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Drug and Alcohol Review

Gary Chung Kai Chan, Janni Leung, Wayne Hall
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids and examine the socio-demographic, psychological, health and behavioural correlates and type of opioids used. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016 was used. The sample consisted of. 23 448 participants aged over 14 years (54% female). The key measure was opioid use status in the past year. Based on participants' responses to questions about their substance use in the past 12 months, they were grouped into four opioid use status: (i) No illicit substance use (ISU) and no non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids (NMUPO); (ii) ISU but no NMUPO; (iii) NMUPO but no ISU; and (iv) NMUPO and ISU...
January 16, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
Heidi Coupland, Bethany White, Anna Bates, Ju Nyeong Park, Jenny Iversen, Lisa Maher
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Increasing treatment uptake among people who inject drugs (PWID) with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is integral to eliminating viral hepatitis. This study explored the role of community-based outreach in engaging and retaining Australian PWID in the testing component of the HCV care cascade. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 PWID, including new initiates to injecting and those from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, who acquired HCV infection while enrolled in a community-based prospective observational study of hepatitis C vaccine preparedness in Sydney...
January 16, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
David P Thomas, Maureen E Davey, Anke E van der Sterren, Louise Lyons, Jennifer M Hunt, Pele T Bennet
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Health behaviours, such as smoking and quitting, spread person-to-person through social networks. We explore how social networks are associated with making and sustaining quit attempts for at least 1 month among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed data from the nationally representative quota sample of 759 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults who reported smoking at least weekly in Talking About The Smokes baseline survey (April 2012-October 2013) who completed a follow-up survey a year later (August 2013-August 2014)...
January 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
Enrico Gerace, Fabrizio Seganti, Clemente Luciano, Tonia Lombardo, Daniele Di Corcia, Heino Teifel, Marco Vincenti, Alberto Salomone
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have burst into the marketplace, making both the scientific community and people who use drugs lacking of adequate information about their diffusion and effects. In this scenario, drug-checking services have been recently proposed to assist harm reduction policies and provide a global description of the circulating drugs. DESIGN AND METHODS: The results obtained by a portable Raman spectroscopy device on 472 alleged drugs within the first formal implementation of drug checking in Italy, are reported...
January 6, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
Timothy S Naimi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jürgen Rehm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Colin Angus, John Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Ratchakorn Kaewpramkusol, Kate Senior, Sutham Nanthamongkolchai, Richard Chenhall
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The recognition of the association between the use of alcohol and negative health outcomes have led to the endorsement of the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. Given the capacities, capabilities and sociocultural contexts of Thailand, this study aims to examine the Thai alcohol policy against the global strategy's recommended policy measures for marketing control and identify areas for further policy development. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the stakeholders from three sectors: the government, academia and civil society...
December 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Ecstasy users in the electronic dance music scene are at high risk for using ecstasy adulterated with new psychoactive substances and/or methamphetamine. We examined self-reported testing of ecstasy among users in this scene. DESIGN AND METHODS: We surveyed individuals (aged 18-40 years) entering electronic dance music parties in New York City in 2017. Past-year ecstasy users (n = 351) were asked if they had tested their ecstasy in the past year...
December 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Rebecca J Winter, Mark Stoové, Paul A Agius, Margaret E Hellard, Stuart A Kinner
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Once involved in the criminal justice system, people who inject drugs (PWID) have a high probability of multiple system encounters. Imprisonment typically fails to rehabilitate PWID, who upon return to the community are at considerable risk of returning to injecting drug use (IDU) and poor health and social outcomes. We examined the effect of IDU resumption, and a suite of other sociodemographic, criminogenic, health and behavioural indicators, on the timing of reincarceration among adults with a history of IDU following release from prison...
December 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Tim Stockwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Kerryn Butler, Sarah Larney, Carolyn A Day, Lucinda Burns
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence and mortality, although large scale uptake of these treatments is necessary to achieve those reductions. Targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) will be crucial to achieve the necessary reductions. Previously, treatment uptake has been very low (1-2%) among PWID, but these new DAAs have been subsidised in Australia since March 2016. This study describes treatment uptake among a sample of PWID in Australia and examines sociodemographic and drug use variables associated with treatment uptake...
December 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Caitlin Notley, Emma Ward, Lynne Dawkins, Richard Holland, Sarah Jakes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-cigarettes are the most popular aid to quitting smoking in the UK. Although many smokers quit, relapse is common. Historically, the literature has reported strong associations between tobacco smoking lapse and relapse following a quit attempt. This article aims to explore how smoking lapse is experienced by those who vape to quit smoking. DESIGN AND METHODS: A purposive sample of 40 UK vapers were matched to a sampling frame from a representative sample of UK quitters...
November 28, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jessica N Fish, Ryan J Watson, Jacqueline Gahagan, Carolyn M Porta, Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost, Stephen T Russell
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Sexual identity disparities in smoking behaviours are well established; however, there is limited research on whether these disparities have diminished as the social and political landscape has changed for lesbian, gay and bisexual people. Thus, we examined changes in prevalence and sexual identity disparities in three smoking behaviours among Canadian adolescents from 1998 to 2013. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data are from the provincially representative British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (N = 99 373)...
November 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Kypros Kypri, Jim McCambridge, Narelle Robertson, Florentine Martino, Mike Daube, Peter Adams, Peter Miller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Business corporations' use of political donations to garner political influence is especially troubling in relation to products that damage human health. We sought to investigate patterns of donations to Australian political parties from tobacco, alcohol and gambling industry actors and the experiences of key informants. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed public data on federal and state donations for 10 years to June 2015. We conducted 28 semi-structured interviews with current and former politicians, ex-political staffers and other key informants, concerning the role played by political donations of tobacco, alcohol and gambling companies in Australian politics...
November 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jacqueline A Bowden, Paul Delfabbro, Robin Room, Caroline Miller, Carlene Wilson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Parental role modelling of alcohol use is known to influence alcohol consumption in adolescence and in later life. This study aimed to assess relationships between parental status, child age and alcohol consumption, which have not been well documented. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were sourced from the 2013 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Analyses were conducted for 25-55 year olds (n = 11 591) by parental status, gender and age of youngest child in the household, controlling for socio-demographic factors...
November 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Benjamin C Riordan, Kate B Carey
For new students, university can be a wonderland of opportunity. But the first few weeks of the university experience are also typified by change, stress and uncertainty. From a health promotion perspective, the first few weeks of the university experience present an important yet understudied opportunity for alcohol misuse prevention. In this narrative review, we distinguish students' alcohol use during their first year at university from what is known about their use in the first few weeks on campus. First, we outline the developmental context of the first year experience and the descriptive epidemiology of alcohol use and consequences...
November 14, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Johann Kolstee, Rachel M Deacon, Samar Haidar, James Gray, Julie Mooney-Somers
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women in Australia and internationally are smoking at least twice the rate of women in the general population. An understanding of smoking behaviours in this population is essential in order to develop effective interventions. Our analysis aimed to investigate differences in smoking patterns and contexts of smoking between current smokers and recent quitters (<2 years to 1 month). DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were collected through an online anonymous survey conducted in mid-2015...
November 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Hannah Pierce, Julia Stafford, Simone Pettigrew, Caitlin Kameron, Danica Keric, Iain S Pratt
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Rules concerning the placement of alcohol advertisements (Placement Rules) were added to the industry-managed Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code Scheme in November 2017. This study aimed to critically review the Placement Rules and evaluate their ability to effectively regulate the placement of alcohol marketing and provide safeguards for young people in Australia. DESIGN AND METHODS: An established framework for evaluating the design of an effective self-regulatory system was applied to the substantive content of the Placement Rules and associated regulatory processes...
October 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
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