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International Journal on Drug Policy

Phillip L Marotta, Louisa Gilbert, Assel Terlikbayeva, Elwin Wu, Nabila El-Bassel
BACKGROUND: The criminalization of drug use leads to high rates of drug crime convictions for engaging in injection drug use behaviors, introducing barriers to HIV prevention and drug treatment for PWID. Females (FWID) face unique vulnerabilities to HIV compared to males (MWID) in Kazakhstan. This study examined sex differences in associations between HIV/HCV infection, HIV knowledge, injection drug risk behaviors, and conviction for a drug crime in a sample of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Almaty, Kazakhstan...
September 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jodie Grigg, Monica J Barratt, Simon Lenton
BACKGROUND: Recent drug-related deaths at Australian music festivals have led to increasing concern about the risk of future harm, but contention about how to effectively respond. One hotly debated strategy has been the use of drug detection dogs which currently operate at festivals across Australia, despite claims they are ineffective and contribute to risky drug use practices. This paper aims to investigate responses to the expected presence, and sightings, of drug dogs at the last festival attended...
August 31, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
C McKnight, D C Des Jarlais
Illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF), a category of synthetic opioids 50-100 times more potent than morphine, is increasingly being added to heroin and other drugs in the United States (US). Persons who use drugs (PWUD) are frequently unaware of the presence of fentanyl in drugs. Use of heroin and other drugs containing fentanyl has been linked to sharp increases in opioid mortality. In New York City (NYC), opioid-related mortality increased from 8.2 per 100,000 residents in 2010 to 19.9 per 100,000 residents in 2016; and, in 2016, fentanyl accounted for 44% of NYC overdose deaths...
August 31, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jessica Sischy, Jarrett Blaustein
BACKGROUND: The 2016 United Nations General Assembly's Special Session on the World Drug Problem (UNGASS) was a 'critical moment' in recent global drug policy history. METHODS: This study examines the dynamics and consequences of UNGASS 2016 using documentary analysis and interviews with ten leading international drug reform experts. RESULTS: International consensus relating to the global drug problem remains heavily fractured. This is evident from: the increasingly diverse positions adopted by Member States during the negotiation period leading up to UNGASS; conflicting agendas within and between different United Nations agencies; and the content of the UNGASS Outcome Document...
August 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Iván Flores Martínez, Laura Helena Atuesta
BACKGROUND: Research has shown the substantial impact on mental health for victims of drug-related crime in Mexico, especially individuals who have been heavily exposed to violence. However, the effect of drug-related violence in non-victims has been less studied because causal pathways via indirect violence are more ambiguous. We argue that drug-related violence does have an influence on the mental health of non-victims: For example, because of how violence is publicized by criminal groups, including their use of gruesome killing methods in executions, or via news about government confrontations with these criminal groups...
August 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
David Toro-Tobón, Dedsy Berbesi-Fernandez, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Ángela M Segura-Cardona, Liliana P Montoya-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Colombia has a growing population of young people who inject drugs (PWID). Despite the previously reported association of injection drug use with hepatitis c virus (HCV) in other countries, studies on HCV prevalence in PWID in Colombia are lacking. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, demographics, and correlations of risky injection behaviours in HCV seropositive PWID in four Colombian cities (Armenia, Bogotá, Cúcuta and Pereira). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out between January and June of 2014 that included 918 PWID from four Colombian cities, recruited by Respondent Driven Sampling...
August 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Nicole Vitellone
What's at stake when the syringe becomes a tool for thinking? Reflecting on the production of Social Science of the Syringe, this commentary describes the empirical challenges of encountering injecting drug users directly affected by Harm Reduction policies as significant stakeholders in the expression of drug problems.
August 9, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Dimitrios Liokaftos
The use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs in the past seventy years or so has sparked a number of responses, including heated public debates, the creation of dedicated organisations and drug policies, as well as the emergence of communities of practice and belief in support of or in opposition to the phenomenon. Drug-free, known in the field as 'natural', bodybuilding has been developing since the 1970 s as a response to a dominant bodybuilding culture where the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs has become normalised...
August 9, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kaitlyn Jaffe, Huiru Dong, Anna Godefroy, Davin Boutang, Kanna Hayashi, M-J S Milloy, Thomas Kerr, Lindsey Richardson
BACKGROUND: Informal recycling refers to the street-based collection of discarded materials for reuse, resale, or return to a recycling facility for money. While qualitative research has explored experiences and perceptions of informal recycling, little is known about the scope and exposures associated with informal recycling among people who use drugs (PWUD). METHODS: Using data from two prospective longitudinal cohorts of PWUD, we examined the prevalence of informal recycling and its association with social, structural and health risks, including criminal justice system involvement...
August 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
D Mark Anderson, Daniel I Rees, Erdal Tekin
AIMS: The aim of this research was to determine the association between legalizing medical marijuana and workplace fatalities. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional data on workplace fatalities at the state-year level were analyzed using a multivariate Poisson regression. SETTING: To date, 29 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Although there is increasing concern that legalizing medical marijuana will make workplaces more dangerous, little is known about the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and workplace fatalities...
August 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Magdalena Harris, Tim Rhodes
BACKGROUND: The development of simplified and effective hepatitis C (HCV) pharmaceuticals enables treatment scale up among the most marginalised. This potentiates a promise of viral elimination at the population level but also individual level clinical and non-clinical benefits. Reports of transformative non-clinical outcomes, such as changes in self-worth and substance use, are primarily associated with arduous interferon-based treatments that necessitate intensive care relationships...
August 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Todd Subritzky
The cannabis academic literature is informed by dominant deficit, public health and harm reduction frameworks. However, a large majority of cannabis consumption appears to place outside the scope of these models that prioritise the identification and limitation of negative impacts. As such there are apparent analytical blind spots pertaining to: non-problematic use of cannabis (as defined by Global Commission on Drug Policy); the intersection of medical and recreational intents of use; and pleasure. This paper explores the academic and grey literature relating to the spectrum of wellness to assess its suitability as a framework for cannabis scholars...
August 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Zila M Sanchez, Juliana Y Valente, Adriana Sanudo, Ana Paula D Pereira, Daniela Ribeiro Schneider, Solange Andreoni
INTRODUCTION: A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014/2015 with students in 7th and 8th grades in 72 public schools in 6 Brazilian cities. A total of 5028 students were linked (75, 7%) in at least one of the two waves of follow-up (9 months and 21 months later). The principal research question was whether this 12-lesson program delays the initiation of alcohol, tobacco, inhalants and binge drinking among early adolescents when compared to usual care, that is, no prevention program in Brazilian schools, after 21 months of follow up...
August 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Tom May, Trevor Bennett, Katy Holloway
BACKGROUND: Medically Supervised Injection Centres (MSICs) are legally-sanctioned facilities where users can consume pre-obtained drugs under medical supervision. Although there is a substantial body of research exploring their effectiveness, there have been few attempts to quantify outcomes across studies. In order to determine the impact of the body of research as a whole, outcomes from studies were synthesised using meta-analysis. METHODS: Literature sources were identified through searches in four bibliographic databases...
August 2, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
O'Keefe Daniel, Aitken Campbell, Dietze Paul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Bach Xuan Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Carl A Latkin
BACKGROUND: Data on work productivity lost are an essential component of economic evaluation regarding social issues. However, there has been limited information about the loss of work productivity due to health among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Vietnam. The objectives of this study were to explore health-related work productivity loss between urban and rural MMT patients and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five MMT clinics in Hanoi and Nam Dinh provinces...
August 2, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Karin Tobin, Catie Clyde, Melissa Davey-Rothwell, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Despite promising findings of opioid overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs, overdose continues to be a major cause of mortality. The "cascade of care" is a tool for identifying steps involved in achieving optimal health outcomes. We applied the cascade concept to identify gaps in naloxone use. METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional survey of 353 individuals aged 18 and older who self-reported lifetime history of heroin use...
July 31, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Alexis Crabtree, Nicole Latham, Rob Morgan, Bernadette Pauly, Victoria Bungay, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in harm reduction initiatives for street-involved people who drink alcohol, including non-beverage alcohol such as mouthwash and hand sanitizer. Limited evidence exists to guide these initiatives, and a particular gap is in research that prioritizes the experiences and perspectives of drinkers themselves. This research was conducted to explore the harms of what participants termed "illicit drinking" as perceived by people who engage in it, to characterize the steps this population takes to reduce harms, and to identify additional interventions that may be of benefit...
July 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kylie Valentine, Ciara Smyth, Jamee Newland
BACKGROUND: Policy concern with families has led to the framing of 'good parenting' as a skill set that parents must acquire while 'poor parenting' is linked to a raft of social problems, including child maltreatment. A range of professionals are responsible for monitoring parents for evidence of 'poor parenting', and for reporting those parents to statutory child protection authorities. Little is known about how parents in vulnerable circumstances negotiate these dual pressures of 'good parenting' and surveillance...
July 28, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Susan Nouch, Lesley Gallagher, Margaret Erickson, Rabab Elbaharia, Wendy Zhang, Lu Wang, Nic Bacani, Deborah Kason, Holly Kleban, Laura Knebel, David Hall, Rolando Barrios, Mark Hull
BACKGROUND: Treatment of hepatitis c virus (HCV) with direct-acting-antivirals (DAAs) by family physicians in primary care and addiction settings may allow treatment expansion to inner-city populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID). Real-world data however, suggests high rates of non-attendance to SVR 12 testing. This study examines outcomes of HCV treatment delivered by family physicians working in interdisciplinary treatment programs, integrated into inner-city primary care clinics...
July 23, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
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