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Behavioural Pharmacology

Lais S Rodrigues, Ana C D Noseda, Adriano D S Targa, Mariana F Aurich, Marcelo M S Lima
Hyposmia is found in Parkinsonian patients decades before the onset of motor disorders. The same occurs with sleep disorders, especially infuencing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which affect a large percentage of people who have Parkinson's disease. These two disturbances presumably are closely related to a dopaminergic dysfunction. Therefore, we propose that selective lesions, induced by rotenone, of the periglomerular neurons within the olfactory bulb or of the nigrostriatal pathway could result in hyposmia...
September 14, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Adjia Hamadjida, Imane Frouni, Cynthia Kwan, Philippe Huot
The quest to better understand the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to find new therapies to provide greater relief to affected patients continues. The use of animal models of PD has been invaluable in the process. Here, we review, through a historical lens, some of the contribution of the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat and of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned nonhuman primate, in refining our understanding of PD and its treatment-related complications. We examine the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, and then explore some of the advances at the molecular, pharmacological, electrophysiological and surgical levels made while experimenting on these animal models...
September 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Gernot Riedel, Lianne Robinson, Barry Crouch
Behavioural flexibility is the ability to switch between tasks and strategies following a change in rules, and involves intact functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex. Impairments of behavioural flexibility have frequently been reported in patients with schizophrenia and rodents with disruption/dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. The discovery of a mutation in the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene in the 129 mouse strain suggests that these mice may be exploited as a 'naturally occurring' model of schizophrenia...
September 12, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kathryn L Schwienteck, S Stevens Negus, Matthew L Banks
Sex differences in μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist-induced antinociception have been reported in nonhuman primates. The degree to which μ-opioid receptor agonist sex differences in nonhuman primates extend to other behavioral endpoints remains unknown. The present study compared the behavioral effects of three MOR ligands (fentanyl, buprenorphine, and naltrexone) that varied in efficacy to stimulate [S]-GTPγS binding (from highest to lowest: fentanyl, buprenorphine, and naltrexone) in male and female rhesus monkeys...
September 12, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Paul Willner, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason, Katarzyna Tota-Glowczyk, Ewa Litwa, Monika Niemczyk, Mariusz Papp
A recent review proposed four criteria for an animal model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD): a phenotypic resemblance to a risk factor for depression; enhanced response to stress; nonresponse to antidepressant drugs and response to treatments effective in TRD, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the prefrontal cortex or ketamine. Chronic mild stress (CMS) provides a valid model of depression; the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is considered to be nonresponsive to antidepressant drugs. Here, we applied CMS to WKY rats...
September 10, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Susan Schenk, Quenten Highgate
Most studies on discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have been conducted using a relatively low dose (1.5 mg/kg), and those studies have invariably implicated serotonergic mechanisms. In contrast, dopaminergic mechanisms mediate the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine (AMPH). Some studies have suggested that the discriminative stimulus effects of a higher (3.0 mg/kg) dose of MDMA might rely on both serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms. This study aimed to determine effects of selective dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) antagonists on the discriminative stimulus properties of AMPH (0...
September 7, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Ruth E Grahn, Brian A Kalman, Jennifer A Vlasaty, Jaclyn A Perna, Christine Nevins-Herbert, Stephanie M Patton, Leah K Barison
The extent to which rats express anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze (EPM) depends on their previous maze experience. Open-arm avoidance develops in maze-experienced rats, and is often accompanied by a diminished anxiolytic response to benzodiazepines. Regions of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats using c-Fos and serotonin immunohistochemistry following a single exposure, a second exposure or no exposure to the EPM. We then examined the effect of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5 mg/kg) on EPM behavior and DRN neural activity...
August 30, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Lorna Hardy, Steph Parker, Lucie Hartley, Lee Hogarth
Concurrent choice tasks, where participants choose between a drug versus natural reward, predict dependence vulnerability in animals and humans. However, the sensitivity of concurrent choice tasks to multiple risk factors in treatment-engaged drug users has not been comprehensively tested. In experiment 1, 33 recently hospitalized smokers who were engaged with the smoking cessation service made forced choices between enlarging pictures of people smoking versus not smoking. In experiment 2, 48 drinkers who were engaged in an outpatient alcohol treatment service made forced choices between enlarging pictures of alcohol versus food...
August 30, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Klaus Schiene, Wolfgang Schröder, Klaus Linz, Stefanie Frosch, Thomas M Tzschentke, Thomas Christoph, Jennifer Y Xie, Frank Porreca
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of cebranopadol in two rodent models of visceral pain. Cebranopadol is a first-in-class analgesic with agonist activity at the nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide receptor and classical µ-, δ- and κ-opioid peptide receptors. Colitis was induced in Naval Medical Research Institute mice by intra-rectal infusion of mustard oil. The effects of intravenous cebranopadol pretreatment on spontaneous pain behaviours and referred allodynia and hyperalgesia were assessed...
August 29, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Man Li, Weiwen Wang, Lan Sun, Wei Du, Hao Zhou, Feng Shao
Isolation rearing produces significant behavioral and neurochemical dysfunctions in rodents, which resemble the symptoms of schizophrenia. Clozapine, one of the atypical antipsychotics, is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia patients and in experimental studies. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either group-reared or isolation-reared conditions during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. During PNDs 46-55, the rats were subjected to chronic clozapine (1.0 mg/kg for 10 days) or saline treatment...
August 28, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Jessica M Povroznik, Jenny E Ozga, Cole V Haar, Elizabeth B Engler-Chiurazzi
Stroke is a worldwide leading cause of death and long-term disability with concurrent secondary consequences that are largely comprised of mood dysfunction, as well as sensory, motor, and cognitive deficits. This review focuses on the cognitive deficits associated with stroke specific to executive dysfunction (including decision making, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) in humans, nonhuman primates, and additional animal models. Further, we review some of the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the individual components of executive dysfunction and their neuroanatomical substrates after stroke, with an emphasis on the changes that occur during biogenic monoamine neurotransmission...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Jenny E Ozga, Jessica M Povroznik, Elizabeth B Engler-Chiurazzi, Cole Vonder Haar
Executive function is an umbrella term that includes cognitive processes such as decision-making, impulse control, attention, behavioral flexibility, and working memory. Each of these processes depends largely upon monoaminergic (dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic) neurotransmission in the frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, among other brain areas. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces disruptions in monoaminergic signaling along several steps in the neurotransmission process - synthesis, distribution, and breakdown - and in turn, produces long-lasting deficits in several executive function domains...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Zahra Bahari, Gholam H Meftahi, Mohammad A Meftahi
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in mediating executive functions and orchestrating the way in which we think, decide, and behave. Many studies have shown that PFC neurons not only play a major role in mediating behavioral responses to stress but are also sensitive to stress and undergo remodeling following stress exposure. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a result of stress initiates a flood of alterations in prefrontal neurotransmitter release. Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the PFC is involved in the modulation of stress responsiveness...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Bergman Jack, Vanderschuren Louk, Ellenbroek Bart, Willner Paul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Priscilla P Oomen, Hendrika H van Hell, Matthijs G Bossong
Cannabis remains the most frequently used illicit drug worldwide. It produces a broad range of acute effects, such as euphoria, increased heart rate and perceptual alterations. Over the last few decades, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted to provide insight into the acute effects of cannabis on cognition. Here, we systematically review studies that investigated the impact of administration of cannabis or [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, on human executive function, in particular, on the three principal domains of inhibition, working memory and reasoning/association...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Bolton K H Chau, Huw Jarvis, Chun-Kit Law, Trevor T-J Chong
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a heterogeneous area that is critical to reward-based decision-making. In particular, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex are frequently implicated in different aspects of choice behaviour. These regions receive projections from midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons and, in turn, project to other key dopaminergic regions such as the striatum. However, our current understanding of the role of DA in reward-based processes is based mainly on studies of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and striatal DA release from nonhuman animal models...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Miao-Kun Sun
Executive functioning is a high-level cognitive ability, regulating other abilities and behaviors to achieve desired goals. A typical executive task can be defined as the capacity to maintain one's attention on the current task, that is, responding only to the correct but not to distractive stimuli. Impairments of executive functions, or executive dysfunctions, have a growing impact on everyday life and academic achievement and are usually an early feature, and one of the core features, in brain injury and memory and behavioral disorders...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Pablo Roman, Lola Rueda-Ruzafa, Diana Cardona, Alda Cortes-Rodríguez
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication and social interactions, and repetitive behavioural patterns. These patterns are believed to be dysfunctional symptoms in executive processing, which impact other cognitive functions such as attention or cognitive flexibility. In recent years, several studies have shown that certain intestinal bacteria may play a role in shaping cognitive networks encompassing emotional and social domains. A microbiota-gut-brain axis is known to exist, establishing several mechanisms by which microbiota may modulate brain development, function and behaviour, including immune, endocrine and neural pathways...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Madison R Carr, Taco J de Vries, Tommy Pattij
Studies manipulating neural activity acutely with optogenetic or chemogenetic intervention in behaving rodents have increased considerably in recent years. More often, these circuit-level neural manipulations are tested within an existing framework of behavioural testing that strives to model complex executive functions or symptomologies relevant to multidimensional psychiatric disorders in humans, such as attentional control deficits, impulsivity or behavioural (in)flexibility. This methods perspective argues in favour of carefully implementing these acute circuit-based approaches to better understand and model cognitive symptomologies or their similar isomorphic animal behaviours, which often arise and persist in overlapping brain circuitries...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Natalia Schwarzkopf, Patricia Lagos, Atilio Falconi, Cecilia Scorza, Pablo Torterolo
Caffeine is a common active adulterant found in illicit drugs of abuse, including coca paste (CP). CP is a smokable form of cocaine mainly consumed in South America, produced during the cocaine-extraction process. CP has high abuse liability and its chronic consumption induces severe sleep-wake alterations. However, the effect of CP on the sleep-wake cycle and the effect of the presence of caffeine as an adulterant remain unknown. We studied the effect of an acute intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of a representative CP sample adulterated with caffeine (CP1) on the rat sleep-wake cycle...
September 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
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