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International Journal on Drug Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432902/ayahuasca-s-entwined-efficacy-an-ethnographic-study-of-ritual-healing-from-addiction
#1
Piera Talin, Emilia Sanabria
BACKGROUND: A range of studies has demonstrated the efficacy of the psychoactive Amazonian brew ayahuasca in addressing substance addiction. These have revealed that physiological and psychological mechanisms are deeply enmeshed. This article focuses on how interactive ritual contexts support the healing effort. The study of psychedelic-assisted treatments for addiction has much to gain from ethnographic analyses of healing experiences within the particular ecologies of use and care, where these interventions are rendered efficacious...
April 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431794/challenging-the-addiction-health-binary-with-assemblage-thinking-an-analysis-of-consumer-accounts
#2
David Moore, Kiran Pienaar, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Suzanne Fraser
Critical analyses of drug use and 'addiction' have identified a series of binary oppositions between addiction and free will, independence, self-control, responsibility, productivity and autonomy. This critical work has also examined how science, policy and popular discourses frequently characterise addiction as antithetical to health and well-being. Furthermore, those diagnosed with addiction are often understood as indifferent to health and well-being, or as lacking the knowledge or desire required to maintain them...
April 18, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414981/claims-in-vapour-device-e-cigarette-regulation-a-narrative-policy-framework-analysis
#3
Renée O'Leary, Ron Borland, Tim Stockwell, Marjorie MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette (vapour device) is a consumer product undergoing rapid growth, and governments have been adopting regulations on the sale of the devices and their nicotine liquids. Competing claims about vapour devices have ignited a contentious debate in the public health community. What claims have been taken up in the state arena, and how have they possibly influenced regulatory outcomes? METHODS: This study utilized Narrative Policy Framework to analyze the claims made about vapour devices in legislation recommendation reports from Queensland Australia, Canada, and the European Union, and the 2016 deeming rule legislation from the United States, and examined the claims and the regulatory outcomes in these jurisdictions...
April 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410498/smartstart-results-of-a-large-point-of-entry-study-into-preloading-alcohol-and-associated-behaviours
#4
Grant J Devilly, Corey Allen, Kathleen Brown
BACKGROUND: There is a growing trend of preloading with alcohol before entering entertainment districts. It is claimed that this occurs to save money and that preloading may be a good indicator of harmful drinking and risk taking behaviours more generally. No study has collected data from a large sample as the participants entered entertainment districts and measured blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels and self-reported drinking and risk taking behaviours in a systematic way. METHODS: In this research, police and academics worked together to gauge the breadth and depth of preloading behaviours...
April 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395168/cannabis-decriminalization-and-the-age-of-onset-of-cannabis-use
#5
Jakub Červený, Pavla Chomynová, Viktor Mravčík, Jan C van Ours
BACKGROUND: In the Czech Republic in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. METHODS: We use 2012 survey data to examine the effect of a change in cannabis policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We estimate the effect of the policy change using a mixed proportional hazards framework that models the transition to first cannabis use. RESULTS: The change in cannabis policy did not affect the transition to first cannabis use...
April 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377052/from-toques-to-tokes-two-challenges-facing-nationwide-legalization-of-cannabis-in-canada
#6
Daniel Bear
BACKGROUND: In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. METHODS: This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada...
April 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366599/addiction-stigma-and-the-biopolitics-of-liberal-modernity-a-qualitative-analysis
#7
Suzanne Fraser, Kiran Pienaar, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, David Moore, Renata Kokanovic, Carla Treloar, Adrian Dunlop
Definitions of addiction have never been more hotly contested. The advance of neuroscientific accounts has not only placed into public awareness a highly controversial explanatory approach, it has also shed new light on the absence of agreement among the many experts who contest it. Proponents argue that calling addiction a 'brain disease' is important because it is destigmatising. Many critics of the neuroscientific approach also agree on this point. Considered from the point of view of the sociology of health and illness, the idea that labelling something a disease will alleviate stigma is a surprising one...
March 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366598/a-practical-framework-for-regulating-for-profit-recreational-marijuana-in-us-states-lessons-from-colorado-and-washington
#8
John T Carnevale, Raanan Kagan, Patrick J Murphy, Josh Esrick
Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states...
March 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366597/uruguay-s-middle-ground-approach-to-cannabis-legalization
#9
Magdalena Cerdá, Beau Kilmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365192/community-level-policy-responses-to-state-marijuana-legalization-in-washington-state
#10
Julia A Dilley, Laura Hitchcock, Nancy McGroder, Lindsey A Greto, Susan M Richardson
BACKGROUND: Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market...
March 29, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363120/awareness-and-understanding-of-hiv-non-disclosure-case-law-among-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-illicit-drugs-in-a-canadian-setting
#11
Sophie Patterson, Angela Kaida, Gina Ogilvie, Robert Hogg, Valerie Nicholson, Sabina Dobrer, Thomas Kerr, Jean Shoveller, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) ruled that people living with HIV (PLWH) could face criminal charges if they did not disclose their serostatus before sex posing a "realistic possibility" of HIV transmission. Condom-protected vaginal sex with a low (i.e., <1500copies/mL) HIV viral load (VL) incurs no duty to disclose. Awareness and understanding of this ruling remain uncharacterized, particularly among marginalized PLWH. METHODS: We used data from ACCESS, a community-recruited cohort of PLWH who use illicit drugs in Vancouver...
March 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359967/alcohol-related-serious-road-traffic-injuries-between-2000-and-2010-a-new-perspective-to-deal-with-administrative-data-in-australia
#12
Jason Ferris, Jessica Killian, Belinda Lloyd
BACKGROUND: According to the most recent statistics from the World Health Organization, 1.2 million people die or are injured on the world's roads every year. Drink-driving continues to be a major risk factor for road traffic crashes, with 22% of serious road injuries (SRIs) in Victoria involving a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equal to or above the legal driving limit of 0.05g/mL. Use of police and hospital data to determine alcohol involvement in SRIs is not reliable, with researchers using proxy measures such as high alcohol hours (HAH)...
March 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347636/knowledge-of-hepatitis-c-and-treatment-willingness-amongst-people-who-inject-drugs-in-an-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#13
Allison Mah, Mark W Hull, Kora DeBeck, Michael John Milloy, Sabina Dobrer, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is believed to be important in altering risk behaviour, improving engagement in care, and promoting willingness to initiate HCV treatment. We assessed factors associated with HCV knowledge and treatment willingness amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) in an era of direct acting antivirals. METHODS: Data were derived from three prospective cohort studies of PWID in Vancouver, Canada, between June 2014 and May 2015...
March 24, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343115/patterns-of-drinking-and-driving-offenses-among-nightclub-patrons-in-brazil
#14
Gabriela A Wagner, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Brazil has a strict drinking and driving law known as the Brazilian "Dry Law". The aim of the present study was to investigate characteristics associated with the breaking of the Brazilian traffic law, on drinking and driving, at nightclub exit among a representative sample of nightclub patrons in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Portal survey realized with a two-stage cluster sampling survey design to collect data from 2422 patrons at the entrance and 1822 patrons at the exit of 31 nightclubs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343114/seeing-through-the-public-health-smoke-screen-in-drug-policy
#15
Joanne Csete, Daniel Wolfe
In deliberations on drug policy in United Nations fora, a consensus has emerged that drug use and drug dependence should be treated primarily as public health concerns rather than as crimes. But what some member states mean by "public health approach" merits scrutiny. Some governments that espouse treating people who use drugs as "patients, not criminals" still subject them to prison-like detention in the name of drug-dependence treatment or otherwise do not take measures to provide scientifically sound treatment and humane social support to those who need them...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343113/how-four-u-s-states-are-regulating-recreational-marijuana-edibles
#16
Camille Gourdet, Kristen C Giombi, Katherine Kosa, Jenny Wiley, Sheryl Cates
BACKGROUND: Sales of edible marijuana products have been strong in Colorado and Washington State since the legalization of recreational marijuana. Initially, these states did not have comprehensive labelling or packaging requirements in place. In response to increases in marijuana-related emergency room visits and poison control centre calls, additional regulations were implemented. Currently, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington each have passed into law various labelling and packaging requirements for edibles...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343112/the-impact-of-australian-legislative-changes-on-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposures-reported-to-the-new-south-wales-poisons-information-centre
#17
Rose Cairns, Jared A Brown, Naren Gunja, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343063/motives-for-illicit-prescription-drug-use-among-university-students-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Trevor Bennett, Katy Holloway
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of research on the motives for prescription drug misuse (PDM) among university students. However, the overall findings of this research are hard to decipher. Studies use different methods, they examine different drug types, the motives are phrased in various ways, and the results differ widely. In order to make sense of this body of knowledge, it is necessary to synthesise the results across studies and draw out conclusions. METHODS: The research comprises a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the motives of university students for illicit use of four different types of prescription medication (stimulants, analgesics, tranquillisers and sedatives)...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343062/the-material-moral-and-affective-worlds-of-dealing-and-crime-among-young-men-entrenched-in-an-inner-city-drug-scene
#19
Danya Fast, Jean Shoveller, Thomas Kerr
A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336000/high-intensity-cannabis-use-and-hiv-clinical-outcomes-among-hiv-positive-people-who-use-illicit-drugs-in-vancouver-canada
#20
Stephanie Lake, Thomas Kerr, Rielle Capler, Jeannie Shoveller, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: Reforms to the legal status of medical and non-medical cannabis are underway in many jurisdictions, including Canada, as are renewed efforts to scale-up HIV treatment-as-prevention (TasP) initiatives. It has been suggested that high-intensity cannabis use may be associated with sub-optimal HIV treatment outcomes. Thus, using data from a setting with a community-wide treatment-as-prevention (TasP) initiative coinciding with increasing access to medical cannabis, we sought to investigate the possible impact of high-intensity cannabis use on HIV clinical outcomes...
March 20, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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