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International Journal on Drug Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511843/interpellating-recovery-the-politics-of-identity-in-recovery-focused-treatment
#1
Renae Fomiatti, David Moore, Suzanne Fraser
Much research tends to treat alcohol and other drug 'recovery' as a process of positive identity change and development. In this article, we depart from this dominant approach by examining how the social and material practices of alcohol and other drug treatment are themselves active in the constitution of 'recovery identity'. Using Judith Butler's theorisation of interpellation, we examine the accounts of treatment experiences and practices provided in interviews with people who inject drugs. In contrast to the existing literature, we argue that the 'recovering addict' is a socially produced category rather than a coherent psychological identity...
May 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511107/frequent-emergency-department-presentations-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-record-linkage-study
#2
Dhanya Nambiar, Mark Stoové, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have been described as frequent users of health services such as emergency departments (EDs), however few studies have described demographic factors, patterns of substance use and previous health service use associated with frequent use of EDs in this population. METHODS: Using a combination of self-reported data from a cohort of PWID and administrative ED data obtained through record linkage, we identified longitudinal factors associated with the use of ED services...
May 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511053/opioid-analgesics-and-heroin-examining-drug-misuse-trends-among-a-sample-of-drug-treatment-clients-in-kentucky
#3
Grant A Victor, Robert Walker, Jennifer Cole, T K Logan
BACKGROUND: In an effort to mitigate Kentucky's prescription drug misuse, legislative intervention efforts were introduced in 2012 and 2013 to better regulate pain clinics, prescribed use of opioid analgesics, and to expand the monitoring of opioid prescriptions. The focus of this paper is primarily on opioid analgesics and heroin and the relationship of use/misuse patterns of these drugs to state drug policy initiatives. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of drug treatment clients (N=52,360) was conducted to project illicit drug use trends in Kentucky...
May 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478309/injection-drug-use-among-female-sex-workers-in-iran-findings-from-a-nationwide-bio-behavioural-survey
#4
Mohammad Karamouzian, Ali Mirzazadeh, Angeli Rawat, Mostafa Shokoohi, Ali A Haghdoost, Abbas Sedaghat, Armita Shahesmaeili, Hamid Sharifi
BACKGROUND: Globally, one in three women who inject drugs is involved in sex work which increases their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections including HIV. This study was conducted to improve our understanding of injection drug use practices among Iranian female sex workers (FSWs) and shed light on the high-risk profile of FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs). METHODS: This survey was conducted in 2010, by recruiting 872 FSWs through facility-based sampling from 21 sites in 13 cities in Iran...
May 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475905/the-social-cost-of-illicit-drugs-use-in-spain
#5
Berta Rivera, Bruno Casal, Luis Currais
BACKGROUND: Illegal drugs consumption not only has a notable impact on the population's health, but also leads to major socio-economic costs. A significant characteristic of drug consumers is that the majority are of working age. The main aim of this study is to estimate the economic impact of drug consumption in Spain from a social perspective. METHODS: A cost-of-illness methodology is carried out and a distinction is made between health-related and non-health related direct costs, as well as indirect costs...
May 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472731/online-test-purchased-new-psychoactive-substances-in-5-different-european-countries-a-snapshot-study-of-chemical-composition-and-price
#6
Tibor Markus Brunt, Amanda Marie Atkinson, Thomas Nefau, Magali Martinez, Emmanuel Lahaie, Artur Malzcewski, Martin Pazitny, Vendula Belackova, Simon D Brandt
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) are on offer worldwide online, in order to shed light on the purity and price of these substances in the European Union, a research collaboration was set up involving France, United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Czech Republic and Poland. METHODS: Per country, around 10 different NPS were test purchased from different webshops. Then, chemical analysis of NPS was done with according reference standards to identify and quantify the contents...
May 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460274/understanding-policy-persistence-the-case-of-police-drug-detection-dog-policy-in-nsw-australia
#7
Caitlin E Hughes, Alison Ritter, Kari Lancaster, Robert Hoppe
BACKGROUND: Significant research attention has been given to understanding the processes of drug policy reform. However, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the persistence of policy in the face of opposition and evidence of ineffectiveness. In this article we analysed just such a case - police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia. We sought to identify factors which may account for the continuation of this policy, in spite of counter-evidence and concerted advocacy...
April 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458170/down-in-the-valley-trajectories-of-injection-initiation-among-young-injectors-in-california-s-central-valley
#8
Jennifer L Syvertsen, Catherine E Paquette, Robin A Pollini
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use initiation represents a critical point of public health intervention, as injection increases risk for blood borne infections including Hepatitis C and HIV. In this paper, we explore pathways to injection initiation among youth (≤30) in the rural context of California's Central Valley, where rates of injection drug use are among the highest in the nation. METHODS: We draw on semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 young injectors to examine drug use histories, including the factors that participants associated with their transition to injection drug use...
April 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455145/managing-expense-and-expectation-in-a-treatment-revolution-problematizing-prioritisation-through-an-exploration-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-benefit
#9
Magdalena Harris
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed the hepatitis C (HCV) treatment landscape. These highly effective drugs are, however, not available to all. In a context of DAA rationing, clinicians are advised to "manage patient expectations" about the benefits of a HCV cure. This directive particularly pertains to people with minimal liver damage and those who have ceased injecting: populations negated in contemporary prioritisation debates. METHODS: This paper engages with the assumptions underpinning HCV treatment prioritisation discourses to explore the concept of treatment 'benefit' from patient perspectives...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454045/canadian-harm-reduction-policies-a-comparative-content-analysis-of-provincial-and-territorial-documents-2000-2015
#10
REVIEW
T Cameron Wild, Bernie Pauly, Lynne Belle-Isle, Walter Cavalieri, Richard Elliott, Carol Strike, Kenneth Tupper, Andrew Hathaway, Colleen Dell, Donald MacPherson, Caitlin Sinclair, Kamagaju Karekezi, Benjamin Tan, Elaine Hyshka
BACKGROUND: Access to harm reduction interventions among substance users across Canada is highly variable, and largely within the policy jurisdiction of the provinces and territories. This study systematically described variation in policy frameworks guiding harm reduction services among Canadian provinces and territories as part of the first national multimethod case study of harm reduction policy. METHODS: Systematic and purposive searches identified publicly-accessible policy texts guiding planning and organization of one or more of seven targeted harm reduction services: needle distribution, naloxone, supervised injection/consumption, low-threshold opioid substitution (or maintenance) treatment, buprenorphine/naloxone (suboxone), drug checking, and safer inhalation kits...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454044/unintended-impacts-of-regulatory-changes-to-british-columbia-methadone-maintenance-program-on-addiction-and-hiv-related-outcomes-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#11
M Eugenia Socías, Evan Wood, Ryan McNeil, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Jean Shoveller, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: In February 2014, several regulatory reforms were introduced to the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in British Columbia, Canada, including a switch to a ten-times more concentrated methadone formulation and restrictions in pharmacy delivery services. We evaluated possible unintended effects of these changes on illicit drug use patterns and HIV treatment outcomes among HIV-positive opioid users. METHODS: Data was drawn from ACCESS, a prospective community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454011/nicotine-and-e-cigarettes-rethinking-addiction-in-the-context-of-reduced-harm
#12
Sharon Cox, Sarah Jakes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454010/how-economic-recessions-and-unemployment-affect-illegal-drug-use-a-systematic-realist-literature-review
#13
Gera E Nagelhout, Karin Hummel, Moniek C M de Goeij, Hein de Vries, Eileen Kaner, Paul Lemmens
BACKGROUND: Economic recessions may influence illegal drug use via different mechanisms, for example increased use due to more psychological distress or decreased use due to lower incomes and purchasing power. This paper reviews the literature on how economic recessions and unemployment affect the use of illegal drugs among adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic realist literature review, which is an explanatory method that aims to understand underlying mechanisms that connect an event to an outcome in a specific context...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445835/economic-consequences-of-legal-and-illegal-drugs-the-case-of-social-costs-in-belgium
#14
Delfine Lievens, Freya Vander Laenen, Nick Verhaeghe, Koen Putman, Lieven Pauwels, Wim Hardyns, Lieven Annemans
BACKGROUND: Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. METHODS: A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied...
April 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432902/ayahuasca-s-entwined-efficacy-an-ethnographic-study-of-ritual-healing-from-addiction
#15
Piera Talin, Emilia Sanabria
BACKGROUND: A range of studies has demonstrated the efficacy of the psychoactive Amazonian brew ayahuasca in addressing substance addiction. These have revealed that physiological and psychological mechanisms are deeply enmeshed. This article focuses on how interactive ritual contexts support the healing effort. The study of psychedelic-assisted treatments for addiction has much to gain from ethnographic analyses of healing experiences within the particular ecologies of use and care, where these interventions are rendered efficacious...
April 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431794/challenging-the-addiction-health-binary-with-assemblage-thinking-an-analysis-of-consumer-accounts
#16
David Moore, Kiran Pienaar, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Suzanne Fraser
Critical analyses of drug use and 'addiction' have identified a series of binary oppositions between addiction and free will, independence, self-control, responsibility, productivity and autonomy. This critical work has also examined how science, policy and popular discourses frequently characterise addiction as antithetical to health and well-being. Furthermore, those diagnosed with addiction are often understood as indifferent to health and well-being, or as lacking the knowledge or desire required to maintain them...
April 18, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414981/claims-in-vapour-device-e-cigarette-regulation-a-narrative-policy-framework-analysis
#17
Renée O'Leary, Ron Borland, Tim Stockwell, Marjorie MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette (vapour device) is a consumer product undergoing rapid growth, and governments have been adopting regulations on the sale of the devices and their nicotine liquids. Competing claims about vapour devices have ignited a contentious debate in the public health community. What claims have been taken up in the state arena, and how have they possibly influenced regulatory outcomes? METHODS: This study utilized Narrative Policy Framework to analyze the claims made about vapour devices in legislation recommendation reports from Queensland Australia, Canada, and the European Union, and the 2016 deeming rule legislation from the United States, and examined the claims and the regulatory outcomes in these jurisdictions...
April 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377052/from-toques-to-tokes-two-challenges-facing-nationwide-legalization-of-cannabis-in-canada
#18
Daniel Bear
BACKGROUND: In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. METHODS: This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada...
April 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366599/addiction-stigma-and-the-biopolitics-of-liberal-modernity-a-qualitative-analysis
#19
Suzanne Fraser, Kiran Pienaar, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, David Moore, Renata Kokanovic, Carla Treloar, Adrian Dunlop
Definitions of addiction have never been more hotly contested. The advance of neuroscientific accounts has not only placed into public awareness a highly controversial explanatory approach, it has also shed new light on the absence of agreement among the many experts who contest it. Proponents argue that calling addiction a 'brain disease' is important because it is destigmatising. Many critics of the neuroscientific approach also agree on this point. Considered from the point of view of the sociology of health and illness, the idea that labelling something a disease will alleviate stigma is a surprising one...
March 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366598/a-practical-framework-for-regulating-for-profit-recreational-marijuana-in-us-states-lessons-from-colorado-and-washington
#20
John T Carnevale, Raanan Kagan, Patrick J Murphy, Josh Esrick
Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states...
March 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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