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International Journal on Drug Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209284/recognizing-and-regulating-cannabis-as-a-temptation-good
#1
Jonathan P Caulkins
The U.S. appears to be on a path toward legalizing cannabis on the alcohol model, which is to say allowing for-profit corporations to produce, sell, and promote its use. Even after national legalization, it will take decades to observe the full effects on industry structure and behavior, or on use and misuse. However, we should not be surprised if after markets have matured and consumption patterns stabilized, legalization increases acute cannabis intoxication in the U.S. by 40 billion hours per year. This increase in use will be the most important cannabis-specific effect of legalization...
February 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190671/observations-of-the-role-of-science-in-the-united-states-medical-cannabis-state-policies-lessons-learnt
#2
Jelica Grbic, Perilou Goddard, David Ryder
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown cannabis to be effective in the treatment of some medical conditions and there is mounting public and political pressure to enact laws enabling the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. To date, 28 United States (U.S.) states and the District of Columbia have enacted medical cannabis laws. This study sought to identify the main issues pertaining to the development of medical cannabis laws in the U.S, including the role of scientific evidence. METHODS: Data were collected from three groups of participants: government officials, lobbyists and medical professionals involved in the medical cannabis debate in five selected states in the U...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190670/assessing-the-concordance-between-illicit-drug-laws-on-the-books-and-drug-law-enforcement-comparison-of-three-states-on-the-continuum-from-decriminalised-to-punitive
#3
Vendula Belackova, Alison Ritter, Marian Shanahan, Caitlin E Hughes
BACKGROUND: Variations in drug laws, as well as variations in enforcement practice, exist across jurisdictions. This study explored the feasibility of categorising drug laws "on the books" in terms of their punitiveness, and the extent of their concordance with "laws in practice" in a cross-national comparison. METHODS: "Laws on the books", classified with respect to both cannabis and other drug offences in the Czech Republic, NSW (AU) and Florida (USA) were analysed in order to establish an ordinal relationship between the three states...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189980/regulating-cannabis-social-clubs-a-comparative-analysis-of-legal-and-self-regulatory-practices-in-spain-belgium-and-uruguay
#4
Tom Decorte, Mafalda Pardal, Rosario Queirolo, Maria Fernanda Boidi, Constanza Sánchez Avilés, Òscar Parés Franquero
BACKGROUND: Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are a model of non-profit production and distribution of cannabis among a closed circuit of adult cannabis users. CSCs are now operating in several countries around the world, albeit under very different legal regimes and in different socio-political contexts. AIM: In this paper we describe and compare the legal framework and the self-regulatory practices of Cannabis Social Clubs in three countries (Spain, Belgium, and Uruguay)...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189979/poly-drug-use-chemsex-drug-use-and-associations-with-sexual-risk-behaviour-in-hiv-negative-men-who-have-sex-with-men-attending-sexual-health-clinics
#5
Janey Sewell, Ada Miltz, Fiona C Lampe, Valentina Cambiano, Andrew Speakman, Andrew N Phillips, David Stuart, Richard Gilson, David Asboe, Nneka Nwokolo, Amanda Clarke, Simon Collins, Graham Hart, Jonathan Elford, Alison J Rodger
BACKGROUND: Recreational drug use and associated harms continue to be of significant concern in men who have sex with men (MSM) particularly in the context of HIV and STI transmission. METHODS: Data from 1484 HIV-negative or undiagnosed MSM included in the AURAH study, a cross-sectional, self-completed questionnaire study of 2630 individuals from 20 sexual health clinics in the United Kingdom in 2013-2014, was analysed. Two measures of recreational drug use in the previous three months were defined; (i) polydrug use (use of 3 or more recreational drugs) and (ii) chemsex drug use (use of mephedrone, crystal methamphetamine or GHB/GBL)...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189912/medical-cannabis-access-use-and-substitution-for-prescription-opioids-and-other-substances-a-survey-of-authorized-medical-cannabis-patients
#6
Philippe Lucas, Zach Walsh
BACKGROUND: In 2014 Health Canada replaced the Marihuana for Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) with the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR). One of the primary changes in the new program has been to move from a single Licensed Producer (LP) of cannabis to multiple Licensed Producers. This is the first comprehensive survey of patients enrolled in the MMPR. METHODS: Patients registered to purchase cannabis from Tilray, a federally authorized Licenced Producer (LP) within the MMPR, were invited to complete an online survey consisting of 107 questions on demographics, patterns of use, and cannabis substitution effect...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189460/a-policy-guide-to-the-state-of-drug-law-enforcement-research
#7
Lorraine Mazerolle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189459/building-smart-cannabis-policy-from-the-science-up
#8
Susan R B Weiss, Katia D Howlett, Ruben D Baler
Social attitudes and cultural norms around the issue of substance abuse are shifting rapidly around the world, leading to complex and unpredictable consequences. On the positive side, efforts to more intensely disseminate the scientific evidence for the many connections between chronic substance use and the emergence of measurable and discrete brain dysfunctions, has ushered in an evolving climate of acceptance and a new era of improved access to more effective interventions, at least in the United States. On the negative side, there has been a steady erosion in the public perception of the harms associated with the use of popular drugs, especially cannabis...
February 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173985/improving-research-on-drug-law-enforcement
#9
Jonathan P Caulkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173984/into-the-void-regulating-pesticide-use-in-colorado-s-commercial-cannabis-markets
#10
Todd Subritzky, Simone Pettigrew, Simon Lenton
BACKGROUND: In 2014, Colorado implemented the world's first seed-to-sale recreational cannabis market under a commercial model. This paper aims to provide a thick descriptive account that gives insight into the issues and complexities of Colorado's pioneering and evolving attempt to regulate the use of pesticides on commercial cannabis plantations. METHODS: The paper examines multiple data sets including: (i) Colorado State Government documents; (ii) recreational cannabis regulations; (iii) mass and niche media publications (n=175); (iv) face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders, including seniors, regulators and industry executives (n=8); and (v) field notes from relevant conferences and cultivation facility tours in Denver in October, 2016...
February 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171805/beyond-joints-and-brownies-marijuana-concentrates-in-the-legal-landscape-of-wa-state
#11
Beatriz H Carlini, Sharon B Garrett, Robin M Harwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169048/creating-a-drug-law-enforcement-research-agenda
#12
Peter Reuter
Drug law enforcement (DLE) research has been poorly funded relative to drug treatment research. The literature is slight in volume and not yet very insightful. Taking the lack of funding to represent a chronic lack of public interest in the effects of DLE, the article offers a set of suggestions for how to create of a stronger DLE research community.
February 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161577/motivations-for-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-regular-psychostimulant-users-in-australia
#13
Rachel Sutherland, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock, Simon Lenton, Allison Matthews, Caroline Salom, Paul Dietze, Kerryn Butler, Lucinda Burns, Monica J Barratt
BACKGROUND: Examine the motivations for new psychoactive substance (NPS) use amongst a sample of regular psychostimulant users (RPU) in Australia, and determine whether motivations differ across substances. METHOD: Data were obtained from 419 RPU interviewed for the 2014 Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System who reported lifetime NPS use. Based on the most recent NPS used, motivations for use were rated on an 11-point scale (0 'no influence'-10 'maximum influence')...
February 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160736/patterns-of-harm-reduction-service-utilization-and-hiv-incidence-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-ukraine-a-two-part-latent-profile-analysis
#14
Danielle C Ompad, Jiayu Wang, Konstantin Dumchev, Julia Barska, Maria Samko, Oleksandr Zeziulin, Tetiana Saliuk, Olga Varetska, Jack DeHovitz
BACKGROUND: Program utilization patterns are described within a large network of harm reduction service providers in Ukraine. The relationship between utilization patterns and HIV incidence is determined among people who inject drugs (PWID) controlling for oblast-level HIV incidence and treatment/syringe coverage. METHODS: Data were extracted from the network's monitoring and evaluation database (January 2011-September 2014, n=327,758 clients). Latent profile analysis was used to determine harm reduction utilization patterns using the number of HIV tests received annually and the number of condoms, syringes, and services (i...
February 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160735/differential-access-to-syringe-exchange-and-other-prevention-activities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-rural-and-urban-areas-of-puerto-rico
#15
Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Patrick Habecker, Kirk Dombrowski, Angelica Rivera Villegas, Carmen Ana Davila, Yadira Rolón Colón, Sandra Miranda De León
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use and its associated blood-borne infections has become a rapidly increasing problem in rural areas of the US recently. Syringe exchange programs have been shown to be effective for reducing transmission of blood borne infections, however access to these prevention efforts may be limited in rural areas. METHODS: This paper utilizes two separate community samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Puerto Rico to achieve the following research objectives: (1) compare rural and urban access to syringe exchange programs, free sterile syringes and other HIV/HCV prevention activities, and (2) examine whether utilization of prevention activities is associated with lower injection risk behaviors...
February 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160734/causes-of-death-and-expected-years-of-life-lost-among-treated-opioid-dependent-individuals-in-the-united-states-and-taiwan
#16
Kun-Chia Chang, Jung-Der Wang, Andrew Saxon, Abigail G Matthews, George Woody, Yih-Ing Hser
AIMS: This study compared the cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and expected years of life lost (EYLL) among opioid-dependent individuals in the United States and Taiwan. METHODS: Survival data came from two cohorts followed until 2014: The U.S. data were based on a randomized trial of 1267 opioid-dependent participants enrolled between 2006 and 2009; the Taiwan data were from a study of 983 individuals that began in 2006, when opioid agonist treatment (OAT) was implemented in Taiwan...
February 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139329/alternate-policing-strategies-cost-effectiveness-of-cautioning-for-cannabis-offences
#17
Marian Shanahan, Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Tim McSweeney, Beth Ann Griffin
BACKGROUND: There is increasing international interest in alternatives to the use of arrest for minor drug offences. While Australia has been at the forefront in the provision of diversionary programs for minor drug offences there remain key gaps in knowledge about the cost-effectiveness of different approaches. Here we set out to assess the cost-effectiveness of cannabis cautioning schemes whereby police refer minor cannabis use and possession offenders to education and/or treatment instead of arresting and charging them...
January 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131615/the-deterrent-effects-of-australian-street-level-drug-law-enforcement-on-illicit-drug-offending-at-outdoor-music-festivals
#18
Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Vivienne Moxham-Hall, Alison Ritter, Don Weatherburn, Robert MacCoun
BACKGROUND: Australian and international street-level drug law enforcement deploy many strategies in efforts to prevent or deter illicit drug offending. Limited evidence of deterrence exists. This study assessed the likely impacts of four Australian policing strategies on the incidence and nature of drug use and supply at a common policing target: outdoor music festivals. METHODS: A purpose-built national online survey (the Drug Policing Survey) was constructed using five hypothetical experimental vignettes that took into account four policing strategies (High Visibility Policing, Riot Policing, Collaborative Policing, and policing with Drug Detection Dogs) and a counter-factual (no police presence)...
January 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129946/rethinking-flexibilities-in-the-international-drug-control-system-potential-precedents-and-models-for-reforms
#19
John Collins
BACKGROUND: Much international drug policy debate centres on, what policies are permissible under the international drug treaties, whether member states are openly 'breaching' these treaties by changing national regulatory frameworks and shifting priorities away from a 'war on drugs' approach, and what 'flexibility' exists for policy reform and experimentation at national and local levels. Orthodox interpretations hold that the current system is a US-led 'prohibition regime' that was constructed in an extremely repressive and restrictive manner with almost no flexibility for significant national deviations...
January 24, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126684/using-database-linkages-to-monitor-the-continuum-of-care-for-hepatitis-c-virus-among-syringe-exchange-clients-experience-from-a-pilot-intervention
#20
Karli R Hochstatter, Shawnika J Hull, Lauren J Stockman, Laura K Stephens, Heidi K Olson-Streed, William J Ehlenbach, Michael D Repplinger, Elizabeth A Jacobs, Ryan P Westergaard
BACKGROUND: Because many people who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and have poor access to medical care, many HCV-infected PWID remain undiagnosed and unaccounted for in surveillance systems. Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are an under-utilized resource for collecting information missing from surveillance systems. Partnerships with public health agencies represent a potentially innovative approach to studying the HCV epidemic for PWID. The goal of this study was to characterize the HCV care continuum for a cohort of PWID using database linkages...
January 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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