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Behavioural Pharmacology

Daniele Neri, Tommaso Ruberto, Violet Mwaffo, Tiziana Bartolini, Maurizio Porfiri
Zebrafish has recently become a species of choice in a number of preclinical studies to examine whether and how psychoactive compounds modulate individual and social behaviors. Here, we sought to contribute an improved understanding of the effects of caffeine, a well-known anxiogenic compound, on the swimming activity and the collective response of zebrafish. To investigate how the social environment influences individual response to acute caffeine treatment, we measured the behavior of a caffeine-treated subject swimming in isolation or in the presence of a group of untreated conspecifics...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Maryed Rojas-Leguizamón, José L Baroja, Federico Sanabria, Vladimir Orduña
Reduced response-inhibition capacity is a defining feature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The fixed minimum interval (FMI) schedule has been systematically validated to assess such capacity in rats. On each FMI trial, the first lever press initiates an inter-response time (IRT); a potentially consummatory response terminates the IRT; only IRTs longer than a target interval result in access to food. Despite task validity, steady-state FMI performance in the most common animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is similar to normotensive control performance, even though SHR performs at lower levels, especially during acquisition, in similar response-withholding tasks...
June 5, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Jonathan M Slezak, Melanie Mueller, George A Ricaurte, Jonathan L Katz
Amphetamine is a common therapeutic agent for alleviating the core symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. The current study used a translational model of attention, the five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure with rats, to examine the time-course effects of d-amphetamine. Effects of different dosages of d-amphetamine were related to drug-plasma concentrations, fashioned after comprehensive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic assessments that have been employed in clinical investigations...
June 2, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Shigeru Watanabe
This paper describes a new method to rapidly obtain dose-response curves for a drug with rewarding properties using the conditioned place preference protocol. In the usual single-dosing procedure, different animals receive single, varying doses. Thus, a large number of animals are required to generate a curve. A new procedure, known as progressive dosing, alternates increasing drug doses with saline. In this way, the same animal can receive multiple tests. The dose-response curves of the rewarding effect of methamphetamine in mice were obtained using both single-dosing and progressive-dosing procedures...
May 29, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Bing Han, Xin Che, Yue Zhao, Cuiting Li, Jie He, Yan Lu, Zhenhua Wang, Tian Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes major changes in dopaminergic neurons of the brain, resulting in motor symptoms in older adults. A previous study showed that Danshensu alleviates the cognitive decline by attenuating neuroinflammation. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Danshensu in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: control, MPTP, Danshensu at 15 mg/kg, and Danshensu at 60 mg/kg...
May 29, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Ramakrishna Nirogi, Renny Abraham, Vijay Benade, Rajesh B Medapati, Pradeep Jayarajan, Gopinadh Bhyrapuneni, NageswaraRao Muddana, Venkat R Mekala, Ramkumar Subramanian, Anil Shinde, Ramasastry Kambhampati, Venkat Jasti
Research in Alzheimer's disease is going through a big turnaround. New palliative therapies are being reconsidered for the effective management of disease because of setbacks in the development of disease-modifying therapies. Serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptor has long been pursued as a potential target for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. SUVN-502 is a novel 5-HT6 receptor antagonist (Ki=2.04 nmol/l) with high receptor affinity and high degree of selectivity. SUVN-502 at doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg, per os (p...
May 29, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Akio Nakashima, Atsushi Yamauchi, Junichi Matsumoto, Shinya Dohgu, Fuyuko Takata, Mitsuhisa Koga, Jiro Fukae, Yoshio Tsuboi, Yasufumi Kataoka
The development of Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons caused by oxidative stress. Accumulating clinical evidence indicates that high blood levels of uric acid (UA), an intrinsic antioxidative substance, are associated with reduced risk of PD. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed by in-vivo experiments. The present study investigated the effects of UA on behavioral abnormalities in the development of PD. We used unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned mice, which were fed on a diet containing 1% UA and 2...
May 25, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Robert N Hughes
During the past 10 years, for a number of biomedical disciplines, including behavioural pharmacology, there have been appeals to include both sexes in animal studies of processes that are not sex specific. In 2007, a survey of experimental studies of drug or other chemical effects on rodent behaviour, published in five prominent journals over 20 months (February 2005 to September 2006, inclusive), revealed that 85% of these conducted with rats and 78% of these conducted with mice involved males only. This was in spite of the evidence of sex differences in responsiveness to an increasing number of compounds...
May 25, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Sharareh Farahimanesh, Marzieh Moradi, Farzaneh Nazari-Serenjeh, Shahram Zarrabian, Abbas Haghparast
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a major source of dopamine neurons projecting to cortical and limbic regions has a crucial role in reward as well as stress processes. Dopamine is a predominant neurotransmitter in the reward system, which plays an important role in both drug priming-induced and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking. It has been shown that this neurotransmitter has a role in stress-induced relapse to drug seeking. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of intra-VTA administration of SCH-23390, as a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, and sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on drug priming-induced and food deprivation (FD)-induced reinstatement...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Wouter Koek, Thomas L Sandoval, Lynette C Daws
The forced swim test in rodents allows rapid detection of substances with antidepressant-like activity, evidenced as a decreased duration of immobility that is produced by the majority of clinically used antidepressants. Antidepressants also increase the latency to immobility, and this additional measure reportedly can increase the sensitivity of the forced swim test in mice. Extending these findings, the present study examined the effects of desipramine and fluvoxamine in a forced swim test in C57BL/6J mice, a strain commonly used as background for genetic modifications, analyzing results with a method (i...
August 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Silviu I Rusu, Jan V Lankelma, Jadin C Jackson, Laura A Van Mourik-Donga, Marian Joëls, Cyriel M A Pennartz
Cognitive challenges are often accompanied by a discharge of stress hormones, which in turn modulate multiple brain areas. Among these, the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex are critically involved in high-order cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and decision-making. Previous studies assessing the effects of corticosterone on spatial memory found an increase or a decrease in performance depending on the timing of stress hormone discharge relative to the behavioral task. Most of these studies, however, made use of aversively motivated behaviors, whereas less is known about corticosteroid effects on flexible learning during reward-driven spatial navigation...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Mohammad Reza Sarookhani, Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi, Ali Sarbazi-Golezari, Arvin Babayan-Tazehkand, Nafiseh Rastgoo
Studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts a neuroprotective effect and may have a therapeutic value for treating neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective activity of H2S in vivo. Here, we evaluated the effect of glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker, on the neuroprotective activity of H2S in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of Parkinson's disease. 6-OHDA was administered by stereotaxic surgery into the medial forebrain bundle...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Abeer M Rababa'h, Karem H Alzoubi, Ala'a Atmeh
Impairment of learning and memory has been associated with accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the body. It has also been found that antioxidants enhance learning and memory. Levosimendan is a cardiac inotropic and vasodilator agent that has pleotropic effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and smooth muscle vasodilatory actions. In this study, we investigated the effect of levosimendan on learning and memory in rats. Levosimendan (12 µg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle was administered once a week for 8 weeks...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Nikita V Kudryashov, Tatiana S Kalinina, Alexander A Shimshirt, Anton O Korolev, Anna V Volkova, Tatiana A Voronina
The antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.) has been assessed using the forced swimming test (FST) in IRC (CD-1) mice exposed or not to a pretest session of different duration (5 or 20 min). The influence of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) activity on the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.) in the FST was also studied. The antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine was observed only in mice subjected to a 5-min pretest session 24 h before the FST. The TSPO antagonist PK11195 [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide; 1 or 3 mg/kg i...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Rüyal Tan, Funda Bölükbaşi Hatip, Öznur Açikalin, Atsushi Yamauchi, Yasufumi Kataoka, Izzettin Hatip-Al-Khatib
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Varenicline tartrate is a partial agonist at α4β2 and full agonist at α7 neuronal nAChR subunits. A unilateral lesion of the substantia nigra (SN) has been used as a reliable model of PD. This study aimed to investigate the effect of varenicline on locomotor and nonlocomotor behavioral deficits induced by a unilateral lesion of the SN induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (8 µg/4 µl). Varenicline (1 mg/kg) was administered to the lesioned rats daily for 2 weeks, which commenced 3 weeks after 6-OHDA administration...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Lindsay P Schwartz, David N Kearns, Alan Silberberg
The aim of the present study was to determine how nicotine pre-exposure affects the elasticity of demand for intravenous cocaine and for sucrose pellets in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, demand for cocaine was assessed in rats that had nicotine in their drinking water. Nicotine pre-exposure significantly decreased rats' willingness to defend cocaine consumption as the price (measured as the number of responses per cocaine infusion) increased compared with a control group with no nicotine pre-exposure. That is, nicotine increased the elasticity of demand for cocaine infusions...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Wouter Koek, Nathan C Mitchell, Lynette C Daws
In humans, chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) decreases anxiety, unlike acute treatment, which can increase anxiety. Although this biphasic pattern is observed clinically, preclinical demonstrations are rare. In an animal model of antidepressant-induced anxiolytic effects, the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test, a single administration of the SSRI citalopram reportedly elicited anxiogenic-like effects, whereas three administrations over 24 h were sufficient to produce anxiolytic-like effects...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Xiuqin Li, Chao Liu, Bo Jiang, Kai Chen, Wenjuan Li, Hongze Wang
Sinomenine is a bioactive alkaloid extracted from Sinomenium acutum. Here, we investigated the antidepressant effects of sinomenine in mice. The antidepressant actions of sinomenine were first examined in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test, and then assessed in the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression. Changes in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway after CSDS and sinomenine treatment were also investigated. A tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor and a BDNF signaling inhibitor were also used to determine the pharmacological mechanisms of sinomenine...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Swarup Mitra, Abel Bult-Ito
The current study evaluated the role of strain and compulsive trait differences in response to fluvoxamine, a common obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) drug, in two different mouse strains (BIG1 and BIG2) with a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. For compulsive-like nest-building behavior, dose-dependent attenuation of nesting by fluvoxamine was observed for the BIG1 compulsive-like strain during the first hour after administration. No significant differences were found for the BIG2 strain during the first hour, although a dose-dependent trend similar to that in the BIG1 strain was observed...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Sterling McPherson, Michael Orr, Crystal Lederhos, Michael McDonell, Emily Leickly, Katherine Hirchak, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Sean M Murphy, Matthew Layton, John M Roll
Despite high rates of smoking (70-90%) and the severely negative impact of smoking on physical and mental health, only 12% of individuals receiving stimulant-use disorder treatment also receive smoking-cessation treatment. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a contingency management (CM) intervention targeting methamphetamine (MA) use on cigarette smoking. Sixty-one adults with MA-use disorders who were smokers were assigned to CM or standard psychosocial treatment. Rates of smoking-negative breath samples (carbon monoxide <3 ppm) were compared between the two groups while controlling for baseline carbon monoxide level, marijuana use, MA use, and time...
June 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
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