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International Journal on Drug Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716395/-it-ruined-my-life-the-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs-on-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-rural-puerto-rico
#1
R Abadie, C Gelpi-Acosta, C Davila, A Rivera, M Welch-Lazoritz, K Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The War on Drugs has raised the incarceration rates of racial minorities for non-violent drug-related crimes, profoundly stigmatized drug users, and redirected resources from drug prevention and treatment to militarizing federal and local law enforcement. Yet, while some states consider shifting their punitive approach to drug use, to one based on drug treatment and rehabilitation, nothing suggests that these policy shifts are being replicated in Puerto Rico. METHODS: This paper utilizes data from 360 PWID residing in four rural towns in the mountainous area of central Puerto Rico...
July 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689856/restrictions-on-access-to-direct-acting-antivirals-for-people-who-inject-drugs-the-european-hep-core-study-and-the-role-of-patient-groups-in-monitoring-national-hcv-responses
#2
J V Lazarus, K Safreed-Harmon, S R Stumo, M Jauffret-Roustide, M Maticic, T Reic, E Schatz, J Tallada, M Harris
In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat and established the targets of achieving an 80% reduction in new infections and a 65% reduction in deaths from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2030. If European countries are to come close to reaching the WHO targets, they must squarely address the HCV prevention, testing and treatment needs of people who inject drugs (PWID). This viewpoint reports on findings from the 2016 European Hep-CORE study, which was unique in its utilisation of patient groups as a source of hepatitis policy information...
July 6, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688539/us-regional-and-demographic-differences-in-prescription-opioid-and-heroin-related-overdose-hospitalizations
#3
George Jay Unick, Daniel Ciccarone
BACKGROUND: US opioid overdose death rates have increased between 2000 and 2014. While, the increase in prescription opioid use has been linked to the increase in heroin use, there are reasons to view this relationship as a partial explanation for the recent increase in heroin-related harms. This study documents the differences in trends in prescription opioid overdose-related (POD) and heroin overdose-related (HOD) hospitalizations. METHODS: Data come from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2000 through 2014...
July 5, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687187/naloxone-for-heroin-prescription-opioid-and-illicitly-made-fentanyl-overdoses-challenges-and-innovations-responding-to-a-dynamic-epidemic
#4
Nadia Fairbairn, Phillip O Coffin, Alexander Y Walley
Community-based overdose prevention programs first emerged in the 1990's and are now the leading public health intervention for overdose. Key elements of these programs are overdose education and naloxone distribution to people who use opioids and their social networks. We review the evolution of naloxone programming through the heroin overdose era of the 1990's, the prescription opioid era of the 2000's, and the current overdose crisis stemming from the synthetic opioid era of illicitly manufactured fentanyl and its analogues in the 2010's...
July 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683982/research-priorities-to-achieve-universal-access-to-hepatitis-c-prevention-management-and-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#5
Jason Grebely, Julie Bruneau, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Olav Dalgard, Philip Bruggmann, Carla Treloar, Matthew Hickman, Margaret Hellard, Teri Roberts, Levinia Crooks, Håvard Midgard, Sarah Larney, Louisa Degenhardt, Hannu Alho, Jude Byrne, John F Dillon, Jordan J Feld, Graham Foster, David Goldberg, Andrew R Lloyd, Jens Reimer, Geert Robaeys, Marta Torrens, Nat Wright, Icro Maremmani, Brianna L Norton, Alain H Litwin, Gregory J Dore
Globally, it is estimated that 71.1 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including an estimated 7.5 million people who have recently injected drugs (PWID). There is an additional large, but unquantified, burden among those PWID who have ceased injecting. The incidence of HCV infection among current PWID also remains high in many settings. Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease among PWID with HCV infection continues to increase, despite the advent of well-tolerated, simple interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV regimens with cure rates >95%...
July 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683432/cross-border-injection-drug-use-and-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-seropositivity-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-san-diego-california
#6
Danielle Horyniak, Karla D Wagner, Richard F Armenta, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Erik Hendrickson, Richard S Garfein
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are significantly lower among people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Diego, CA, USA compared with PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, located directly across the border. We investigated associations between cross-border injection drug use (IDU), HIV and HCV seroprevalence and engagement in injecting risk behaviours while on each side of the border. METHODS: Using baseline interviews and serologic testing data from STAHR II, a longitudinal cohort study of PWID in San Diego, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between recent (past six months) cross-border IDU and HIV and HCV antibody seropositivity, socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and participants' connections to, and perceptions about Mexico...
July 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673437/-i-didn-t-want-to-let-it-go-too-far-the-decisions-and-experiences-of-people-who-inject-drugs-who-received-a-liver-disease-assessment-as-part-of-a-liver-health-promotion-campaign-the-liverlife-study
#7
Alison D Marshall, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: An open cohort study (LiveRLife) evaluating an intervention integrating non-invasive liver disease assessment via transient elastography (TE) among people who inject drugs (PWID) was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. Participant follow-up occurred 2-16 weeks post-enrolment. It is imperative that PWID understand liver assessment results in order to make informed decisions about their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decisions and experiences of participants who received a liver disease assessment, including interpretation of TE score and subsequent health behaviours, using a health literacy framework...
June 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668695/-what-constitutes-a-problem-producing-alcohol-problems-through-online-counselling-encounters
#8
Michael Savic, Nyssa Ferguson, Victoria Manning, Ramez Bathish, Dan I Lubman
Typically, health policy, practice and research views alcohol and other drug (AOD) 'problems' as objective things waiting to be detected, diagnosed and treated. However, this approach to policy development and treatment downplays the role of clinical practices, tools, discourses, and systems in shaping how AOD use is constituted as a 'problem'. For instance, people might present to AOD treatment with multiple psycho-social concerns, but usually only a singular AOD-associated 'problem' is considered serviceable...
June 29, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668342/animal-house-university-risk-environments-and-the-regulation-of-students-alcohol-use
#9
Blair Wilkinson, Andrew Ivsins
BACKGROUND: This article extends the risk environment framework to understand the factors that universities identify as influencing university students' risky drinking behaviours and universities attempts at managing risky alcohol use on their campuses. METHODS: This article examines data collected as part of qualitative fieldwork on university corporate security services, and others involved in university alcohol policy implementation (e.g., residence services), conducted at five Canadian universities...
June 29, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667880/how-does-the-use-of-multiple-needles-syringes-per-injecting-episode-impact-on-the-measurement-of-individual-level-needle-and-syringe-program-coverage
#10
Daniel O'Keefe, Angus McCormack, Shelley Cogger, Campbell Aitken, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno, Jenny Stafford, Kerryn Butler, Courtney Breen, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Recent work by McCormack et al. (2016) showed that the inclusion of syringe stockpiling improves the measurement of individual-level syringe coverage. We explored whether including the use of a new parameter, multiple sterile syringes per injecting episode, further improves coverage measures. METHODS: Data comes from 838 people who inject drugs, interviewed as part of the 2015 Illicit Drug Reporting System. Along with syringe coverage questions, the survey recorded the number of sterile syringes used on average per injecting episode...
June 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667878/are-dispensaries-indispensable-patient-experiences-of-access-to-cannabis-from-medical-cannabis-dispensaries-in-canada
#11
Rielle Capler, Zach Walsh, Kim Crosby, Lynne Belle-Isle, Susan Holtzman, Philippe Lucas, Robert Callaway
BACKGROUND: In 2001, Canada established a federal program for cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP). Medical cannabis dispensaries (dispensaries) are widely accessed as a source of CTP despite storefront sales of cannabis being illegal. The discrepancy between legal status and social practice has fuelled active debate regarding the role of dispensaries. The present study aims to inform this debate by analysing CTP user experiences with different CTP sources, and comparing dispensary users to those accessing CTP from other sources...
June 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666636/high-hepatitis-c-incidence-in-relation-to-prescription-opioid-injection-and-poly-drug-use-assessing-barriers-to-hepatitis-c-prevention
#12
Svetlana Puzhko, Élise Roy, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Andreea Adelina Artenie, Emmanuel Fortier, Geng Zang, Julie Bruneau
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid (PO) injection and poly-drug use have been associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). Poly-drug use is often a barrier to key HCV preventive programmes including opioid agonist treatment. The contribution of specific drug combinations to high HCV incidence in poly-drug users has not been assessed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap could enhance HCV treatment and prevention efforts. We examined the association between specific drugs and number of drugs used in addition to injected POs, and HCV seroconversion...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666635/initial-outcomes-of-integrated-community-based-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-people-who-inject-drugs-findings-from-the-queensland-injectors-health-network
#13
Leith Morris, Andrew Smirnov, Amanda Kvassay, Ellen Leslie, Rebecca Kavanagh, Nik Alexander, Geoff Davey, Owain Williams, Charles Gilks, Jake Najman
BACKGROUND: Integrated treatment and harm reduction services provide a unique opportunity to facilitate direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected people who inject drugs (PWID). We examine outcomes of community-based delivery of DAA therapy for PWID. METHODS: The Queensland Injectors' Health Network (QuIHN) is a community-based agency providing harm reduction and treatment services. Data (including current injecting, involvement in opioid substitution therapy and other treatment, level of case management support) for participants initiating DAA therapy were collected...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666205/re-examining-blood-donor-deferral-criteria-relating-to-injecting-drug-use
#14
Brendan Quinn, Clive Seed, Anthony Keller, Lisa Maher, David Wilson, Michael Farrell, Sharon Caris, Jennifer Williams, Annie Madden, Alexander Thompson, Joanne Pink, Margaret E Hellard
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Potential Australian blood donors are deferred indefinitely if they report a history of injecting drug use (IDU), or for 12 months if they report having engaged in sexual activity with someone who might have ever injected. Given incremental improvements in blood safety, this study sought to examine whether Australia's IDU-related eligibility criteria reflected current scientific evidence, were consistent with international best practice and, if current IDU-related policies were to be changed, how this should happen...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666204/assessing-support-for-supervised-injection-services-among-community-stakeholders-in-london-canada
#15
Geoff Bardwell, Ayden Scheim, Sanjana Mitra, Thomas Kerr
OBJECTIVES: Few qualitative studies have examined support for supervised injection services (SIS), and these have been restricted to large cities. This study aimed to assess support for SIS among a diverse representation of community stakeholders in London, a mid-sized city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. METHODS: This qualitative study was undertaken as part of the Ontario Integrated Supervised Injection Services Feasibility Study. We used purposive sampling methods to recruit a diversity of key informants (n=20) from five sectors: healthcare; social services; government and municipal services; police and emergency services; and the business and community sector...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666203/understanding-experiences-of-and-rationales-for-sharing-crack-smoking-equipment-a-qualitative-study-with-persons-who-smoke-crack-in-montr%C3%A3-al
#16
Hélène Poliquin, Karine Bertrand, Jorge Flores-Aranda, Élise Roy
BACKGROUND: The distribution of safer crack-smoking equipment has been implemented in several Canadian cities to reduce potential health risks such as transmission of blood borne viruses (BBV). Little is known about the perspectives of persons who smoke crack (PWSC) on sharing crack-smoking materials or using in settings where safer crack-smoking equipment is provided. This paper presents data from the perspective of PWSC in Montréal on their experiences of, and rationales for, sharing crack-smoking equipment, in light of the risks of BBV transmission...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666202/the-impact-of-cocaine-use-in-patients-enrolled-in-opioid-agonist-therapy-in-ontario-canada
#17
Alexandra M Franklyn, Joseph K Eibl, Graham J Gauthier, David Pellegrini, Nancy E Lightfoot, David C Marsh
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy is the gold standard of care for opioid use disorder; however, the efficacy of this treatment may be hindered by concurrent drug use, including the use of cocaine. This study examines the impact of cocaine use on treatment retention, while accounting for various risk factors, including geographic location, age, gender, and first-month cocaine use. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using anonymized electronic medical records from 58 opioid agonist therapy clinics in Ontario between 2011 and 2013...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666143/prevalence-of-prescription-opioid-use-disorder-among-chronic-opioid-therapy-patients-after-health-plan-opioid-dose-and-risk-reduction-initiatives
#18
Michael Von Korff, Rod L Walker, Kathleen Saunders, Susan M Shortreed, Manu Thakral, Michael Parchman, Ryan N Hansen, Evette Ludman, Karen J Sherman, Sascha Dublin
BACKGROUND: No studies have assessed the comparative effectiveness of guideline-recommended interventions to reduce risk of prescription opioid use disorder among chronic opioid therapy (COT) patients. We compared the prevalence of prescription opioid use disorder among COT patients from intervention clinics that had implemented opioid dose and risk reduction initiatives for more than 4 years relative to control clinics that had not. METHODS: After a healthcare system in Washington State implemented interventions to reduce opioid dose and risks, we surveyed 1588 adult primary care COT patients to compare the prevalence of prescription opioid use disorder among COT patients from the intervention and control clinics...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652072/evaluation-of-a-hepatitis-c-education-intervention-with-clients-enrolled-in-methadone-maintenance-and-needle-syringe-programs-in-malaysia
#19
Trena I Mukherjee, Veena Pillai, Siti Hafizah Ali, Frederick L Altice, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Jeffrey A Wickersham
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40%-90% of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia have hepatitis C (HCV). PWID continue to be disproportionately affected by HCV due to their lack of knowledge, perceived risk and interest in HCV treatment. Education interventions may be an effective strategy for increasing HCV knowledge in PWID, and harm reduction services are uniquely positioned to implement and deploy such interventions. METHODS: We recruited 176 clients from methadone maintenance treatment (MMT: N=110) and needle/syringe programs (NSP: N=66) between November 2015 and August 2016...
June 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651113/trends-in-pieds-use-among-male-clients-of-needle-syringe-programs-in-queensland-australia-2007-2015
#20
B Jacka, A Peacock, L Degenhardt, R Bruno, P Clare, R Kemp, A Dev, B Larance
BACKGROUND: Increased utilisation of needle-syringe programs (NSP) by men who inject performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) has been reported. While fewer in number, people who inject PIEDs possess distinct service and knowledge needs compared to other NSP clients. METHODS: Using standardised data from 26 NSP outlets through the Queensland NSP Minimum Data Set (QNSPMDS), trends in occasions of services among males intending to inject PIEDs were assessed using multilevel mixed-effects negative binomial regression, adjusting for month, year, and age, and clustering by site...
June 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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