed in Australia. A new Commonwealth FASD Strategy (2018-2028) is being developed and the Australian Government has announced significant funding for the expansion of FASD prevention, diagnostic and intervention services around Australia. Therefore, it is timely to consider what the current state of affairs regarding FASD in Australia is and describe areas for future research and service delivery...
August 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Cheneal Puljević, Ross Coomber, Stuart A Kinner, Dominique de Andrade, Courtney Mitchell, Alan White, Sarah L Cresswell, Jasper Bowman
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Following the introduction of smoke-free policies in prisons in several countries, there have been anecdotal reports of prisoners creating cigarettes by mixing nicotine patches or lozenges with tea leaves ('teabacco'). Among a sample of people recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia, the aims of this study were to explore the perceived popularity of teabacco use, motivations for its use and describe the process of creating teabacco to identify potential associated health risks...
July 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Abbas Motevalian, Ahmad Hajebi, Vandad Sharifi, Tim Stockwell, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is a paucity of data on volume of alcohol use from Muslim majority countries. We aimed to present estimation methods for alcohol consumption with the use of survey data for these societies and provide an estimation for age 15+ per capita consumption of pure alcohol for Iran. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Iranian Mental Health Survey was a nationally representative household survey on individuals aged 15-64 years, with a multistage, cluster sampling design...
July 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Andrew Smirnov, Robert Kemp, James Ward, Suzanna Henderson, Sidney Williams, Abhilash Dev, Jake M Najman
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: An understanding of the relationship between hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and contextual factors such as imprisonment may contribute to the development of targeted treatment and prevention programs. We examine the associations of imprisonment and drug dependence with lifetime exposure to HCV, and whether these associations differ for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling was used in major cities and 'peer recruitment' in regional towns of Queensland to obtain a community sample of people who injected drugs, which comprised 243 Indigenous and 227 non-Indigenous participants who had ever been tested for HCV...
July 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Elle Wadsworth, David Hammond
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Cannabis use is the most widely used illicit substance in the USA. Currently, over half of US jurisdictions have legalised medical cannabis and nine US jurisdictions (and Washington DC) have legalised non-medical cannabis. Comparisons across jurisdictions can help to evaluate the impact of these policies. The current study examined patterns of cannabis use among youth in three categories: (i) states that have legalised non-medical cannabis with established markets; (ii) jurisdictions that recently legalised non-medical cannabis without established markets; and (iii) all other jurisdictions where non-medical cannabis is prohibited...
July 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Katinka Van de Ven, Lisa Maher, Handan Wand, Sonja Memedovic, Eva Jackson, Jenny Iversen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: People who use performance and image enhancing drugs (PIED) are a growing population in needle syringe programs (NSP) in Australia. Previous international research has identified heterogeneity among the PIED-using population. This study investigated health behaviours among NSP attendees who had recently (last 12 months) injected PIEDs and examined differences among this group according to recent psychoactive drug use. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Australian Needle and Syringe Program Survey is an annually repeated cross-sectional survey conducted at approximately 50 NSPs nationally...
July 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jacques E Raubenheimer, Monica J Barratt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Peter Butterworth, Denise Becker, Louisa Degenhardt, Wayne D Hall, George C Patton
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To estimate the prevalence and frequency of amphetamine use in a cohort of Australians aged in their mid-30s. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of wave 10 data collected in 2014 from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study: a sample of 1435 persons originally selected in a stratified, random community survey of secondary school students from the state of Victoria that commenced in 1992. Weighted multinomial regression models were used to evaluate the social, health and other substance-use correlates of lifetime and current (12-month) amphetamine use and current frequency of use...
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Anthony Barnett, Wayne Hall, Craig L Fry, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Adrian Carter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
James A Foulds, Victoria Manning, Joshua B B Garfield, Steve J Allsop, Tina Lam, Shalini Arunogiri, Dan I Lubman
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Prescribed psychotropic medications contribute to overdose mortality among people with alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorders. We report on prescribed psychotropic medication use among AOD treatment service attendees, focusing on sedative drugs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective multi-site naturalistic outcome study in residential and outpatient AOD treatment facilities in Victoria and Western Australia. A convenience sample of 480 people (57% male; mean age 36...
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Joel W Grube, William DeJong, Maureen DeJong, Sharon Lipperman-Kreda, Brad S Krevor
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Clerks and servers at alcohol establishments often fail to verify age. Using mystery shoppers to provide performance feedback is one approach to improving age verification. Few controlled studies have evaluated mystery shop interventions. This paper reports on a cluster randomised cross-over trial of a mystery shop intervention in 16 communities in four US states. DESIGN AND METHODS: The intervention comprised monthly mystery shops after which clerks and servers received immediate feedback to reinforce age verification...
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Amanda M George, Byron L Zamboanga, Jessica L Martin, Janine V Olthuis
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Given the prevalence of drinking games among university students and the health risks associated with playing drinking games, it is important to consider motivations for participation. The psychometric properties of the Motives for Playing Drinking Games (MPDG) measure have been examined among US college student samples, but mixed findings have been reported regarding the number of factors in the measure. This is the first study to examine the factor structure and applicability of the MPDG measure among a sample of Australian university students...
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Motohiro Nakajima, Richard Hoffman, Abed Alsameai, Najat Sayim Khalil, Mustafa al'Absi
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Khat (Catha edulis) is a stimulant plant widely used in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Tobacco is often co-used with khat and its use has expanded to other parts of the world. Chronic khat use is associated with negative health consequences. There is a lack of research to develop a tool to assess attitudes toward khat use. This study aimed to develop a brief tool to assess attitude and perception related to khat (i.e. the Khat Knowledge, Attitudes and Perception Scale)...
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Bill King, Enjelita Ndoen, Ron Borland
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To identify the range and coherence of smokers and recent ex-smokers' general beliefs about the harms associated with smoking and the implications of these beliefs for their assessments of the relative harms and addictiveness of various nicotine containing products. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study consisted of 18 single participant interviews with current smokers or vapers (13 M, 5 F) and three focus groups (15 M, 14 F) with current smokers/vapers and recent quitters...
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Stephen Tomsen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol use and homicide are a wide community concern with particular interest in understanding and preventing attacks (e.g. 'one punch' male on male attacks) in commercial nightlife settings with high levels of collective drinking. There is insufficient knowledge of the long-term patterns in this violence or the relationship between public drinking and flow on violence in other social settings. DESIGN AND METHODS: Alcohol-related homicides were those in which alcohol consumption was a contributing factor...
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Maren Mikkelsen Ellingsen, Sunniva Launes Johannesen, Egil W Martinsen, Mats Hallgren
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Novel treatments for substance use disorders are needed. Acute bouts of exercise can improve mood states in non-clinical populations, but effects in those with poly-substance dependence are understudied. We examined the feasibility and short-term effects of three types of exercise on drug cravings, self-esteem, mood and positive/negative affect in nine poly-drug-dependent inpatients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a cross-over design, changes in the four study outcomes were assessed immediately before exercise and on four separate occasions post-exercise (immediately after, then at 1, 2 and 4 h post-exercise) enabling patterns of change over time (analysis of covariance) to be observed...
September 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
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