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History of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072855/fran%C3%A3-ois-leuret-the-last-moral-therapist
#1
Edward M Brown
By the 1840s French psychiatrists had abandoned Moral Treatment as an individual psychological therapy, as opposed to an institutional practice. One advocate of Moral Treatment, however, would not go along with this movement. In three books and several papers published between 1834 and 1846, François Leuret (1797-1851) advocated aggressive psychological treatment. Recent commentators have understandably concentrated on the controversies surrounding Leuret's practices. What such an approach has failed to make clear, however, is that Leuret had a complex, systematic psychological theory supporting his clinical judgements...
October 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068241/strategic-voices-of-care-and-compassion-describing-the-mad-their-afflictions-and-situations-in-amsterdam-and-utrecht-in-the-seventeenth-and-eighteenth-centuries
#2
Ma Martje Aan de Kerk
Painting a picture of the lives of the early modern mad outside institutions has not yet been done in the Netherlands. However, by looking at notarial documents and admission requests, we can learn more about how the mad were cared for outside the institutions, and the impact their behaviour had on the people close to them. Investigating these sources for both Amsterdam and Utrecht in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries has unravelled a story of community care in which families played a key role and used their options strategically...
October 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027813/classic-text-no-113-final-chapter-from-india-to-the-planet-mars-a-study-of-a-case-of-somnambulism-with-glossolalia-by-th%C3%A3-odore-flournoy-1900
#3
Everton de Oliveira Maraldi, Carlos S Alvarado
Among the many attempts to explain mediumship psychologically at the turn of the century were the efforts of Swiss psychologist Théodore Flournoy (1854-1920). In his well-known book Des Indes à la Planète Mars (1900), translated as From India to the Planet Mars (1900), Flournoy analysed the mediumistic productions of medium Hélène Smith (1861-1929), consisting of accounts of previous lives in France and in India, and material about planet Mars. Flournoy explained the phenomena as a function of cryptomnesia, suggestive influences, and subconscious creativity, analyses that influenced both psychology and psychical research...
October 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956628/rotation-therapy-for-maniacs-melancholics-and-idiots-theory-practice-and-perception-in-european-medical-and-literary-case-histories
#4
Sheila Dickson
This article examines the development and use of rotation therapy in the emerging field of psychiatry at the beginning of the 19th century, and the cross-fertilization between British, Irish, German, French and other European proponents of 'Cox's Swing'. Its short-lived popularity is linked to prevalent Enlightenment thought, to the development of an industrial and technological society, to the modern medical theories of irritability, and to the new practice of 'moral management' of the mentally ill. Case studies documenting the use of the Swing are considered from these perspectives, and are compared with contemporary public reactions in the form of publications in newspapers and of a literary text by German Romantic author Ludwig Achim von Arnim...
September 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130374/book-review-theodore-jun-yoo-it-s-madness-the-politics-of-mental-health-in-colonial-korea-yoo-theodore-jun-it-s-madness-the-politics-of-mental-health-in-colonial-korea-university-of-california-press-oakland-ca-2016-248-pp-9780520289307-65-00-%C3%A2-54-95-hbk
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130373/book-review-youval-rotman-insanity-and-sanctity-in-byzantium-the-ambiguity-of-religious-experience-rotman-youval-insanity-and-sanctity-in-byzantium-the-ambiguity-of-religious-experience-harvard-university-press-cambridge-ma-2016-256-pp-9780674057616-29-95-hbk
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130372/-motility-psychoses-by-erik-str%C3%A3-mgren-1940
#7
German E Berrios, Johan Schioldann
The motility psychoses are a group of acute psychiatric conditions characterized by salient disorders of movement (increased, decreased and disorganized), psychotic experiences, confusion and good prognosis. The debate on whether they are just atypical forms of schizophrenia or manic-depressive insanity or constitute an independent group of psychoses has not yet been settled. Erik Strömgren's classical chapter deals with the history and clinical aspects of the motility psychoses. Based on a historical analysis and an empirical study of a patient cohort, the author draws conclusions on the nature of this clinical group that has stood the test of time well...
December 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776398/-details-on-the-establishment-of-doctor-willis-for-the-cure-of-lunatics-1796
#8
Leonard Smith, Timothy Peters
The 'mad-doctor' Dr Francis Willis achieved national and international celebrity following his successful treatment of King George III's first major episode of insanity in 1788-9. At the time of his summons to attend the King, Willis was a well-established provincial practitioner and madhouse proprietor. An anonymous French visitor published a description of Willis's Lincolnshire madhouse and his therapeutic practices in 1796. The translated text of the full article provides a unique insight into the work of a key figure in the historical development of psychological medicine...
September 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508670/why-did-sigmund-freud-refuse-to-see-pierre-janet-origins-of-psychoanalysis-janet-freud-or-both
#9
Michael Fitzgerald
Pierre Janet and Joseph Breuer were the true originators of psychoanalysis. Freud greatly elaborated on their findings. Freud initially admitted these facts but denied them in later life. Janet discovered the concept transference before Freud.
September 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391708/moral-insanity-and-psychological-disorder-the-hybrid-roots-of-psychiatry
#10
David W Jones
This paper traces the significance of the diagnosis of 'moral insanity' (and the related diagnoses of 'monomania' and ' manie sans délire') to the development of psychiatry as a profession in the nineteenth century. The pioneers of psychiatric thought were motivated to explore such diagnoses because they promised public recognition in the high status surroundings of the criminal court. Some success was achieved in presenting a form of expertise that centred on the ability of the experts to detect quite subtle, 'psychological' forms of dangerous madness within the minds of offenders in France and more extensively in England...
September 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361548/bloody-technology-the-sphygmograph-in-asylum-practice
#11
Jennifer Wallis
The sphygmograph, an instrument to measure and visually chart the pulse, was used by a number of asylum researchers in the late nineteenth century in an attempt to better understand mental disease. In charting the use of such a medical technology in the asylum, this article explores the utility of a practice-oriented approach in the history of psychiatry - as a window onto the alienist profession and as a means of investigating how new medical technologies were assimilated into everyday practice.
September 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829187/mass-killing-under-the-guise-of-ect-the-darkest-chapter-in-the-history-of-biological-psychiatry
#12
G Gazdag, G S Ungvari, H Czech
Following its inception, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), rapidly spread all over the world, including Nazi Germany. Paradoxically, at the same time, the euthanasia programme was started in Germany: the extermination of people with intellectual disabilities and severe psychiatric disorders. In Lower Austria, Dr Emil Gelny, who had been granted a specialist qualification in psychiatry after three months of clinical training, took control of two psychiatric hospitals, in Gugging and Mauer-Öhling. In 1944, he began systematically killing patients with an ECT machine, something that was not practised anywhere else before or after, and remains unprecedented in the history of convulsive therapy...
August 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730877/from-mental-hygiene-to-mental-health-ideology-discourses-and-practices-in-franco-s-spain-1939-75
#13
Enric J Novella, Ricardo Campos
Based on an analysis of the discourses, the ideological appropriation and the practical influence of mental hygiene in Spanish psychiatry during the early years of the Francoist regime, this article examines its decline and subsequent replacement by the new concept of mental health promoted by the World Health Organization and other international bodies from the mid-twentieth century. The old approach, essentially focused on the prophylaxis of insanity within the framework of a set of interventionist policies of social defence, was thus transformed from the beginning of the 1960s into a much more ambitious and comprehensive project which sought to promote the psychosocial balance and performance of individuals in the context of increasingly socialized health-related discourses and networks of care...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701052/-they-accused-me-of-strangling-her-epilepsy-and-violence-debate-in-croatia-at-the-end-of-the-nineteenth-and-the-beginning-of-the-twentieth-centuries
#14
Martin Kuhar, Stella Fatović-Ferenčić
Nineteenth-century psychiatry shifted its focus to the brain as the seat of mental disorders. With a new understanding of mental disorders arose the need to consult forensic psychiatrists in cases of criminal acts committed by persons with mental illness. This article focuses on three murders committed by 'epileptics' at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries in Croatia. An analysis of these cases will help to situate forensic psychiatry at the turn of the century within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and reveal the authority that forensic experts wielded in the courts...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701049/insane-acquittees-and-insane-convicts-the-rationalization-of-policy-in-nineteenth-century-connecticut
#15
Lawrence B Goodheart
A current situation in Connecticut of whether a violent insane acquittee should be held in a state prison or psychiatric facility raises difficult issues in jurisprudence and medical ethics. Overlooked is that the present case of Francis Anderson reiterates much of the debate over rationalization of policy during the formative nineteenth century. Contrary to theories of social control and state absolutism, governance in Connecticut was largely episodic, indecisive and dilatory over much of the century. The extraordinary urban and industrial transformation at the end of the Gilded Age finally forced a coherent response in keeping with longstanding legal and medical perspectives...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686061/lsd-experiments-by-the-united-states-army
#16
Colin A Ross
Extensive LSD testing was conducted by the US Army at Edgewood Arsenal and other locations from 1955 to 1967. A number of different reports have been produced describing the health effects of this testing, including the Veterans Health Initiative Report in 2003. By and large, these reports gloss over and minimize the short and long-term side effects and complications of this testing. However, the reports themselves document frequent, severe complications of the LSD. These side effects were regarded by the Army as having been directly caused by the LSD exposure...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675314/con-drury-philosopher-and-psychiatrist
#17
John Hayes
Maurice O'Connor Drury (1907-76), an Irish psychiatrist, is best known for his accounts of his close friendship with the eminent twentieth-century philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein. His only book, The Danger of Words (1973), was well received by those who had an interest in the relationship between psychiatry, psychology and philosophy. This article concentrates on Drury's experiences, studies and writings in these fields.
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675309/a-meta-analysis-of-the-core-essence-of-psychopathological-entities-an-historical-exercise-in-phenomenological-psychiatry
#18
Guilherme Messas, Melissa Garcia Tamelini, John Cutting
Two fundamentally different approaches among phenomenological psychopathologists can be discerned. One is what we call fixed essentialism, where the pathognomonic element of, say, schizophrenia is conceived of as a single, enduring and intrinsically morbid way of grasping all entities in the world, including self and body. The other, which we call dialectical essentialism, accounts for the same manifestations of, say, schizophrenia, but through a process which is not life-enduring, and, most critically vis-à-vis the former formulation, is not in itself a single morbid defect: a morbid pattern of world, self and body is achieved by an imbalance between two or more otherwise healthy constituents of the 'normal' human being, whose imbalance and attempts to resolve this - the dialectic - induce the 'morbidity'...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468551/the-secret-source-of-female-hysteria-the-role-that-syphilis-played-in-the-construction-of-female-sexuality-and-psychoanalysis-in-the-late-nineteenth-and-early-twentieth-centuries
#19
Lois P Rudnick, Alison M Heru
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the unspoken fear of syphilis played a significant role in the development of beliefs about female sexuality. Many women were afraid of sexual relationships with men because they feared contracting syphilis, which was, at that time, untreatable. Women also feared passing this disease on to their children. Women's sexual aversion, or repression, became a focus for Freud and his colleagues, whose theory of psychosexual development was based on their treatment of women...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468549/cesare-lombroso-on-mediumship-and-pathology
#20
Carlos S Alvarado, Massimo Biondi
During the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth, students of pathology such as Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), the author of the excerpt presented here, became involved in observing, investigating and theorizing about the phenomena of Spiritualism, and mediumship in particular. The Classic Text presented here consists of an excerpt from Lombroso's writings which focus on the Italian medium Eusapia Palladino (1854-1918), who greatly influenced Lombroso's beliefs. Lombroso illustrates neglected theoretical ideas combining the interaction of pathology and what seem to be real psychic phenomena that have not received much attention in historical studies...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
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