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Behavioural Pharmacology

Fernando B de Moura, Lance R McMahon
Varenicline is a smoking cessation pharmacotherapy with a presumed mechanism of action of partial efficacy at the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR); however, the extent to which daily varenicline use leads to changes in nAChR sensitivity is unclear. This study examined the consequences of daily varenicline treatment on disruptions in operant responding (i.e. rate-decreasing effects) and hypothermia induced by administration of nicotine, epibatidine, cytisine, and cocaine in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, mecamylamine was used to assess the involvement of nAChRs in the effects of varenicline...
November 5, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Shelby L Blaes, Caitlin A Orsini, Marci R Mitchell, Megan S Spurrell, Sara M Betzhold, Kenneth Vera, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
The ability to decide advantageously among options that vary in both their risks and rewards is critical for survival and well-being. Previous work shows that some forms of risky decision-making are robustly modulated by monoamine signaling, but it is less clear how monoamine signaling modulates decision-making under risk of explicit punishment. The goal of these experiments was to determine how this form of decision-making is modulated by dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine signaling, using a task in which rats choose between a small, 'safe' food reward and a large food reward associated with variable risks of punishment...
November 2, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Justin N Siemian, Li Shang, Robert W Seaman, Qing Zhu, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
Pharmacotherapies for fibromyalgia treatment are lacking. This study examined the antinociceptive and antidepressant-like effects of imidazoline I2 receptor (I2R) agonists in a reserpine-induced model of fibromyalgia in rats. Rats were treated for 3 days with vehicle or reserpine. The von Frey filament test was used to assess the antinociceptive effects of I2 receptor agonists, and the forced swim test was used to assess the antidepressant-like effects of these drugs. 2-BFI (3.2-10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), phenyzoline (17...
October 31, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Daniella Agrati, Luna Machado, Hernán Delgado, Natalia Uriarte, María J Zuluaga, Annabel Ferreira
Sexual behaviour is highly motivated and female rats begin to express it during adolescence. The circuitries implicated in the control of motivated behaviours continue to mature during adolescence and seem more sensitive to the effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine. However, a putative differential effect of this drug on the sexual behaviour of females according to age has not yet been studied. Therefore, we compared the motivational value of a male and the expression of sexual behaviour of late-adolescent and adult female rats after chronic treatment with a vehicle or 15...
October 30, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Emilia Lefevre, Helen Gooch, Peter Josh, Suzy Alexander, Darryl W Eyles, Thomas H J Burne
Behavioural sensitization is a putative mechanism in the pathophysiology of drug addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. In rodents, drug-induced behavioural sensitization has been described for several different drug classes. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 can inhibit sensitization to other drugs of abuse. However, MK-801 also produces behavioural sensitization to its own hyperlocomotor inducing effects, suggesting that MK-801 sensitization has a distinctive mechanism of action...
October 30, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Tuomo Kiiskinen, Esa R Korpi, Teemu Aitta-Aho
Extinction and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference were studied in glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor GluA1 subunit-deficient mice (global GluA1-KO mice). In line with previous findings, both acquisition and expression of conditioned place preference to morphine (20 mg/kg, subcutaneously) were fully functional in GluA1 KO mice compared with wild-type littermate controls (GluA1-WT), thus enabling the study of extinction. With a 10-session extinction paradigm, the GluA1 KO mice showed complete extinction similar to that of the GluA1-WT mice...
October 29, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Jacqueline-Marie N Ferland, Wendy K Adams, Spencer Murch, Linda Wei, Luke Clark, Catharine A Winstanley
Multiline slot machines encourage continued play through 'losses disguised as wins' (LDWs), outcomes in which the money returned is less than that wagered. Individuals with gambling problems may be susceptible to this game feature. The cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms through which LDWs act are unknown. In a novel rat operant task, animals chose between a 'certain' lever, which always delivered two sugar pellets, or an 'uncertain' lever, resulting in four sugar pellets on 50% of trials. LDWs were then introduced as a return of three sugar pellets on 30-40% of uncertain rewarded trials...
October 29, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Catherine F Moore, Angelo Blasio, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by recurrent, excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time, and it has been linked to increased trait impulsivity. Within impulsivity components, while impulsive action was shown to predict binge-like and addictive-like eating, the role of impulsive choice is instead unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if impulsive choice predicted, or was altered by binge-like eating of a sugary, highly palatable diet. We utilized a modified adjusting delay task procedure in free-fed rats to assess impulsive choice behavior, that is...
October 15, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Vanessa Minervini, Daniela C Osteicoechea, Angelo Casalez, Charles P France
Intravenous (i.v.) drug self-administration remains the 'gold standard' for assessing abuse potential of drugs. Failure of a drug to maintain self-administration might indicate merely the absence of positive-reinforcing effects but might also indicate presence of aversive effects. Sensitivity to aversive effects is thought to affect the initiation and maintenance of drug use as well as relapse. Choice procedures are used to study positive-reinforcing effects of drugs and to a much lesser extent to study punishing effects of drugs...
October 12, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Ariandra G Sartim, Bianca M Brito, Pedro H Gobira, Sâmia R L Joca
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can modulate stress-related behaviours, thus representing an interesting target for new antidepressant drugs. TRPV1 can trigger glutamate release and nitric oxide synthesis in the brain, mechanisms also involved in the neurobiology of depression. However, it is not known if these mechanisms are involved in TRPV1-induced behavioural effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if the antidepressant-like effect induced by a TRPV1 antagonist in mice submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) would be facilitated by combined treatment with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blockade...
October 5, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Charles C J Frye, Ann Galizio, Jeremy M Haynes, William B DeHart, Amy L Odum
Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug in the USA and many people suffer from alcohol use disorder. Many factors are associated with alcohol use disorder, but the causal role of comorbid nicotine use has not been extensively considered. Nicotine has reward-enhancing properties and may increase the value of alcohol. Monoamine oxidase inhibition increases nicotine self-administration and may increase the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine. We assessed the effect of nicotine and nicotine in combination with a commonly used monoamine oxidase inhibitor (tranylcypromine) on the value of alcohol using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement in rats...
September 27, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Lais S Rodrigues, Ana C D Noseda, Adriano D S Targa, Mariana F Aurich, Marcelo M S Lima
Hyposmia is found in Parkinsonian patients decades before the onset of motor disorders. The same occurs with sleep disorders, especially infuencing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which affect a large percentage of people who have Parkinson's disease. These two disturbances presumably are closely related to a dopaminergic dysfunction. Therefore, we propose that selective lesions, induced by rotenone, of the periglomerular neurons within the olfactory bulb or of the nigrostriatal pathway could result in hyposmia...
September 14, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Adjia Hamadjida, Imane Frouni, Cynthia Kwan, Philippe Huot
The quest to better understand the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to find new therapies to provide greater relief to affected patients continues. The use of animal models of PD has been invaluable in the process. Here, we review, through a historical lens, some of the contribution of the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat and of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned nonhuman primate, in refining our understanding of PD and its treatment-related complications. We examine the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, and then explore some of the advances at the molecular, pharmacological, electrophysiological and surgical levels made while experimenting on these animal models...
September 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Gernot Riedel, Lianne Robinson, Barry Crouch
Behavioural flexibility is the ability to switch between tasks and strategies following a change in rules, and involves intact functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex. Impairments of behavioural flexibility have frequently been reported in patients with schizophrenia and rodents with disruption/dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. The discovery of a mutation in the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene in the 129 mouse strain suggests that these mice may be exploited as a 'naturally occurring' model of schizophrenia...
September 12, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kathryn L Schwienteck, S Stevens Negus, Matthew L Banks
Sex differences in μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist-induced antinociception have been reported in nonhuman primates. The degree to which μ-opioid receptor agonist sex differences in nonhuman primates extend to other behavioral endpoints remains unknown. The present study compared the behavioral effects of three MOR ligands (fentanyl, buprenorphine, and naltrexone) that varied in efficacy to stimulate [S]-GTPγS binding (from highest to lowest: fentanyl, buprenorphine, and naltrexone) in male and female rhesus monkeys...
September 12, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Paul Willner, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason, Katarzyna Tota-Glowczyk, Ewa Litwa, Monika Niemczyk, Mariusz Papp
A recent review proposed four criteria for an animal model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD): a phenotypic resemblance to a risk factor for depression; enhanced response to stress; nonresponse to antidepressant drugs and response to treatments effective in TRD, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the prefrontal cortex or ketamine. Chronic mild stress (CMS) provides a valid model of depression; the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is considered to be nonresponsive to antidepressant drugs. Here, we applied CMS to WKY rats...
September 10, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Susan Schenk, Quenten Highgate
Most studies on discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have been conducted using a relatively low dose (1.5 mg/kg), and those studies have invariably implicated serotonergic mechanisms. In contrast, dopaminergic mechanisms mediate the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine (AMPH). Some studies have suggested that the discriminative stimulus effects of a higher (3.0 mg/kg) dose of MDMA might rely on both serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms. This study aimed to determine effects of selective dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) antagonists on the discriminative stimulus properties of AMPH (0...
September 7, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Ruth E Grahn, Brian A Kalman, Jennifer A Vlasaty, Jaclyn A Perna, Christine Nevins-Herbert, Stephanie M Patton, Leah K Barison
The extent to which rats express anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze (EPM) depends on their previous maze experience. Open-arm avoidance develops in maze-experienced rats, and is often accompanied by a diminished anxiolytic response to benzodiazepines. Regions of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats using c-Fos and serotonin immunohistochemistry following a single exposure, a second exposure or no exposure to the EPM. We then examined the effect of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5 mg/kg) on EPM behavior and DRN neural activity...
August 30, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Lorna Hardy, Steph Parker, Lucie Hartley, Lee Hogarth
Concurrent choice tasks, where participants choose between a drug versus natural reward, predict dependence vulnerability in animals and humans. However, the sensitivity of concurrent choice tasks to multiple risk factors in treatment-engaged drug users has not been comprehensively tested. In experiment 1, 33 recently hospitalized smokers who were engaged with the smoking cessation service made forced choices between enlarging pictures of people smoking versus not smoking. In experiment 2, 48 drinkers who were engaged in an outpatient alcohol treatment service made forced choices between enlarging pictures of alcohol versus food...
August 30, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Klaus Schiene, Wolfgang Schröder, Klaus Linz, Stefanie Frosch, Thomas M Tzschentke, Thomas Christoph, Jennifer Y Xie, Frank Porreca
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of cebranopadol in two rodent models of visceral pain. Cebranopadol is a first-in-class analgesic with agonist activity at the nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide receptor and classical µ-, δ- and κ-opioid peptide receptors. Colitis was induced in Naval Medical Research Institute mice by intra-rectal infusion of mustard oil. The effects of intravenous cebranopadol pretreatment on spontaneous pain behaviours and referred allodynia and hyperalgesia were assessed...
August 29, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
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