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International Journal on Drug Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346087/a-not-for-profit-regulatory-model-for-legal-recreational-cannabis-insights-from-the-regulation-of-gaming-machine-gambling-in-new-zealand
#1
Chris Wilkins
A dozen or more regulatory frameworks have been proposed for legal cannabis but many of the "not-for-profit" options have yet to be developed in any detail, reducing the likelihood they will be seriously considered by policy makers. New Zealand's innovative "not-for-profit" regulatory regime for gaming machine gambling (i.e. "slot machines") has reversed the previous increase in gambling expenditure, empowered local councils to cap the number of gambling venues, and is unique in requiring the societies operating gaming machines to distribution 40% of the gross expenditure from machines (i...
January 12, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331928/being-in-control-a-thematic-content-analysis-of-14-in-depth-interviews-with-2-4-dinitrophenol-users
#2
Neha Prasad Ainsworth, Elisabeth Julie Vargo, Andrea Petróczi
BACKGROUND: 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a compound with multiple industrial purposes. Currently unlicensed for human consumption, it is used by the gym-going population for drastic, short-term body fat loss. Nonetheless, physiological mechanisms can lead to potentially fatal hyperthermia. Reported fatal incidents have caused concern and highlighted the need for intervention. Understanding decision-making leading to 2,4-DNP use alongside the perceived outgroup attitudes is vital to forming effective harm minimisation policies targeting current and potential users...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331757/hedging-bets-applying-new-zealand-s-gambling-machine-regime-to-cannabis-legalization
#3
Jonathan P Caulkins
Cannabis legalization is often falsely depicted as a binary choice between status quo prohibition and legalizing production and distribution by (regulated) for-profit industry. There are, however, many more prudent architectures for legalization, such as restricting production and distribution licenses to not-for-profit entities. Wilkins describes how New Zealand applied that concept to gambling machines and proposes a parallel for cannabis legalization. Greater investment in proposing good designs along these lines, including attending to governance structures, would be valuable...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331756/-you-re-repulsive-limits-to-acceptable-drunken-comportment-for-young-adults
#4
Sarah MacLean, Amy Pennay, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Researchers have described a 'culture of intoxication' among young people. Yet drunkenness remains a socially risky practice with potential to evoke emotions of irritation and even disgust. We consider intoxicated practices that young adults in Melbourne, Australia, described as distasteful, to identify contemporary cultural forces that constrain intoxication and limit how it is enacted. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 60 participants in Melbourne, Australia, each with recent drinking experience...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324253/a-qualitative-study-comparing-physician-reported-barriers-to-treating-addiction-using-buprenorphine-and-extended-release-naltrexone-in-u-s-office-based-practices
#5
Barbara Andraka-Christou, Matthew J Capone
AIM: Our aim was to compare physician-reported barriers to sublingual buprenorphine (BUP) and extended-release naltrexone (XR-NLT) prescribing in U.S. office-based practices, and to identify potential policies for minimizing these barriers. Only one previous qualitative study has examined physician-reported barriers to prescribing XR-NLT and no qualitative study has compared physician-reported barriers between the two medications. METHODS: Researchers conducted individual semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 20 licensed physicians in four U...
January 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306786/differences-in-risk-behaviours-and-hiv-status-between-primary-amphetamines-and-opioid-injectors-in-estonia-and-russia
#6
Isabel Tavitian-Exley, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Lucy Platt, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla, Olga Levina, Peter Vickerman, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: People who inject drugs (PWID) account for over half of new HIV infections in Eastern Europe and central Asia, where opioids continue to be the dominant illicit drugs injected. Stimulants including amphetamines (ATS) have been associated with HIV infection risk in several settings. We sought to examine whether primary ATS injection was associated with greater HIV risk, compared to opioid injection in two European locales with significant HIV epidemics. METHODS: PWID in Kohtla-Järve and St...
January 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306177/the-law-on-the-streets-evaluating-the-impact-of-mexico-s-drug-decriminalization-reform-on-drug-possession-arrests-in-tijuana-mexico
#7
J Arredondo, T Gaines, S Manian, C Vilalta, A Bañuelos, S A Strathdee, L Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexican Federal Government enacted "narcomenudeo" reforms decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs, delegating prosecution of retail drug sales to the state courts, and mandating treatment diversion for habitual drug users. There has been insufficient effort to formally assess the decriminalization policy's population-level impact, despite mounting interest in analagous reforms across the globe. METHODS: Using a dataset of municipal police incident reports, we examined patterns of drug possession, and violent and non-violent crime arrests between January 2009 and December 2014...
January 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294417/changes-in-public-order-after-the-opening-of-an-overdose-monitoring-facility-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#8
Casey León, Lena J P Cardoso, Salem Johnston, Sarah Mackin, Barry Bock, Jessie M Gaeta
BACKGROUND: In the face of an increasingly fatal opioid crisis, Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) opened the Supportive Place for Observation and Treatment (SPOT), a unique low-threshold harm reduction program for monitoring people who have injected drugs and are at imminent risk of overdose. This study examines the impact of the opening of the SPOT program on measures of injection drug-related public order in the neighborhood surrounding the facility. METHODS: Data was collected at 10 weeks prior and 12 weeks post SPOT implementation on: number of over-sedated individuals in public, publicly discarded syringes, publicly discarded injection-related litter, and instances of active injection drug use or exchange of drugs...
December 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289871/sheltering-risks-implementation-of-harm-reduction-in-homeless-shelters-during-an-overdose-emergency
#9
Bruce Wallace, Katrina Barber, Bernadette Bernie Pauly
BACKGROUND: The current opioid overdose crisis in North America is heightening awareness of the need for and the challenges of implementing harm reduction, notably within complex and diverse settings such as homeless shelters. In this paper, we explore the implementation of harm reduction in homeless shelters during an emerging overdose emergency. METHODS: The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand micro-environment level factors within emergency shelters responding to homelessness and substance use, and the macro-level influences that produce and sustain structural vulnerabilities...
December 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288932/making-multiple-online-counsellings-through-policy-practice-an-evidence-making-intervention-approach
#10
Michael Savic, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Adrian Carter, Renata Kokanovic, Victoria Manning, Simone N Rodda, Dan I Lubman
Online counselling services for a range of health conditions have proliferated in recent years. However, there is ambiguity and tension around their role and function. It is often unclear whether online counselling services are intended to provide only a brief intervention, the provision of information or referral, or constitute an alternative to face-to-face treatment. In line with recent analyses of alcohol and other drug (AOD) policy and interventions that draw on a critical social science perspective, we take an evidence-making intervention approach to examine how online counselling in the AOD field is made in policy and through processes of local implementation...
December 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287224/the-three-betrayals-of-the-medical-cannabis-growing-activist-from-multiple-victimhood-to-reconstruction-redemption-and-activism
#11
Axel Klein, Gary R Potter
While cannabis has been widely used in the UK for over 50 years, it is only in recent decades that domestic cultivation has become established. Public concern, media reporting and policing policy has emphasised the role of profit motivated criminal organisations often working on a large scale and with coerced labour. However, increasingly, another population are growing for medical reasons, to help themselves and others treat or manage difficult, poorly understood, or incurable conditions. Our study sought to further understand the motives, techniques and interactions of cannabis cultivators through interviews with 48 growers and supplementary ethnographic work...
December 26, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287223/is-recovery-from-cannabis-use-problems-different-from-alcohol-and-other-drugs-results-from-a-national-probability-based-sample-of-the-united-states-adult-population
#12
John F Kelly, M Claire Greene, Brandon G Bergman
BACKGROUND: The policy landscape regarding the legal status of cannabis (CAN) in the US and globally is changing rapidly. Research on CAN has lagged behind in many areas, none more so than in understanding how individuals suffering from the broad range of cannabis-related problems resolve those problems, and how their characteristics and problem resolution pathways are similar to or different from alcohol [ALC] or other drugs [OTH]. Greater knowledge could inform national policy debates as well as the nature and scope of any additional needed services as CAN population exposure increases...
December 26, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281807/spore-forming-bacteria-infections-and-people-who-inject-drugs-implications-for-harm-reduction
#13
Karen Dunleavy, Alison Munro, Kirsty Roy, Sharon Hutchinson, Norah Palmateer, Tony Knox, David Goldberg, Vivian Hope, John Campbell, Emma Hamilton, David Liddell, Gillian Penrice, Avril Taylor
BACKGROUND: There is no research on public health interventions that alert people who inject drugs (PWID) to clusters/outbreaks of severe bacterial infections. In Scotland, during the botulism cluster/outbreak of Dec 2014-July 2015 harm reduction (HR) messages detailed on a postcard (Botulism Postcard) were distributed to PWID between Feb-April 2015. We examined the impact of the Botulism Postcard on cluster/outbreak awareness, healthcare seeking and HR behaviours among PWID; and their views on such clusters/outbreaks...
December 24, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279253/the-rush-to-risk-when-interrogating-the-relationship-between-methamphetamine-use-and-sexual-practice-among-gay-and-bisexual-men
#14
Joanne Bryant, Max Hopwood, Gary W Dowsett, Peter Aggleton, Martin Holt, Toby Lea, Kerryn Drysdale, Carla Treloar
Much research concerning drug use in the context of sexual activity among gay and bisexual men derives from public health scholarship. In this paper, we critically examine how the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk practice is treated and understood in this body of research. While public health has made important contributions to establishing the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk-taking, the precise nature of the relationship is not well defined. This creates space for ungrounded assumptions about methamphetamine use to take hold...
December 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278838/multiple-injections-per-injection-episode-high-risk-injection-practice-among-people-who-injected-pills-during-the-2015-hiv-outbreak-in-indiana
#15
Dita Broz, Jon Zibbell, Carrie Foote, Jeremy C Roseberry, Monita R Patel, Caitlin Conrad, Erika Chapman, Philip J Peters, Richard Needle, Cameron McAlister, Joan M Duwve
BACKGROUND: Misuse of prescription opioid analgesics (POA) has increased dramatically in the US, particularly in non-urban areas. We examined injection practices among persons who inject POA in a rural area that experienced a large HIV outbreak in 2015. METHODS: Between August-September 2015, 25 persons who injected drugs within the past 12 months were recruited in Scott County, Indiana for a qualitative study. Data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews were analyzed...
December 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278831/using-drugs-in-un-safe-spaces-impact-of-perceived-illegality-on-an-underground-supervised-injecting-facility-in-the-united-states
#16
Peter J Davidson, Andrea M Lopez, Alex H Kral
BACKGROUND: Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) are spaces where people can consume pre-obtained drugs in hygienic circumstances with trained staff in attendance to provide emergency response in the event of an overdose or other medical emergency, and to provide counselling and referral to other social and health services. Over 100 facilities with formal legal sanction exist in ten countries, and extensive research has shown they reduce overdose deaths, increase drug treatment uptake, and reduce social nuisance...
December 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278830/role-of-recovery-residences-in-criminal-justice-reform
#17
Douglas L Polcin
Over the past decade there has been a clear consensus among drug policy researchers that the practice of incarcerating persons for drug offenses has been counterproductive. As a result, U.S. criminal justice policy is increasingly emphasizing alternative dispositions to incarceration for drug related arrests. In addition, large numbers of persons currently incarcerated for drug related offenses are being released into communities. However, there are serious questions about where these individuals are going to live once released and how they will access needed services...
December 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277082/routes-of-administration-for-cannabis-use-basic-prevalence-and-related-health-outcomes-a-scoping-review-and-synthesis
#18
Cayley Russell, Sergio Rueda, Robin Room, Mark Tyndall, Benedikt Fischer
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common, and associated with adverse health outcomes. 'Routes of administration' (ROAs) for cannabis use have increasingly diversified, in part influenced by developments towards legalization. This paper sought to review data on prevalence and health outcomes associated with different ROAs. METHODS: This scoping review followed a structured approach. Electronic searches for English-language peer-reviewed publications were conducted in primary databases (i...
December 22, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274561/-all-the-king-s-horses-and-all-the-king-s-men%C3%A2-what-is-broken-should-not-always-be-put-back-together-again
#19
Grant James Devilly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273560/transnational-social-movement-theory-and-the-waning-war-on-drugs-case-studies-from-ungass-2016
#20
Ben Mostyn, Helen Gibbon
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs 1988 ("1988 Convention") expresses a strong normative preference for criminalising drug possession. Historically, the United Nations offices responsible for overseeing the treaties have held that decriminalisation of drug possession is contrary to the treaties. Leading up to and during UNGASS 2016, however, rather than emphasise criminalisation, the high-ranking officials from the drug control offices emphasised the treaties' allowance of alternatives to punishment for drug possession offences...
December 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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