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History of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756495/historicizing-transcultural-psychiatry-people-epistemic-objects-networks-and-practices
#1
Emmanuel Delille, Ivan Crozier
The history of transcultural psychiatry has recently attracted much historical attention, including a workshop in March 2016 in which an international panel of scholars met at the Maison de Sciences de l'Homme Paris-Nord (MSH-PN). Papers from this workshop are presented here. By conceiving of transcultural psychiatry as a dynamic social field that frames its knowledge claims around epistemic objects that are specific to the field, and by focusing on the ways that concepts within this field are used to organize intellectual work, several themes are explored that draw this field into the historiography of psychiatry...
May 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582691/eric-wittkower-and-the-foundation-of-montr%C3%A3-al-s-transcultural-psychiatry-research-unit-after-world-war-ii
#2
Emmanuel Delille
Eric Wittkower founded McGill University's Transcultural Psychiatry Unit in 1955. One year later, he started the first international newsletter in this academic field: Transcultural Psychiatry. However, at the beginning of his career Wittkower gave no signs that he would be interested in social sciences and psychiatry. This paper describes the historical context of the post-war period, when Wittkower founded the research unit in Montréal. I focus on the history of scientific networks and the circulation of knowledge, and particularly on the exchanges between the French- and English-speaking academic cultures in North America and Europe...
March 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582688/the-politics-and-practice-of-thomas-adeoye-lambo-towards-a-post-colonial-history-of-transcultural-psychiatry
#3
Matthew M Heaton
This article traces the career of Thomas Adeoye Lambo, the first European-trained psychiatrist of indigenous Nigerian (Yoruba) background and one of the key contributors to the international development of transcultural psychiatry from the 1950s to the 1980s. The focus on Lambo provides some political, cultural and geographical balance to the broader history of transcultural psychiatry by emphasizing the contributions to transcultural psychiatric knowledge that have emerged from a particular non-western context...
March 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774797/-brain-disorders-by-henry-calderwood-1879
#4
G E Berrios
Henry Calderwood, a nineteenth-century Scottish philosopher interested in madness, published in 1879 an important work on the interaction between philosophy of mind, the nascent neurosciences and mental disease. Holding a spiritual view of the mind, he considered the phrase 'mental disease' (as Feuchtersleben had in 1845) to be but a misleading metaphor. His analysis of the research work of Ferrier, Clouston, Crichton-Browne, Maudsley, Tuke, Sankey, etc., is detailed, and his views are correct on the very limited explanatory power that their findings had for the understanding of madness...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239665/health-and-hierarchy-soldiers-civilians-and-mental-healthcare-in-scotland-1914-34
#5
Jennifer Farquharson
During the First World War injured servicemen were constructed as a better class of patient than civilians, and their care was prioritized in social and political discourses. For the mentally disordered servicemen themselves, however, these distinctions were permeable and transient. This article will challenge the reality of the 'privileged' service patient in civil asylums in Scotland. By examining the impact of the war on asylum structures, economies and patient health, this study will explore exactly which patients were valued in these difficult years...
March 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185827/eugenics-medicine-and-psychiatry-in-peru
#6
Santiago Stucchi-Portocarrero
Eugenics was defined by Galton as 'the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race'. In Peru, eugenics was related to social medicine and mental hygiene, in accordance with the neo-Lamarckian orientation, that predominated in Latin America. Peruvian eugenists assumed the mission of fighting hereditary and infectious diseases, malnutrition, alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, criminality and everything that threatened the future of the 'Peruvian race'. There were some enthusiastic advocates of 'hard' eugenic measures, such as forced sterilization and eugenic abortion, but these were never officially implemented in Peru (except for the compulsory sterilization campaign during the 1995-2000 period)...
March 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183162/understanding-the-dsm-5-stasis-and-change
#7
Rachel Cooper
This paper aims to understand the DSM-5 through situating it within the context of the historical development of the DSM series. When one looks at the sets of diagnostic criteria, the DSM-5 is strikingly similar to the DSM-IV. I argue that at this level the DSM has become 'locked-in' and difficult to change. At the same time, at the structural, or conceptual, level there have been radical changes, for example in the definition of 'mental disorder', in the role of theory and of values, and in the abandonment of the multiaxial approach to diagnosis...
March 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155608/history-of-lobotomy-in-poland
#8
Kinga Jęczmińska
In Poland, there were 176 cases of prefrontal leucotomy performed by Moniz's method between 1947 and 1951. There were also several cases in which alternative psychosurgical techniques were used: prefrontal topectomy by Bilikiewicz and colleagues, and prefrontal topischemia by Ziemnowicz. This article analyses the following: publications by Choróbski, who performed lobotomy in Poland, and by Korzeniowski, who assessed its short-term results; a report by Bornsztajn, who reviewed general results of the method; and clinical research by Broszkiewicz and by Konieczyńska, who assessed Polish patients in terms of long-term results of lobotomy...
March 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072855/fran%C3%A3-ois-leuret-the-last-moral-therapist
#9
Edward M Brown
By the 1840s French psychiatrists had abandoned Moral Treatment as an individual psychological therapy, as opposed to an institutional practice. One advocate of Moral Treatment, however, would not go along with this movement. In three books and several papers published between 1834 and 1846, François Leuret (1797-1851) advocated aggressive psychological treatment. Recent commentators have understandably concentrated on the controversies surrounding Leuret's practices. What such an approach has failed to make clear, however, is that Leuret had a complex, systematic psychological theory supporting his clinical judgements...
March 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068241/strategic-voices-of-care-and-compassion-describing-the-mad-their-afflictions-and-situations-in-amsterdam-and-utrecht-in-the-seventeenth-and-eighteenth-centuries
#10
Ma Martje Aan de Kerk
Painting a picture of the lives of the early modern mad outside institutions has not yet been done in the Netherlands. However, by looking at notarial documents and admission requests, we can learn more about how the mad were cared for outside the institutions, and the impact their behaviour had on the people close to them. Investigating these sources for both Amsterdam and Utrecht in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries has unravelled a story of community care in which families played a key role and used their options strategically...
March 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027813/final-chapter-from-india-to-the-planet-mars-a-study-of-a-case-of-somnambulism-with-glossolalia-by-th%C3%A3-odore-flournoy-1900
#11
Everton de Oliveira Maraldi, Carlos S Alvarado
Among the many attempts to explain mediumship psychologically at the turn of the century were the efforts of Swiss psychologist Théodore Flournoy (1854-1920). In his well-known book Des Indes à la Planète Mars (1900), translated as From India to the Planet Mars (1900), Flournoy analysed the mediumistic productions of medium Hélène Smith (1861-1929), consisting of accounts of previous lives in France and in India, and material about planet Mars. Flournoy explained the phenomena as a function of cryptomnesia, suggestive influences, and subconscious creativity, analyses that influenced both psychology and psychical research...
March 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956628/rotation-therapy-for-maniacs-melancholics-and-idiots-theory-practice-and-perception-in-european-medical-and-literary-case-histories
#12
Sheila Dickson
This article examines the development and use of rotation therapy in the emerging field of psychiatry at the beginning of the 19th century, and the cross-fertilization between British, Irish, German, French and other European proponents of 'Cox's Swing'. Its short-lived popularity is linked to prevalent Enlightenment thought, to the development of an industrial and technological society, to the modern medical theories of irritability, and to the new practice of 'moral management' of the mentally ill. Case studies documenting the use of the Swing are considered from these perspectives, and are compared with contemporary public reactions in the form of publications in newspapers and of a literary text by German Romantic author Ludwig Achim von Arnim...
March 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480074/abrupt-treatments-of-hysteria-during-world-war-i-1914-18
#13
Ad Sandy Macleod
Case reports of the abrupt recovery of hysterical disorders during World War I (1914-18), though undoubtedly subject to publication bias, raise both aetiological and treatment issues regarding pseudo-neurological conversion symptoms. Published clinical anecdotes report circumstantial, psychotherapeutic, hypnotic, persuasive (and coercive) methods seemingly inducing recovery, and also responses to fright and alterations of consciousness. The ethics of modern medical practice would not allow many of these techniques, which were reported to be effective, even in the chronic cases...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480060/-a-more-perfect-arrangement-of-plants-the-botanical-model-in-psychiatric-nosology-1676-to-the-present-day
#14
Daniel Mason, Honor Hsin
Psychiatric classification remains a complex endeavour; since the Enlightenment, nosologists have made use of various models and metaphors to describe their systems. Here we present the most common model, botanical taxonomy, and trace its history from the nosologies of Sydenham, Sauvages and Linnaeus; to evolutionary models; to the later contributions of Hughlings-Jackson, Kraepelin and Jaspers. Over time, there has been a shift from explicit attempts to pattern disease classification on botanical systems, to a more metaphorical use...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480023/-a-matter-for-conjecture-leucotomy-in-western-australia-1947-70
#15
Philippa Martyr, Aleksandar Janca
Very little has been published on the rise and fall of psychosurgery in Australia. In the mid-twentieth century, Western Australia was the largest but most sparsely-populated of the six Australian States, and its local psychiatry practice was, as one commentator put it, 'backward'. Nonetheless, electroconvulsive therapy was introduced in 1945, and leucotomy in 1947. This paper will explore the introduction of leucotomy to Western Australia in the context of wider national and international trends in psychiatry, and posit some reasons for its decline and abandonment in the 1970s...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469637/mental-illness-in-sweden-1896-1905-reflected-through-case-records-from-a-local-general-hospital
#16
Malin Appelquist, Louise Brådvik, Marie Åsberg
Mental illness in a hospital in a medium-sized town in Sweden was studied. Consecutive case records from 1896 to 1905, and also from 2011, were selected. In the historical sample, neurasthenia was the most common diagnosis, followed by affective disorders and alcohol abuse. ICD-10 diagnoses corresponded well with the historical diagnoses. Melancholia resembled modern criteria for depression. Mania, insania simplex and paranoia indicated more severe illness. Abuse was more common among men and hysteria among women...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419314/psychiatry-in-portugal-key-actors-and-conceptual-history-1884-1924
#17
José Morgado Pereira
The aim of this article is the study of psychiatry in Portugal between 1884 and 1924, the period when it became institutionalized, and when works that marked its scientific evolution were published. This paper summarizes the various historiographical approaches, and its approach to the subject is closest to the conceptual history carried out by German Berrios in Cambridge. The study attempts to correlate the key actors and their works with the history of different scientific ideas, its differences, and the influences of foreign authors...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300104/late-medieval-philosophical-and-theological-discussions-of-mental-disorders-witelo-oresme-gerson
#18
Vesa Hirvonen
No matter from which perspective Witelo, Oresme and Gerson approach mental disorders, they think that madness usually has a bodily, such as a humoral or organic, origin. They do, however, consider divine or demonic causes as possibly being behind immediate causes. According to Witelo and the Parisians, because of a change in the body, madmen's sensory fantasy is disturbed and in this situation their intellect does not act normally, and their will lacks freedom. It is important to realize that, according to the medieval writers, mentally-disordered people have not lost any parts of their soul or their basic potencies...
January 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130372/-motility-psychoses-by-erik-str%C3%A3-mgren-1940
#19
German E Berrios, Johan Schioldann
The motility psychoses are a group of acute psychiatric conditions characterized by salient disorders of movement (increased, decreased and disorganized), psychotic experiences, confusion and good prognosis. The debate on whether they are just atypical forms of schizophrenia or manic-depressive insanity or constitute an independent group of psychoses has not yet been settled. Erik Strömgren's classical chapter deals with the history and clinical aspects of the motility psychoses. Based on a historical analysis and an empirical study of a patient cohort, the author draws conclusions on the nature of this clinical group that has stood the test of time well...
December 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829187/mass-killing-under-the-guise-of-ect-the-darkest-chapter-in-the-history-of-biological-psychiatry
#20
G Gazdag, G S Ungvari, H Czech
Following its inception, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), rapidly spread all over the world, including Nazi Germany. Paradoxically, at the same time, the euthanasia programme was started in Germany: the extermination of people with intellectual disabilities and severe psychiatric disorders. In Lower Austria, Dr Emil Gelny, who had been granted a specialist qualification in psychiatry after three months of clinical training, took control of two psychiatric hospitals, in Gugging and Mauer-Öhling. In 1944, he began systematically killing patients with an ECT machine, something that was not practised anywhere else before or after, and remains unprecedented in the history of convulsive therapy...
December 2017: History of Psychiatry
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