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Drug and Alcohol Review

Tim Stockwell, Bernie Pauly, Clifton Chow, Rebekah A Erickson, Bonnie Krysowaty, Audra Roemer, Kate Vallance, Ashley Wettlaufer, Jinhui Zhao
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Managed alcohol programs (MAP) are intended for people with severe alcohol-related problems and unstable housing. We investigated whether MAP participation was associated with changes in drinking patterns and related harms. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy-five MAP participants from five Canadian cities (Hamilton, Ottawa, Toronto, Thunder Bay and Vancouver) and 189 same-city controls were assessed for alcohol consumption, health, safety and harm outcomes...
October 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Briony Larance, Louisa Degenhardt, Amy Peacock, Natasa Gisev, Richard Mattick, Samantha Colledge, Gabrielle Campbell
There are parallels between the North American experience of escalating pharmaceutical opioid utilisation and harm and the trends being observed in Australia. In Australia, opioid utilisation has increased dramatically over the past two decades. There have been significant shifts away from the predominant prescribing of 'weak' and short-acting opioids, to 'strong' and long-acting opioids, for an increasing range of chronic pain indications. In concordance with escalating use, Australia is experiencing increases in opioid-related hospital admissions and overdose, as well as opioid dependence and treatment seeking...
October 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Robert J Tait
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is growing interest in the impact of substance use on both the individual consumer's subjective wellbeing (SWB) and the reduced SWB of those closely connected to him or her. The study aimed to compare SWB among substance users ('consumers') and the parents or partners affected by another's substance use, and to evaluate the effect of counselling on changed SWB to 6 months. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study used longitudinal data from a not-for-profit treatment service based in Perth, Australia...
October 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Lexine A Stapinski, Bill Reda, Nicola C Newton, Siobhan Lawler, Daniel Rodriguez, Catherine Chapman, Maree Teesson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Learning is most effective when it is active, enjoyable and incorporates feedback. Past research demonstrates that serious games are prime candidates to utilise these principles, however the potential benefits of this approach for delivering drug education are yet to be examined in Australia, a country where drug education in schools is mandatory. DESIGN AND METHODS: The serious game 'Pure Rush' was developed across three stages. First, formative consultation was conducted with 115 students (67% male, aged 15-17 years), followed by feasibility and acceptability testing of a prototype of the game (n = 25, 68% male)...
October 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Lucas Wiessing, Marica Ferri, Shane Darke, Roland Simon, Paul Griffiths
ISSUES: Treatment outcomes for drug users are critical for informing policy and therapeutic practice. The coherence of outcomes, changes and drug use measures from observational studies on opioid use treatment were reviewed. APPROACH: Systematic review of the literature for longitudinal observational studies, from 1980 through November 2015, in all languages, with data on treated opioid users, using Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and additional strategies (e.g. Pubmed function 'related citations' and checking reference lists of eligible studies)...
October 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Angela Mary Meade, Sheila Macdonald Bird, John Strang, Tracey Pepple, Laura Lea Nichols, Monica Mascarenhas, Louise Choo, Mahesh Kumar Bhikhubhai Parmar
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Naloxone is an opioid antagonist used for emergency resuscitation following opioid overdose. Prisoners with a history of heroin use by injection have a high risk of drug-related death in the first weeks after prison-release. The N-ALIVE trial was planned as a large prison-based randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of naloxone-on-release in the prevention of fatal opiate overdoses soon after release. The N-ALIVE pilot trial was conducted to test the main trial's assumptions on recruitment of prisons and prisoners, and the logistics for ensuring that participants received their N-ALIVE pack on release...
September 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jo-Hanna Ivers, Lina Zgaga, Brion Sweeney, Eamon Keenan, Catherine Darker, Bobby P Smyth, Joe Barry
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To provide an assessment of outcomes in a cohort of opioid-dependent patients post-detoxification. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed an observational longitudinal cohort design. Patients who completed detoxification in the three major Drug Dependency Units in Ireland during a 14-month period were included in the study (n = 143). Patients opting for one of the three pathways post-detoxification (inpatient aftercare, outpatient aftercare or no formal aftercare) were assessed in the final week of detoxification and followed up after 3, 6 and 9 months...
September 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Dominic Conroy, Richard O de Visser
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Promoting the benefits of not drinking alcohol during social occasions where other peers may be drinking ('social non-drinking') may support more moderate drinking among young people. We analysed free-text responses from university students to gauge the frequency/focus of identified benefits of, and drawbacks to, social non-drinking. We also assessed whether/how identified benefits and drawbacks were associated with recent drinking behaviour and psychological correlates of harmful drinking...
September 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Deanna Mill, Jacinta L Johnson, Victoria Cock, Emily Monaghan, Elizabeth D Hotham
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Combination analgesics containing codeine (CACC) are currently available over-the-counter (OTC) in many countries following a pharmacist's advice. Published case reports detail life-threatening morbidities associated with OTC-CACC misuse, although the cost of treating such patients has not been quantified. This study aims to: (i) identify and detail patients admitted to an Australian tertiary teaching hospital over a 5 year period with sequelae of OTC-CACC misuse; and (ii) estimate the costs of identified hospital admissions...
September 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Loretta Brown, John Skulsh, Rob Morgan, Ron Kuehlke, Brittany Graham
The Eastside Illicit Drinkers Group for Education has been supportive of research dedicated to establishing the effectiveness of Managed Alcohol Programs since its inception. Dedicated funding for MAPs in Vancouver, British Columbia is contingent on the research demonstrating that alcohol-related harms are reduced while participating in a Managed Alcohol Program. The Eastside Illicit Drinkers Group for Education understands the need for evidence-based research but we are critical of how much research is needed before sustainable funding can be established for these innovative programs...
September 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Sasha Cooper, Gabrielle Campbell, Briony Larance, Bridin Murnion, Suzanne Nielsen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The dramatic increase in pharmaceutical opioid (PO) use in high-income countries is a growing public health concern. Stigma and social support are important as they may influence treatment uptake and outcomes, yet few studies exist regarding perceived stigma and social support among people with PO dependence. The aims of the study are to: (i) compare characteristics of those with PO dependence from iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic causes; (ii) document perceived stigma and its correlates in people in treatment for PO dependence; and (iii) examine correlates of social support in people in treatment for PO dependence...
September 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Mark Petticrew, Nason Maani Hessari, Cécile Knai, Elisabete Weiderpass
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption increases the risk of several types of cancer, including several common cancers. As part of their corporate social responsibility activities, the alcohol industry (AI) disseminates information about alcohol and cancer. We examined the information on this which the AI disseminates to the public through its 'social aspects and public relations organizations' and related bodies. The aim of the study was to determine its comprehensiveness and accuracy...
September 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
David P Thomas, Maureen E Davey, Kathryn S Panaretto, Anke E van der Sterren
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is a concern that cannabis use is an important barrier to reducing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking. We investigate the associations of cannabis use and tobacco smoking and quitting in two large national samples. DESIGN AND METHODS: The 2012-2013 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey was a national stratified random household survey conducted between April 2012 and February 2013, and included 2580 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers...
September 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Megan Hill, Sharon Vipler, Christy Sutherland, Seonaid Nolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Anne Carolyn Grunseit, Melissa Gwizd, Claudine Lyons, Caroline Anderson, Blythe Jane O'Hara
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Previous studies on smoking quitlines have focused on service effectiveness and usage, describing client characteristics, referral sources and service utilisation. There is a lack of qualitative research examining callers' perspectives on service quality. The analysis aimed to describe the factors which underpin quitline callers' descriptions of their satisfaction with the service. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 46 callers to the NSW Quitline's English and multilingual lines...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Lauren M Kaplan, Thomas K Greenfield, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Study aims were to examine: (i) how physical and sexual victimisation in early life are associated with alcohol's harm from others; and (ii) whether respondents' current drinking is a mediator of the association between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others among men and women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from national computer-assisted telephone interviews, using the landline sample (3335 men and 3520 women ages ≥18) from the 2010 US National Alcohol Survey...
August 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Hélène Simoneau, Ervane Kamgang, Joël Tremblay, Karine Bertrand, Serge Brochu, Marie-Josée Fleury
ISSUES: Despite a growing trend towards considering addiction as a chronic disease, the development of intervention models addressing the chronicity of substance use disorder is relatively new, and no literature review on this topic is available. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of intervention models designed within the perspective of addiction as a chronic disease and those tailored to persons with substance use disorder who revolve in and out of treatment...
August 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Anne O'Farrell, Melanie Kingsland, Susan Kenny, Nazih Eldin, John Wiggers, Luke Wolfenden, Shane Allwright
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol misuse and harm are more prevalent amongst sports people than non-sports people. Few studies have trialled interventions to address alcohol misuse for this group. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms amongst amateur sports people in Ireland. DESIGN AND METHODS: A controlled trial was conducted in two counties in Ireland. A random selection of sports clubs in one county received a 4 month multi-faceted intervention...
August 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Thor Norström, Jonas Raninen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption among Swedish adolescents has halved during the last decade. We aim to: (i) investigate whether the overall decrease in drinking may conceal an underlying heterogeneity in drinking trajectories across at-risk groups that differ with respect to risk for drinking and; (ii) assess to what degree alcohol-related harm has responded to this decrease. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the nationally representative annual school survey of alcohol and drug habits among Swedish ninth-grade students covering the period 2000-2012 (n ≈ 5000/year)...
August 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Chiao-Wen Lan, Chunqing Lin, Duong Cong Thanh, Li Li
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There are considerable challenges faced by people with a history of injecting drug use (PWID) in Vietnam, including drug-related stigma and lack of access to healthcare. Seeking and utilising healthcare, as well as harm reduction programs for PWID, are often hampered by drug-related stigma. This study aimed to examine the impacts of drug-related stigma on access to care and utilisation of harm reduction programs among PWID in Vietnam. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two provinces in Vietnam, Phú Thọ and Vinh Phúc...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
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