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History of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429964/global-mental-health-autonomy-and-medical-paternalism-reconstructing-the-french-ethical-tradition-in-psychiatry
#1
Tiago Pires Marques
In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398089/post-mortem-in-the-victorian-asylum-practice-purpose-and-findings-at-the-littlemore-county-lunatic-asylum-1886-7
#2
Lynsey T Cullen
This article examines the purpose of the post-mortem in the late Victorian asylum and discusses what the findings reveal about contemporary understanding of mental health. By examining the practice at the Littlemore Asylum of Oxford, the definition of the asylum post-mortem will be questioned and issues of consent and ownership of the dead body explored. It will be argued that the purpose of the examination was partly to appease the demands of the Commissioners in Lunacy, to protect the asylum against accusations of malpractice, and to appease the resident assistant medical officer's own morbid curiosity...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393611/antoine-marie-chambeyron-1797-1851-a-forgotten-disciple-of-jean-etienne-esquirol-1772-1840
#3
Olivier Walusinski
Antoine-Marie Chambeyron (1797-1851) was a disciple of Jean-Etienne Esquirol (1772-1840) that history forgot, undoubtedly because he made no original contribution to psychiatric nosography. In 1827, his interest in the medical-legal status of the insane led him to translate into French and annotate the first medical-legal psychiatric treatise ever published, which was the work of the German philosopher Johann Christoph Hoffbauer (1766-1827). His translation played a role in shaping the French Law of 1838, the first piece of modern legislation aimed at protecting the rights of mental patients and limiting the State's power to confine them arbitrarily...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391708/moral-insanity-and-psychological-disorder-the-hybrid-roots-of-psychiatry
#4
David W Jones
This paper traces the significance of the diagnosis of 'moral insanity' (and the related diagnoses of 'monomania' and ' manie sans délire') to the development of psychiatry as a profession in the nineteenth century. The pioneers of psychiatric thought were motivated to explore such diagnoses because they promised public recognition in the high status surroundings of the criminal court. Some success was achieved in presenting a form of expertise that centred on the ability of the experts to detect quite subtle, 'psychological' forms of dangerous madness within the minds of offenders in France and more extensively in England...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361548/bloody-technology-the-sphygmograph-in-asylum-practice
#5
Jennifer Wallis
The sphygmograph, an instrument to measure and visually chart the pulse, was used by a number of asylum researchers in the late nineteenth century in an attempt to better understand mental disease. In charting the use of such a medical technology in the asylum, this article explores the utility of a practice-oriented approach in the history of psychiatry - as a window onto the alienist profession and as a means of investigating how new medical technologies were assimilated into everyday practice.
March 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350189/the-laboratory-and-the-asylum-francis-walker-mott-and-the-pathological-laboratory-at-london-county-council-lunatic-asylum-claybury-essex-1895-1916
#6
Tatjana Buklijas
London County Council's pathological laboratory in the LCC asylum at Claybury, Essex, was established in 1895 to study the pathology of mental illness. Historians of psychiatry have understood the Claybury laboratory as a predecessor of the Maudsley Hospital in London: not only was this laboratory closed when the Maudsley was opened in 1916, but its director, Frederick Walker Mott, a champion of the 'German' model in psychiatry, was instrumental in the establishment of this institution. Yet, as I argue in this essay, for all the continuities with the Maudsley, the Claybury laboratory should not be seen solely as its predecessor - or as a British answer to continental laboratories such as Theodor Meynert's in Vienna...
March 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198192/letters-to-the-editor
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181451/from-a-religious-view-of-madness-to-religious-mania-the-encyclop%C3%A3-die-pinel-esquirol
#8
Philippe Huneman
This paper focuses on the shift from a concept of insanity understood in terms of religion to another (as entertained by early psychiatry, especially in France) according to which it is believed that forms of madness tinged by religion are difficult to cure. The traditional religious view of madness, as exemplified by Pascal (inter alia), is first illustrated by entries from the Encyclopédie. Then the shift towards a medical view of madness, inspired by Vitalistic physiology, is mapped by entries taken from the same publication...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181446/-insane-criminals-and-the-criminally-insane-criminal-asylums-in-norway-1895-1940
#9
Hilde Dahl
This article looks into the establishment and development of two criminal asylums in Norway. Influenced by international psychiatry and a European reorientation of penal law, the country chose to institutionalize insane criminals and criminally insane in separate asylums. Norway's first criminal asylum was opened in 1895, and a second in 1923, both in Trondheim. Both asylums quickly filled up with patients who often stayed for many years, and some for their entire lives. The official aim of these asylums was to confine and treat dangerous and disruptive lunatics...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165286/the-erudite-humility-of-the-historian-the-critical-epistemology-of-georges-lant%C3%A3-ri-laura
#10
Elisabetta Basso Lorini
This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156149/james-frame-s-the-philosophy-of-insanity-1860
#11
Jonathan Andrews, Chris Philo
Our aim in presenting this Classic Text is to foster wider analytical attention to a fascinating commentary on insanity by a former inmate of Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, James Frame. Despite limited coverage in existing literature, his text (and other writings) have been surprisingly neglected by modern scholars. Frame's Philosophy presents a vivid, affecting, often destigmatizing account of the insane and their institutional provision in Scotland. Derived from extensive first-hand experience, Frame's chronicle eloquently and graphically delineates his own illness and the roles and perspectives of many other actors, from clinicians and managers to patients and relations...
March 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156148/liberty-and-the-individual-the-colony-asylum-in-scotland-and-england
#12
Gillian Allmond
This paper analyses the buildings, spaces and interiors of Bangour Village public asylum for the insane, near Edinburgh, and compares these with an English asylum, Whalley, near Preston, of similar early-twentieth-century date. The village asylum, which developed from a European tradition of rendering the poor productive through 'colonisation', was more enthusiastically and completely adopted in Scotland than in England, perhaps due to differences in asylum culture within the two jurisdictions. 'Liberty' and 'individuality', in particular, were highly valued within Scottish asylum discourses, arguably shaping material provision for the insane poor from the scale of the buildings to the quality of the furnishings...
March 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956649/introduction-histories-of-asylums-insanity-and-psychiatry-in-scotland
#13
Chris Philo, Jonathan Andrews
This paper introduces a special issue on 'Histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland', situating the papers that follow in an outline historiography of work in this field. Using Allan Beveridge's claims in 1993 about the relative lack of research on the history of psychiatry in Scotland, the paper reviews a range of contributions that have emerged since then, loosely distinguishing between 'overviews' - work addressing longer-term trends and broader periods and systems - and more detailed studies of particular 'individuals and institutions'...
March 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834293/-the-head-carver-art-extraordinary-and-the-small-spaces-of-asylum
#14
Cheryl McGeachan
This paper uses the unique collection of Scottish outsider art, labelled Art Extraordinary, as a window into the often neglected small spaces of asylum care in the early twentieth century. By drawing upon materials from the Art Extraordinary collection and its associated archives, this paper demonstrates the importance of incorporating small and everyday spaces of care - such as gardens, paths, studios and boats - into the broader historical narratives of psychiatric care in Scotland. Examples of experiential memorialization and counterpoints to asylum surveillance culture will be illuminated...
March 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510708/a-war-psychiatry-approach-to-warfare-in-the-middle-byzantine-period
#15
Pavlos Ntafoulis
Combat stress cases were traced in historical texts and military manuals on warfare from the Middle Byzantine period; they were mainly labelled as cowardice. Soldiers suffered from nostalgia or exhaustion; officers looked stunned, or could not speak during the battle. Cruel punishments were often enforced. Suicide and alcohol abuse were rarely mentioned. The Byzantines' evacuation system for battle casualties was well organized. Psychological operations were conducted and prisoners-of-war were usually part of them...
December 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496864/esquirol-s-change-of-view-towards-pinel-s-mania-without-delusion
#16
Yohan Trichet, Agnès Lacroix
We recount how Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol (1772-1840) gradually changed his position towards what Philipe Pinel (1745-1826) referred to as mania without delusion. Between 1805 and 1838, Esquirol moved from outright rejection, questioning the very idea of insane persons committing motiveless acts of violence without delusion, to relative acceptance. He eventually incorporated the clinical characteristics of mania without delusion in his description of homicidal monomania, dividing them between reasoning monomania and instinctive monomania...
December 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450799/italian-colonial-psychiatry-outlines-of-a-discipline-and-practical-achievements-in-libya-and-the-horn-of-africa
#17
Marianna Scarfone
This article describes the establishment of psychiatry in Italy's former colonies during the period 1906-43, in terms of the clinical and institutional mechanisms, the underlying theories and the main individuals involved. 'Colonial psychiatry' (variously called 'ethnographic', 'comparative' or 'racial' psychiatry) - the object of which was both to care for mentally afflicted colonists and local people and also to understand and make sense of their pathologies - received most attention in colonial Libya, starting in the first months of the Italian occupation (1911-12) and then taking institutional form in the 1930s; in the colonies of what was known as 'Italian East Africa', on the other hand, less was said about psychiatric care, and practical achievements were correspondingly limited...
December 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378802/natural-kinds-psychiatric-classification-and-the-history-of-the-dsm
#18
Jonathan Y Tsou
This paper addresses philosophical issues concerning whether mental disorders are natural kinds and how the DSM should classify mental disorders. I argue that some mental disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, depression) are natural kinds in the sense that they are natural classes constituted by a set of stable biological mechanisms. I subsequently argue that a theoretical and causal approach to classification would provide a method for classifying natural kinds that is superior to the purely descriptive approach adopted by the DSM since DSM-III My argument suggests that the DSM should classify natural kinds in order to provide predictively useful (i...
December 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895196/from-asylum-to-action-in-scotland-the-emergence-of-the-scottish-union-of-mental-patients-1971-2
#19
Mark Gallagher
By analysing a collection of documents authored by Thomas Ritchie, founder of the Scottish Union of Mental Patients (SUMP), this study recounts the emergence of mental patient unionism at Hartwood Hospital, North Lanarkshire, Scotland. The discourse and action employed by Ritchie and SUMP are understood and situated in relation to intended audiences, social and material conditions of the asylum space, and transformations in cultures beyond the asylum, including nascent industrial strife, social liberalism, civil rights, the London 'underground' and counter-cultures...
November 28, 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895195/a-scottish-poor-law-of-lunacy-poor-law-lunacy-law-and-scotland-s-parochial-asylums
#20
Lauren Farquharson
Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'...
November 28, 2016: History of Psychiatry
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