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Behavioural Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177981/high-fat-diet-alters-weight-caloric-intake-and-haloperidol-sensitivity-in-the-context-of-effort-based-responding
#1
Stephen H Robertson, Steven R Boomhower, Erin B Rasmussen
High-fat (HF) diets result in weight gain, hyperphagia, and reduced dopamine D2 signaling; however, these findings have been obtained only under free-feeding conditions. This study tested the extent to which HF diet affects effort-dependent food procurement and the extent to which dopamine signaling is involved. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed either a HF (n=20) or a standard-chow (n=20) diet. We assessed the sensitivity to effort-based reinforcement in 10 rats from each group by measuring consumption across a series of fixed-ratio schedules (FR 5-FR 300) under a closed economy and quantified performance using the exponential-demand equation...
February 7, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145981/the-anxiolytic-like-effect-of-rutin-in-rats-involves-gabaa-receptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#2
Alberto Hernandez-Leon, María E González-Trujano, Alonso Fernández-Guasti
Rutin is a bioflavonoid found in medicinal plants used to reduce anxiety. Evidence is lacking of rutin's anxiolytic-like activity, putative mechanism(s) of action, and neural sites of effects. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is the main brain region that regulates anxiety, through GABAA/benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors, which are modulated by flavonoids. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic-like effect of rutin involves GABAA/BDZ receptors in the BLA. Rutin was administered systemically (30-1000 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or microinjected into the BLA (16 nmol/4 µl, intracerebral), and its effects were assessed in the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests...
January 31, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134661/burn-injury-decreases-the-antinociceptive-effects-of-opioids
#3
Michael A Emery, M L Shawn Bates, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
Burn victim patients are frequently prescribed opioids at doses that are significantly higher than standard analgesic dosing guidelines, and, even despite an escalation in opioid dosing, many continue to experience pain. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of burn injury on opioid antinociception. Mice were examined for their baseline pain sensitivity thresholds using the von Frey filaments test. Then, they were subjected to burn or sham injury to the dorsal surface of the hindpaw and treated orally with morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone (20 or 40 mg/kg), or saline twice daily throughout the study...
January 27, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125510/dendrosomal-nanocurcumin-prevents-morphine-self-administration-behavior-in-rats-despite-ca1-damage
#4
Jalaleden Norozi, Majid Hassanpour-Ezatti, Hojjat A Alaei
Dendrosomal nanocurcumin (DNC) is fabricated from esterification of oleic acid and polyethylene glycol residues with curcumin. DNC has shown antioxidant, neuroprotective, and neurogenesis-enhancing effects. In addition, it can attenuate morphine tolerance. Morphine self-administration is associated with neurodegenerative changes of CA1 neurons in the adult hippocampus. The present study evaluated the effect of DNC pretreatment on morphine self-administration and hippocampal damage. Rats were pretreated with DNC (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before a morphine self-administration paradigm performed in 2-h/sessions for 12 days under a FR-1 schedule...
January 25, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125509/kcnq2-3-channel-agonist-flupirtine-reduces-cocaine-place-preference-in-rats
#5
James Mooney, Scott M Rawls
The efficacy of KCNQ2/3 channel agonists against drug reward has not been defined despite their ability to reduce locomotor-stimulant and dopamine-activating effects of psychostimulants. We tested the hypothesis that flupirtine (FLU) (2.5, 10, 20 mg/kg), a KCNQ2/3 agonist, reduces cocaine (15 mg/kg) conditioned place preference. FLU (20 mg/kg), injected concurrently with cocaine during conditioning, reduced the development of cocaine conditioned place preference. FLU (20 mg/kg) also reduced cocaine locomotor activation without affecting baseline activity...
January 25, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125508/a-cannabigerol-rich-cannabis-sativa-extract-devoid-of-increment-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-elicits-hyperphagia-in-rats
#6
Daniel I Brierley, James Samuels, Marnie Duncan, Benjamin J Whalley, Claire M Williams
Nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids (pCBs) from Cannabis sativa may represent novel therapeutic options for cachexia because of their pleiotropic pharmacological activities, including appetite stimulation. We have recently shown that purified cannabigerol (CBG) is a novel appetite stimulant in rats. As standardized extracts from Cannabis chemotypes dominant in one pCB [botanical drug substances (BDSs)] often show greater efficacy and/or potency than purified pCBs, we investigated the effects of a CBG-rich BDS, devoid of psychoactive [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol, on feeding behaviour...
January 25, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125506/oral-modafinil-facilitates-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-rats-comparison-with-methylphenidate
#7
Matthew F Lazenka, S Stevens Negus
Modafinil is a low-potency inhibitor of dopamine transporters (DAT) approved clinically to promote wakefulness. In most procedures used for abuse-liability assessment, modafinil produces effects similar to those of abused DAT inhibitors such as cocaine and methylphenidate, although modafinil often shows lower effectiveness. However, modafinil has failed to maintain drug self-administration or produce conditioned place preferences in rats. The low potency and poor solubility of modafinil complicate its delivery by parenteral routes of administration commonly used in rats, and this may contribute toward negative results...
January 25, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118210/subchronic-anesthetic-ketamine-injections-in-rats-impair-choice-reversal-learning-but-have-no-effect-on-reinforcer-devaluation
#8
Charles L Pickens, Lexia Aurand, Joshua Hunt, Hayley Fisher
Previous exposure to a variety of drugs of abuse has been shown to cause long-term impairments in reversal learning and reinforcer devaluation tasks. However, there is mixed evidence in the literature for a long-term effect of ketamine exposure on reversal learning and the long-term effect of ketamine exposure on devaluation is not known. We determined whether repeated injections of an anesthetic dose of ketamine would lead to impairments in choice reversal learning after discrimination learning or impairments in reinforcer devaluation...
January 21, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079600/acute-administration-of-cyclosporine-a-does-not-impair-attention-or-memory-performance-in-healthy-men
#9
Anna L Kahl, Julia Kirchhof, Anna Füting, Bernd-Otto Hütter, Benjamin Wilde, Oliver Witzke, Sven Benson, Martin Hadamitzky, Manfred Schedlowski
There is clinical and experimental evidence that treatment with immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs such as the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) is associated with mental health problems and neuropsychological disturbances in patients. However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent cognitive functions such as memory and attention processes are affected by the pharmacological treatment. This is partly because of the fact that it is difficult to refer the observed neuropsychological disturbances in patients to the drug itself, to drug-induced immune suppression, or to interaction with other medication or comorbidities...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059998/effect-of-subchronic-exposure-to-opioids-on-the-effective-dose-of-intravenous-and-inhalation-anaesthetics
#10
Mengchan Ou, Yu Li, Yi Kang, Xiaolin Zhao, Tao Zhu
This study aimed to investigate the effect of subchronic exposure to morphine on the 50% effective dose (EC50) (median effective concentration/EC50) values of intravenous (propofol and ketamine) and inhalation (sevoflurane) anaesthetics in mice. Eight to 12-week-old male mice were administered morphine subcutaneously for 5 days to create a subchronic morphine exposure model. Control mice were injected with saline. The EC50 for righting reflex loss and tail clip reflex of general anaesthetics on the first (D1), third (D3) and seventh days (D7), after establishing a subchronic morphine exposure model, were determined...
January 2, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301381/the-behavioural-pharmacology-of-dementia
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257293/neuroprotective-effects-of-pretreatment-with-minocycline-on-memory-impairment-following-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#12
Yazdan Naderi, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei, Siavash Parvardeh, Taraneh Moini Zanjani
Cerebral ischemia leads to memory impairment that is associated with loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion damage. Minocycline has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups: control, sham, and minocycline-pretreated group. Minocycline (40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally immediately before surgery, and then ischemia was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 20 min...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252521/alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-and-the-unfolded-protein-response-prospective-pathways-and-therapeutic-targets
#13
David J Koss, Bettina Platt
Many vital interdependent cellular functions including proteostasis, lipogenesis and Ca homeostasis are executed by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Exogenous insults can impair ER performance: this must be rapidly corrected or cell death will ensue. Protective adaptations can boost the functional capacity of the ER and form the basis of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Activated in response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins, the UPR can halt protein translation while increasing protein-handling chaperones and the degradation of erroneous proteins through a conserved three-tier molecular cascade...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240674/a-second-wind-for-the-cholinergic-system-in-alzheimer-s-therapy
#14
Vincent Douchamps, Chantal Mathis
Notwithstanding tremendous research efforts, the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive and there is no curative treatment. The cholinergic hypothesis presented 35 years ago was the first major evidence-based hypothesis on the etiology of AD. It proposed that the depletion of brain acetylcholine was a primary cause of cognitive decline in advanced age and AD. It relied on a series of observations obtained in aged animals, elderly, and AD patients that pointed to dysfunctions of cholinergic basal forebrain, similarities between cognitive impairments induced by anticholinergic drugs and those found in advanced age and AD, and beneficial effects of drugs stimulating cholinergic activity...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234659/a-preclinical-screen-to-evaluate-pharmacotherapies-for-the-treatment-of-agitation-in-dementia
#15
Eugene O'Hare, Deaglan Page, William Curran, Jeong-Sup Hong, Eun-Mee Kim
Agitation associated with dementia is frequently reported clinically but has received little attention in preclinical models of dementia. The current study used a 7PA2 CM intracerebroventricular injection model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to assess acute memory impairment, and a bilateral intrahippocampal (IH) injection model of AD (aggregated Aβ1-42 injections) and a bilateral IH injection model of dementia with Lewy bodies (aggregated NAC61-95 injections) to assess chronic memory impairment in the rat. An alternating-lever cyclic-ratio schedule of operant responding was used for data collection, where incorrect lever perseverations measured executive function (memory) and running response rates (RRR) measured behavioral output (agitation)...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198714/downregulation-of-circulating-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-contributes-to-memory-impairment-in-aged-mice-after-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#16
Jue Jiang, Xiang Lv, Xiaoyang Wu, Yaqiong Yang, Hong Jiang
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a neuroprotective hormone and a decrease in levels of circulating IGF-1 contributes toward cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sevoflurane on the level of circulating IGF-1 and cognitive function in aged mice and the role of circulating IGF-1 in the cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane. Aged mice were exposed to 1 or 2 minimal alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane for 4 or 8 h. Before and after the exposure, blood was collected from the tail vein and serum IGF-1 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177983/the-contribution-of-transgenic-and-nontransgenic-animal-models-in-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-research-and-development
#17
Emanuela Mhillaj, Vincenzo Cuomo, Cesare Mancuso
Over the last few years, several papers have become available in the literature on both the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the several intracellular pathways whose alteration is responsible for its onset and progression. The use of transgenic and nontransgenic animal models has played a key role in achieving such a remarkable amount of preclinical data, allowing researchers to dissect the cellular changes occurring in the AD brain. In addition, the huge amount of preclinical evidence arising from these animal models was necessary for the further clinical development of pharmacological agents capable of interfering with most of the impaired neural pathways in AD patients...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177982/pharmacological-activation-of-protein-kinase-a-improves-memory-loss-and-neuropathological-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#18
Amit Kumar, Nirmal Singh
The study investigates the therapeutic potential of the protein kinase A (PKA) activator forskolin in cognitive deficits of mice. Streptozotocin (STZ) [3 mg/kg, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.)] was used to induce memory deficits in mice, whereas aged mice served as natural model of dementia. Forskolin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day, oral) treatment was administered to i.c.v. STZ-treated and aged mice for 14 days. The Morris Water Maze test was used to evaluate learning and memory. Estimation of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, brain glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species, brain myeloperoxidase levels, and histopathological studies were also performed...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177980/alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-zebrafish-where-can-we-take-it
#19
Erika M Caramillo, David J Echevarria
With the ever-growing geriatric population, research on brain diseases such as dementia is more imperative now than ever. The most prevalent of all dementias is Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that presents with deficits in memory, cognition, motor skills, and a general decline in the quality of life. The social and economic burden associated with Alzheimer's disease is tremendous and is projected to grow even greater over the coming years. There is a specific need to elucidate and improve the treatments available, not only to alleviate the symptoms related to dementias such as Alzheimer's but also to prevent the formation of the disease...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125507/behavioural-effects-of-novel-multitarget-anticholinesterasic-derivatives-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Lydia Giménez-Llort, Miriam Ratia, Belén Pérez, Pelayo Camps, Diego Muñoz-Torrero, Albert Badia, M Victoria Clos
The current pharmacological approach to Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment, mostly based on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), is being revisited, especially in terms of the temporal frames and the potential benefits of their noncanonic actions, raising the question of whether inhibitors of AChE might also act in a disease-modifying manner. Besides, in the last decades, the pharmacophoric moieties of known AChEIs have been covalently linked to other pharmacophores in the pursuit of multitarget hybrid molecules that are expected to induce long-lasting amelioration of impaired neurotransmission and clinical symptoms but also to exert disease-modifying effects...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
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