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International Journal on Drug Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156402/effect-of-initiating-drug-treatment-on-the-risk-of-drug-related-poisoning-death-and-acquisitive-crime-among-offending-heroin-users
#1
Matthias Pierce, Sheila M Bird, Matthew Hickman, John Marsden, Graham Dunn, Toby Seddon, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users' likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. METHODS: Heroin-users were identified from probation assessments and linked to drug-treatment, mortality and offending records. The study cohort was selected to ensure that the subject was not: in prison, in treatment or had recently left treatment...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156401/nine-reasons-why-ecstasy-is-not-quite-what-it-used-to-be
#2
Jane Mounteney, Paul Griffiths, Alessandra Bo, Andrew Cunningham, Joao Matias, Alessandro Pirona
This paper explores the recent resurgence in use of ecstasy/MDMA in Europe and highlights keys areas of continuity and divergence between the ecstasy market of the 1990s and the current MDMA market. Based on a scoping study involving a targeted multi-source data collection exercise on MDMA, it highlights nine areas that have undergone some level of change, linked with both supply and demand for the drug. Factors discussed include: innovation in production techniques; changes in precursor chemical availability; the role of online markets; competition with other stimulants and new psychoactive substances; the increased availability of high-strength MDMA; and the shift from subcultural towards more mainstream use of the drug...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156400/-i-have-it-just-in-case-naloxone-access-and-changes-in-opioid-use-behaviours
#3
Sarah Cercone Heavey, Yu-Ping Chang, Bonnie M Vest, R Lorraine Collins, William Wieczorek, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: The past decade has seen over a four-fold increase in deaths from opioid overdose in the United States. To address this growing epidemic, many localities initiated policies to expand access to naloxone (a drug that reverses the effects of opioids); however, little is known how naloxone access affects opioid use behaviours. METHODS: The present qualitative study used semi-structured, in-depth interviews with inpatients at a substance use treatment centre...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156310/context-and-characteristics-of-illicit-drug-use-in-coastal-and-interior-tanzania
#4
Jenny Tiberio, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Susie Welty, Alois Ngonyani, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Willi McFarland, Meghan D Morris
BACKGROUND: An increase in heroin seizures in East Africa may signal wider local consumption of illicit drugs. Most information about drug use in Tanzania is from the economic capital, Dar es Salaam, and well-travelled Zanzibar. More data are needed on the extent, trends, and characteristics of illicit drug use in the vast coast and interior of the country. METHODS: The study was a rapid assessment, triangulating data from in-depth interviews of primary key informants (people who use drugs [PWUD]), secondary informants (police, community members, service providers), and ethnographic mapping of hotspots in 12 regions of Tanzania...
November 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154108/survey-representativeness-quantifying-uncertainty-and-the-importance-of-well-posed-questions-about-the-administration-of-take-home-naloxone
#5
Sheila M Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144995/content-analysis-of-homeless-smokers-perspectives-on-established-and-alternative-smoking-interventions
#6
Susan E Collins, Victoria E Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M Taylor, Lonnie A Nelson, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers' perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement...
November 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102847/legal-cannabis-laws-home-cultivation-and-use-of-edible-cannabis-products-a-growing-relationship
#7
Jacob T Borodovsky, Alan J Budney
BACKGROUND: Over half of U.S. states have enacted legal cannabis laws (LCL). In parallel, edible cannabis products (i.e., edibles) have presented new regulatory challenges. LCL provisions that dictate access to cannabis (e.g., home cultivation (HC) or dispensaries (DSP)) may impact edible production and use. This study examined relationships among HC and DSP provisions, cannabis cultivation, and edible use. METHODS: An online cannabis use survey was distributed using Facebook...
November 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080480/trends-in-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-the-netherlands-1992-2015-differences-across-sociodemographic-groups-and-links-with-strict-parental-rule-setting
#8
Margaretha E de Looze, Saskia A F M van Dorsselaer, Karin Monshouwer, Wilma A M Vollebergh
BACKGROUND: From an international perspective, studying trends in adolescent alcohol use in the Netherlands is an important case study. Whereas Dutch adolescents topped the international rankings of alcohol consumption in the beginning of this century, they are nowadays found more toward the bottom of these rankings. This study examines time trends in adolescent alcohol use between 1992 and 2015, and tests whether these trends differ according to gender, age group, and educational track...
October 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055855/an-island-apart-risks-and-prices-in-the-australian-cryptomarket-drug-trade
#9
Jack Cunliffe, James Martin, David Décary-Hétu, Judith Aldridge
BACKGROUND: Australia has a reputation as an anomaly with regard to cryptomarket drug trading, with seemingly disproportionately high levels of activity given its relatively small size, high prices and anecdotal accounts of it being a destination where many foreign-based vendors will not sell. This paper aims to investigate these claims from a risk and prices perspective. METHODS: By analysing data for over 60,000 drug products available for purchase from eight cryptomarkets in January 2016 this work builds a descriptive picture of the Australian online market in comparison to the rest of the world, before moving onto analyse the prices of drugs available to Australian consumers, both online and though conventional drug supply routes...
October 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040841/-caught-with-a-body-yet-protected-by-law-calling-911-for-opioid-overdose-in-the-context-of-the-good-samaritan-law
#10
Amanda D Latimore, Rachel S Bergstein
BACKGROUND: To address soaring opioid overdose fatality rates, 41U.S. states have passed Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) extending legal immunity to overdose bystanders who call for emergency assistance. This study, conducted during the period that followed implementation of a GSL, aimed to characterize current factors determining the decision to call for emergency medical help (911) at the scene of an overdose with specific attention to exploring the role of the GSL as one such factor in decision-making...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040840/experiences-of-structural-vulnerability-among-exotic-dancers-in-baltimore-maryland-co-occurring-social-and-economic-antecedents-of-hiv-sti-risk
#11
Meredith L Brantley, Katherine H A Footer, Sahnah Lim, Deanna Kerrigan, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Women who grow up in economic scarcity often face limited opportunities for upward mobility, as a result of challenges securing stable housing, quality education, and steady employment. Chronic instability may limit the capacity of women to protect themselves against HIV/STI-related harm when engaging in sexual activity or drug use. Characterizing the structural contexts that facilitate HIV/STI risk among women are critical to effective design and implementation of drug and sexual harm reduction interventions...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031132/effectiveness-of-policy-changes-to-reduce-harm-from-unrecorded-alcohol-in-russia-between-2005-and-now
#12
Maria Neufeld, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Consumption of unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is not taxed and reflected in official statistics, but consumed as a beverage) has been identified as one of the main contributors to alcohol-attributable premature mortality in Russia. The problem was highlighted by a recent a mass poisoning with surrogate alcohol occurred in the Siberian city of Irkutsk. METHODS: Based on key publications and legislative documents, a narrative review was undertaken about alcohol-related harm reduction policies in Russia for the period between 2005 and 2017, as well as the impact of these policies on the recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption and alcohol market...
October 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030081/afterword
#13
Carla Treloar, Martin Holt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028564/assessing-police-officers-attitudes-and-legal-knowledge-on-behaviors-that-impact-hiv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#14
Javier A Cepeda, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jaime Arredondo, Maria L Mittal, Teresita Rocha, Mario Morales, Erika Clairgue, Eliane Bustamante, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Thomas Kerr, Carlos L Magis-Rodriguez, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Policing practices such as syringe confiscation and arrest can act as important social-structural drivers of HIV risk among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, police referral to treatment and other services may improve the health of PWID. Little is known about the role of modifiable attitudinal and knowledge factors in shaping officer behavior. Using baseline findings from a police education program (PEP), we assessed relationships between drug policy knowledge and attitudes towards public health interventions with self-reported syringe confiscation, drug arrest, and service referral among street-level police in Tijuana, Mexico...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028563/exploring-the-relationship-between-online-buyers-and-sellers-of-image-and-performance-enhancing-drugs-ipeds-quality-issues-trust-and-self-regulation
#15
Katinka van de Ven, Rosa Koenraadt
BACKGROUND: Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has rarely been considered. This article examines the online IPED market in order to inform drug policy and to provide a nuanced understanding of retailers involved, particularly exploring the relationship between buyers and sellers...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028562/common-and-differential-factors-associated-with-abstinence-and-poly-drug-use-among-australian-adolescents
#16
Simone Pettigrew, Michelle Jongenelis, David Lawrence, Wavne Rikkers
BACKGROUND: Social norms relating to youth substance use are changing. In Australia, alcohol use among adolescents has fallen dramatically and tobacco and cannabis use have also reduced, albeit more moderately. The aim of the present study was to identify (i) factors associated with compliance with recommendations for zero intake of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and (ii) factors associated with poly drug use (intake of all three substances). METHODS: As part of the Young Minds Matter Study, a self-report survey was administered to 1661 Australian adolescents aged 15-17 years...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017092/the-need-for-accuracy-and-validity-in-research-on-nightlife-and-drinking-a-commentary-on-devilly-et-al-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#17
Peter G Miller, Tanya Chikritzhs, Nicolas Droste, Amy Pennay, Stephen Tomsen
Research on nightlife and drinking faces many unique challenges, and validity in research is an important concern. A recent publication by Devilly et al. entitled "SmartStart: Results of a large point of entry study into preloading alcohol and associated behaviours" contains definitions and assumptions about prior work that require more careful consideration. Important issues include: using a definition of pre-drinking which is the same as previous work so that valid comparison can be made, reporting of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels that comply with other work, accurate reporting of response rates, and careful consideration of sampling approaches to maximise ethical integrity...
October 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987929/assessing-notions-of-denormalization-and-renormalization-of-smoking-in-light-of-e-cigarette-regulation
#18
Gunnar Sæbø, Janne Scheffels
The rationale for 'denormalization' of smoking in tobacco policies has been challenged by the emergence of e-cigarettes and the need to regulate e-cigarette use and promotion. Our aim is to assess the research status on e-cigarettes' contribution to 'renormalization' of smoking and to clarify how renormalization of smoking can be appraised at the conceptual and empirical level. Combining conceptual analysis and narrative review, the paper brings out three dimensions of denormalization/renormalization of smoking ('unacceptability/acceptability'; 'invisibility/visibility'; 'phasing out behaviour/maintaining behaviour') and an inherent duality of the e-cigarette as a smoking-like device and a smoking alternative...
October 5, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982041/-affording-new-approaches-to-couples-who-inject-drugs-a-novel-fitpack-design-for-hepatitis-c-prevention
#19
Suzanne Fraser, Carla Treloar, Sandra Gendera, Jake Rance
BACKGROUND: In the West, hepatitis C is predominantly transmitted via the sharing of contaminated drug-injecting equipment. Although the majority of this sharing occurs between sexual partners, the responsibility for avoiding transmission has long been conceived as an individual responsibility, with prevention measures such as the distribution of sterile injecting equipment such as injecting packs ('fitpacks') aimed at individuals without regard for the social contexts of injecting. In this article we draw on the work of Bruno Latour to reconceptualise the fitpack...
October 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968551/measuring-drug-use-sensation-seeking-among-australian-gay-and-bisexual-men
#20
Garrett Prestage, Mohamed Hammoud, Toby Lea, Fengyi Jin, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) use illicit drugs at higher rates than most other population groups and their use has been associated with sexual risk behavior. The measure of sexual sensation-seeking has been a useful tool for understanding sexual risk behavior in this population, but there is no equivalent measure for sensation-seeking in relation to drug-using behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores baseline associations with illicit drug use in an online prospective observational study of licit and illicit drug use among GBM...
September 29, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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