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International Journal on Drug Policy

Dave Yates, Jessica Speer
With the State of California legalizing recreational cannabis sales on January 1, 2018, the regulatory process is once more in the forefront of cannabis research. Colorado, often held up as a model of legalization policy, was the first state to implement retail sale of recreational cannabis on January 1st , 2014. However, a combination of subsequent under-regulation and over-regulation, inconsistently applied across issues such as retail licencing, chemical testing, cannabis derivatives, municipality approval for growers, and financing, have not only held back the industry in Colorado but also negatively impacted public health, oversight, and have potentially increased the availability of illegal cannabis...
July 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
David Mansfield
There is a misalignment between a development community focused on improving the welfare of vulnerable populations and the challenges of addressing widespread illicit drug crop production in drug producing countries. Drawing on the example of Afghanistan, this paper argues that the reasons for the development communities failure to engage is in large part a function of the way that illicit opium poppy and the illicit economy is currently perceived and understood by policy makers, practitioners and scholars...
July 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Lineke Derks, Martyna Gassowski, Stine Nielsen, Matthias An der Heiden, Norbert Bannert, Claus-Thomas Bock, Viviane Bremer, Claudia Kücherer, Stefan Ross, Benjamin Wenz, Ulrich Marcus, Ruth Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: High prevalence of drug use and injection-related risk behaviours have been reported among former Soviet Union (FSU)-migrants. To investigate hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV seroprevalence and related risk behaviours in this subgroup in Germany, we compared first generation FSU-migrants and native Germans using data from a sero-behavioural survey of people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Current injectors were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in eight German cities in 2011-2014...
July 10, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Emanuele Pontali, Vito Fiore, Anna Maria Ialungo, Roberto Ranieri, Oscar Mollaretti, Giorgio Barbarini, Daniele Marri, Tullio Prestileo, Serena Dell'Isola, Elena Rastrelli, Guido Leo, Giulio Starnini, Sergio Babudieri, Giordano Madeddu
BACKGROUND: People who are incarcerated have a significantly higher prevalence of HCV infection than the general population. Given their high-risk behavior, they represent a reservoir of HCV infection for the whole community. METHODS: We evaluated all HCV-infected people who were incarcerated in 25 Italian prisons starting direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) treatment between May 2015 and October 2016. We collected information on demographic characteristics, liver disease, HCV-related aspects, anti-HCV treatment, HIV or HBV co-infection...
July 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Patrick W Corrigan, Katherine Nieweglowski
The current opioid crisis in the U.S. is unprecedented and calling for a nationwide reorganization of the public health prevention program. Stigma is a persistent barrier to this agenda, unfortunately with a limited body of research on substance use disorder (SUD) available to inform it. We review the broader research literature on the stigma of behavioral health (i.e., mental illness and SUD) to identify strategies to address the opioid crisis and harmful stigma. A major difference between mental illness and SUD stigma is that the latter is legally and socially sanctioned...
July 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jade Boyd, Lindsey Richardson, Solanna Anderson, Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Ryan McNeil
BACKGROUND: Income is an important determinant of health among people who use drugs (PWUD). However, understanding transitions between differing types of income generation within the formal and informal economy and how they can be shaped by vulnerability to risk and harm remain poorly understood. This study examines how transitions in income-generating activities are shaped by and influence exposure to violence among marginalised PWUD, in Vancouver, Canada's, Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighbourhood...
July 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Suzanne Fraser, Adrian Farrugia, Robyn Dwyer
Opioid overdose deaths are increasing in Australia and around the world. Despite this, measures aimed at reducing these deaths such as safe injecting facilities and take-home naloxone continue to face obstacles to uptake. The reasons for this are manifold, but a key contributor is public discourse on opioid consumption and overdose. In this article we explore this public discourse using Judith Butler's work on 'grievable lives'. The article analyses mainstream newspaper coverage of opioid overdose in Australia to map key articulations of overdose and to consider how public understandings of overdose are shaped...
June 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Holly Nguyen, Brandy R Parker
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose is the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. Nationally, opioids are the primary drugs associated with accidental overdoses. In response to increasing overdose deaths, 40 states and the District of Columbia have enacted Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs). Generally, these policies attempt to encourage witnesses or those experiencing an overdose to call 911 by providing limited immunity from arrest, charge and/or prosecution of possession of narcotics...
June 29, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira, Elizeu Ferreira da Silva, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Vivianne de Oliveira Landgraf de Castro, Andréa Cristina Stábile, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Anete Trajman
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the homeless and people who use drugs (PWUD). The optimal test for LTBI screening is uncertain. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the homeless and drug-rehabilitation clinic clients chronically using crack in Western Brazil. Participants were interviewed and offered HIV testing plus tuberculin skin testing (TST) and QuantiFeron®-Gold-in-Tube (QFT). We considered LTBI when either TST or QFT were positive...
June 29, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Michelle Olding, Kanna Hayashi, Lindsay Pearce, Brittany Bingham, Michelle Buchholz, Delilah Gregg, Dave Hamm, Laura Shaver, Rachael McKendry, Rolando Barrios, Bohdan Nosyk
People who use drugs (PWUD) frequently have complex health care needs, yet face multiple barriers to accessing services. Involving PWUD in health service design and evaluation can enhance the quality of data collected and ensure policy and practice improvements reflect the expressed needs of the population. However, PWUD remain largely excluded from the evaluation of health services that directly affect their lives, including development of patient-reported experience measures (PREMS) that have gained prominence in health services research and clinical practice...
June 29, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Perrine Roux, Salim Mezaache, Laélia Briand-Madrid, Marie Debrus, Nicolas Khatmi, Gwenaelle Maradan, Camélia Protopopescu, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Patrizia Carrieri
AIMS: In France, a non-negligible proportion of opioid-dependent individuals inject morphine sulfate. Although it has not yet been officially approved as an opioid substitution treatment (OST), some physicians can prescribe its use for people in methadone or buprenorphine treatment failure. Longitudinal data from the ANRS-AERLI study, which evaluated an educational intervention for safer injection called AERLI, provided us the opportunity to better characterize the profile, risk practices and needs of people who inject morphine sulfate (MSI), through comparison with other injectors, and to identify correlates of HIV/HCV risk practices in this group...
June 28, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Karsten Lunze, Olivier Lermet, Vladanka Andreeva, Fabienne Hariga
BACKGROUND: Several Southeast Asian countries have implemented compulsory drug detention centres in which people who use or are suspected of using drugs, mainly amphetamine-type stimulants, are confined without their consent and in most cases without due process and clinical evaluation of their substance use disorder. Given these facilities' lack of access to evidence-based drug dependence treatment, and the human rights implications of peoples' arbitrary detention under the pretext of "treatment", international organizations have called for their closure...
June 28, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kathleen Bird, María Eugenia Socías, Lianping Ti
As new, more tolerable and effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments are available, there is a global need to consider how to maximize treatment access for groups who are most affected by HCV. A substantial number of people who inject drugs (PWID) are living with HCV, yet only a minority have received treatment. HCV treatment programs that are integrated into community-based addiction care may be a successful way to overcome barriers and increase access and uptake of HCV treatment for this population. Examples of successful HCV and addiction care integration in the community have been documented...
June 27, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jean-Paul Grund, Dirk de Bruin, Sanne van Gaalen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) overdose is an important concern in the Netherlands and Flanders, Belgium and accounts for most overdoses reported by emergency services. Few stu dies have focused on GHB overdose. Appropriate public health responses have yet to be developed. We report an explorative survey of people who use GHB and their experience with GHB overdose, aiming to identify risk and protective factors associated with comatose intoxication after GHB ingestion. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of GHB consumers from different GHB consumption contexts...
June 26, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Benjamin H Han
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
José Pérez de Los Cobos, Joan Trujols, Saul Alcaraz, Núria Siñol, Óscar Lozano, Francisco González-Saiz
BACKGROUND: Until now, no specific tool has been available to measure heroin-dependent patient satisfaction with buprenorphine-naloxone as a medication. The purpose of the present study was to develop the Scale to Assess Satisfaction with Medications for Addiction Treatment-Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Heroin addiction (SASMAT-BUNHER) and to examine its validity and reliability. METHODS: The SASMAT-BUNHER was developed from a pool of 44 self-administered items grouped into nine theoretical domains, as follows: Overall Satisfaction, Pharmacotherapy, Initiation, Anti-Addictive Effect on Heroin, Mental State, Physical State, Personal Functioning, Acceptability, and Anti-Addictive Effect on Secondary Substances...
June 25, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: There is just one study comparing the effectiveness of cytisine and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. In the Russian Federation, both products are widely available as over-the-counter medications. Data on the real-world use of these medications among the general population would be informative. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative household survey of adults aged ≥ 15 years from the Russian Federation (part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
James Densley, Robert McLean, Ross Deuchar, Simon Harding
BACKGROUND: Many efforts have been undertaken to construct an overview of various aspects of illicit drug distribution in the United Kingdom. Yet given that national, regional, and local differences can be profound, this has proven difficult, to the extent that Scotland has been largely excluded from the conversation. In addition, the level of supply being examined, the drug type, and the actors involved only add to confusion and vast differences between some findings. METHOD: The current study aims to provide a holistic account, as best as possible considering variations of illegal drug supply in illicit networks, by focusing in on a particular geographical context (Scotland) and addressing drug supply at all levels...
June 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Larissa J Maier, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use aiming at increased performance at work or while studying, usually referred to as pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE), has been extensively researched in recent years. While large scale national studies have tried to assess the prevalence of PCE among the general population, cross-cultural comparisons have been hampered by the different definitions and designs included. In addition, the non-medical use of prescription drugs indicated to treat the symptoms of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been the focus of discussion, yet no study has addressed the association between ADHD rates, prescribing behaviour and PCE yet...
June 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ross Coomber, Leah Moyle, Vendula Belackova, Tom Decorte, Pekka Hakkarainen, Andrew Hathaway, Karen Joe Laidler, Simon Lenton, Sheigla Murphy, John Scott, Michaela Stefunkova, Katinka van de Ven, Marieke Vlaemynck, Bernd Werse
BACKGROUND: It is now commonly accepted that there exists a form of drug supply, that involves the non-commercial supply of drugs to friends and acquaintances for little or no profit, which is qualitatively different from profit motivated 'drug dealing proper'. 'Social supply', as it has become known, has a strong conceptual footprint in the United Kingdom, shaped by empirical research, policy discussion and its accommodation in legal frameworks. Though scholarship has emerged in a number of contexts outside the UK, the extent to which social supply has developed as an internationally recognised concept in criminal justice contexts is still unclear...
June 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
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