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International Journal on Drug Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107687/do-recreational-cannabis-users-unlicensed-and-licensed-medical-cannabis-users-form-distinct-groups
#1
Sharon R Sznitman
BACKGROUND: This study aims to gain a more nuanced perspective on the differences between recreationally and medically motivated cannabis use by distinguishing between people who use cannabis for recreational purposes, unlicensed and licensed medical users. METHODS: Data collection was conducted online from a convenience sample of 1479 Israeli cannabis users. Multinomial regression analysis compared unlicensed medical users (38%) with recreational (42%) and licensed medical (5...
January 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107670/pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-oral-and-intravenous-users-in-australia-a-qualitative-comparative-study
#2
George Dertadian, Jenny Iversen, Thomas C Dixon, Katrina Sotiropoulos, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Between 1992 and 2012 dispensing episodes for pharmaceutical opioids (PO) in Australia increased from 500000 to 7500000. In the US, increases in the prescription of PO have been linked to increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality and transitions to heroin injection. However, Australian data indicate that morbidity and mortality related to PO are relatively low, particularly when compared to heroin and other drugs. This paper explores the characteristics and patterns of non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use among a sample of young people in Sydney, Australia...
January 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104571/non-violent-threats-and-promises-among-closed-market-drug-dealers
#3
Timothy Dickinson
BACKGROUND: An unintended consequence of drug prohibitions is that they often fail to absolutely deter potential drug dealers and users and instead restrictively deter them. One way in which dealers sometimes alter their behaviour in response to these prohibitions is by using violent forms of social control to prevent their customers from committing careless behaviour or from becoming police informants. Many dealers, however, are reluctant to use violent forms of social control for various reasons...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104570/high-risk-injecting-behaviour-among-people-who-inject-pharmaceutical-opioids-in-australia
#4
Jenny Iversen, George Dertadian, Louise Geddes, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Use of opioid analgesic medicines has doubled globally over the past decade, with a concomitant increase in prevalence of injection of pharmaceutical opioids (PO), including in Australia. This study investigates types of PO injected, methods used to prepare PO for injection and correlates of recent (last 6 months) PO injection among a large national sample of people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: The Australian NSP Survey (ANSPS), conducted annually at ∼50 NSP services across Australia, consists of a brief self-administered questionnaire and provision of a capillary dried blood spot for HIV and hepatitis C antibody testing...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104548/six-month-outcomes-among-socially-marginalized-alcohol-and-drug-users-attending-a-drop-in-center-allowing-alcohol-consumption
#5
Véronique S Grazioli, Susan E Collins, Sophie Paroz, Caroline Graap, Jean-Bernard Daeppen
BACKGROUND: Despite their experience of substance-related harm, few socially marginalized alcohol and other drug (AOD) users access substance use treatment. Thus, identifying alternative approaches for this population is important. This program evaluation documented substance use and health-related quality of life (QoL) following exposure to such an alternative approach: a harm-reduction drop-in center allowing alcohol consumption onsite. METHODS: Participants (N=85) were socially marginalized AOD users (e...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104547/residential-eviction-and-exposure-to-violence-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada
#6
Mary Clare Kennedy, Ryan McNeil, M-J Milloy, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience markedly elevated rates of physical and sexual violence, as well as housing instability. While previous studies have demonstrated an association between homelessness and increased exposure to violence among PWID, the relationship between residential eviction and violence is unknown. We therefore sought to examine the association between residential eviction and experiencing violence among PWID in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Data were derived from two open prospective cohort studies of PWID: the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) and the AIDS Care Cohort to evaluate Exposure to Survival Services (ACCESS)...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089207/delivery-dilemmas-how-drug-cryptomarket-users-identify-and-seek-to-reduce-their-risk-of-detection-by-law-enforcement
#7
Judith Aldridge, Rebecca Askew
BACKGROUND: Cryptomarkets represent an important drug market innovation by bringing buyers and sellers of illegal drugs together in a 'hidden' yet public online marketplace. We ask: How do cryptomarket drug sellers and buyers perceive the risks of detection and arrest, and attempt to limit them? METHODS: We analyse selected texts produced by vendors operating on the first major drug cryptomarket, Silk Road (N=600) alongside data extracted from the marketplace discussion forum that include buyer perspectives...
January 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081482/following-lives-undergoing-change-flux-study-implementation-and-baseline-prevalence-of-drug-use-in-an-online-cohort-study-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-australia
#8
Mohamed A Hammoud, Fengyi Jin, Louisa Degenhardt, Toby Lea, Lisa Maher, Jeffrey Grierson, Brent Mackie, Marcus Pastorelli, Colin Batrouney, Nicky Bath, Jack Bradley, Garrett P Prestage
BACKGROUND: Drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) is higher than most populations. The use of crystal methamphetamine, erectile dysfunction medication (EDM), and amyl nitrite have been associated with sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM). OBJECTIVE: This paper describes an online prospective observational study of licit and illicit drug use among GBM and explores baseline prevalence of drug use in this sample. Capturing these data poses challenges as participants are required to disclose potentially illegal behaviours in a geographically dispersed country...
January 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063279/unintended-impacts-of-alcohol-restrictions-on-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-in-indigenous-communities-in-queensland-australia
#9
Jan A Robertson, Michelle S Fitts, Alan R Clough
BACKGROUND: 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) with a focus on alcohol restrictions were implemented in 19 discrete Indigenous communities, in 15 Local Government Areas, by the Queensland Government from 2002. Community residents' perceptions and experiences of the impacts of AMPs on local alcohol and drug use are documented. METHODS: A cross-sectional study used quantitative and qualitative survey data collected during 2014-2015 in 10 affected communities. Five had some alcohol available...
January 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041769/theory-and-methods-in-comparative-drug-and-alcohol-policy-research-response-to-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Scott Burris
Comparative drug and alcohol policy analysis (CPA) is alive and well, and the emergence of robust alternatives to strict prohibition provides exciting research opportunities. As a multidisciplinary practice, however, CPA faces several methodological challenges. This commentary builds on a recent review of CPA by Ritter et al. (2016) to argue that the practice is hampered by a hazy definition of policy that leads to confusion in the specification and measurement of the phenomena being studied. This problem is aided and abetted by the all-too-common omission of theory from the conceptualization and presentation of research...
December 29, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034478/drug-policing-assemblages-repressive-drug-policies-and-the-zonal-banning-of-drug-users-in-denmark-s-club-land
#11
Thomas F Søgaard, Esben Houborg, Michael M Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. METHODS: Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes...
December 26, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027812/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-on-cryptomarket-fora-an-exploratory-study-of-characteristics-of-forum-activity-between-nps-buyers-and-vendors
#12
Marie Claire Van Hout, Evelyn Hearne
BACKGROUND: The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. METHODS: This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS...
December 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027484/alcohol-use-screening-and-intervention-by-american-primary-care-providers
#13
Ethan Sahker, Stephan Arndt
BACKGROUND: Regular/chronic drinking, defined by five or more drinks in one sitting on each of five or more occasions in the past 30 days, is a significant problem contributing to negative health outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Regular/chronic and heavy episodic drinking largely goes undetected by primary care providers due to a lack of screening and intervention. The present study explores the extent to which healthcare practitioners screen for alcohol use, provide interventions, and refer to treatment across different types of drinkers...
December 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027483/experiences-of-peer-trainers-in-a-take-home-naloxone-program-results-from-a-qualitative-study
#14
Carley Marshall, Michel Perreault, Léonie Archambault, Diana Milton
BACKGROUND: Take-home naloxone programs (THN) are harm reduction programs with the aim of reducing the number of deaths caused by opioid overdoses. A THN program in Montreal called the PROFAN project was implemented with the goal of reducing overdoses through the use of peer-trainers. Peer-trainers are people who are currently or have previously used drugs, who are trained in overdose prevention and are then responsible for delivering a training session to other individuals who use drugs...
December 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027482/developing-national-best-practice-recommendations-for-harm-reduction-programmes-lessons-learned-from-a-community-based-project
#15
Tara Marie Watson, Carol Strike, Laurel Challacombe, Geoff Demel, Diana Heywood, Nadia Zurba
Through promotion of consistent, evidence-based policy and practice, best practice recommendations can improve service delivery. Nationally relevant best practice recommendations, including guidance for programmes that provide service to people who use drugs, are often created and disseminated by government departments or other national organisations. However, funding priorities do not always align with stakeholder- and community-identified needs for such recommendations, particularly in the case of harm reduction...
December 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988428/attitudes-towards-drug-policies-in-latin-america-results-from-a-latin-american-survey
#16
Andrés Mendiburo-Seguel, Salvador Vargas, Juan C Oyanedel, Francisca Torres, Eduardo Vergara, Mike Hough
BACKGROUND: In recent years Latin American countries have increasingly rejected the traditional prohibitionist paradigm of drug policy, reflecting its failure to reduce either consumption or trafficking. The extent to which these policy trends currently command pubic support is unclear, however. This article goes some way to filling this gap, providing a snapshot of public attitudes towards drug policies in nine Latin American countries. METHODS: The 2014 Annual Survey of the Observatory of Drug Policies and Public Opinion, which has representative population samples, was used to measure public opinion...
December 15, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984762/hcv-prevalence-and-risk-behaviours-among-injectors-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-a-risk-environment-in-hungary-an-expanding-public-health-burden
#17
Anna Tarján, Mária Dudás, Lucas Wiessing, Gergely Horváth, Erzsébet Rusvai, Bálint Tresó, Ágnes Csohán
BACKGROUND: In Hungary a large increase in injecting new psychoactive substances (NPS) coincided with decreasing harm reduction efforts and rising HCV infection. We describe these, and assess changes in HCV prevalence and risk behaviours, 2011-2014, among NPS injectors, using 2011-2015 syringe exchange programme (SEP) data as a key contextual ('risk environment') variable. METHODS: We conducted repeated national sero-behavioural surveys in people who inject drugs (PWID) injecting in the last month and attending SEPs or drug treatment centres (n=399, 2011; 384, 2014), using face-to-face interviews and dried blood-spot samples...
December 13, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956185/assessing-the-added-value-of-european-policy-on-new-psychoactive-substances
#18
Caroline Chatwin
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) are reported to be on the rise throughout Europe, and are often presented as the latest challenge facing drug-policy makers. At the European level, legislation on NPS has existed since 1998. Several evaluations, however, have suggested that this legislation is not effective and the European Commission has submitted a new proposal on NPS seeking to extend its powers in this area. METHODS: This article critically evaluates the new proposal against its predecessor's three main criticisms: (i) being unable to tackle the large number of NPS because of lengthy European legislative approaches, (ii) being reactive rather than proactive, and (iii) lacking options for regulatory and control measures...
December 9, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956184/new-psychoactive-substances-current-health-related-practices-and-challenges-in-responding-to-use-and-harms-in-europe
#19
Alessandro Pirona, Alessandra Bo, Dagmar Hedrich, Marica Ferri, Nadine van Gelder, Isabelle Giraudon, Linda Montanari, Roland Simon, Jane Mounteney
BACKGROUND: The availability of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in Europe has rapidly increased over the last decade. Although prevalence levels of NPS use remain low in the general European population, there are serious concerns associated with more problematic forms of use and harms in particular populations and settings. It has thus become a priority to formulate and implement effective public health responses. However, considerable knowledge gaps remain on current practices as well as on the challenges and needs of European health professionals who are responding to use and harms caused by these substances...
December 9, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939599/i-like-the-old-stuff-better-than-the-new-stuff-subjective-experiences-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#20
Allison Matthews, Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Joe Van Buskirk, Elizabeth Whittaker, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, monitoring systems have identified the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS). While the use of many NPS is minimal and transitory, little is known about which products have potential for capturing the attention of significant proportions of the drug consuming market. The aim of this study was to explore self-reported experiences of three commonly used NPS classes within the Australian context (synthetic cathinones, hallucinogenic phenethylamines and hallucinogenic tryptamines) relative to traditional illicit drug counterparts...
December 8, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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