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History of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124075/the-views-of-wilhelm-griesinger-1817-68-on-suicidality-or-self-murder
#1
Mareike Gnoth, Heide Glaesmer, Holger Steinberg
To date, little attention has been paid to the fact that a whole section in Wilhelm Griesinger's textbook is devoted to suicidality. Griesinger perceived suicide as a distinct entity. In his opinion, only one-third of all suicides were committed by people suffering from mental disorders; heredity and brain anomalies could also be involved. Therapeutically, Griesinger recommended removing all potential means for suicide and admitting people at risk to a psychiatric hospital. Since his textbook was a standard work, his views reveal what young doctors could have learned about suicidality in German psychiatry of the second half of the nineteenth century...
August 20, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101606/creating-a-new-psychiatry-on-the-origins-of-non-institutional-psychiatry-in-the-usa-1900-50
#2
Andrew Scull
This paper examines the early origins of the shift away from institutional psychiatry in the USA. It focuses on the period between 1900 and 1950. Attention is paid to the role of neurologists and disaffected asylum doctors in the early emergence of extra-institutional practice; to the impact of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene and Thomas Salmon; to the limited role of psychoanalysis during most of this period; and to the influence of the Rockefeller Foundation's decision to focus most of its effort in the medical sciences on psychiatry...
August 13, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101605/a-history-of-the-mind-and-mental-health-in-classical-greek-medical-thought
#3
Chiara Thumiger
This book on ancient medicine offers a unique resource for historians of medicine, historians of psychology, and classicists - and also cultural historians and historians of art. The Hippocratic texts and other contemporary medical sources have often been overlooked when it comes to their approaches to psychology, which are considered more mechanical and less elaborated than contemporary poetic and philosophical representations, but also than later medical works, notably Galenic. This book aims to do justice to early medical accounts by illustrating their richness and sophistication, their links with contemporary cultural products, and the indebtedness of later medicine to their observations...
August 13, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080098/-pinel-of-istanbul-dr-luigi-mongeri-1815-82-and-the-birth-of-modern-psychiatry-in-the-ottoman-empire
#4
Fatih Artvinli
Italian physician/alienist Dr Luigi Mongeri (1815-82), who graduated from the School of Medicine in Pavia and worked as chief physician at Süleymaniye and Toptaşı Lunatic Asylums, introduced important reforms that shaped modern psychiatry in the Ottoman Empire. Because of his projects and practices he was likened to Philippe Pinel (1745-1826), and was called the 'Pinel of Istanbul' or 'Pinel of the Turks'. This article aims to examine the birth of modern psychiatry in the Ottoman Empire, through the biography of Luigi Mongeri and his writings on insanity...
August 6, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044151/stanley-cobb-the-rockefeller-foundation-and-the-evolution-of-american-psychiatry
#5
S Robert Snodgrass
Stanley Cobb founded the Harvard Departments of Neurology (1925) and Psychiatry (1934) with Rockefeller Foundation funding. Cobb was an important transitional figure in both neurology and psychiatry. He and his friend Alan Gregg were the most visible parts of the Rockefeller Foundation psychiatry project, which prepared American psychiatry for the rapid growth of psychiatric research after World War II. Edward Shorter called him the founder of American biological psychiatry, but this misunderstands Cobb and the Hegelian evolution of twentieth-century American psychiatry...
July 25, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028219/mental-disorders-in-commentaries-by-the-late-medieval-theologians-richard-of-middleton-john-duns-scotus-william-ockham-and-gabriel-biel-on-peter-lombard-s-sentences
#6
Vesa Hirvonen
In their commentaries on the Sentences, Richard of Middleton, John Duns Scotus, William Ockham and Gabriel Biel reflect whether mentally-disturbed people can receive the sacraments (Baptism, Eucharist, confession, marriage) and fulfil juridical actions (make a will or take an oath). They consider that the main problem in 'madmen' in relation to the sacraments and legal actions is their lack of the use of reason. Scotus and Ockham especially are interested in the causes of mental disorders and the phenomena which happen in madmen's minds and bodies...
July 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117762/introduction-pow-meng-yap-and-the-culture-bound-syndromes
#7
Ivan Crozier
PM Yap's most significant intellectual achievement was his development of the concept of the culture-bound syndrome, which synthesized years of research into transcultural psychiatry, and situated this work within this field by drawing on elaborated nosological schema that challenged some of the ethnocentric assumptions made by previous psychiatrists who had tried to understand mental illnesses that presented in non-western cultures. This introduction to Yap's 1951 paper emphasizes that Yap needs to be understood as working within the western tradition of transcultural psychiatry, and argues that his English training and his continual engagement with western psychiatric and philosophical frameworks is the best way to conceive of his contributions to this field...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938531/culture-and-psychism-the-ethnopsychoanalysis-of-georges-devereux
#8
Alessandra Cerea
This paper introduces the significant theoretical contribution of Georges Devereux (1908-85) on the relationship between culture and psychism, which he developed in his work at the interface of anthropology, psychoanalysis and quantum epistemology during the mid-twentieth century. Devereux was one of the key early contributors to the field of transcultural psychiatry; he was in touch with its most important exponents, although he remained critical of many of the popular trends developed in this field of research in the USA, where Devereux conducted most of his research between 1932 and 1963...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916267/evaluating-the-aboriginal-child-s-mind-assimilation-and-cross-cultural-psychology-in-australia
#9
David Robertson
This article examines two psychological interventions with Australian Aboriginal children in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first involved evaluating the cognitive maturation of Aboriginal adolescents using a series of Piagetian interviews. The second, a more extensive educational intervention, used a variety of quantitative tests to measure and intervene in the intellectual performance of Aboriginal preschoolers. In both of these interventions the viability of the psychological instruments in the cross-cultural encounter created ongoing ambiguity as to the value of the research outcomes...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860874/henri-collomb-and-the-emergence-of-a-psychiatry-open-to-otherness-through-interdisciplinary-dialogue-in-post-independence-dakar
#10
René Collignon
During decolonization, Henri Collomb was appointed to the first Chair of Psychiatry at the University of Dakar. Using a neuropsychiatric approach, he quickly made significant advances in the field, despite the colonial era's poor legacy of assistance facilities for mentally ill people. Through alliances with professors and researchers from the university Departments of Psychology and Sociology, an original interdisciplinary dialogue was set up to build up a research team which would develop rich and varied activities in the fields of transcultural psychiatry, medical anthropology and psychoanalytic anthropology...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860873/race-alcohol-and-general-paralysis-emil-kraepelin-s-comparative-psychiatry-and-his-trips-to-java-1904-and-north-america-1925
#11
Eric J Engstrom, Ivan Crozier
This article examines Emil Kraepelin's notion of comparative psychiatry and relates it to the clinical research he conducted at psychiatric hospitals in South-East Asia (1904) and the USA (1925). It argues that his research fits awkwardly within the common historiographic narratives of colonial psychiatry. It also disputes claims that his work can be interpreted meaningfully as the fons et origio of transcultural psychiatry. Instead, it argues that his comparative psychiatry was part of a larger neo-Lamarckian project of clinical epidemiology and was thus primarily a reflection of his own long-standing diagnostic practices and research agendas...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756495/historicizing-transcultural-psychiatry-people-epistemic-objects-networks-and-practices
#12
Emmanuel Delille, Ivan Crozier
The history of transcultural psychiatry has recently attracted much historical attention, including a workshop in March 2016 in which an international panel of scholars met at the Maison de Sciences de l'Homme Paris-Nord (MSH-PN). Papers from this workshop are presented here. By conceiving of transcultural psychiatry as a dynamic social field that frames its knowledge claims around epistemic objects that are specific to the field, and by focusing on the ways that concepts within this field are used to organize intellectual work, several themes are explored that draw this field into the historiography of psychiatry...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582691/eric-wittkower-and-the-foundation-of-montr%C3%A3-al-s-transcultural-psychiatry-research-unit-after-world-war-ii
#13
Emmanuel Delille
Eric Wittkower founded McGill University's Transcultural Psychiatry Unit in 1955. One year later, he started the first international newsletter in this academic field: Transcultural Psychiatry. However, at the beginning of his career Wittkower gave no signs that he would be interested in social sciences and psychiatry. This paper describes the historical context of the post-war period, when Wittkower founded the research unit in Montréal. I focus on the history of scientific networks and the circulation of knowledge, and particularly on the exchanges between the French- and English-speaking academic cultures in North America and Europe...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582688/the-politics-and-practice-of-thomas-adeoye-lambo-towards-a-post-colonial-history-of-transcultural-psychiatry
#14
Matthew M Heaton
This article traces the career of Thomas Adeoye Lambo, the first European-trained psychiatrist of indigenous Nigerian (Yoruba) background and one of the key contributors to the international development of transcultural psychiatry from the 1950s to the 1980s. The focus on Lambo provides some political, cultural and geographical balance to the broader history of transcultural psychiatry by emphasizing the contributions to transcultural psychiatric knowledge that have emerged from a particular non-western context...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774797/-brain-disorders-by-henry-calderwood-1879
#15
G E Berrios
Henry Calderwood, a nineteenth-century Scottish philosopher interested in madness, published in 1879 an important work on the interaction between philosophy of mind, the nascent neurosciences and mental disease. Holding a spiritual view of the mind, he considered the phrase 'mental disease' (as Feuchtersleben had in 1845) to be but a misleading metaphor. His analysis of the research work of Ferrier, Clouston, Crichton-Browne, Maudsley, Tuke, Sankey, etc., is detailed, and his views are correct on the very limited explanatory power that their findings had for the understanding of madness...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480074/abrupt-treatments-of-hysteria-during-world-war-i-1914-18
#16
Ad Sandy Macleod
Case reports of the abrupt recovery of hysterical disorders during World War I (1914-18), though undoubtedly subject to publication bias, raise both aetiological and treatment issues regarding pseudo-neurological conversion symptoms. Published clinical anecdotes report circumstantial, psychotherapeutic, hypnotic, persuasive (and coercive) methods seemingly inducing recovery, and also responses to fright and alterations of consciousness. The ethics of modern medical practice would not allow many of these techniques, which were reported to be effective, even in the chronic cases...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480060/-a-more-perfect-arrangement-of-plants-the-botanical-model-in-psychiatric-nosology-1676-to-the-present-day
#17
Daniel Mason, Honor Hsin
Psychiatric classification remains a complex endeavour; since the Enlightenment, nosologists have made use of various models and metaphors to describe their systems. Here we present the most common model, botanical taxonomy, and trace its history from the nosologies of Sydenham, Sauvages and Linnaeus; to evolutionary models; to the later contributions of Hughlings-Jackson, Kraepelin and Jaspers. Over time, there has been a shift from explicit attempts to pattern disease classification on botanical systems, to a more metaphorical use...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480023/-a-matter-for-conjecture-leucotomy-in-western-australia-1947-70
#18
Philippa Martyr, Aleksandar Janca
Very little has been published on the rise and fall of psychosurgery in Australia. In the mid-twentieth century, Western Australia was the largest but most sparsely-populated of the six Australian States, and its local psychiatry practice was, as one commentator put it, 'backward'. Nonetheless, electroconvulsive therapy was introduced in 1945, and leucotomy in 1947. This paper will explore the introduction of leucotomy to Western Australia in the context of wider national and international trends in psychiatry, and posit some reasons for its decline and abandonment in the 1970s...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469637/mental-illness-in-sweden-1896-1905-reflected-through-case-records-from-a-local-general-hospital
#19
Malin Appelquist, Louise Brådvik, Marie Åsberg
Mental illness in a hospital in a medium-sized town in Sweden was studied. Consecutive case records from 1896 to 1905, and also from 2011, were selected. In the historical sample, neurasthenia was the most common diagnosis, followed by affective disorders and alcohol abuse. ICD-10 diagnoses corresponded well with the historical diagnoses. Melancholia resembled modern criteria for depression. Mania, insania simplex and paranoia indicated more severe illness. Abuse was more common among men and hysteria among women...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419314/psychiatry-in-portugal-key-actors-and-conceptual-history-1884-1924
#20
José Morgado Pereira
The aim of this article is the study of psychiatry in Portugal between 1884 and 1924, the period when it became institutionalized, and when works that marked its scientific evolution were published. This paper summarizes the various historiographical approaches, and its approach to the subject is closest to the conceptual history carried out by German Berrios in Cambridge. The study attempts to correlate the key actors and their works with the history of different scientific ideas, its differences, and the influences of foreign authors...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
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