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History of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730877/from-mental-hygiene-to-mental-health-ideology-discourses-and-practices-in-franco-s-spain-1939-75
#1
Enric J Novella, Ricardo Campos
Based on an analysis of the discourses, the ideological appropriation and the practical influence of mental hygiene in Spanish psychiatry during the early years of the Francoist regime, this article examines its decline and subsequent replacement by the new concept of mental health promoted by the World Health Organization and other international bodies from the mid-twentieth century. The old approach, essentially focused on the prophylaxis of insanity within the framework of a set of interventionist policies of social defence, was thus transformed from the beginning of the 1960s into a much more ambitious and comprehensive project which sought to promote the psychosocial balance and performance of individuals in the context of increasingly socialized health-related discourses and networks of care...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701052/-they-accused-me-of-strangling-her-epilepsy-and-violence-debate-in-croatia-at-the-end-of-the-nineteenth-and-the-beginning-of-the-twentieth-centuries
#2
Martin Kuhar, Stella Fatović-Ferenčić
Nineteenth-century psychiatry shifted its focus to the brain as the seat of mental disorders. With a new understanding of mental disorders arose the need to consult forensic psychiatrists in cases of criminal acts committed by persons with mental illness. This article focuses on three murders committed by 'epileptics' at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries in Croatia. An analysis of these cases will help to situate forensic psychiatry at the turn of the century within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and reveal the authority that forensic experts wielded in the courts...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701049/insane-acquittees-and-insane-convicts-the-rationalization-of-policy-in-nineteenth-century-connecticut
#3
Lawrence B Goodheart
A current situation in Connecticut of whether a violent insane acquittee should be held in a state prison or psychiatric facility raises difficult issues in jurisprudence and medical ethics. Overlooked is that the present case of Francis Anderson reiterates much of the debate over rationalization of policy during the formative nineteenth century. Contrary to theories of social control and state absolutism, governance in Connecticut was largely episodic, indecisive and dilatory over much of the century. The extraordinary urban and industrial transformation at the end of the Gilded Age finally forced a coherent response in keeping with longstanding legal and medical perspectives...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686061/lsd-experiments-by-the-united-states-army
#4
Colin A Ross
Extensive LSD testing was conducted by the US Army at Edgewood Arsenal and other locations from 1955 to 1967. A number of different reports have been produced describing the health effects of this testing, including the Veterans Health Initiative Report in 2003. By and large, these reports gloss over and minimize the short and long-term side effects and complications of this testing. However, the reports themselves document frequent, severe complications of the LSD. These side effects were regarded by the Army as having been directly caused by the LSD exposure...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675314/con-drury-philosopher-and-psychiatrist
#5
John Hayes
Maurice O'Connor Drury (1907-76), an Irish psychiatrist, is best known for his accounts of his close friendship with the eminent twentieth-century philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein. His only book, The Danger of Words (1973), was well received by those who had an interest in the relationship between psychiatry, psychology and philosophy. This article concentrates on Drury's experiences, studies and writings in these fields.
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675309/a-meta-analysis-of-the-core-essence-of-psychopathological-entities-an-historical-exercise-in-phenomenological-psychiatry
#6
Guilherme Messas, Melissa Garcia Tamelini, John Cutting
Two fundamentally different approaches among phenomenological psychopathologists can be discerned. One is what we call fixed essentialism, where the pathognomonic element of, say, schizophrenia is conceived of as a single, enduring and intrinsically morbid way of grasping all entities in the world, including self and body. The other, which we call dialectical essentialism, accounts for the same manifestations of, say, schizophrenia, but through a process which is not life-enduring, and, most critically vis-à-vis the former formulation, is not in itself a single morbid defect: a morbid pattern of world, self and body is achieved by an imbalance between two or more otherwise healthy constituents of the 'normal' human being, whose imbalance and attempts to resolve this - the dialectic - induce the 'morbidity'...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508680/personality-and-destiny-francesco-borromini-portrait-of-a-tormented-soul
#7
Gabriele Cipriani, Luca Cipriani, Mario Di Fiorino
Francesco Borromini, one of the great geniuses of Baroque architecture, was tormented and solitary, and was increasingly frustrated by the fame and success of his rival, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Borromini was an unhappy man, constantly dogged by disaster, quarrelling even with his best patrons and closest friends. In the culmination of one of the fits of depression that overcame the architect more and more frequently as his life progressed, Borromini literally fell on his own sword; he lingered in excruciating pain for 24 hours before dying...
May 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508670/why-did-sigmund-freud-refuse-to-see-pierre-janet-origins-of-psychoanalysis-janet-freud-or-both
#8
Michael Fitzgerald
Pierre Janet and Joseph Breuer were the true originators of psychoanalysis. Freud greatly elaborated on their findings. Freud initially admitted these facts but denied them in later life. Janet discovered the concept transference before Freud.
May 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468551/the-secret-source-of-female-hysteria-the-role-that-syphilis-played-in-the-construction-of-female-sexuality-and-psychoanalysis-in-the-late-nineteenth-and-early-twentieth-centuries
#9
Lois P Rudnick, Alison M Heru
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the unspoken fear of syphilis played a significant role in the development of beliefs about female sexuality. Many women were afraid of sexual relationships with men because they feared contracting syphilis, which was, at that time, untreatable. Women also feared passing this disease on to their children. Women's sexual aversion, or repression, became a focus for Freud and his colleagues, whose theory of psychosexual development was based on their treatment of women...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468549/cesare-lombroso-on-mediumship-and-pathology
#10
Carlos S Alvarado, Massimo Biondi
During the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth, students of pathology such as Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), the author of the excerpt presented here, became involved in observing, investigating and theorizing about the phenomena of Spiritualism, and mediumship in particular. The Classic Text presented here consists of an excerpt from Lombroso's writings which focus on the Italian medium Eusapia Palladino (1854-1918), who greatly influenced Lombroso's beliefs. Lombroso illustrates neglected theoretical ideas combining the interaction of pathology and what seem to be real psychic phenomena that have not received much attention in historical studies...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468544/-shrouded-in-a-dark-fog-comparison-of-the-diagnosis-of-pellagra-in-venice-and-general-paralysis-of-the-insane-in-the-united-kingdom-1840-1900
#11
Egidio Priani
The debate on the causes and the nature of pellagra in Italy during the nineteenth century resembles and evokes the similar debate on General Paralysis of the Insane (GPI) that was growing at the same time in the United Kingdom. Pellagra and GPI had a massive and virulent impact on the populations of Italy and the UK, respectively, and contributed to a great extent to the increase and overcrowding of the asylum populations in these countries. This article compares the two illnesses by examining the features of their nosographic positioning, aetiology and pathogenesis...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198192/concerns-regarding-conclusions-made-about-lsd-treatments-received-25-october-2016
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181451/from-a-religious-view-of-madness-to-religious-mania-the-encyclop%C3%A3-die-pinel-esquirol
#13
Philippe Huneman
This paper focuses on the shift from a concept of insanity understood in terms of religion to another (as entertained by early psychiatry, especially in France) according to which it is believed that forms of madness tinged by religion are difficult to cure. The traditional religious view of madness, as exemplified by Pascal (inter alia), is first illustrated by entries from the Encyclopédie. Then the shift towards a medical view of madness, inspired by Vitalistic physiology, is mapped by entries taken from the same publication...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181446/-insane-criminals-and-the-criminally-insane-criminal-asylums-in-norway-1895-1940
#14
Hilde Dahl
This article looks into the establishment and development of two criminal asylums in Norway. Influenced by international psychiatry and a European reorientation of penal law, the country chose to institutionalize insane criminals and criminally insane in separate asylums. Norway's first criminal asylum was opened in 1895, and a second in 1923, both in Trondheim. Both asylums quickly filled up with patients who often stayed for many years, and some for their entire lives. The official aim of these asylums was to confine and treat dangerous and disruptive lunatics...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165286/the-erudite-humility-of-the-historian-the-critical-epistemology-of-georges-lant%C3%A3-ri-laura
#15
Elisabetta Basso Lorini
This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429964/global-mental-health-autonomy-and-medical-paternalism-reconstructing-the-french-ethical-tradition-in-psychiatry
#16
Tiago Pires Marques
In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398089/post-mortem-in-the-victorian-asylum-practice-purpose-and-findings-at-the-littlemore-county-lunatic-asylum-1886-7
#17
Lynsey T Cullen
This article examines the purpose of the post-mortem in the late Victorian asylum and discusses what the findings reveal about contemporary understanding of mental health. By examining the practice at the Littlemore Asylum of Oxford, the definition of the asylum post-mortem will be questioned and issues of consent and ownership of the dead body explored. It will be argued that the purpose of the examination was partly to appease the demands of the Commissioners in Lunacy, to protect the asylum against accusations of malpractice, and to appease the resident assistant medical officer's own morbid curiosity...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393611/antoine-marie-chambeyron-1797-1851-a-forgotten-disciple-of-jean-etienne-esquirol-1772-1840
#18
Olivier Walusinski
Antoine-Marie Chambeyron (1797-1851) was a disciple of Jean-Etienne Esquirol (1772-1840) that history forgot, undoubtedly because he made no original contribution to psychiatric nosography. In 1827, his interest in the medical-legal status of the insane led him to translate into French and annotate the first medical-legal psychiatric treatise ever published, which was the work of the German philosopher Johann Christoph Hoffbauer (1766-1827). His translation played a role in shaping the French Law of 1838, the first piece of modern legislation aimed at protecting the rights of mental patients and limiting the State's power to confine them arbitrarily...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391708/moral-insanity-and-psychological-disorder-the-hybrid-roots-of-psychiatry
#19
David W Jones
This paper traces the significance of the diagnosis of 'moral insanity' (and the related diagnoses of 'monomania' and ' manie sans délire') to the development of psychiatry as a profession in the nineteenth century. The pioneers of psychiatric thought were motivated to explore such diagnoses because they promised public recognition in the high status surroundings of the criminal court. Some success was achieved in presenting a form of expertise that centred on the ability of the experts to detect quite subtle, 'psychological' forms of dangerous madness within the minds of offenders in France and more extensively in England...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361548/bloody-technology-the-sphygmograph-in-asylum-practice
#20
Jennifer Wallis
The sphygmograph, an instrument to measure and visually chart the pulse, was used by a number of asylum researchers in the late nineteenth century in an attempt to better understand mental disease. In charting the use of such a medical technology in the asylum, this article explores the utility of a practice-oriented approach in the history of psychiatry - as a window onto the alienist profession and as a means of investigating how new medical technologies were assimilated into everyday practice.
March 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
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