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Drug and Alcohol Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695571/australian-lobbyist-registers-are-not-serving-the-purposes-they-were-designed-for
#1
Narelle Robertson, Kypros Kypri, Julia Stafford, Mike Daube, Michelle Avery, Peter Miller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is widespread concern about the nature, extent and impacts of lobbying by industries selling unhealthy commodities, which threatens public health and undermines important democratic processes. In the last decade, all Australian jurisdictions (except the Northern Territory) have established lobbyist registers with the stated objective of increasing the capacity of government and the public to scrutinise lobbying. Our aim was to assess whether the registers are fulfilling this objective...
July 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656699/social-inequality-in-youth-violence-the-role-of-heavy-episodic-drinking
#2
Thor Norström, Ingeborg Rossow, Hilde Pape
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol use is an important risk factor for violence, and violent behaviour is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups. The aim of this study was to examine whether the SES difference in youth violence can be explained by differential exposure to-and/or differential vulnerability to-heavy episodic drinking (HED). In the latter case, effect modification by impulsivity could be assumed. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a school survey of 15- to 17-year-olds in Norway (n = 9853)...
June 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635057/pill-testing-or-drug-checking-in-australia-acceptability-of-service-design-features
#3
Monica J Barratt, Raimondo Bruno, Nadine Ezard, Alison Ritter
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study aimed to determine design features of a drug-checking service that would be feasible, attractive and likely to be used by Australian festival and nightlife attendees. DESIGN AND METHODS: Web survey of 851 Australians reporting use of psychostimulants and/or hallucinogens and attendance at licensed venues past midnight and/or festivals in the past year (70% male; median age 23 years). RESULTS: A drug-checking service located at festivals or clubs would be used by 94%; a fixed-site service external to such events by 85%...
June 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616900/what-factors-are-associated-with-abstinence-amongst-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-smokers-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-use-of-cessation-aids-and-quitting-approach
#4
Laura Twyman, Billie Bonevski, Christine Paul, Jamie Bryant, Robert West, Mohammad Siahpush, Catherine D'este, Christopher Oldmeadow, Kerrin Palazzi
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study aimed to compare current and ex-smokers' sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, use of cessation aids and abrupt versus gradual quitting approaches. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of financially disadvantaged adults attending a community service organisation was conducted in New South Wales, Australia, between February 2012 and December 2013. Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, use of cessation aids and gradual versus abrupt quit approach were assessed...
June 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597531/attitudes-in-australia-on-the-upscheduling-of-over-the-counter-codeine-to-a-prescription-only-medication
#5
Jacqui McCoy, Raimondo Bruno, Suzanne Nielsen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In December 2016, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration announced that over-the-counter (OTC) codeine would be available by prescription-only in February 2018. Prior to this announcement, the authors aimed to evaluate attitudes among Australian codeine consumers, pharmacists and general medical practitioners (GP) towards the proposed upscheduling of OTC codeine. DESIGN AND METHODS: Public Therapeutic Goods Administration submissions on codeine upscheduling were assessed, and a brief questionnaire was developed to assess the common issues raised...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597483/international-patent-applications-for-non-injectable-naloxone-for-opioid-overdose-reversal-exploratory-search-and-retrieve-analysis-of-the-patentscope-database
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca McDonald, Øyvind Danielsson Glende, Ola Dale, John Strang
ISSUES: Non-injectable naloxone formulations are being developed for opioid overdose reversal, but only limited data have been published in the peer-reviewed domain. Through examination of a hitherto-unsearched database, we expand public knowledge of non-injectable formulations, tracing their development and novelty, with the aim to describe and compare their pharmacokinetic properties. APPROACH: (i) The PatentScope database of the World Intellectual Property Organization was searched for relevant English-language patent applications; (ii) Pharmacokinetic data were extracted, collated and analysed; (iii) PubMed was searched using Boolean search query '(nasal OR intranasal OR nose OR buccal OR sublingual) AND naloxone AND pharmacokinetics'...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593748/characteristics-and-response-to-treatment-among-indigenous-people-receiving-injectable-diacetylmorphine-or-hydromorphone-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-for-the-treatment-of-long-term-opioid-dependence
#7
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Heather Palis, Daphne Guh, Kirsten Marchand, Suzanne Brissette, Kurt Lock, Scott MacDonald, Scott Harrison, Aslam H Anis, Michael Krausz, David C Marsh, Martin T Schechter
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of injectable hydromorphone and dicaetylmorphine for Indigenous participants in the Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME) clinical trial. The study additionally aims to explore the prevalence and frequency of crack cocaine use among subgroups of participants (by gender and ethnicity). This secondary analysis is particularly relevant given the current need for expanded medication assisted treatments for opioid dependence across North America...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580680/different-drinking-motives-different-adverse-consequences-evidence-among-adolescents-from-10-european-countries
#8
Matthias Wicki, Emmanuel Kuntsche, Yvonne Eichenberger, Katrin Aasvee, Pernille Bendtsen, Zuzana Dankulincová Veselská, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Dzielska, Judit Farkas, Margarida Gaspar de Matos, Chris Roberts, Jorma Tynjälä, Raili Välimaa, Alessio Vieno
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: This study, which builds on previous research demonstrating that drinking motives are associated with adverse consequences, investigates the associations between drinking motives and non-alcohol-attributed adverse consequences and disentangles alcohol-related and direct effects. DESIGN AND METHOD: On the basis of a sample of 22 841 alcohol-using 13- to 16-year-olds (50.6% female) from Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Slovakia, Switzerland and Wales, structural equation models were used to estimate direct and indirect effects...
June 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560806/factors-associated-with-future-intentions-to-use-personal-vaporisers-among-those-with-some-experience-of-vaping
#9
Bernice Hua Ma, Hua-Hie Yong, Ron Borland, Ann McNeill, Sara C Hitchman
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Personal vaporisers (PV), including e-cigarettes, may be a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control. This study aims to identify factors associated with future intentions to vape among smokers and ex-smokers in Australia and the UK. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data of smokers and ex-smokers (n = 1199, mean age = 45.3 years, 44.8% male), collected in 2014/2015 and divided into four subgroups: smoking past vapers (SPV), smoking vapers (SV), ex-smoking past vapers (ESPV) and ex-smoking vapers (ESV), from the International Tobacco Control Australia and UK surveys were analysed by using regression models...
May 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557144/cross-cultural-variation-in-the-association-between-family-s-socioeconomic-status-and-adolescent-alcohol-use
#10
Elena Gomes de Matos, Ludwig Kraus, Tessa-Virginia Hannemann, Renate Soellner, Daniela Piontek
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study estimates cross-country variation in socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use and identifies country-level characteristics associated with these disparities. DESIGN AND METHODS: The association between socioeconomic status (family wealth and parental education) and alcohol use (lifetime use and episodic heavy drinking) of 15- to 16-year-olds from 32 European countries was investigated. Country-level characteristics were national income, income inequality and per capita alcohol consumption...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557132/playing-it-safe-patron-safety-strategies-and-experience-of-violence-in-night-time-entertainment-districts
#11
Jin Zhou, Nicolas Droste, Ashlee Curtis, Lucy Zinkiewicz, Peter Miller
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Incidences of violence are elevated in night-time entertainment districts. Research suggests that safety-related behavioural strategies adopted while drinking can reduce negative alcohol-related outcomes. The current study investigates the use of safety strategies and its association with experiences of violence among patrons from the general population. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patron interviews (N = 3949) were conducted in and around licenced venues in Newcastle (New South Wales) and Geelong (Victoria) during peak trading hours (Friday and Saturday, 21:00-01:00 h)...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557063/theory-versus-practice-bacteriological-efficiency-versus-personal-habits-a-bacteriological-and-user-acceptability-evaluation-of-filtering-tools-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#12
Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Aude Chollet, Aurélie Santos, Thérèse Benoit, Séverine Péchiné, Catherine Duplessy, Jean-Louis Bara, Yves Lévi, Sara Karolak, Thomas Néfau
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: People who inject drugs (PWID) are exposed to associated viral, bacterial and fungal risks. These risks can be reduced by filtration. Large disparities in the quality of filtration exist between the various available filters. This paper compares both performance and user acceptability of three filters for drug injection (cotton filters, Sterifilt(®) and wheel filters) by combining epidemiological and bacteriological analyses. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study (ANRS-Coquelicot) using time-location sampling combined with the generalised weight sampling method was conducted among 985 PWID in France...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556439/latent-developmental-trajectories-of-episodic-heavy-drinking-from-adolescence-to-early-adulthood-predictors-of-trajectory-groups-and-alcohol-problems-in-early-adulthood-as-outcome
#13
Geir Scott Brunborg, Thor Norström, Elisabet E Storvoll
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To identify latent developmental episodic heavy drinking (EHD) trajectory groups for Norwegian adolescents, investigate risk factors associated with group membership and to assess differences in alcohol problems between different groups in early adulthood. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from 1266 individuals measured at four time points from age 13/14 years to age 26/27 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify groups with different EHD development...
May 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543690/smokeless-tobacco-consumption-and-stillbirth-population-based-case-control-study-in-rural-bangladesh
#14
Mohammad Shakhawat Hossain, Kypros Kypri, Bayzidur Rahman, Abul Hasnat Milton
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To investigate the association between smokeless tobacco consumption (STC) during pregnancy and risk of stillbirth. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 253 cases and 759 randomly selected control women in Madaripur, Bangladesh. We conducted a survey of two rural local government areas, including 8082 women, and identified cases based on self-report of a stillbirth outcome of each participant's first pregnancy...
May 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544257/validation-of-the-adolescent-drinking-expectancy-questionnaire-and-development-of-a-short-form
#15
Kiri A Patton, Jason P Connor, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, Timo Dietrich, Ross McD Young, Matthew J Gullo
AIMS: This study aimed to validate the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire-Adolescent version (DEQ-A) in a large adolescent sample and to develop and validate a brief measure, the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire-Shortened Adolescent version (DEQ-SA). DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of secondary school students (n = 2357, aged 13-16, M = 14.66 years, SD = 0.60). Students completed the DEQ-A in school, and measures of alcohol consumption including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption...
May 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493466/-it-s-fast-it-s-quick-it-stops-me-being-sick-how-to-influence-preparation-of-opioid-tablets-for-injection
#16
Lise Lafferty, Carla Treloar, Nick van Breda, Maureen Steele, Sarah Hiley, Ian Flaherty, Allison Salmon
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Injection of pharmaceutical opioids (PO) among people who inject drugs has increased in many countries. The common method for preparing PO tablets for injection uses heat, resulting in greater particulate matter and therefore increased risk of local infection risk and damage to veins and organs. A cold preparation process has fewer risks, but this preparation method is not commonly used. This study seeks to explore how people who inject PO learn to prepare injections and how health promotion efforts could influence practice...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493419/support-for-alcohol-policies-from-drinkers-in-the-city-of-tshwane-south-africa-data-from-the-international-alcohol-control-study
#17
Charles D H Parry, Pamela Trangenstein, Carl Lombard, David H Jernigan, Neo K Morojele
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: South Africa is considering a range of alcohol policy reforms. This study aims to determine the magnitude of public support for 13 alcohol policies in the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality and whether this varies by demographic factors and heavy drinking status. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data are from the South African arm of the International Alcohol Control study, a household survey of adult drinkers using a multistage stratified cluster random sampling design...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493405/australian-urban-indigenous-smokers-perspectives-on-nicotine-products-and-tobacco-harm-reduction
#18
Kym Yuke, Pauline Ford, Wendy Foley, Allyson Mutch, Lisa Fitzgerald, Coral Gartner
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indigenous Australians experience a significant gap in life expectancy compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous communities have high-smoking prevalence and low engagement with cessation therapies. This qualitative research, conducted in an urban Australian Indigenous community, explored smokers' views on smoking, quitting and engagement with current nicotine replacement therapies. Opinions on acceptability of tobacco harm reduction were sought. We explored the acceptability of novel nicotine products, that is, new or unfamiliar products, including non-therapeutic options, such as e-cigarettes...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493364/explicating-the-role-of-empathic-processes-in-substance-use-disorders-a-conceptual-framework-and-research-agenda
#19
Suena H Massey, Rebecca L Newmark, Lauren S Wakschlag
ISSUES: Elucidating the role of empathic processes in developmental pathways to substance use disorders could have important implications for prevention. APPROACH: We searched the biomedical and social sciences literature to determine what is known about empathy and psychopathological manifestations of severe lack of empathy in the initiation, development and maintenance of psychoactive substance use. Thirty-seven empirical studies were identified and formally reviewed...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488279/are-differences-in-population-prevalence-of-alcohol-s-harm-to-others-related-to-survey-administration-mode
#20
Erica Sundin, Jonas Landberg, Maria Rosaria Galanti, Robin Room, Mats Ramstedt
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study assessed the comparability of estimates of alcohol's harm to others across different administration modes in Swedish general population surveys. Harm was categorised as harm from strangers' drinking and harm from heavy drinkers known to the respondent. DESIGN AND METHODS: Three surveys were conducted in 2011/2012 (n = 6841), including identical questions. One was based on self-administered postal or Web questionnaires, and two were based on computer-assisted telephone interviews of which one included a more ambitious procedure in terms of for example monetary incentives to the respondents...
May 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
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