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History of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417695/colonial-surgeon-patrick-hill-1794-1852-unacknowledged-pioneer-of-australian-mental-healthcare
#1
Toby Raeburn, Carol Liston, Jarrad Hickmott, Michelle Cleary
Despite making a substantial contribution to the development of mental health services in colonial Australia, until now the story of Dr Patrick Hill's (1794-1852) life has been overlooked by historians. This paper reviews primary sources including clinical notes, patient lists, letters, government documents and newspaper articles which reveal that Dr Hill was a dedicated physician who played a vital role in the development of Australian mental healthcare. He was held in such esteem that by the time of his sudden death in 1852 he had been elevated to the most senior medical office in New South Wales...
November 12, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382758/psychiatrists-and-mental-health-activism-during-the-final-phase-of-the-franco-regime-and-the-democratic-transition
#2
Rafael Huertas
In the final years of the Franco dictatorship and during the period known as the democratic transition, there were a significant number of protests in the sphere of mental health in Spain. This article analyses the origins and functioning of the Psychiatric Network, which emerged in 1971, its connection to the formation of professional organizations and its role in the reception of anti-psychiatry ideas in Spain. We reach the conclusion that, although the Network's activities took place within a left-wing political and ideological framework, and at such an important time of social change as the end of the dictatorship, its discourse and practices always demonstrated a marked professional approach...
November 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382757/eugenic-concerns-scientific-practices-international-relations-in-the-establishment-of-psychiatric-genetics-in-germany-britain-the-usa-and-scandinavia-c-1910-60
#3
Volker Roelcke
The article describes the emergence of research programmes, institutions and activities of the early protagonists in the field of psychiatric genetics: Ernst Rüdin in Munich, Eliot Slater in London, Franz Kallmann in New York and Erik Essen-Möller in Lund. During the 1930s and well into the Nazi period, the last three had been research fellows at the German Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich. It is documented that there was a continuous mutual exchange of scientific ideas and practices between these actors, and that in all four contexts there were intrinsic relations between eugenic motivations and genetic research, but with specific national adaptations...
November 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299163/ancient-philosophers-on-mental-illness
#4
Marke Ahonen
This article explores how the ancient philosophers from Plato to late antiquity understood mental illness. It outlines when, how and in what kind of contexts the phenomenon of mental illness was recognized in the ancient philosophical texts, how mental illness was understood in terms of the body-mind interaction, and how mental disorders of the medical kind were distinguished from non-medical psychic disturbances. It establishes that, while the philosophers mostly understood mental illness along the lines of ancient medical thinking, their ideas, for example on the nature and location of the soul, informed their theories of mental illness...
October 9, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284919/managing-difficult-and-violent-adolescents-adolescents-difficiles-in-france-a-genealogical-approach
#5
Yannis Gansel
'Difficult adolescent' is a clinical category defined by psychiatrists' expertise. Since the end of the 1990s, it has been extensively used to describe a population of disruptive, violent yet vulnerable adolescents, at the margins of public institutions that manage youth deviancy in France. For the present study, an interconnected network of 49 documents was analysed using a genealogical method in order to provide comprehensive elements in the results. This category found its ecological niche in the 1960s, revealing a moral tension in the use of constraint...
October 4, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251875/amok-a-mirror-of-time-and-people-a-historical-review-of-literature
#6
Hissei Imai, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyohito Okumiya, Kozo Matsubayashi
The conceptualization of psychiatric disorders changes continuously. This study examined 'amok', a culture-bound syndrome related to sudden mass homicide, to elucidate changing and varied concepts. A historical review of 88 English articles revealed that the meanings and assumed causes of amok have changed over time. These changes appear to have been affected by social events, medical discoveries, knowledge of descriptors and occasionally, the benefit to users. In other words, the concept of amok changes depending on the history of society and the knowledge and intention of people at the time...
September 25, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247072/showers-from-a-violent-treatment-to-an-agent-of-cleansing
#7
Stephanie C Cox, Clare Hocking, Deborah Payne
In the early nineteenth century, physicians designed the first manufactured showers for the purpose of curing the insane. Sustained falls of cold water were prescribed to cool hot, inflamed brains, and to instil fear to tame impetuous wills. By the middle of the century showers had appeared in both asylums and prisons, but shower-related deaths led to their decline. Rather than being abandoned, however, the shower was transformed by the use of warm water to economically wash the skins of prison and asylum populations...
September 24, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124075/the-views-of-wilhelm-griesinger-1817-68-on-suicidality-or-self-murder
#8
Mareike Gnoth, Heide Glaesmer, Holger Steinberg
To date, little attention has been paid to the fact that a whole section in Wilhelm Griesinger's textbook is devoted to suicidality. Griesinger perceived suicide as a distinct entity. In his opinion, only one-third of all suicides were committed by people suffering from mental disorders; heredity and brain anomalies could also be involved. Therapeutically, Griesinger recommended removing all potential means for suicide and admitting people at risk to a psychiatric hospital. Since his textbook was a standard work, his views reveal what young doctors could have learned about suicidality in German psychiatry of the second half of the nineteenth century...
August 20, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411645/from-evolutive-paranoia-by-august-wimmer-1902
#9
German E Berrios, Johan Schioldann, Johan Schioldann
Literature on the history of 'paranoia' (as a clinical concept) is large and confusing. This is partly explained by the fact that over the centuries the word 'paranoia' has been made to participate in several convergences (clinical constructs), and hence it has named different forms of behaviour and been linked to different explanatory concepts. The Classic Text that follows provides information on the internal clinical evolution of the last convergence in which 'paranoia' was made to participate. August Wimmer maps the historical changes of ' Verrücktheit' as it happened within the main European psychiatric traditions since the early 19th century...
December 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117762/introduction-pow-meng-yap-and-the-culture-bound-syndromes
#10
Ivan Crozier
PM Yap's most significant intellectual achievement was his development of the concept of the culture-bound syndrome, which synthesized years of research into transcultural psychiatry, and situated this work within this field by drawing on elaborated nosological schema that challenged some of the ethnocentric assumptions made by previous psychiatrists who had tried to understand mental illnesses that presented in non-western cultures. This introduction to Yap's 1951 paper emphasizes that Yap needs to be understood as working within the western tradition of transcultural psychiatry, and argues that his English training and his continual engagement with western psychiatric and philosophical frameworks is the best way to conceive of his contributions to this field...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938531/culture-and-psychism-the-ethnopsychoanalysis-of-georges-devereux
#11
Alessandra Cerea
This paper introduces the significant theoretical contribution of Georges Devereux (1908-85) on the relationship between culture and psychism, which he developed in his work at the interface of anthropology, psychoanalysis and quantum epistemology during the mid-twentieth century. Devereux was one of the key early contributors to the field of transcultural psychiatry; he was in touch with its most important exponents, although he remained critical of many of the popular trends developed in this field of research in the USA, where Devereux conducted most of his research between 1932 and 1963...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916267/evaluating-the-aboriginal-child-s-mind-assimilation-and-cross-cultural-psychology-in-australia
#12
David Robertson
This article examines two psychological interventions with Australian Aboriginal children in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first involved evaluating the cognitive maturation of Aboriginal adolescents using a series of Piagetian interviews. The second, a more extensive educational intervention, used a variety of quantitative tests to measure and intervene in the intellectual performance of Aboriginal preschoolers. In both of these interventions the viability of the psychological instruments in the cross-cultural encounter created ongoing ambiguity as to the value of the research outcomes...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860874/henri-collomb-and-the-emergence-of-a-psychiatry-open-to-otherness-through-interdisciplinary-dialogue-in-post-independence-dakar
#13
René Collignon
During decolonization, Henri Collomb was appointed to the first Chair of Psychiatry at the University of Dakar. Using a neuropsychiatric approach, he quickly made significant advances in the field, despite the colonial era's poor legacy of assistance facilities for mentally ill people. Through alliances with professors and researchers from the university Departments of Psychology and Sociology, an original interdisciplinary dialogue was set up to build up a research team which would develop rich and varied activities in the fields of transcultural psychiatry, medical anthropology and psychoanalytic anthropology...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860873/race-alcohol-and-general-paralysis-emil-kraepelin-s-comparative-psychiatry-and-his-trips-to-java-1904-and-north-america-1925
#14
Eric J Engstrom, Ivan Crozier
This article examines Emil Kraepelin's notion of comparative psychiatry and relates it to the clinical research he conducted at psychiatric hospitals in South-East Asia (1904) and the USA (1925). It argues that his research fits awkwardly within the common historiographic narratives of colonial psychiatry. It also disputes claims that his work can be interpreted meaningfully as the fons et origio of transcultural psychiatry. Instead, it argues that his comparative psychiatry was part of a larger neo-Lamarckian project of clinical epidemiology and was thus primarily a reflection of his own long-standing diagnostic practices and research agendas...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756495/historicizing-transcultural-psychiatry-people-epistemic-objects-networks-and-practices
#15
Emmanuel Delille, Ivan Crozier
The history of transcultural psychiatry has recently attracted much historical attention, including a workshop in March 2016 in which an international panel of scholars met at the Maison de Sciences de l'Homme Paris-Nord (MSH-PN). Papers from this workshop are presented here. By conceiving of transcultural psychiatry as a dynamic social field that frames its knowledge claims around epistemic objects that are specific to the field, and by focusing on the ways that concepts within this field are used to organize intellectual work, several themes are explored that draw this field into the historiography of psychiatry...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582691/eric-wittkower-and-the-foundation-of-montr%C3%A3-al-s-transcultural-psychiatry-research-unit-after-world-war-ii
#16
Emmanuel Delille
Eric Wittkower founded McGill University's Transcultural Psychiatry Unit in 1955. One year later, he started the first international newsletter in this academic field: Transcultural Psychiatry. However, at the beginning of his career Wittkower gave no signs that he would be interested in social sciences and psychiatry. This paper describes the historical context of the post-war period, when Wittkower founded the research unit in Montréal. I focus on the history of scientific networks and the circulation of knowledge, and particularly on the exchanges between the French- and English-speaking academic cultures in North America and Europe...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582688/the-politics-and-practice-of-thomas-adeoye-lambo-towards-a-post-colonial-history-of-transcultural-psychiatry
#17
Matthew M Heaton
This article traces the career of Thomas Adeoye Lambo, the first European-trained psychiatrist of indigenous Nigerian (Yoruba) background and one of the key contributors to the international development of transcultural psychiatry from the 1950s to the 1980s. The focus on Lambo provides some political, cultural and geographical balance to the broader history of transcultural psychiatry by emphasizing the contributions to transcultural psychiatric knowledge that have emerged from a particular non-western context...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101606/creating-a-new-psychiatry-on-the-origins-of-non-institutional-psychiatry-in-the-usa-1900-50
#18
Andrew Scull
This paper examines the early origins of the shift away from institutional psychiatry in the USA. It focuses on the period between 1900 and 1950. Attention is paid to the role of neurologists and disaffected asylum doctors in the early emergence of extra-institutional practice; to the impact of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene and Thomas Salmon; to the limited role of psychoanalysis during most of this period; and to the influence of the Rockefeller Foundation's decision to focus most of its effort in the medical sciences on psychiatry...
August 13, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101605/a-history-of-the-mind-and-mental-health-in-classical-greek-medical-thought
#19
Chiara Thumiger
This book on ancient medicine offers a unique resource for historians of medicine, historians of psychology, and classicists - and also cultural historians and historians of art. The Hippocratic texts and other contemporary medical sources have often been overlooked when it comes to their approaches to psychology, which are considered more mechanical and less elaborated than contemporary poetic and philosophical representations, but also than later medical works, notably Galenic. This book aims to do justice to early medical accounts by illustrating their richness and sophistication, their links with contemporary cultural products, and the indebtedness of later medicine to their observations...
August 13, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080098/-pinel-of-istanbul-dr-luigi-mongeri-1815-82-and-the-birth-of-modern-psychiatry-in-the-ottoman-empire
#20
Fatih Artvinli
Italian physician/alienist Dr Luigi Mongeri (1815-82), who graduated from the School of Medicine in Pavia and worked as chief physician at Süleymaniye and Toptaşı Lunatic Asylums, introduced important reforms that shaped modern psychiatry in the Ottoman Empire. Because of his projects and practices he was likened to Philippe Pinel (1745-1826), and was called the 'Pinel of Istanbul' or 'Pinel of the Turks'. This article aims to examine the birth of modern psychiatry in the Ottoman Empire, through the biography of Luigi Mongeri and his writings on insanity...
August 6, 2018: History of Psychiatry
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