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Behavioural Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926574/neural-activity-memory-and-dementias-serotonergic-markers
#1
Alfredo Meneses
Dysfunctional memory seems to be a key component of diverse dementias and other neuropsychiatric disorders; unfortunately, no effective treatment exists for this, probably because of the absence of neural biomarkers accompanying it. Diverse neurotransmission systems have been implicated in memory, including serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). There are multiple serotonergic pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species and neural markers providing new insights into memory functions and dysfunctions...
December 6, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926573/further-delineation-between-typical-and-atypical-dopamine-uptake-inhibitors-effects-on-food-maintained-behavior-and-food-consumption
#2
Jonathan M Slezak, Rajeev I Desai, Jonathan L Katz
The present studies compared the acute effects of benztropine analogs (4-Cl-BZT, JHW 007, AHN 1-055), which are atypical dopamine uptake inhibitors, with those of the standard dopamine uptake inhibitors GBR 12909 and cocaine, on the reinforcing efficacy of food and food intake in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Repeated drug effects of JHW 007 on food intake were also determined. The number of ratios completed under a progressive-ratio schedule of food delivery was used as an index of reinforcing efficacy. Food intake was determined by measuring powdered laboratory-chow consumption during daily 40 min food-availability time periods...
December 6, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922542/generalization-of-serotonin-and-dopamine-ligands-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-different-doses-of-%C3%A2-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
#3
Jeremy I Webster, David N Harper, Susan Schenk
Studies that have attributed the discriminative stimulus effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) to serotonergic mechanisms typically use a relatively low training dose of 1.5 mg/kg. The role of serotonin in the discriminative stimulus effects of higher doses of MDMA is, however, unknown. Separate groups of rats were trained to discriminate MDMA (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg) from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced drug-discrimination procedure. Generalization tests were carried out with a range of serotonin and dopamine ligands...
December 2, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922541/effects-of-the-5-ht1a-receptor-agonists-buspirone-and-8-oh-dpat-on-pupil-size-in-common-marmosets
#4
Manato Kotani, Naoko Urushino, Itaru Natsutani, Yuji Ogi, Kazuhito Ikeda
As pupil size is affected by psychotropic drugs in all mammals, it has been used as a well-established clinical indicator for the preclinical and clinical development of novel drugs. It has been reported that activation of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor differently affects pupil response in rodents (mydriasis) and humans (miosis). Thus, it is important to establish a quantitative system for measuring pupil size using other species, such as nonhuman primates. Common marmosets have recently attracted a great deal of attention as suitable experimental animals in the psychoneurological field because of handling ease compared with other nonhuman primates and the requirement for small amounts of test drugs...
December 2, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906750/role-of-orexin-2-and-cb1-receptors-within-the-periaqueductal-gray-matter-in-lateral-hypothalamic-induced-antinociception-in-rats
#5
Mohammad-Hossein Esmaeili, Zahra Reisi, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Abbas Haghparast
Orexin plays an important role in pain modulation. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors (Ox1r and Ox2r) are found at high density in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG). Our previous study showed that chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus with carbachol induces antinociception in the tail-flick test, a model of acute pain, and Ox1r-mediated antinociception in the vlPAG is modulated by the activity of vlPAG CB1 receptors. In the current study, TCS OX2 29, an Ox2r antagonist (5, 15, 50, 150, and 500 nmol/l), was microinjected into the vlPAG 5 min before the administration of carbachol (125 nmol/l)...
November 30, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779493/participation-of-hippocampal-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-in-the-modulation-of-behavioral-responses-elicited-by-the-rat-forced-swimming-test
#6
Amanda J Sales, Vinícius A Hiroaki-Sato, Sâmia R L Joca
Systemic or hippocampal administration of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors induces antidepressant-like effects in animals, implicating increased hippocampal levels of NO in the neurobiology of depression. However, the role played by different NO synthase in this process has not been clearly defined. As stress is able to induce neuroinflammatory mechanisms and trigger the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the brain, as well as upregulate neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible differential contribution of hippocampal iNOS and nNOS in the modulation of the consequences of stress elicited by the forced swimming test...
October 24, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763892/neuroinflammatory-response-to-experimental-stroke-is-inhibited-by-boldine
#7
Neila Maria R de Lima, Emerson de O Ferreira, Mara Yone S D Fernandes, Francisco Arnaldo V de Lima, Kelly Rose T Neves, Marta Regina S do Carmo, Geanne M de Andrade
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of ischemic brain damage. Astrocyte activation promotes the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and iNOS. Eventually, neuronal death occurs, leading to the development of motor and memory deficits in patients. Boldine is the main alkaloid in the leaves and bark of the Peumus boldus Molina, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of boldine on neuroinflammation and memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice...
October 19, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759570/antidepressant-anxiolytic-and-procognitive-effects-of-subacute-and-chronic-ketamine-in-the-chronic-mild-stress-model-of-depression
#8
Mariusz Papp, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Paul Willner
Ketamine is the prototype of a new generation of antidepressant drugs, which is reported in clinical studies to be effective in treatment-resistant patients, with an effect that appears within hours and lasts for a few days. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a well-established and widely used animal model of depression, in which anhedonia, anxiogenesis and cognitive dysfunction can be observed reliably. Studies using acute or brief ketamine treatment following withdrawal from CMS have replicated the clinical finding of a rapid onset of antidepressant action...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755017/aripiprazole-for-cocaine-abstinence-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-ecological-momentary-assessment
#9
Landhing M Moran, Karran A Phillips, William J Kowalczyk, Udi E Ghitza, Daniel A Agage, David H Epstein, Kenzie L Preston
Aripiprazole blocks psychostimulant seeking in a rat model of relapse. However, in humans, it may increase ongoing use. We tested aripiprazole specifically for relapse prevention. Methadone-maintained outpatients who were abstinent from cocaine in weeks 11-12 were randomized to double-blind aripiprazole (15 mg daily) or placebo in weeks 13-27 after 12 weeks of contingency management. Participants reported craving through ecological momentary. We stopped the trial because very few (18/41) participants fulfilled the abstinence criterion...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755016/adversity-impacting-on-oxytocin-and-behaviour-timing-matters
#10
Jacinta L Johnson, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman
The endogenous oxytocin system plays a vital role in facilitating parturition, lactation and social interaction in humans and other mammals. It also impacts on a number of important endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems. A well-regulated oxytocin system has been proposed to increase resilience, and therefore reduce the likelihood of an individual developing mental illness or substance dependence. This review discusses the adverse external influences that can modulate oxytocin receptor and protein levels and impact on substance use and mental health...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755061/lassbio-1422-a-new-molecular-scaffold-with-efficacy-in-animal-models-of-schizophrenia-and-disorders-of-attention-and-cognition
#11
Andresa H Betti, Camila B Antonio, Thais E T Pompeu, Thaise S Martins, Vivian Herzfeldt, Eveline D Stolz, Carlos A M Fraga, Eliezer Barreiro, François Noël, Stela M K Rates
Aiming to identify new antipsychotic lead-compounds, our group has been working on the design and synthesis of new N-phenylpiperazine derivatives. Here, we characterized LASSBio-1422 as a pharmacological prototype of this chemical series. Adult male Wistar rats and CF1 mice were used for in-vitro and in-vivo assays, respectively. LASSBio-1422 [1 and 5 mg/kg, postoperatively (p.o.)] inhibited apomorphine-induced climbing as well as ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion (1 and 5 mg/kg, p.o.), animal models predictive of efficacy on positive symptoms...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740965/oxytocin-social-factors-and-the-expression-of-conditioned-disgust-anticipatory-nausea-in-male-rats
#12
Nathalie P Boulet, Caylen J Cloutier, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp, Martin Kavaliers
Disgust has been proposed to have evolved as a means to rid the body and mouth of noxious substances and toxins, as well as to motivate and facilitate avoidance of contact with disease-causing organisms and infectious materials. Nonemetic species, such as the rat, show distinctive facial expressions, including the gaping reaction, indicative of nausea-based disgust. These conditioned disgust responses can be used to model anticipatory nausea in humans, which is a learned response observed following chemotherapy treatment...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740964/beneficial-effects-of-chronic-oxytocin-administration-and-social-co-housing-in-a-rodent-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
Eric M Janezic, Swetha Uppalapati, Stephanie Nagl, Marco Contreras, Edward D French, Jean-Marc Fellous
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in part due to a deficit in memory consolidation and extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic effects and promotes prosocial behaviors in both rodents and humans, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in memory consolidation. We studied the effects of administered OXT and social co-housing in a rodent model of PTSD. Acute OXT yielded a short-term increase in the recall of the traumatic memory if administered immediately after trauma. Low doses of OXT delivered chronically had a cumulating anxiolytic effect that became apparent after 4 days and persisted...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740963/investigation-of-antidepressant-like-and-anxiolytic-like-actions-and-cognitive-and-motor-side-effects-of-four-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonists-in-mice
#14
Louise K Refsgaard, Darryl S Pickering, Jesper T Andreasen
Evidence suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists could be efficacious in treating depression and anxiety, but side effects constitute a challenge. This study evaluated the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions, and cognitive and motor side effects of four NMDAR antagonists. MK-801, ketamine, S-ketamine, RO 25-6981 and the positive control, citalopram, were tested for antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects in mice using the forced-swim test, the elevated zero maze and the novelty-induced hypophagia test...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749317/the-%C3%AE-2c-adrenoceptor-antagonist-orm-10921-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-in-the-flinders-sensitive-line-rat
#15
Madeleine M Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Jukka Sallinen, Brian H Harvey
Depression involves deficits in monoaminergic neurotransmission. Differential roles for α2A, B and C subtypes of the α2-adrenoceptor (AR) are evident, with selective α2C-AR antagonists purported to have antidepressant and procognitive properties. However, this has not been demonstrated in a genetic animal model of depression. The role of the α2C-AR in modulating two key depression-related behaviours in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat was studied using a dose-response analysis following subcutaneous administration with the selective α2C-AR antagonist ORM-10921 (0...
September 30, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748674/spiroperidol-but-not-eticlopride-or-aripiprazole-produces-gradual-increases-in-descent-latencies-in-the-bar-test-in-rats
#16
Jeffery F Rocca, Joshua G Lister, Richard J Beninger
Rats repeatedly exposed to the bar test following injections with a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist such as haloperidol show increased descent latencies, suggesting that contextual stimuli may lose their ability to elicit approach and other responses. Here, we showed that rats took progressively longer to initiate descent from a horizontal bar across sessions following daily intraperitoneal treatment (paired group) with the D2-like receptor antagonist, spiroperidol (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg), but not in the control group that received 0...
September 29, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681116/oxytocin-cortisol-and-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-neurohormonal-aspects-of-recreational-ecstasy
#17
Andrew C Parrott
Most research into 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has debated its psychobiological effects in relation to neurotransmission. This article debates the contributory roles of the neurohormones oxytocin and cortisol for their psychobiological effects in humans. The empirical literature on these neurohormones is reviewed and suggestions for future research outlined. Acute MDMA or 'ecstasy' can generate increased levels of oxytocin and cortisol, and these neurohormonal changes may be important for its mood-enhancing and energy-activation effects in humans...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644094/intranasal-oxytocin-administration-improves-depression-like-behaviors-in-adult-rats-that-experienced-neonatal-maternal-deprivation
#18
Haoyi Ji, Wenlong Su, Ruchen Zhou, Jing Feng, Yue Lin, Yumin Zhang, Xinmei Wang, Xiaoyang Chen, Jing Li
Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been implicated in the regulation of social behaviors in rodents and humans. This study assessed the effects of intranasal administration of OT on depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats following neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD). Here, we show that NMD resulted in significant depression-like behaviors, as indicated by decreases in physical activity and emotional reactivity in a novel environment, in 2-month-old animals. Notably, the OT levels in the plasma, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were decreased in these animals...
September 16, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801749/editorial-the-behavioural-pharmacology-of-oxytocin
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661192/intranasal-oxytocin-dampens-cue-elicited-cigarette-craving-in-daily-smokers-a-pilot-study
#20
Melissa A Miller, Anya Bershad, Andrea C King, Royce Lee, Harriet de Wit
Despite moderate success with pharmacological and behavioral treatments, smoking relapse rates remain high, and many smokers report that smoking cues lead to relapse. Therefore, treatments that target cue reactivity are needed. One candidate for reducing craving is the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT). Here, we investigated the effects of intranasal OT on two types of craving for cigarettes: craving following overnight abstinence and craving elicited by smoking-related cues. In this within-subject, placebo-controlled pilot study, smokers (N=17) abstained from smoking for 12 h before attending two sessions randomized to intranasal OT or placebo (i...
December 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
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